Network Working Group                                       J. Bournelle
Internet-Draft                                                 L. Morand
Intended status: Standards Track                             Orange Labs
Expires: April 25, November 5, 2011                                     S. Decugis, Ed.
                                                                    NICT Decugis
                                                           Free Diameter
                                                                   Q. Wu
                                                                 G. Zorn, Ed. Zorn
                                                             Network Zen
                                                        October 22, 2010
                                                             May 4, 2011

       Diameter Support support for the EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP)


   The EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP) defines extensions to the
   Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to support efficient re-
   authentication between the peer and an EAP Re-authentication (ER)
   server through a compatible authenticator.  This document specifies
   Diameter support for ERP.  It defines a new Diameter ERP application
   to transport ERP messages between an ER authenticator and the ER
   server, and a set of new AVPs that can be used to transport the
   cryptographic material needed by the re-authentication server.

Status of This Memo

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   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, November 5, 2011.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     2.1.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3  4
   3.  Assumptions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4.  Protocol Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   5.  Bootstrapping the ER Server  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     5.1.  Bootstrapping During the Initial EAP authentication  . . .  5  6
     5.2.  Bootstrapping During the First Re-authentication . . . . .  7
   6.  Re-Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   7.  Application Id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   8.  AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11
     8.1.  ERP-RK-Request AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11
     8.2.  ERP-Realm AVP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11
     8.3.  Key AVP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       8.3.1.  Key-Type AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       8.3.2.  Keying-Material AVP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       8.3.3.  Key-Name AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
       8.3.4.  Key-Lifetime AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12
   9.  Open issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12
   10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 13
   11. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 13
     11.1. Diameter Application Identifier  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     11.2. New AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   12. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 15

1.  Introduction

   RFC 5296

   RFC5296 [RFC5296] defines the EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP).
   It consists of the following steps:


      A root key for re-authentication is derived from the Extended
      Master Session Key (EMSK) created during EAP authentication
      [RFC5295].  This root key is transported from the EAP server to
      the ER server.


      A one-round-trip exchange between the peer and the ER server,
      resulting in mutual authentication.  To support the EAP
      reauthentication functionality, ERP defines two new EAP codes -
      EAP-Initiate and EAP-Finish.

   This document defines how Diameter transports the ERP messages during
   the re-authentication process.  For this purpose, we define a new
   Application Identifier for ERP, and re-use the Diameter EAP commands

   This document also discusses the distribution of the root key during
   bootstrapping, in conjunction with either the initial EAP
   authentication (implicit bootstrapping) or the first ERP exchange
   (explicit bootstrapping).  Security considerations for this key
   distribution are detailed in RFC 5295 [RFC5295].

2.  Terminology

   This document uses terminology defined in RFC 3748 RFC3748 [RFC3748], RFC
   5295 RFC5295
   [RFC5295], RFC 5296 RFC5296 [RFC5296], and RFC 4072 RFC4072 [RFC4072].

   "Root key" (RK) or "bootstrapping material" refer to the rRK or rDSRK
   derived from an EMSK, depending on the location of the ER server in
   home or foreign domain.

   We use the notation "ERP/DER" and "ERP/DEA" in this document to refer
   to Diameter-EAP-Request and Diameter-EAP-Answer commands with the
   Application Id set to "Diameter ERP Application" Section 11.1; the
   same commands are denoted "EAP/DER" and "EAP/DEA" when the
   Application Id in the message is set to "Diameter EAP Application"

2.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Assumptions

   This document assumes the existence of at most one logical ER server
   entity in a domain.  If several physical servers are deployed for
   robustness, a replication mechanism must be deployed to synchronize
   the ERP states (root keys) between these servers.  This replication
   mechanism is out of the scope of this document.  If multiple ER
   servers are deployed in the domain, we assume that they can be used

4.  Protocol Overview

   The following figure shows the components involved in ERP, and their

                           Diameter                    +--------+
           +-------------+   ERP   +-----------+  (*)  |  Home  |
   Peer <->|Authenticator|<=======>| ER server | <---> |  EAP   |
           +-------------+         +-----------+       | server |
   (*) Diameter EAP application,  explicit bootstrapping scenario only.

