draft-ietf-dime-mip6-integrated-04.txt   draft-ietf-dime-mip6-integrated-05.txt 
Diameter Maintenance and J. Korhonen (ed.) Diameter Maintenance and J. Korhonen (ed.)
Extensions (DIME) TeliaSonera Extensions (DIME) TeliaSonera
Internet-Draft J. Bournelle Internet-Draft J. Bournelle
Intended status: Standards Track France Telecom R&D Intended status: Standards Track France Telecom R&D
Expires: December 2, 2007 H. Tschofenig Expires: January 10, 2008 H. Tschofenig
C. Perkins C. Perkins
Nokia Siemens Networks Nokia Siemens Networks
K. Chowdhury K. Chowdhury
Starent Networks Starent Networks
May 31, 2007 July 9, 2007
Diameter Mobile IPv6: Support for Network Access Server to Diameter Diameter Mobile IPv6: Support for Network Access Server to Diameter
Server Interaction Server Interaction
draft-ietf-dime-mip6-integrated-04.txt draft-ietf-dime-mip6-integrated-05.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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skipping to change at page 1, line 41 skipping to change at page 1, line 41
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This Internet-Draft will expire on December 2, 2007. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 10, 2008.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
Abstract Abstract
A Mobile IPv6 node requires a Home Agent address, a home address, and A Mobile IPv6 node requires a Home Agent address, a home address, and
a security association with its Home Agent before it can start a security association with its Home Agent before it can start
utilizing Mobile IPv6. RFC 3775 requires that some or all of these utilizing Mobile IPv6. RFC 3775 requires that some or all of these
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(HAAA) interface. (HAAA) interface.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Commands, AVPs and Advertising Application Support . . . . . . 6 4. Commands, AVPs and Advertising Application Support . . . . . . 6
4.1. Advertising Application Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Advertising Application Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2. Command Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2. Command Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.3. Diameter-EAP-Request (DER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.3. Diameter-EAP-Request (DER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.4. Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.4. Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.5. AA-Request (AAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.5. AA-Request (AAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.6. AA-Answer (AAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.6. AA-Answer (AAA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.7. Attribute Value Pair Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.7. Attribute Value Pair Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.7.1. Mobility-Agent-Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.7.1. MIP6-Agent-Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.7.2. MIP6-Home-Agent-Address AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.7.2. MIP-Home-Agent-Address AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.7.3. MIP6-Home-Agent-FQDN AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.7.3. MIP-Home-Agent-Host AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.7.4. Mobility-Capability AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.7.4. MIP6-Feature-Vector AVP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Example Message Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. Example Message Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.1. EAP-based Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1. EAP-based Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2. Integrated Scenario and HA Allocation in MSP . . . . . . . 11 5.2. Integrated Scenario and HA Allocation in MSP . . . . . . . 12
5.3. Integrated Scenario and HA Allocation in ASP . . . . . . . 13 5.3. Integrated Scenario and HA Allocation in ASP . . . . . . . 13
6. AVP Occurrence Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. AVP Occurrence Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.1. AAR, AAA, DER and DEA Commands AVP Table . . . . . . . . . 14 6.1. AAR, AAA, DER and DEA Commands AVP Table . . . . . . . . . 14
7. MIPv6 Bootstrapping NAS to HAAA Interface AVPs . . . . . . . . 14 7. MIPv6 Bootstrapping NAS to HAAA Interface AVPs . . . . . . . . 15
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.1. Registration of new AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.1. Registration of new AVPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.2. New Registry: Mobility Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.2. New Registry: Mobility Capability . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 19 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 20
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) specification [1] requires a Mobile Node (MN) The Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) specification [1] requires a Mobile Node (MN)
to perform registration with a Home Agent (HA) with information about to perform registration with a Home Agent (HA) with information about
its current point of attachment (Care-of Address). The HA creates its current point of attachment (Care-of Address). The HA creates
and maintains binding between the MN's Home Address and the MN's and maintains binding between the MN's Home Address and the MN's
Care-of Address. Care-of Address.
In order to register with a HA, the MN needs to know some information In order to register with a HA, the MN needs to know some information
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Dynamic assignment of MIPv6 home registration information is a Dynamic assignment of MIPv6 home registration information is a
desirable feature for ease of deployment and network maintenance. desirable feature for ease of deployment and network maintenance.
For this purpose, the AAA infrastructure, which is used for access For this purpose, the AAA infrastructure, which is used for access
authentication, can be leveraged to assign some or all of the authentication, can be leveraged to assign some or all of the
necessary parameters. The Diameter server in Access Service necessary parameters. The Diameter server in Access Service
Provider's (ASP) or in Mobility Service Provider's (MSP) network may Provider's (ASP) or in Mobility Service Provider's (MSP) network may
return these parameters to the AAA client. Regarding the return these parameters to the AAA client. Regarding the
bootstrapping procedures, the AAA client might either be the NAS, in bootstrapping procedures, the AAA client might either be the NAS, in
case of the integrated scenario, or the HA, in case of the split case of the integrated scenario, or the HA, in case of the split
scenario [6]. The terms integrated and split are described in the scenario [7]. The terms integrated and split are described in the
terminology section and were introduced in [7] and [8]. terminology section and were introduced in [8] and [9].
2. Terminology and Abbreviations 2. Terminology and Abbreviations
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [2]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119 [2].
