draft-ietf-dmm-4283mnids-08.txt   rfc8371.txt 
Distributed Mobility Management [dmm] C. Perkins Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) C. Perkins
Internet-Draft Futurewei Request for Comments: 8371 Futurewei
Intended status: Standards Track V. Devarapalli Category: Standards Track V. Devarapalli
Expires: September 19, 2018 Vasona Networks ISSN: 2070-1721 Vasona Networks
March 18, 2018 July 2018
MN Identifier Types for RFC 4283 Mobile Node Identifier Option Mobile Node Identifier Types for MIPv6
draft-ietf-dmm-4283mnids-08.txt
Abstract Abstract
Additional Identifier Type Numbers are defined for use with the This document defines additional identifier type numbers for use with
Mobile Node Identifier Option for MIPv6 (RFC 4283). the mobile node identifier option for Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) as defined
by RFC 4283.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. New Mobile Node Identifier Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. New Mobile Node Identifier Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Descriptions of MNID types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. Descriptions of MN Identifier Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1. Description of the IPv6 address type . . . . . . . . . . 3 4.1. Description of the IPv6 Address Type . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.2. Description of the IMSI MNID type . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.2. Description of the IMSI MN Identifier Type . . . . . . . 5
4.3. Description of the EUI-48 address type . . . . . . . . . 4 4.3. Description of the EUI-48 Address Type . . . . . . . . . 5
4.4. Description of the EUI-64 address type . . . . . . . . . 4 4.4. Description of the EUI-64 Address Type . . . . . . . . . 5
4.5. Description of the DUID type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.5. Description of the DUID Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Appendix A. RFID Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Appendix A. RFID types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 A.1. Description of the RFID Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
A.1. Description of the RFID types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 A.1.1. Description of the RFID-SGTIN-64 Type . . . . . . . . 14
A.1.1. Description of the RFID-SGTIN-64 type . . . . . . . . 12 A.1.2. Description of the RFID-SGTIN-96 Type . . . . . . . . 14
A.1.2. Description of the RFID-SGTIN-96 type . . . . . . . . 12 A.1.3. Description of the RFID-SSCC-64 Type . . . . . . . . 14
A.1.3. Description of the RFID-SSCC-64 type . . . . . . . . 12 A.1.4. Description of the RFID-SSCC-96 Type . . . . . . . . 14
A.1.4. Description of the RFID-SSCC-96 type . . . . . . . . 12 A.1.5. Description of the RFID-SGLN-64 Type . . . . . . . . 14
A.1.5. Description of the RFID-SGLN-64 type . . . . . . . . 12 A.1.6. Description of the RFID-SGLN-96 Type . . . . . . . . 14
A.1.6. Description of the RFID-SGLN-96 type . . . . . . . . 12 A.1.7. Description of the RFID-GRAI-64 Type . . . . . . . . 15
A.1.7. Description of the RFID-GRAI-64 type . . . . . . . . 13 A.1.8. Description of the RFID-GRAI-96 Type . . . . . . . . 15
A.1.8. Description of the RFID-GRAI-96 type . . . . . . . . 13 A.1.9. Description of the RFID-GIAI-64 Type . . . . . . . . 15
A.1.9. Description of the RFID-GIAI-64 type . . . . . . . . 13 A.1.10. Description of the RFID-GIAI-96 Type . . . . . . . . 15
A.1.10. Description of the RFID-GIAI-96 type . . . . . . . . 13 A.1.11. Description of the RFID-DoD-64 Type . . . . . . . . . 15
A.1.11. Description of the RFID-DoD-64 type . . . . . . . . . 13 A.1.12. Description of the RFID-DoD-96 Type . . . . . . . . . 15
A.1.12. Description of the RFID-DoD-96 type . . . . . . . . . 13 A.1.13. Description of the RFID URI Types . . . . . . . . . . 15
A.1.13. Description of the RFID URI types . . . . . . . . . . 13 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The Mobile Node Identifier Option for MIPv6 [RFC4283] has proved to The "Mobile Node Identifier Option for Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)" [RFC4283]
be a popular design tool for providing identifiers for mobile nodes has proved to be a popular design tool for providing identifiers for
during authentication procedures with AAA protocols such as Diameter mobile nodes during authentication procedures with Authentication,
[RFC3588]. To date, only a single type of identifier has been Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) protocols such as Diameter
specified, namely the MN NAI. Other types of identifiers are in [RFC6733]. To date, only a single type of identifier has been
common use, and even referenced in RFC 4283. In this document, we specified, namely the Mobile Node (MN) NAI. Other types of
propose adding some basic types that are defined in various identifiers are in common use and are even referenced in RFC 4283.