                     Figure 1: 1. Diameter ERP Overview Overview.

   The ER server is located either in the home domain (same as EAP
   server) or in the visited domain (same as authenticator, when it
   differs from the home domain).

   When the peer initiates an ERP exchange, the authenticator creates a
   Diameter-EAP-Request message [RFC4072].  The Application Id of the
   message is set to that of the Diameter ERP application (code: TBD) in
   the message.  The generation of the ERP/DER message is detailed in
   Section 6.

   If there is an ER server in the same domain as the authenticator
   (local domain), Diameter routing must be configured so that this ERP/
   DER message reachs this server, even if the Destination-Realm is not
   the local domain.

   If there is no local ER server, the message is routed according to
   its Destination-Realm AVP content, extracted from the realm component
   of the keyName-NAI attribute.  As specified in RFC 5296 RFC5296 [RFC5296],
   this realm is the home domain of the peer in case of a bootstrapping
   exchange (the 'B' ('B' flag is set in the ERP message) or the domain of the
   bootstrapped ER server otherwise. otherwise .

   If no ER server is available in the home domain either, the ERP/DER
   message cannot be delivered, and an error DIAMETER_UNABLE_TO_DELIVER
   is generated as specified in [RFC3588] and returned to the
   authenticator.  The authenticator may cache this information (with
   limited duration) to avoid further attempts for ERP with this realm.
   It may also fallback to full EAP authentication to authenticate the

   When an ER server receives the ERP/DER message, it searches its local
   database for a root key matching the keyName part of the User-Name
   AVP.  If such key is found, the ER server processes the ERP message
   as described in RFC 5296 [RFC5296] then creates the ERP/DEA answer as
   described in Section 6.  The rMSK is included in this answer.

   Finally, the authenticator extracts the rMSK from the ERP/DEA as
   described in RFC 5296 RFC5296 [RFC5296], and forwards the content of the EAP-
   Payload AVP, the EAP-Finish/Re-Auth message, to the peer.

   If the EAP-Initiate/Re-Auth message has its 'B' flag set
   (Bootstrapping exchange), the ER server should not possess the root
   key in its local database.  In this case, the ER server acts as a
   proxy, and forwards the message to the home EAP server after changing
   its Application Id to Diameter EAP and adding the ERP-RK-Request AVP
   to request the root key.  See section Section 5 for more detail on
   this process.

5.  Bootstrapping the ER Server

   The bootstrapping process involves the home EAP server and the ER
   server, but also impacts the peer and the authenticator.  In ERP, the
   peer must derive the same keying material as the ER server.  To
   achieve this, it must learn the domain name of the ER server.  How
   this information is acquired is outside the scope of this
   specification, but it may involves that the authenticator is
   configured to advertize this domain name, especially in the case of
   re-authentication after a handover.

   The bootstrapping of an ER server with a given root key happens
   either during the initial EAP authentication of the peer when the
   EMSK -- from which the root key is derived -- is created, during the
   first re-authentication, or sometime between those events.  We only
   consider the first two possibilities in this specification, in the
   following sub-sections.

5.1.  Bootstrapping During the Initial EAP authentication

   Bootstrapping the ER server during the initial EAP authentication
   (also known as implicit bootstrapping) offers the advantage that the
   server is immediatly available for re-authentication of the peer,
   thus minimizing the re-authentication delay.  On the other hand, it
   is possible that only a small number of peers will use re-authentication re-
   authentication in the visited domain.  Deriving and caching key
   material for all the peers (for example, for the peers that do not
   support ERP) is a waste of resources and should be avoided.

   To achieve implicit bootstrapping, the ER server acts as a Diameter
   EAP Proxy, Proxy , and Diameter routing must be configured so that Diameter
   EAP application messages are routed through this proxy.  The figure
   bellow illustrates this mechanism.