General mobility terminology can be found in [9]. The following General mobility terminology can be found in [10]. The following
additional terms, as defined in [7], are used in this document: additional terms, as defined in [8], are used in this document:
Access Service Authorizer (ASA): Access Service Authorizer (ASA):
A network operator that authenticates a MN and establishes the A network operator that authenticates a MN and establishes the
MN's authorization to receive Internet service. MN's authorization to receive Internet service.
Access Service Provider (ASP): Access Service Provider (ASP):
A network operator that provides direct IP packet forwarding to A network operator that provides direct IP packet forwarding to
and from the MN. and from the MN.
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Home AAA (HAAA): Home AAA (HAAA):
An authentication, authorization and accounting server located in An authentication, authorization and accounting server located in
user's home network. user's home network.
3. Overview 3. Overview
This document addresses the authentication, authorization and This document addresses the authentication, authorization and
accounting functionality required by for the MIPv6 bootstrapping as accounting functionality required by for the MIPv6 bootstrapping as
outlined in the MIPv6 bootstrapping problem statement document [7]. outlined in the MIPv6 bootstrapping problem statement document [8].
This document focuses on the Diameter based AAA functionality for the This document focuses on the Diameter based AAA functionality for the
NAS to HAAA interface. NAS to HAAA interface.
In the integrated scenario MIPv6 bootstrapping is provided as part of In the integrated scenario MIPv6 bootstrapping is provided as part of
the network access authentication procedure. Figure 1 shows the the network access authentication procedure. Figure 1 shows the
participating entities. This document, however, only concentrates on participating entities. This document, however, only concentrates on
the NAS, possible local Diameter proxies and the home Diameter the NAS, possible local Diameter proxies and the home Diameter
server. server.
+---------------------------+ +-----------------+ +---------------------------+ +-----------------+
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In a typical MIPv6 access scenario the MN is attached to an ASP's In a typical MIPv6 access scenario the MN is attached to an ASP's
network. During the network attachment procedure, the NAS/Diameter network. During the network attachment procedure, the NAS/Diameter
client interacts with the MN. client interacts with the MN.
During the time of authentication the Diameter server in the MSA During the time of authentication the Diameter server in the MSA
detects that the user is also authorized for MIPv6 access. Based on detects that the user is also authorized for MIPv6 access. Based on
the MSA's policy, the Diameter server may return several MIPv6 the MSA's policy, the Diameter server may return several MIPv6
bootstrapping related parameters. bootstrapping related parameters.
Depending on the details of the bootstrapping solution interaction Depending on the details of the bootstrapping solution interaction
with the DHCPv6 server may be required, as described in [10]. with the DHCPv6 server may be required, as described in [11].
However, the Diameter based NAS to HAAA interface described in this However, the Diameter based NAS to HAAA interface described in this
document is not tied to DHCPv6 as the only possible MIPv6 document is not tied to DHCPv6 as the only possible MIPv6
bootstrapping method. bootstrapping method.
4. Commands, AVPs and Advertising Application Support 4. Commands, AVPs and Advertising Application Support
This section describes command codes, defines AVPs and advertised This section describes command codes, defines AVPs and advertised
application identifiers for the Diameter MIPv6 bootstrapping in the application identifiers for the Diameter MIPv6 bootstrapping in the
NAS to HAAA interface. NAS to HAAA interface.
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AA-Request AAR 265 RFC 4005 NASREQ AA-Request AAR 265 RFC 4005 NASREQ
AA-Answer AAA 265 RFC 4005 NASREQ AA-Answer AAA 265 RFC 4005 NASREQ
Figure 2: MIPv6 Bootstrapping NAS to HAAA Interface Command Codes Figure 2: MIPv6 Bootstrapping NAS to HAAA Interface Command Codes
When the Re-Auth-Request (RAR), Re-Auth-Answer (RAA), Session- When the Re-Auth-Request (RAR), Re-Auth-Answer (RAA), Session-
Termination-Request (STR), Session-Termination-Answer (STA), Abort- Termination-Request (STR), Session-Termination-Answer (STA), Abort-
Session-Request (ASR), Abort-Session-Answer (ASA), Accounting-Request Session-Request (ASR), Abort-Session-Answer (ASA), Accounting-Request
(ACR), and Accounting-Answer (ACA) commands are used together with (ACR), and Accounting-Answer (ACA) commands are used together with
the MIPv6 bootstrapping NAS to HAAA interface, they follow the rules the MIPv6 bootstrapping NAS to HAAA interface, they follow the rules
in the Diameter NASREQ [5], EAP [4] and RFC 3588 [3] applications. in the Diameter NASREQ [4], EAP [5] and RFC 3588 [3] applications.
The accounting commands use the Application Identifier value of 3 The accounting commands use the Application Identifier value of 3
(Diameter Base Accounting); the others use 0 (Diameter Common (Diameter Base Accounting); the others use 0 (Diameter Common
Messages). Messages).
All request messages SHOULD contain User-Name AVP containing the
identity of the MN in NAI format. It is out of scope how the NAS
finds out the MN identity However, for example, the NAS could use the
MN identity provided by the network access authentication mechanism.