telecommunications standards, including types for IMSI In this document, we propose adding some basic identifier types that
[ThreeGPP-IDS], P-TMSI [ThreeGPP-IDS], IMEI [ThreeGPP-IDS], and GUTI are defined in various telecommunications standards, including types
[ThreeGPP-IDS]. In addition, we specify the IPv6 address itself and for International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) [ThreeGPP-IDS],
IEEE MAC-layer addresses as mobile node identifiers. Defining Packet - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (P-TMSI)
identifiers that are tied to the physical elements of the device ( [ThreeGPP-IDS], International Mobile station Equipment Identities
MAC address etc.) help in deployment of Mobile IP because in many (IMEI) [ThreeGPP-IDS], and Globally Unique Temporary UE Identity
cases such identifiers are the most natural means for uniquely (GUTI) [ThreeGPP-IDS]. In addition, we specify the IPv6 address
identifying the device, and will avoid additional look-up steps that itself and IEEE MAC-layer addresses as Mobile Node identifiers.
might be needed if other identifiers were used. Defining identifiers that are tied to the physical elements of the
device (e.g., the MAC address) help in deployment of Mobile IP
because, in many cases, such identifiers are the most natural means
for uniquely identifying the device and will avoid additional lookup
steps that might be needed if other identifiers were used.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
[RFC2119]. BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
3. New Mobile Node Identifier Types 3. New Mobile Node Identifier Types
The following types of identifiers are commonly used to identify The following types of identifiers are commonly used to identify
mobile nodes. For each type, references are provided with full mobile nodes. For each type, references are provided with full
details on the format of the type of identifer. details on the format of the type of identifier.
Mobile Node Identifier Description
+--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+ +--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+
| Identifier | Description | Reference | | Identifier | Description | Reference |
| Type | | | | Type | | |
+--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+ +--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+
| IPv6 Address | | [RFC4291] | | IPv6 Address | | [RFC4291] |
| | | |
| IMSI | International Mobile Subscriber | [ThreeGPP-IDS] | | IMSI | International Mobile Subscriber | [ThreeGPP-IDS] |
| | Identity | | | | Identity | |
| P-TMSI | Packet-Temporary Mobile | [ThreeGPP-IDS] | | | | |
| P-TMSI | Packet - Temporary Mobile | [ThreeGPP-IDS] |
| | Subscriber Identity | | | | Subscriber Identity | |
| GUTI | Globally Unique Temporary ID | [ThreeGPP-IDS] | | | | |
| EUI-48 | 48-bit Extended Unique Identifier | [IEEE802] | | GUTI | Globally Unique Temporary UE | [ThreeGPP-IDS] |
| address | | | | | Identity | |
| EUI-64 | 64-bit Extended Unique | [IEEE802] | | | | |
| address | Identifier-64 bit | | | EUI-48 | 48-Bit Extended Unique Identifier | [IEEE802] |
| Address | | |
| | | |
| EUI-64 | 64-Bit Extended Unique Identifier | [IEEE802] |
| Address | | |
| | | |
| DUID | DHCPv6 Unique Identifier | [RFC3315] | | DUID | DHCPv6 Unique Identifier | [RFC3315] |
+--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+ +--------------+-----------------------------------+----------------+
Table 1 Table 1: Mobile Node Identifier Description
4. Descriptions of MNID types 4. Descriptions of MN Identifier Types
In this section descriptions for the various MNID types are provided. This section provides descriptions for the various MN identifier
types.
4.1. Description of the IPv6 address type 4.1. Description of the IPv6 Address Type
The IPv6 address [RFC4291] is encoded as a 16 octet string containing The IPv6 address [RFC4291] is encoded as a 16-octet string containing
a full IPv6 address which has been assigned to the mobile node. The a full IPv6 address that has been assigned to the mobile node. The
IPv6 address MUST be a unicast routable IPv6 address. Multicast IPv6 address MUST be a unicast routable IPv6 address. Multicast
addresses, link-local addresses, and the unspecified IPv6 address addresses, link-local addresses, and the unspecified IPv6 address
MUST NOT be used. IPv6 Unique Local Addresses (ULAs) MAY be used, as MUST NOT be used. IPv6 Unique Local Addresses (ULAs) MAY be used as
long as any security operations making use of the ULA also take into long as any security operations making use of the ULA also take into
account the domain in which the ULA is guaranteed to be unique. account the domain in which the ULA is guaranteed to be unique.