                            ER server &
   Authenticator             EAP Proxy               Home EAP server
   =============            ===========              ===============
            Diameter EAP/DER
                                     Diameter EAP/DER

           Multi-round Diameter EAP exchanges, unmodified

                                      Diameter EAP/DEA
                                      (Key AVP (rRK))
            Diameter EAP/DEA
                [ ERP-Realm ]

        Figure 2: ERP Bootstrapping During Full EAP Authentication

   The ER server proxies the first DER of the full EAP authentication
   and adds the ERP-RK-Request AVP inside, if this AVP is not already in
   the message (which might happen if there are several ER servers on
   the path), then forwards the request.

   If the EAP server does not support the ERP extensions, it simply
   ignores the ERP-RK-Request AVP and continues as specified in RFC 4072
   [RFC4072].  If the server supports the ERP extensions, it saves the
   value of the ERP-Realm AVP found inside the ERP-RK-Request AVP, and
   continues with the EAP authentication.  When the authentication
   completes, if it is successful and the EAP method has generated an
   EMSK, the server MUST derive the rRK as specified in RFC 5296
   [RFC5296], using the saved domain name.  It then includes the rRK
   inside a Key AVP Section 8.3 with the Key-Type AVP set to rRK, before
   sending the DEA as usual.

   When the ER server proxies a Diameter-EAP-Answer message with a
   Session-Id corresponding to a message to which it added an ERP-RK-
   Request AVP, and the Result-Code is DIAMETER_SUCCESS, it MUST examine
   the message and save and remove any Key AVP Section 8.3 with Key-Type
   AVP set to rRK.  If the message does not contain such Key AVP, the ER
   server may cache the information that ERP is not possible for this
   session to avoid possible subsequent attempts.  In any case, the
   information stored in ER server concerning a session should not have
   a lifetime greater than the EMSK for this session.

   If the ER server is successfully bootstrapped, it should also add the
   ERP-Realm AVP after removing the Key AVP with Key-Type of rRK in the
   EAP/DEA message.  This ERP-Realm information can be used by the
   authenticator to notify the peer that ER server is bootstrapped, and
   for which domain.  How this information can be transmitted to the
   peer is outside the scope of this document.  This information needs
   to be sent to the peer if both implicit and explicit bootstrapping
   mechanisms are possible, because the ERP message and the root key
   used for protecting this message are different in bootstrapping
   exchanges and non-bootstrapping exchanges.

5.2.  Bootstrapping During the First Re-authentication

   Bootstrapping the ER server during the first re-authentication (also
   known as explicit bootstrapping) is less resource-consuming, since
   root keys are generated and cached only when needed.  On the other
   hand, in that case first re-authentication requires a one-round-trip
   exchange with the home EAP server, which is less efficient than the
   implicit bootstrapping scenario.

   The ER server receives the ERP/DER message containing the EAP-
   Initiate/Re-Auth message with the 'B' flag set.  It proxies this
   message, and performs the following processing in addition to
   standard proxy operations:

      Changes the Application Id in the header of the message to
      Diameter EAP Application (code 5).

      Change the content of Application-Auth-Id accordingly.

      QUESTION: Is it better to leave it unmodified, so that the server
      can easily differenciate between ERP and standard EAP message ? message?

      Add the ERP-RK-Request AVP, which contains the name of the domain
      where the ER server is located.

      PROBLEM: Add the Destination-Host AVP to reach the appropriate
      Diameter EAP server in case there is more than one in destination
      domain, the one with the EMSK.  How does the ER server know this
      information?  Or can we require that all Diameter EAP servers can
      be used interchangeably for this purpose?

   Then the proxied EAP/DER request is sent and routed to the home
   Diameter EAP server.

   If the home EAP server does not support the ERP extensions, it replies
   with an error since the encapsulated EAP-Initiate/Re-auth command is
   not understood.  Otherwise, it processes the ERP request as described
   in [RFC5296].  In particular, it includes the Domain- Name TLV
   attribute with the content from the ERP-Realm AVP.  It creates the
   EAP/DEA reply message [RFC4072]. including an instance of the Key AVP
   Section 8.3 with Key-Type AVP set to rRK.