4.3. Diameter-EAP-Request (DER) 4.3. Diameter-EAP-Request (DER)
The Diameter-EAP-Request (DER) message [4], indicated by the Command- The Diameter-EAP-Request (DER) message [5], indicated by the Command-
Code field set to 268 and the 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, Code field set to 268 and the 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field,
is sent by the NAS to the Diameter server to initiate a network is sent by the NAS to the Diameter server to initiate a network
access authentication and authorization procedure. The DER message access authentication and authorization procedure. The DER message
format is the same as defined in [4]. The message MAY include format is the same as defined in [5]. The message MAY include
optional MIPv6 bootstrapping AVPs: optional MIPv6 bootstrapping AVPs:
<Diameter-EAP-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 268, REQ, PXY > <Diameter-EAP-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 268, REQ, PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
{ Destination-Realm } { Destination-Realm }
{ Auth-Request-Type } { Auth-Request-Type }
* [ Mobility-Agent-Info ] * [ MIP6-Agent-Info ]
[ Mobility-Capability ] [ MIP6-Feature-Vector ]
[ User-Name ]
[ Destination-Host ] [ Destination-Host ]
... ...
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
4.4. Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA) 4.4. Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA)
The Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA) message defined in [4], indicated by The Diameter-EAP-Answer (DEA) message defined in [5], indicated by
the Command-Code field set to 268 and 'R' bit cleared in the Command the Command-Code field set to 268 and 'R' bit cleared in the Command
Flags field, is sent in response to the Diameter-EAP-Request message Flags field, is sent in response to the Diameter-EAP-Request message
(DER). If the network access authentication procedure was successful (DER). If the network access authentication procedure was successful
then the response MAY include any set of bootstrapping AVPs. then the response MAY include any set of bootstrapping AVPs.
The DEA message format is the same as defined in [4] with an addition The DEA message format is the same as defined in [5] with an addition
of optional MIPv6 bootstrapping AVPs: of optional MIPv6 bootstrapping AVPs:
<Diameter-EAP-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 268, PXY > <Diameter-EAP-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 268, PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Auth-Request-Type } { Auth-Request-Type }
{ Result-Code } { Result-Code }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
* [ Mobility-Agent-Info ] * [ MIP6-Agent-Info ]
[ Mobility-Capability ] [ MIP6-Feature-Vector ]
[ User-Name ] [ User-Name ]
... ...
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
4.5. AA-Request (AAR) 4.5. AA-Request (AAR)
The AA-Request (AAR) message [5], indicated by the Command-Code field The AA-Request (AAR) message [4], indicated by the Command-Code field
set to 265 and 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, is sent by the set to 265 and 'R' bit set in the Command Flags field, is sent by the
NAS to the Diameter server to initiate a network access NAS to the Diameter server to initiate a network access
authentication and authorization procedure. The AAR message format authentication and authorization procedure. The AAR message format
is the same as defined in [5]. The message MAY include optional is the same as defined in [4]. The message MAY include optional
MIPv6 bootstrapping AVPs: MIPv6 bootstrapping AVPs:
<AA-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 265, REQ, PXY > <AA-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 265, REQ, PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
{ Destination-Realm } { Destination-Realm }
{ Auth-Request-Type } { Auth-Request-Type }
* [ Mobility-Agent-Info ] * [ MIP6-Agent-Info ]
[ Mobility-Capability ] [ MIP6-Feature-Vector ]
[ User-Name ]
[ Destination-Host ] [ Destination-Host ]
... ...
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
4.6. AA-Answer (AAA) 4.6. AA-Answer (AAA)
The AA-Answer (AAA) message, indicated by the Command-Code field set The AA-Answer (AAA) message, indicated by the Command-Code field set
to 265 and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field is sent in to 265 and 'R' bit cleared in the Command Flags field is sent in
response to the AA-Request (AAR) message for confirmation of the response to the AA-Request (AAR) message for confirmation of the
result of MIPv6 HA bootstrapping. If the network access result of MIPv6 HA bootstrapping. If the network access
authentication procedure was successful then the response MAY include authentication procedure was successful then the response MAY include
any set of bootstrapping AVPs. any set of bootstrapping AVPs.
The AAA message format is the same as defined in [5] with an addition The AAA message format is the same as defined in [4] with an addition
of optional MIPv6 bootstrapping AVPs: of optional MIPv6 bootstrapping AVPs:
<AA-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 265, PXY > <AA-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 265, PXY >
< Session-Id > < Session-Id >
{ Auth-Application-Id } { Auth-Application-Id }
{ Auth-Request-Type } { Auth-Request-Type }
{ Result-Code } { Result-Code }
{ Origin-Host } { Origin-Host }
{ Origin-Realm } { Origin-Realm }
* [ Mobility-Agent-Info ] * [ MIP6-Agent-Info ]
[ Mobility-Capability ] [ MIP6-Feature-Vector ]
[ User-Name ] [ User-Name ]
... ...