4.2. Description of the IMSI MNID type 4.2. Description of the IMSI MN Identifier Type
The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) [ThreeGPP-IDS] is The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) [ThreeGPP-IDS] is
at most 15 decimal digits (i.e., digits from 0 through 9). The IMSI at most 15 decimal digits (i.e., digits from 0 through 9). The IMSI
MUST be encoded as a string of octets in network order (i.e., high- MUST be encoded as a string of octets in network order (i.e., high to
to-low for all digits), where each digit occupies 4 bits. If needed low for all digits), where each digit occupies 4 bits. If needed for
for full octet size, the last digit MUST be padded with 0xf. For full octet size, the last digit MUST be padded with 0xf. For
example an example IMSI 123456123456789 would be encoded as follows: instance, an example IMSI 123456123456789 would be encoded as
follows:
0x12, 0x34, 0x56, 0x12, 0x34, 0x56, 0x78, 0x9f 0x12, 0x34, 0x56, 0x12, 0x34, 0x56, 0x78, 0x9f
4.3. Description of the EUI-48 address type 4.3. Description of the EUI-48 Address Type
The IEEE EUI-48 address [IEEE802-eui48] is encoded as 6 octets The IEEE EUI-48 address [IEEE802-GUIDELINES] is encoded as 6 octets
containing the IEEE EUI-48 address. containing the IEEE EUI-48 address.
4.4. Description of the EUI-64 address type 4.4. Description of the EUI-64 Address Type
The IEEE EUI-64 address [IEEE802-eui64] is encoded as 8 octets The IEEE EUI-64 address [IEEE802-GUIDELINES] is encoded as 8 octets
containing the full IEEE EUI-64 address. containing the full IEEE EUI-64 address.
4.5. Description of the DUID type 4.5. Description of the DUID Type
The DUID is the DHCPv6 Unique Identifier (DUID) [RFC3315]. There are The DUID is the DHCPv6 Unique Identifier [RFC3315]. There are
various types of DUID, which are distinguished by an initial two- various types of DUIDs, which are distinguished by an initial two-
octet type field. Clients and servers MUST treat DUIDs as opaque octet type field. Clients and servers MUST treat DUIDs as opaque
values and MUST only compare DUIDs for equality. values and MUST only compare DUIDs for equality.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
This document does not introduce any security mechanisms, and does This document does not introduce any security mechanisms and does not
not have any impact on existing security mechanisms. have any impact on existing security mechanisms.
Mobile Node Identifiers such as those described in this document are Mobile node identifiers such as those described in this document are
considered to be private information. If used in the MNID extension considered to be private information. If used in the MN identifier
as defined in [RFC4283], the packet including the MNID extension MUST extension as defined in [RFC4283], the packet including the MN
be encrypted so that no personal information or trackable identifiers identifier extension MUST be encrypted so that no personal
is inadvertently disclosed to passive observers. Operators can information or trackable identifiers are inadvertently disclosed to
potentially apply IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) passive observers. Operators can potentially apply IPsec
[RFC4303], in transport mode, with confidentiality and integrity Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) [RFC4303] in transport mode with
protection for protecting the identity and location information in confidentiality and integrity protection for protecting the identity
Mobile IPv6 signaling messages. and location information in MIPv6 signaling messages.
Some MNIDs contain sensitive identifiers which, as used in protocols Some MN identifiers contain sensitive identifiers that, as used in
specified by other SDOs, are only used for signaling during initial protocols specified by other Standards Development Organizations
network entry. In such protocols, subsequent exchanges then rely on (SDOs), are only used for signaling during initial network entry. In
a temporary identifier allocated during the initial network entry. such protocols, subsequent exchanges then rely on a temporary
Managing the association between long-lived and temporary identifiers identifier allocated during the initial network entry. Managing the
is outside the scope of this document. association between long-lived and temporary identifiers is outside
the scope of this document.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
The new mobile node identifier types defined in the document should The new mobile node identifier types defined in this document have
be assigned values from the "Mobile Node Identifier Option Subtypes" been assigned values from the "Mobile Node Identifier Option
registry. The following values should be assigned. Subtypes" registry. The following values have been registered.
New Mobile Node Identifier Types
+-----------------+------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------+
| Identifier Type | Identifier Type Number | | Identifier Type | Identifier Type Number |
+-----------------+------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------+
| IPv6 Address | 2 | | IPv6 Address | 2 |
| IMSI | 3 | | IMSI | 3 |
| P-TMSI | 4 | | P-TMSI | 4 |
| EUI-48 address | 5 | | EUI-48 address | 5 |
| EUI-64 address | 6 | | EUI-64 address | 6 |
| GUTI | 7 | | GUTI | 7 |
| DUID-LLT | 8 | | DUID | 8 |
| DUID-EN | 9 | | Reserved | 9-15 |
| DUID-LL | 10 | | Unassigned | 16-255 |
| DUID-UUID | 11 |
| | 12-15 reserved |
| | 16-255 unassigned |
+-----------------+------------------------+ +-----------------+------------------------+
Table 2 Table 2: New Mobile Node Identifier Types
See Section 4 for additional information about the identifier types. See Section 4 for additional information about the identifier types.