   The ER server receives this EAP/DEA and proxies it as follows, in
   addition to standard proxy operations:

      Set the Application Id back to Diameter ERP application ERPApplication Id (code

      Extract and cache the content of the Key AVP with Key-Type set to
      rRK, as described in implicit scenario.

   The ERP/DEA message is then forwarded to the authenticator, that can
   use the rMSK as described in RFC 5296 [RFC5296].

   The figure below captures this proxy behavior:

   Authenticator            ER server             Home EAP server
   =============            =========             ===============
             Diameter ERP/DER
                                       Diameter EAP/DER

                                       Diameter EAP/DEA
                                        (Key AVP (rRK))
                                        (Key AVP (rMSK))
             Diameter ERP/DEA
             (Key AVP (rMSK))

             Figure 3: ERP Explicit Bootstrapping Message Flow

6.  Re-Authentication

   This section describes in detail a re-authentication exchange with an
   ER server that was previously bootstrapped.  The following figure
   summarizes the re-authentication exchange.

                                                         ER server
    Peer                 Authenticator                (bootstrapped)
    ====                 =============            ======================
    [ <------------------------          ]
    [optional EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-start,]
    [  possibly with ERP domain name     ]

                                 Diameter ERP, cmd code DER
                                   User-Name: Keyname-NAI
                              EAP-Payload: EAP-Initiate/Re-auth

                                 Diameter ERP, cmd code DEA
                               EAP-Payload: EAP-Finish/Re-auth
                                        Key AVP: rMSK
             Figure 4: Diameter ERP Re-authentication Exchange

   The peer sends an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message to the ER server via
   the authenticator.  Alternatively, the authenticator may send an EAP-
   Initiate/Re-auth-Start message to the peer to trigger the mechanism.
   In this case, the peer responds with an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message.

   If the authenticator does not support ERP (pure Diameter EAP
   [RFC4072] support), it discards the EAP packets with an unknown ERP-
   specific code (EAP-Initiate).  The peer should fallback to full EAP
   authentication in this case.

   When the authenticator receives an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message from
   the peer, it processes process as described in [RFC5296] with regards to the
   EAP state machine.  It creates a Diameter EAP Request message
   following the general process of Diameter EAP [RFC4072], with the
   following differences:

      The Application Id in the header is set to Diameter ERP (code
      TBD). TBD

      The value in Auth-Application-Id AVP is also set to Diameter ERP

      The keyName-NAI attribute from ERP message is used to create the
      content of User-Name AVP and Destination-Realm AVP.

         What about Session-ID AVP ?

      The Auth-Request-Type AVP content is set to [Editor's note: FFS --
      cf. open issues]. FFS].

      The EAP-Payload AVP contains the EAP-Initiate/Re-Auth message. EAP-Initiate/Re-Auth.

   Then this ERP/DER message is sent as described in Section 4.

   The ER server receives and processes this request as described in
   Section 4.  It then creates an ERP/DEA message following the general
   processing described in RFC 4072 RFC4072 [RFC4072], with the following

      The Application Id in the header is set to Diameter ERP (code

      The value of the Auth-Application-Id AVP is also set to Diameter
      ERP Application.

      The EAP-Payload AVP contains the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message.

      In case of successful authentication, an instance of the Key AVP
      containing the Re-authentication Master Session Key (rMSK) derived
      by ERP is included.

   When the authenticator receives this ERP/DEA answer, it processes it
   as described in Diameter EAP [RFC4072] and RFC 5296 RFC5296 [RFC5296]: the
   content of EAP-Payload AVP content is forwarded to the peer, and the
   contents of the Keying-Material AVP [I-D.ietf-dime-local-keytran] is
   used as a shared secret for Secure Association Protocol.

7.  Application Id

   We define a new Diameter application in this document, Diameter ERP
   Application, with an Application Id value of TBD.  Diameter nodes
   conforming to this specification in the role of ER server MUST
   advertise support by including an Auth-Application-Id AVP with a
   value of Diameter ERP Application in the of the Capabilities-
   Exchange-Request and Capabilities-Exchange-Answer commands [RFC3588].