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
4.7. Attribute Value Pair Definitions 4.7. Attribute Value Pair Definitions
4.7.1. Mobility-Agent-Info 4.7.1. MIP6-Agent-Info
The Mobility-Agent-Info AVP (AVP code TBD) is type of Grouped and The MIP6-Agent-Info AVP (AVP code TBD) is type of Grouped and
contains necessary information to assign a HA to the MN. When the contains necessary information to assign a HA to the MN. When the
Mobility-Agent-Info AVP is present in a message, it MUST contain MIP6-Agent-Info AVP is present in a message, it MUST contain either a
either a MIP6-Home-Agent-Address AVP or a MIP6-Home-Agent-FQDN AVP, MIP-Home-Agent-Address AVP or a MIP-Home-Agent-Host AVP, but not
but not both. The grouped AVP has the following grammar: both. The grouped AVP has the following grammar:
<Mobility-Agent-Info> ::= < AVP Header: TBD > <MIP6-Agent-Info> ::= < AVP Header: TBD >
[ MIP6-Home-Agent-Address ] [ MIP-Home-Agent-Address ]
[ MIP6-Home-Agent-FQDN ] [ MIP-Home-Agent-Host ]
* [ AVP ] * [ AVP ]
4.7.2. MIP6-Home-Agent-Address AVP 4.7.2. MIP-Home-Agent-Address AVP
The MIP6-Home-Agent-Address AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Address The MIP-Home-Agent-Address AVP (AVP Code 334 [6]) is of type Address
(see Section 4.3 in [3]) and contains the HA address. The Diameter and contains the HA address. The Diameter server MAY decide to
server MAY decide to assign a HA to the MN that is in close proximity assign a HA to the MN that is in close proximity to the point of
to the point of attachment (e.g., determined by the NAS-Identifier attachment (e.g., determined by the NAS-Identifier AVP). There may
AVP). There may be other reasons for dynamically assigning HAs to be other reasons for dynamically assigning HAs to the MN, for example
the MN, for example to share the traffic load. to share the traffic load.
This AVP MAY also be attached by the NAS when sent to the Diameter This AVP MAY also be attached by the NAS when sent to the Diameter
server in a request message as a hint of a locally assigned HA server in a request message as a hint of a locally assigned HA
address. address.
4.7.3. MIP6-Home-Agent-FQDN AVP 4.7.3. MIP-Home-Agent-Host AVP
The MIP6-Home-Agent-FQDN AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type UTF8String and The MIP-Home-Agent-Host AVP (AVP Code 348 [6]) is of type Grouped and
contains the FQDN of a HA. The usage of this AVP is equivalent to contains the identity of the assigned HA. Both the FQDN and the
the MIP6-Home-Agent-Address AVP but offers an additional level of Realm of the HA are included in the grouped AVP. The usage of this
indirection via the DNS infrastructure. AVP is equivalent to the MIP-Home-Agent-Address AVP but offers an
additional level of indirection via the DNS infrastructure.
4.7.4. Mobility-Capability AVP 4.7.4. MIP6-Feature-Vector AVP
The Mobility-Capability AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Unsigned64 and The MIP6-Feature-Vector AVP (AVP Code TBD) is of type Unsigned64 and
contains a 64 bits flags field of supported capabilities of the NAS/ contains a 64 bits flags field of supported capabilities of the NAS/
ASP. Sending and receiving the Mobility-Capability AVP with value 0 ASP. Sending and receiving the MIP6-Feature-Vector AVP with value 0
MUST be supported. MUST be supported, although that does not provide much guidance about
specific needs of bootstrapping.
The NAS MAY include this AVP to indicate capabilities of the NAS/ASP The NAS MAY include this AVP to indicate capabilities of the NAS/ASP
to the Diameter server. For example, the NAS may indicate that a to the Diameter server. For example, the NAS may indicate that a
local home agent can be provided. Similarly, the Diameter server MAY local home agent can be provided. Similarly, the Diameter server MAY
include this AVP to inform the NAS/ASP about which of the NAS/ASP include this AVP to inform the NAS/ASP about which of the NAS/ASP
indicated capabilities are supported or authorized by the ASA/MSA(/ indicated capabilities are supported or authorized by the ASA/MSA(/
MSP). MSP).
The following capabilities are defined in this document: The following capabilities are defined in this document:
MOBILITY_CAPABILITY (0x0000000000000000) MOBILITY_CAPABILITY (0x0000000000000000)
The Mobility-Capability AVP MAY contain value 0 (zero) with the The MIP6-Feature-Vector AVP MAY contain value 0 (zero) with the
semantics that are defined in this document for the Mobile IPv6 semantics that Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping is generally supported.
bootstrapping functionality. This 'zero' flag is always This 'zero' flag is always implicitly set when the MIP6-Feature-
implicitly set when the Mobility-Capability AVP is used. Vector AVP is used.
LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT (0x0000000000000001) MIP6_INTEGRATED (0x0000000000000001)
This flag is set by the NAS/ASP when Mobile IPv6 integrated
scenario bootstrapping functionality is supported. This flag is
set by the ASA/MSA(/MSP) when Mobile IPv6 integrated scenario
bootstrapping is supported and authorized to be used.
LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT (0x0000000000000002)
This flag is set by the NAS/ASP when a local home agent can be This flag is set by the NAS/ASP when a local home agent can be
assigned to the MN. This flag is set by the ASA/MSA(/MSP) when assigned to the MN. This flag is set by the ASA/MSA(/MSP) when
the use of a local HA is authorized. the use of a local HA is authorized.
5. Example Message Flows 5. Example Message Flows
5.1. EAP-based Authentication 5.1. EAP-based Authentication
This section shows basic message flows of MIPv6 integrated scenario This section shows basic message flows of MIPv6 integrated scenario
skipping to change at page 11, line 8 skipping to change at page 11, line 23
assigned HA to the visiting MN. The Diameter server assigns the MN a assigned HA to the visiting MN. The Diameter server assigns the MN a
HA in the home MSP but also authorizes the assignment of local HA for HA in the home MSP but also authorizes the assignment of local HA for
the ASP. The Diameter server then replies to the NAS with HA related the ASP. The Diameter server then replies to the NAS with HA related
bootstrapping information. Whether the NAS/ASP then offers a locally bootstrapping information. Whether the NAS/ASP then offers a locally
assigned HA or the MSP assigned HA to the MN is based on the local assigned HA or the MSP assigned HA to the MN is based on the local
ASP policy. ASP policy.