Future new assignments are to be made only after Expert Review The registration procedure is Standards Action [RFC8126]. The expert
[RFC8126]. The expert must ascertain that the identifier type allows must ascertain that the identifier type allows unique identification
unique identification of the mobile device; since all MNIDs require of the mobile device; since all MN identifiers require encryption,
encryption there is no additional privacy exposure attendent to the there is no additional privacy exposure attendant to the use of new
use of new types. types.
7. Acknowledgements
The authors wish to acknowledge Hakima Chaouchi, Tatuya Jinmei, Jouni
Korhonen, Sri Gundavelli, Suresh Krishnan, Dapeng Liu, Dale Worley,
Joseph Salowey, Linda Dunbar, and Mirja Kuehlewind for their helpful
comments.
8. References 7. References
8.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3315] Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, [RFC3315] Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July
2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315>. 2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315>.
skipping to change at page 6, line 37 skipping to change at page 7, line 23
[RFC4303] Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", [RFC4303] Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
RFC 4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005, RFC 4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4303>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4303>.
[RFC8126] Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for [RFC8126] Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017, RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.
8.2. Informative References [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
7.2. Informative References
[EANUCCGS] [EANUCCGS]
EAN International and the Uniform Code Council, "General EAN International and the Uniform Code Council, "General
EAN.UCC Specifications Version 5.0", Jan 2004. EAN.UCC Specifications", Version 5.0, January 2004.
[EPC-Tag-Data] [EPC-Tag-Data]
EPCglobal Inc., "EPC(TM) Generation 1 Tag Data Standards EPCglobal, Inc., "EPC Generation 1 Tag Data Standards
Version 1.1 Rev.1.27 Version 1.1 Rev.1.27", May 2005,
http://www.gs1.org/gsmp/kc/epcglobal/tds/ <https://www.gs1.org/sites/default/files/docs/epc/
tds_1_1_rev_1_27-standard-20050510.pdf", January 2005. tds_1_1_rev_1_27-standard-20050510.pdf>.
[IEEE802] IEEE, "IEEE Std 802: IEEE Standards for Local and
Metropolitan Networks: Overview and Architecture", 2001.
[IEEE802-eui48] [IEEE802] IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area
IEEE, "Guidelines for 48-Bit Global Identifier (EUI-48) Networks: Overview and Architecture", IEEE 802.
https://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/tut/eui48.pdf",
2001.
[IEEE802-eui64] [IEEE802-GUIDELINES]
IEEE, "Guidelines for 64-Bit Global Identifier (EUI-64) IEEE, "Guidelines for Use of Extended Unique Identifier
https://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/tut/eui.pdf64", (EUI), Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI), and
2001. Company ID (CID)", August 2018,
<http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/tut/eui.pdf>.
[RFC3588] Calhoun, P., Loughney, J., Guttman, E., Zorn, G., and J. [RFC6733] Fajardo, V., Ed., Arkko, J., Loughney, J., and G. Zorn,
Arkko, "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 3588, Ed., "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 6733,
DOI 10.17487/RFC3588, September 2003, DOI 10.17487/RFC6733, October 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3588>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6733>.
[RFID-DoD-spec] [RFID-DoD-spec]
Department of Defense, "United States Department of Department of Defense, "United States Department of
Defense Suppliers Passive RFID Information Guide (Version Defense Suppliers' Passive RFID Information Guide",
15.0)", January 2010. Version 15.0, January 2010.
[RFID-framework] [RFID-framework]
Institut National des Telecommunication, ""Heterogeneous Botero, O., "Heterogeneous RFID framework design, analysis
RFID framework design, analysis and evaluation"", July and evaluation", Institut National des Telecommunications,
2012. July 2012.
[ThreeGPP-IDS] [ThreeGPP-IDS]
3rd Generation Partnership Project, "3GPP Technical 3GPP, "3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification 23.003 V8.4.0: Technical Specification Group Specification Group Core Network and Terminals; Numbering,
Core Network and Terminals; Numbering, addressing and addressing and identification (Release 15)", 3GPP
identification (Release 8)", March 2009. TS 23.003, V15.3.0, March 2018.
[TRACK-IoT] [TRACK-IoT]
IPv6.com, ""Heterogeneous IoT Network : TRACK-IoT"", March Chaouchi, H., "Heterogeneous IoT Network: TRACK-IoT
2012. Plateform", Telecom SudParis, Internal Report, March 2012.
[Using-RFID-IPv6] [Using-RFID-IPv6]
IPv6.com, ""Using RFID & IPv6"", September 2006. IPv6.com, "Using RFID & IPv6", September 2006.