   The primary use of the Diameter ERP Application Id is to ensure
   proper routing of the messages, and that the nodes that advertise the
   support for this application do understand the new AVPs defined in
   Section 8, 8 , although these AVP have the 'M' flag cleared.

8.  AVPs

   This section discusses the AVPs used by the Diameter ERP application.

8.1.  ERP-RK-Request AVP

   The ERP-RK-Request AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type grouped AVP.  This
   AVP is used by the ER server to indicate its willingness to act as ER
   server for a particular session.

   This AVP has the M and V bits cleared.

         ERP-RK-Request ::= < AVP Header: TBD >
                            { ERP-Realm }
                          * [ AVP ]

                       Figure 5: ERP-RK-Request ABNF

8.2.  ERP-Realm AVP

   The ERP-Realm AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type DiameterIdentity.  It
   contains the name of the realm in which the ER server is located.

   This AVP has the M and V bits cleared.

8.3.  Key AVP

   The Key AVP [I-D.ietf-dime-local-keytran] is of type "Grouped" and is
   used to carry the rRK or rMSK and associated attributes.  The usage
   of the Key AVP and its constituent AVPs in this application is
   specified in the following sub-sections.

8.3.1.  Key-Type AVP

   The value of the Key-Type AVP MUST be set to 2 for rRK or 3 for rMSK.

8.3.2.  Keying-Material AVP

   The Keying-Material AVP contains rRK sent by the home EAP server to
   the ER server, in answer to a request containing an ERP-RK-Request
   AVP, or the rMSK sent by ER server to authenticator.  How this
   material is derived and used is specified in RFC 5296 [RFC5296].

8.3.3.  Key-Name AVP

   This AVP contains the EMSKname which identifies the keying material.
   The derivation of this name is specified in RGC 5296 [RFC5296].

8.3.4.  Key-Lifetime AVP

   The Key-Lifetime AVP contains the lifetime of the keying material in
   seconds.  It MUST NOT be greater than the remaining lifetime of the
   EMSK from which the material was derived.

9.  Open issues

   This document does not address some known issues in Diameter ERP
   mechanism.  The authors would like to hear ideas about how to address

   The main issue is the use of ERP for authentication after a handover
   of the peer to a new authenticator (or different authenticator port).
   Diameter ERP is not meant to be a mobility application.  A number of
   issues appear when we try to do handover while using Diameter ERP:

      how to manage the Session-Id AVP -- is it a new session each time,
      or do we try to reuse the same Diameter session?;

      how does the ER authenticator acquire the Authorization AVPs?  Is
      it cached in the Diameter ER server (received during
      bootstrapping) or do we use first Authenticate-Only with ER
      server, then Authorize-Only with home domain (and in that case how
      does the ER authenticator learn what the home domain is?)
      how does the peer learn the ERP domain of the new authenticator --
      this is being addressed in HOKEY architecture draft;

      how does the home server reachs the peer to for example terminate
      the session if there is no notification sent to the home domain;

   Another issue concerns the case where the home realm contains several
   EAP servers.  In multi rounds full EAP authentication, the
   Destination-Host AVP provides the solution to reach the same server
   across the exchanges.  Only this server possess the EMSK for the
   session.  In case of explicit bootstrapping, the ER server must
   therefore be able to reach the correct server to request the DSRK.  A
   solution might consist in saving the Origin-Host AVP of all
   successful EAP/DEA in the ER server, which is a bit similar to the
   implicit bootstrapping scenario described here -- only we save the
   server name instead of the root key, and we must then be able to
   match the DSRK with the user name.

   In roaming environments, it might be useful that a broker provides
   ERP services.  The security implications of storing the DSRK
   generated for the visited domain into the broker's server should be

   Finally, this document currently lacks a description of what happens
   when a Re-Auth-Request is received for a peer on the authenticator.

10.  Acknowledgements

   Hannes Tschofenig wrote the initial draft for this document and
   provided useful reviews.

   Vidya Narayanan reviewed a rough draft version of the document and
   found some errors.

   Lakshminath Dondeti contributed to the early versions of the

   Many thanks to these people!