NAS Home server NAS Home server
| | | |
| Diameter-EAP-Request | | Diameter-EAP-Request |
| Mobility-Capability=LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT | | MIP6-Feature-Vector=(LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT |
| | MIP6_INTEGRATED) |
| Auth-Request-Type=AUTHORIZE_AUTHENTICATE | | Auth-Request-Type=AUTHORIZE_AUTHENTICATE |
| EAP-Payload(EAP Start) | | EAP-Payload(EAP Start) |
|---------------------------------------------------------------->| |---------------------------------------------------------------->|
| | | |
| | | |
: ...more EAP Request/Response pairs... : : ...more EAP Request/Response pairs... :
| | | |
| | | |
| Diameter-EAP-Answer | | Diameter-EAP-Answer |
| Mobility-Agent-Info{ | | MIP6-Agent-Info{ |
| MIP6-Home-Agent-Address(IPv6 address) | | MIP-Home-Agent-Address(IPv6 address)} |
| MIP6-Home-Agent-FQDN=ha.example.com } | | MIP6-Feature-Vector=(LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT |
| Mobility-Capability=LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT | | | MIP6_INTEGRATED) |
| Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS | | Result-Code=DIAMETER_SUCCESS |
| EAP-Payload(EAP Success) | | EAP-Payload(EAP Success) |
| EAP-Master-Session-Key | | EAP-Master-Session-Key |
| (authorization AVPs) | | (authorization AVPs) |
| ... | | ... |
|<----------------------------------------------------------------| |<----------------------------------------------------------------|
| | | |
Figure 3: Diameter EAP Application with MIPv6 bootstrapping Figure 3: Diameter EAP Application with MIPv6 bootstrapping
skipping to change at page 12, line 43 skipping to change at page 12, line 50
Figure 4: Mobile IPv6 Integrated Scenario Bootstrapping and the Figure 4: Mobile IPv6 Integrated Scenario Bootstrapping and the
allocation of HAs either in the ASP or in the MSP allocation of HAs either in the ASP or in the MSP
1) The MN executes the normal network access authentication procedure 1) The MN executes the normal network access authentication procedure
(IEEE 802.11i/802.1X, PANA, ...) with the NAS. The NAS acts as an (IEEE 802.11i/802.1X, PANA, ...) with the NAS. The NAS acts as an
authenticator in "pass-through" mode. The other endpoint of the authenticator in "pass-through" mode. The other endpoint of the
authentication dialogue is the MN's home Diameter server. This is authentication dialogue is the MN's home Diameter server. This is
a typical scenario for network access authentication using EAP a typical scenario for network access authentication using EAP
methods. The NAS includes at least one of the NAS to HAAA methods. The NAS includes at least one of the NAS to HAAA
interface AVPs in the DER or in the AAR messages to indicate MIPv6 interface AVPs in the DER or in the AAR messages to indicate MIPv6
bootstrapping capability. For example, the NAS could include the bootstrapping capability. For example, the NAS should include the
Mobility-Capability AVP with a value 0. MIP6-Feature-Vector AVP with a value 0x0000000000000001.
2) Depending on the Diameter server configuration and the user's 2) Depending on the Diameter server configuration and the user's
subscription profile, the Mobility-Agent-Info AVP and/or the subscription profile, the MIP6-Agent-Info AVP and/or the MIP6-
Mobility-Capability AVP may be carried in the DEA, assuming the Feature-Vector AVP may be carried in the DEA, assuming the home
home Diameter server has allocated a HA to the MN. In case the Diameter server has allocated a HA to the MN. In case the MIP-
MIP6-Home-Agent-FQDN AVP was returned within the Mobility-Agent- Home-Agent-Host AVP was returned within the MIP6-Agent-Info
Info grouped AVP the MN ultimately needs to perform a DNS query in grouped AVP the MN ultimately needs to perform a DNS query in
order to discover the HA's IP address. For example, the home order to discover the HA's IP address. For example, the home
Diameter server could return the following AVPs: Diameter server could return the following AVPs:
o Mobility-Agent-Info grouped AVP containing: o MIP6-Feature-Vector = 0x0000000000000001
* MIP6-Home-Agent-Address = 2001:db8:6000:302::1/64 o MIP6-Agent-Info grouped AVP containing:
* MIP6-Home-Agent-FQDN = ha.example.com * MIP-Home-Agent-Address = 2001:db8:6000:302::1/64
3) the MN sends a DHCPv6 Information Request message to 3) the MN sends a DHCPv6 Information Request message to
all_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers address. In the OPTION_ORO, all_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers address. In the OPTION_ORO,
Option Code for the Home Network Identifier Option shall be Option Code for the Home Network Identifier Option shall be
included in that message [10]. The Home Network Identifier Option included in that message [11]. The Home Network Identifier Option
should have id-type of 1, the message is a request to discover should have id-type of 1, the message is a request to discover
home network information that pertains to the given realm, i.e., home network information that pertains to the given realm, i.e.,
the user's home domain (identified by the NAI of the MN). The the user's home domain (identified by the NAI of the MN). The
OPTION_CLIENTID is set by the MN to identify itself to the DHCP OPTION_CLIENTID is set by the MN to identify itself to the DHCP
server. server.