Appendix A. RFID types Appendix A. RFID Types
The material in this non-normative appendix was originally composed The material in this non-normative appendix was originally composed
for inclusion in the main body of the specification, but was moved for inclusion in the main body of the specification but was moved
into an appendix because there was insufficient support for into an appendix because there was insufficient support for
allocating RFID types at this time. It was observed that RFID-based allocating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) types at the time.
mobile devices may create privacy exposures unless confidentiality is It was observed that RFID-based mobile devices may create privacy
assured for signaling. A specification for eliminating unauthorized exposures unless confidentiality is assured for signaling. A
RFID tracking based on layer-2 addresses would be helpful. specification for eliminating unauthorized RFID tracking based on
Layer 2 addresses would be helpful.
Much of the following text is due to contributions from Hakima Much of the following text is due to contributions from Hakima
Chaouchi. For an overview and some initial suggestions about using Chaouchi. For an overview and some initial suggestions about using
RFID with IPv6 on mobile devices, see [Using-RFID-IPv6]. RFID with IPv6 on mobile devices, see [Using-RFID-IPv6].
In the context of IoT and industry 4.0 vertical domain, efficient In the context of Internet of Things (IoT) and Industry 4.0, vertical
inventory and tracking items is of major interest, and RFID domain, efficient inventory, and tracking items are of major
technology is the identification technology in the hardware design of interest, and RFID technology is the identification technology in the
many such items. hardware design of many such items.
The "TRACKIOT: Heterogeneous IoT control" project ([TRACK-IoT], The "TRACK-IoT" project [TRACK-IoT] [RFID-framework] explored Mobile
[RFID-framework]) explored Mobile IPv6 as a mobility management IPv6 as a mobility management protocol for RFID-based mobile devices.
protocol for RFID-based mobile devices.
1. Passive RFID tags (that have no processing resources) need to be 1. Passive RFID tags (that have no processing resources) need to be
handled by the gateway (likely also the RFID Reader), which is handled by the gateway (likely also the RFID reader), which is
then the end point of the mobility protocol. It is also the then the endpoint of the mobility protocol. It is also the point
point where the CoA will be created based on some combination where the Change of Address (CoA) will be created based on some
such as the RFID tag and the prefix of that gateway. The point combination such as the RFID tag and the prefix of that gateway.
here is to offer the possibility to passive RFID items to get an The point here is to offer the possibility to passive RFID items
IPv6 address and take advantage of the mobility framework to to get an IPv6 address and take advantage of the mobility
follow the mobile device (passive tag on the item). One example framework to follow the mobile device (passive tag on the item).
scenario that has been proposed, showing the need for mobility One example scenario that has been proposed, which shows the need
management of passive RFID items, would be pieces of art tagged for mobility management of passive RFID items, would be pieces of
with passive tags that need to be monitored while transported. art tagged with passive tags that need to be monitored while
2. Using active RFID tags (where processing resource is available on transported.
the tag), the end point of the mobility protocol can be pushed up
to the RFID Active tag. We name it also an identification
sensor. Use cases include active RFID tags for traceability of
cold food respect during mobility (transport) of food. Mobility
of cars equiped with active RFID tags that we already use for
toll payement can be added with mobility management.
One major effort of connecting IETF efforts to the EPCGlobal (RFID 2. Using active RFID tags (where the processing resource is
standardisation) led to the ONS (DNS version applied for RFID logical available on the tag), the endpoint of the mobility protocol can
names and page information retrieval). Attempts have tried to be hosted directly on the RFID active tag, which is also called
connect IPv6 on the address space to RFID identifier format. Other an identification sensor. A use case for active RFID tags
initiatives started working on gateways to map tag identifiers with includes traceability of cold food during mobility (transport).
IPv6 addresses and build signaling protocols for the application Also, mobility of cars equipped with active RFID tags that we
level. For instance tracking of mobile items equipped with a tag can already use for toll payment can be added with mobility
be triggered remotely by a remote correspondent node until a visiting management.
area where a mobile item equipped with an RFID tag is located. An
RFID reader will be added with an IPv6 to RFID tag translation. One
option is to build a Home IPv6 address of that tagged item by using
the prefix of the Home agent combined with the tag RFID identifier of
the mobile item; as the tag ID is unique, the home IPv6 address of
that item will be also unique. Then the visiting RFID reader will
compose the IPV6 care of address of the tagged mobile item by
combining the prefix of the RFID reader with the tag ID of the item).