11.  IANA Considerations

   This document requires IANA registration of the following new
   elements in the Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)
   Parameters [1] registries.

11.1.  Diameter Application Identifier

   This specification requires IANA to allocate a new value "Diameter
   ERP" in the "Application IDs" registry using the policy specified in
   Section 11.3 of RFC 3588 [RFC3588].

11.2.  New AVPs

   This specification requires IANA to allocate new values from the "AVP
   Codes" registry according to the policy specified in Section 11.1 of
   RFC 3588 [RFC3588] for the following AVPs:



   These AVPs are defined in Section 8.

12.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations from the following documents also apply here:

   o  RFC 3588  RFC3588 [RFC3588]

   o  RFC 4072  RFC4072 [RFC4072]

   o  RFC 5247  RFC5247 [RFC5247]

   o  RFC 5295  RFC5295 [RFC5295]

   o  RFC5296 [RFC5296]

   FFS: Do we really respect these security considerations with the
   mechanism we describe here?  Is it safe to use ERP-RK-Request & Key
   AVPs?  What is the worst case?  For example if a domain tricks the
   peer into beliving it is located in a different domain?

   EAP channel bindings may be necessary to ensure that the Diameter
   client and the server are in sync regarding the key Requesting
   Entity's Identity.  Specifically, the Requesting Entity advertises
   its identity through the EAP lower layer, and the user or the EAP
   peer communicates that identity to the EAP server (and the EAP server
   communicates that identity to the Diameter server) via the EAP method
   for user/peer to server verification of the Requesting Entity's

   QUESTION: What does this paragraph actually mean?

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-dime-local-keytran]  Wu, Q., Zorn, G., Wu, W., and V. Cakulev,
                                  "Diameter Attribute-Value Pairs support for
                                  Cryptographic Key Transport",
                                  draft-ietf-dime-local-keytran-08 local key
                                  transport protocol between local
                                  server and home AAA server",
                                  draft-ietf-dime-local-keytran-09 (work
                                  in progress), October 2010. April 2011.

   [RFC2119]                      Bradner, S., "Key words for use in
                                  RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels",
                                  BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3588]                      Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman,
                                  E., Zorn, G., and J. Arkko, "Diameter
                                  Base Protocol", RFC 3588,
                                  September 2003.

   [RFC3748]                      Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J.,
                                  Carlson, J., and H. Levkowetz,
                                  "Extensible Authentication Protocol
                                  (EAP)", RFC 3748, June 2004.

   [RFC4072]                      Eronen, P., Hiller, T., and G. Zorn,
                                  "Diameter Extensible Authentication
                                  Protocol (EAP) Application", RFC 4072,
                                  August 2005.

   [RFC5295]                      Salowey, J., Dondeti, L., Narayanan,
                                  V., and M. Nakhjiri, "Specification
                                  for the Derivation of Root Keys from
                                  an Extended Master Session Key
                                  (EMSK)", RFC 5295, August 2008.

   [RFC5296]                      Narayanan, V. and L. Dondeti, "EAP
                                  Extensions for EAP Re-authentication
                                  Protocol (ERP)", RFC 5296,
                                  August 2008.

13.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5247]                      Aboba, B., Simon, D., and P. Eronen,
                                  "Extensible Authentication Protocol
                                  (EAP) Key Management Framework",
                                  RFC 5247, August 2008.


   [1]  <>

Authors' Addresses

   Julien Bournelle
   Orange Labs
   38-40 rue du general Leclerc
   Issy-Les-Moulineaux  92794


   Lionel Morand
   Orange Labs
   38-40 rue du general Leclerc
   Issy-Les-Moulineaux  92794


   Sebastien Decugis (editor)
   Free Diameter
   4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi
   Tokyo, Koganei  184-8795


   Qin Wu
   Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
   Site B, Floor 12F, Huihong Mansion, No.91 Baixia Rd.
   Nanjing  210001

   Glen Zorn (editor)
   Network Zen
   1463 East Republican Street
   Seattle, Washington  98112

   Phone: +1 206 931 0768
   227/358 Thanon Sanphawut
   Bang Na, Bangkok  10260