Steps 4 to 6 are not relevant from the NAS to HAAA Diameter interface Steps 4 to 6 are not relevant from the NAS to HAAA Diameter interface
point of view and are not described in this document. The reader point of view and are not described in this document. The reader
should consult [10] for a detailed description about the rest of the should consult [11] for a detailed description about the rest of the
integrated scenario bootstrapping procedure. integrated scenario bootstrapping procedure.
5.3. Integrated Scenario and HA Allocation in ASP 5.3. Integrated Scenario and HA Allocation in ASP
This scenario is similar to the one described in Section 5.2 and This scenario is similar to the one described in Section 5.2 and
illustrated in Figure 4. There are slight differences in steps 2) illustrated in Figure 4. There are slight differences in steps 2)
and 3). and 3).
2) The NAS/ASP wishes to allocate a local HA to the visiting MN. The 2) The NAS/ASP wishes to allocate a local HA to the visiting MN. The
NAS/ASP will also inform the Diameter server about the HA address NAS/ASP will also inform the Diameter server about the HA address
it has assigned to the visiting MN (e.g., 2001:db8:1:c020::1). In it has assigned to the visiting MN (e.g., 2001:db8:1:c020::1). In
this case the NAS includes the following AVPs in the DER or in the this case the NAS includes the following AVPs in the DER or in the
AAR messages: AAR messages:
o Mobility-Capability = LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT o MIP6-Feature-Vector = 0x0000000000000003
o Mobility-Agent-Info grouped AVP containing: o MIP6-Agent-Info grouped AVP containing:
* MIP6-Home-Agent-Address = 2001:db8:1:c020::1 * MIP-Home-Agent-Address = 2001:db8:1:c020::1
Depending on the Diameter server configuration and user's Depending on the Diameter server configuration and user's
subscription profile, the Diameter server either accepts or subscription profile, the Diameter server either accepts or
rejects the proposal of locally allocated HA in the NAS/ASP. If rejects the proposal of locally allocated HA in the NAS/ASP. If
the Diameter server accepts the proposal then the Mobility- the Diameter server accepts the proposal then the MIP6-Feature-
Capability AVP with LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT bit set is Vector AVP with LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT bit set is returned
returned back to the NAS. On the other hand if the Diameter back to the NAS. On the other hand if the Diameter server does
server does not accept locally assigned HA, the Diameter returns not accept locally assigned HA, the Diameter returns the MIP6-
the Mobility-Capability AVP with LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT bit Feature-Vector AVP with LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT bit unset.
unset. The Diameter server assigns a HA to the MN (e.g., 2001: The Diameter server assigns a HA to the MN (e.g.,
db8:6000::1) in the ASA/MSA/(MSP) and returns the IP address back 2001:db8:6000::1) in the ASA/MSA/(MSP) and returns the IP address
to the NAS/ASP. In a case the home Diameter server accepted the back to the NAS/ASP. In a case the home Diameter server accepted
NAS/ASP proposal of local HA the home Diameter server would the NAS/ASP proposal of local HA the home Diameter server would
return, for example, the following AVPs: return, for example, the following AVPs:
o Mobility-Capability = LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT o MIP6-Feature-Vector = 0x0000000000000003
o Mobility-Agent-Info grouped AVP containing: o MIP6-Agent-Info grouped AVP containing:
* MIP6-Home-Agent-Address = 2001:db8:6000::1 * MIP-Home-Agent-Address = 2001:db8:6000::1
3) The type-id field in the Home Network Identifier Option is set to 3) The type-id field in the Home Network Identifier Option is set to
zero, indicating that a HA is requested in the ASP instead of in zero, indicating that a HA is requested in the ASP instead of in
the MSP. Depending on the result of the phase 2) the DHCP relay the MSP. Depending on the result of the phase 2) the DHCP relay
agent places in the OPTION_MIP6-RELAY-Option either the locally agent places in the OPTION_MIP6-RELAY-Option either the locally
allocated HA information or the HA information that was returned allocated HA information or the HA information that was returned
(proposed) by home Diameter server. The selection of local or (proposed) by home Diameter server. The selection of local or
home allocated HAs in based on the local policy in the ASP. It is home allocated HAs in based on the local policy in the ASP. It is
also possible that both local and home allocated HAs are available also possible that both local and home allocated HAs are available
for the MN. The policy and heuristics when to select the local HA for the MN. The policy and heuristics when to select the local HA
and when the home HA are outside of this specification. and when the home HA are outside of this specification.
6. AVP Occurrence Tables 6. AVP Occurrence Tables
6.1. AAR, AAA, DER and DEA Commands AVP Table 6.1. AAR, AAA, DER and DEA Commands AVP Table
The following table lists the additional MIPv6 bootstrapping NAS to The following table lists the additional MIPv6 bootstrapping NAS to
HAAA interface AVPs that may optionally be present in the AAR and AAA HAAA interface AVPs that may optionally be present in the AAR and AAA
Commands [5] or in the DER and DEA Commands [4]. Commands [4] or in the DER and DEA Commands [5].