MIPv6 can then provide normally the mobility management of that RFID One major effort to connect IETF efforts to EPCglobal (RFID
tagged item. A different useful example of tagged items involves standardization) led to the Object Name Service (ONS), which is the
items of a factory that can be tracked while they are transported, DNS version applied for RFID logical names and page information
especially for real time localisation and tracking of precious items retrieval. Attempts have been made to connect IPv6 on the address
transported without GPS. An automotive car manufacturer can assign space to RFID identifier format. Other initiatives started working
IPv6 addresses corresponding to RFID tagged cars or mechanical car on gateways to map tag identifiers with IPv6 addresses and build
parts, and build a tracking dataset of the mobility not only of the signaling protocols for the application level. For instance,
cars, but also of the mechanical pieces. tracking of mobile items equipped with a tag can be triggered
remotely by a remote correspondent node until a visiting area where a
mobile item equipped with an RFID tag is located. An RFID reader
will be added with an IPv6-to-RFID tag translation. One option is to
build a home IPv6 address of that tagged item by using the prefix of
the home agent combined with the tag RFID identifier of the mobile
item; as the tag ID is unique, the home IPv6 address of that item
will be also unique. Then, the visiting RFID reader will compose the
IPv6 care of address of the tagged mobile item by combining the
prefix of the RFID reader with the tag ID of the item. MIPv6 can
then normally provide the mobility management of that RFID-tagged
item. A different, useful example of tagged items involves items of
a factory that can be tracked while they are transported, especially
for real-time localization and tracking of precious items transported
without GPS. An automotive car manufacturer can assign IPv6
addresses corresponding to RFID-tagged cars or mechanical car parts
and build a tracking data set of the mobility not only of the cars,
but also of the mechanical pieces.
The Tag Data standard promoted by Electronic Product Code(TM) The Tag Data Standard promoted by Electronic Product Code (EPC)
(abbreviated EPC) [EPC-Tag-Data] supports several encoding systems or [EPC-Tag-Data] supports several encoding systems or schemes, which
schemes, which are commonly used in RFID (radio-frequency are commonly used in RFID applications, including the following:
identification) applications, including
o RFID-GID (Global Identifier), o RFID-GID (Global Identifier),
o RFID-SGTIN (Serialized Global Trade Item Number), o RFID-SGTIN (Serialized Global Trade Item Number),
o RFID-SSCC (Serial Shipping Container),
o RFID-SGLN (Global Location Number), o RFID-SSCC (Serial Shipping Container Code),
o RFID-SGLN (Serialized Global Location Number),
o RFID-GRAI (Global Returnable Asset Identifier), o RFID-GRAI (Global Returnable Asset Identifier),
o RFID-DOD (Department of Defense ID), and o RFID-DOD (Department of Defense ID), and
o RFID-GIAI (Global Individual Asset Identifier). o RFID-GIAI (Global Individual Asset Identifier).
For each RFID scheme except GID, there are three representations: For each RFID scheme except GID, there are three representations:
o a 64-bit binary representation (for example, SGLN-64) (except for o a 64-bit binary representation (for example, SGLN-64), excluding
GID) GID,
o a 96-bit binary representation (SGLN-96)
o a representation as a URI o a 96-bit binary representation (SGLN-96), and
o a representation as a URI.
The URI representation for the RFID is actually a URN. The EPC The URI representation for the RFID is actually a URN. The EPC
document has the following language: document has the following language:
All categories of URIs are represented as Uniform Reference Names All categories of URIs are represented as Uniform Reference Names
(URNs) as defined by [RFC2141], where the URN Namespace is epc. (URNs) as defined by [RFC2141], where the URN Namespace is epc.
The following list includes the above RFID types. The following list includes the above RFID types.
Mobile Node RFID Identifier Description
+----------------+--------------------------------+-----------------+ +----------------+--------------------------------+-----------------+
| Identifier | Description | Reference | | Identifier | Description | Reference |
| Type | | | | Type | | |
+----------------+--------------------------------+-----------------+ +----------------+--------------------------------+-----------------+
| RFID-SGTIN-64 | 64-bit Serialized Global Trade | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-SGTIN-64 | 64-bit Serialized Global Trade | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Item Number | | | | Item Number | |
| RFID-SSCC-64 | 64-bit Serial Shipping | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-SSCC-64 | 64-bit Serial Shipping | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Container | | | | Container Code | |
| RFID-SGLN-64 | 64-bit Serialized Global | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-SGLN-64 | 64-bit Serialized Global | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Location Number | | | | Location Number | |
| RFID-GRAI-64 | 64-bit Global Returnable Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-GRAI-64 | 64-bit Global Returnable Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Identifier | | | | Identifier | |
| RFID-DOD-64 | 64-bit Department of Defense | [RFID-DoD-spec] | | RFID-DOD-64 | 64-bit Department of Defense | [RFID-DoD-spec] |
| | ID | | | | ID | |
| RFID-GIAI-64 | 64-bit Global Individual Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-GIAI-64 | 64-bit Global Individual Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Identifier | | | | Identifier | |