+-----------------------+ +-----------------------+
| Command-Code | | Command-Code |
|-----+-----+-----+-----+ |-----+-----+-----+-----+
Attribute Name | AAR | AAA | DER | DEA | Attribute Name | AAR | AAA | DER | DEA |
-------------------------------|-----+-----|-----+-----+ -------------------------------|-----+-----|-----+-----+
Mobility-Agent-Info | 0+ | 0+ | 0+ | 0+ | MIP6-Agent-Info | 0+ | 0+ | 0+ | 0+ |
Mobility-Capability | 0-1 | 0-1 | 0-1 | 0-1 | MIP6-Feature-Vector | 0-1 | 0-1 | 0-1 | 0-1 |
+-----+-----+-----+-----+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+
Figure 5: AAR, AAA, DER and DEA Commands AVP Table Figure 5: AAR, AAA, DER and DEA Commands AVP Table
7. MIPv6 Bootstrapping NAS to HAAA Interface AVPs 7. MIPv6 Bootstrapping NAS to HAAA Interface AVPs
This section defines AVPs that are specific to Diameter MIPv6 This section defines AVPs that are specific to Diameter MIPv6
bootstrapping NAS to HAAA interface and MAY be included in the bootstrapping NAS to HAAA interface and MAY be included in the
Diameter EAP [4] and the NASREQ [5] application messages. The Diameter EAP [5] and the NASREQ [4] application messages. The
Diameter AVP rules are defined in the Diameter Base [3], Section 4. Diameter AVP rules are defined in the Diameter Base [3], Section 4.
These AVP rules are observed in AVPs defined in this section. These AVP rules are observed in AVPs defined in this section.
The following table describes the Diameter AVPs, their AVP Code The following table describes the Diameter AVPs, their AVP Code
values, types, possible flag values, and whether the AVP MAY be values, types, possible flag values, and whether the AVP MAY be
encrypted. The Diameter base [3] specifies the AVP Flag rules for encrypted. The Diameter base [3] specifies the AVP Flag rules for
AVPs in Section 4.5. AVPs in Section 4.5.
+---------------------+ +---------------------+
| AVP Flag rules | | AVP Flag rules |
+----+-----+----+-----+----+ +----+-----+----+-----+----+
AVP Section | | |SHLD|MUST | | AVP Section | | |SHLD|MUST | |
Attribute Name Code Defined Data Type |MUST| MAY |NOT |NOT |Encr| Attribute Name Code Defined Data Type |MUST| MAY |NOT |NOT |Encr|
------------------------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+ ------------------------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+
Mobility- | | | | | | MIP6-Agent-Info TBD 4.7.1 Grouped | | P | | M,V | Y |
Agent-Info TBD 4.7.1 Grouped | | P | | M,V | Y | MIP-Home-Agent- | | | | | |
MIP6-Home-Agent- | | | | | | Address 334 4.7.2 Address | | P | | M,V | Y |
Address TBD 4.7.2 Address | | P | | M,V | Y | MIP-Home-Agent- | | | | | |
MIP6-Home-Agent- | | | | | | Host 348 4.7.3 Grouped | | P | | M,V | Y |
FQDN TBD 4.7.3 UTF8String | | P | | M,V | Y | MIP6-Feature- | | | | | |
Mobility- | | | | | | Vector TBD 4.7.4 Unsigned64 | | P | | M,V | Y |
Capability TBD 4.7.4 Unsigned64 | | P | | M,V | Y |
------------------------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+ ------------------------------------------+----+-----+----+-----+----+
Figure 6: AVP Flag Rules Table Figure 6: AVP Flag Rules Table
8. IANA Considerations 8. IANA Considerations
8.1. Registration of new AVPs 8.1. Registration of new AVPs
This specification defines the following new AVPs: This specification defines the following new AVPs:
Mobility-Agent-Info is set to TBD MIP6-Agent-Info is set to TBD
MIP6-Home-Agent-Address is set to TBD MIP6-Feature-Vector is set to TBD
MIP6-Home-Agent-FQDN is set to TBD
Mobility-Capability is set to TBD
8.2. New Registry: Mobility Capability 8.2. New Registry: Mobility Capability
IANA is requested to create a new registry for the Mobility IANA is requested to create a new registry for the Mobility
Capability as described in Section 4.7.4. Capability as described in Section 4.7.4.
Token | Value | Description Token | Value | Description
----------------------------------+----------------------+------------ ----------------------------------+----------------------+------------
MOBILITTY_CAPABILITY | 0x0000000000000000 | [RFC TBD] MOBILITTY_CAPABILITY | 0x0000000000000000 | [RFC TBD]
LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT | 0x0000000000000001 | [RFC TBD] MIP6_INTEGRATED | 0x0000000000000001 | [RFC TBD]
LOCAL_HOME_AGENT_ASSIGNMENT | 0x0000000000000002 | [RFC TBD]
Available for Assignment via IANA | 2^x | Available for Assignment via IANA | 2^x |
Allocation rule: Only numeric values that are 2^x (power of two) are Allocation rule: Only numeric values that are 2^x (power of two) are
allowed based on the allocation policy described below. allowed based on the allocation policy described below.
Following the policies outlined in [1] new values with a description Following the policies outlined in [1] new values with a description
of their semantic for usage with the Mobility-Capability AVP together of their semantic for usage with the MIP6-Feature-Vector AVP together
with a Token will be assigned after Expert Review initiated by the with a Token will be assigned after Expert Review initiated by the
O&M Area Directors in consultation with the DIME working group chairs O&M Area Directors in consultation with the DIME working group chairs
or the working group chairs of a designated successor working group. or the working group chairs of a designated successor working group.
Updates can be provided based on expert approval only. A designated Updates can be provided based on expert approval only. A designated
expert will be appointed by the O&M Area Directors. No mechanism to expert will be appointed by the O&M Area Directors. No mechanism to
mark entries as "deprecated" is envisioned. Based on expert approval mark entries as "deprecated" is envisioned. Based on expert approval
it is possible to delete entries from the registry. it is possible to delete entries from the registry.
9. Security Considerations 9. Security Considerations
The security considerations for the Diameter interaction required to The security considerations for the Diameter interaction required to
accomplish the integrated scenario are described in [10]. accomplish the integrated scenario are described in [11].
Additionally, the security considerations of the Diameter base Additionally, the security considerations of the Diameter base
protocol [3], Diameter NASREQ application [5] / Diameter EAP [4] protocol [3], Diameter NASREQ application [4] / Diameter EAP [5]
application (with respect to network access authentication and the application (with respect to network access authentication and the
transport of keying material) are applicable to this document. This transport of keying material) are applicable to this document. This
document does not introduce new security vulnerabilities. document does not introduce new security vulnerabilities.
10. Acknowledgements 10. Acknowledgements
This document is heavily based on the ongoing work for RADIUS MIPv6 This document is heavily based on the ongoing work for RADIUS MIPv6
interaction. Hence, credits go to respective authors for their work interaction. Hence, credits go to respective authors for their work
with draft-ietf-mip6-radius. Furthermore, the author would like to with draft-ietf-mip6-radius. Furthermore, the author would like to
thank the authors of draft-le-aaa-diameter-mobileipv6 (Franck Le, thank the authors of draft-le-aaa-diameter-mobileipv6 (Franck Le,
Basavaraj Patil, Charles E. Perkins, Stefano Faccin) for their work Basavaraj Patil, Charles E. Perkins, Stefano Faccin) for their work
in context of MIPv6 Diameter interworking. Their work influenced in context of MIPv6 Diameter interworking. Their work influenced
this document. Julien Bournelle would like to thank GET/INT since he this document. Jouni Korhonen would like to thank Academy of Finland
and TEKES MERCoNe Project for providing funding to work on this
document. Julien Bournelle would like to thank GET/INT since he
began to work on this document while he was in their employ. Authors began to work on this document while he was in their employ. Authors
would also like to acknowledge Raymond Hsu for his valuable feedback would also like to acknowledge Raymond Hsu for his valuable feedback
on local HA assignment and Wolfgang Fritsche for his thorough review. on local HA assignment and Wolfgang Fritsche for his thorough review.
11. References 11. References
11.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[1] Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in [1] Johnson, D., Perkins, C., and J. Arkko, "Mobility Support in
IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004. IPv6", RFC 3775, June 2004.
[2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [2] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[3] Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J. Arkko, [3] Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J. Arkko,
"Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003. "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, September 2003.
[4] Eronen, P., Hiller, T., and G. Zorn, "Diameter Extensible [4] Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton, "Diameter
Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005, August 2005.
[5] Eronen, P., Hiller, T., and G. Zorn, "Diameter Extensible
Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application", RFC 4072, Authentication Protocol (EAP) Application", RFC 4072,
August 2005. August 2005.
[5] Calhoun, P., Zorn, G., Spence, D., and D. Mitton, "Diameter [6] Calhoun, P., Johansson, T., Perkins, C., Hiller, T., and P.
Network Access Server Application", RFC 4005, August 2005. McCann, "Diameter Mobile IPv4 Application", RFC 4004,
August 2005.
11.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[6] Giaretta, G., "Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping in split scenario", [7] Giaretta, G., "Mobile IPv6 bootstrapping in split scenario",
draft-ietf-mip6-bootstrapping-split-04 (work in progress), draft-ietf-mip6-bootstrapping-split-05 (work in progress),
December 2006. May 2007.
[7] Patel, A. and G. Giaretta, "Problem Statement for bootstrapping [8] Patel, A. and G. Giaretta, "Problem Statement for bootstrapping
Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)", RFC 4640, September 2006. Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)", RFC 4640, September 2006.
[8] Giaretta, G., "AAA Goals for Mobile IPv6", [9] Giaretta, G., "AAA Goals for Mobile IPv6",
draft-ietf-mip6-aaa-ha-goals-03 (work in progress), draft-ietf-mip6-aaa-ha-goals-03 (work in progress),
September 2006. September 2006.
[9] Manner, J. and M. Kojo, "Mobility Related Terminology", [10] Manner, J. and M. Kojo, "Mobility Related Terminology",
RFC 3753, June 2004. RFC 3753, June 2004.
[10] Chowdhury, K. and A. Yegin, "MIP6-bootstrapping for the [11] Chowdhury, K. and A. Yegin, "MIP6-bootstrapping for the
Integrated Scenario", Integrated Scenario",
draft-ietf-mip6-bootstrapping-integrated-dhc-02 (work in draft-ietf-mip6-bootstrapping-integrated-dhc-04 (work in
progress), February 2007. progress), June 2007.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jouni Korhonen Jouni Korhonen
TeliaSonera TeliaSonera
Teollisuuskatu 13 Teollisuuskatu 13
Sonera FIN-00051 Sonera FIN-00051
Finland Finland
Email: jouni.korhonen@teliasonera.com Email: jouni.korhonen@teliasonera.com
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