| RFID-GID-96 | 96-bit Global Identifier | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-GID-96 | 96-bit Global Identifier | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| RFID-SGTIN-96 | 96-bit Serialized Global Trade | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-SGTIN-96 | 96-bit Serialized Global Trade | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
skipping to change at page 10, line 37 skipping to change at page 12, line 35
| | Container | | | | Container | |
| RFID-SGLN-96 | 96-bit Serialized Global | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-SGLN-96 | 96-bit Serialized Global | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Location Number | | | | Location Number | |
| RFID-GRAI-96 | 96-bit Global Returnable Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-GRAI-96 | 96-bit Global Returnable Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Identifier | | | | Identifier | |
| RFID-DOD-96 | 96-bit Department of Defense | [RFID-DoD-spec] | | RFID-DOD-96 | 96-bit Department of Defense | [RFID-DoD-spec] |
| | ID | | | | ID | |
| RFID-GIAI-96 | 96-bit Global Individual Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-GIAI-96 | 96-bit Global Individual Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Identifier | | | | Identifier | |
| RFID-GID-URI | Global Identifier represented | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-GID-URI | Global Identifier represented | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | as URI | | | | as a URI | |
| RFID-SGTIN-URI | Serialized Global Trade Item | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-SGTIN-URI | Serialized Global Trade Item | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Number represented as URI | | | | Number represented as a URI | |
| RFID-SSCC-URI | Serial Shipping Container | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-SSCC-URI | Serial Shipping Container Code | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | represented as URI | | | | represented as a URI | |
| RFID-SGLN-URI | Global Location Number | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-SGLN-URI | Global Location Number | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | represented as URI | | | | represented as a URI | |
| RFID-GRAI-URI | Global Returnable Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-GRAI-URI | Global Returnable Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Identifier represented as URI | | | | Identifier represented as a | |
| | URI | |
| RFID-DOD-URI | Department of Defense ID | [RFID-DoD-spec] | | RFID-DOD-URI | Department of Defense ID | [RFID-DoD-spec] |
| | represented as URI | | | | represented as a URI | |
| RFID-GIAI-URI | Global Individual Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] | | RFID-GIAI-URI | Global Individual Asset | [EPC-Tag-Data] |
| | Identifier represented as URI | | | | Identifier represented as a | |
| | URI | |
+----------------+--------------------------------+-----------------+ +----------------+--------------------------------+-----------------+
Table 3 Table 3: Mobile Node RFID Identifier Description
A.1. Description of the RFID types A.1. Description of the RFID Types
The material in this appendix has been either quoted or loosely
adapted from [EPC-Tag-Data].
The General Identifier (GID) that is used with RFID is composed of The General Identifier (GID) that is used with RFID is composed of
three fields - the General Manager Number, Object Class and Serial three fields: General Manager Number, Object Class, and Serial
Number. The General Manager Number identifies an organizational Number. The General Manager Number identifies an organizational
entity that is responsible for maintaining the numbers in subsequent entity that is responsible for maintaining the numbers in subsequent
fields. GID encodings include a fourth field, the header, to fields. GID encodings include a fourth field, the header, to
guarantee uniqueness in the namespace defined by EPC. guarantee uniqueness in the namespace defined by EPC.
Some of the RFID types depend on the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) Some of the RFID types depend on the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN)
code defined in the General EAN.UCC Specifications [EANUCCGS]. A code defined in the EAN.UCC General Specifications [EANUCCGS]. A
GTIN identifies a particular class of object, such as a particular GTIN identifies a particular class of object, such as a particular
kind of product or SKU. kind of product or SKU.
The EPC encoding scheme for SGTIN permits the direct embedding of The EPC encoding scheme for SGTIN permits the direct embedding of
EAN.UCC System standard GTIN and Serial Number codes on EPC tags. In EAN.UCC System standard GTIN and Serial Number codes on EPC tags. In
all cases, the check digit is not encoded. Two encoding schemes are all cases, the check digit is not encoded. Two encoding schemes are
specified, SGTIN-64 (64 bits) and SGTIN-96 (96 bits). specified, SGTIN-64 (64 bits) and SGTIN-96 (96 bits).
The Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC) is defined by the EAN.UCC The Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC) is defined by the EAN.UCC
Specifications. Unlike the GTIN, the SSCC is already intended for Specifications. Unlike the GTIN, the SSCC is already intended for
skipping to change at page 11, line 48 skipping to change at page 13, line 51
The Global Returnable Asset Identifier (GRAI) is defined by the The Global Returnable Asset Identifier (GRAI) is defined by the
General EAN.UCC Specifications. Unlike the GTIN, the GRAI is already General EAN.UCC Specifications. Unlike the GTIN, the GRAI is already
intended for assignment to individual objects and therefore does not intended for assignment to individual objects and therefore does not
require any additional fields to serve as an EPC pure identity. The require any additional fields to serve as an EPC pure identity. The
GRAI includes the Company Prefix, Asset Type, and Serial Number. GRAI includes the Company Prefix, Asset Type, and Serial Number.
The Global Individual Asset Identifier (GIAI) is defined by the The Global Individual Asset Identifier (GIAI) is defined by the
General EAN.UCC Specifications. Unlike the GTIN, the GIAI is already General EAN.UCC Specifications. Unlike the GTIN, the GIAI is already
intended for assignment to individual objects and therefore does not intended for assignment to individual objects and therefore does not
require any additional fields to serve as an EPC pure identity. The require any additional fields to serve as an EPC pure identity. The
GRAI includes the Company Prefix, and Individual Asset Reference. GRAI includes the Company Prefix and Individual Asset Reference.
The DoD Construct identifier is defined by the United States The DoD Construct identifier is defined by the United States
Department of Defense (DoD). This tag data construct may be used to Department of Defense (DoD). This tag data construct may be used to
encode tags for shipping goods to the DoD by a supplier who has encode tags for shipping goods to the DoD by a supplier who has
already been assigned a CAGE (Commercial and Government Entity) code. already been assigned a Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE) code.
A.1.1. Description of the RFID-SGTIN-64 type A.1.1. Description of the RFID-SGTIN-64 Type
The RFID-SGTIN-64 is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-SGTIN-64 is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
SGTIN-64 includes five fields: Header, Filter Value (additional data SGTIN-64 includes five fields: Header, Filter Value (additional data
that is used for fast filtering and pre-selection), Company Prefix that is used for fast filtering and preselection), Company Prefix
Index, Item Reference, and Serial Number. Only a limited number of Index, Item Reference, and Serial Number. Only a limited number of
Company Prefixes can be represented in the 64-bit tag. Company Prefixes can be represented in the 64-bit tag.
A.1.2. Description of the RFID-SGTIN-96 type A.1.2. Description of the RFID-SGTIN-96 Type
The RFID-SGTIN-96 is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-SGTIN-96 is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
SGTIN-96 includes six fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition (an SGTIN-96 includes six fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition (an
indication of where the subsequent Company Prefix and Item Reference indication of where the subsequent Company Prefix and Item Reference
numbers are divided), Company Prefix Index, Item Reference, and numbers are divided), Company Prefix Index, Item Reference, and
Serial Number. Serial Number.
A.1.3. Description of the RFID-SSCC-64 type A.1.3. Description of the RFID-SSCC-64 Type
The RFID-SSCC-64 is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-SSCC-64 is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
SSCC-64 includes four fields: Header, Filter Value, Company Prefix SSCC-64 includes four fields: Header, Filter Value, Company Prefix
Index, and Serial Reference. Only a limited number of Company Index, and Serial Reference. Only a limited number of Company
Prefixes can be represented in the 64-bit tag. Prefixes can be represented in the 64-bit tag.
A.1.4. Description of the RFID-SSCC-96 type A.1.4. Description of the RFID-SSCC-96 Type
The RFID-SSCC-96 is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-SSCC-96 is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
SSCC-96 includes six fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition, Company SSCC-96 includes six fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition, Company
Prefix, and Serial Reference, as well as 24 bits that remain Prefix, and Serial Reference, as well as 24 bits that remain
Unallocated and must be zero. unallocated and must be zero.
A.1.5. Description of the RFID-SGLN-64 type A.1.5. Description of the RFID-SGLN-64 Type
The RFID-SGLN-64 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-SGLN-64 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
SGLN-64 includes five fields: Header, Filter Value, Company Prefix SGLN-64 includes five fields: Header, Filter Value, Company Prefix
Index, Location Reference, and Serial Number. Index, Location Reference, and Serial Number.
A.1.6. Description of the RFID-SGLN-96 type A.1.6. Description of the RFID-SGLN-96 Type
The RFID-SGLN-96 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-SGLN-96 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
SGLN-96 includes six fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition, Company SGLN-96 includes six fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition, Company
Prefix, Location Reference, and Serial Number. Prefix, Location Reference, and Serial Number.
A.1.7. Description of the RFID-GRAI-64 type A.1.7. Description of the RFID-GRAI-64 Type
The RFID-GRAI-64 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-GRAI-64 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
GRAI-64 includes five fields: Header, Filter Value, Company Prefix GRAI-64 includes five fields: Header, Filter Value, Company Prefix
Index, Asset Type, and Serial Number. Index, Asset Type, and Serial Number.
A.1.8. Description of the RFID-GRAI-96 type A.1.8. Description of the RFID-GRAI-96 Type
The RFID-GRAI-96 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-GRAI-96 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
GRAI-96 includes six fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition, Company GRAI-96 includes six fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition, Company
Prefix, Asset Type, and Serial Number. Prefix, Asset Type, and Serial Number.
A.1.9. Description of the RFID-GIAI-64 type A.1.9. Description of the RFID-GIAI-64 Type
The RFID-GIAI-64 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-GIAI-64 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
GIAI-64 includes four fields: Header, Filter Value, Company Prefix GIAI-64 includes four fields: Header, Filter Value, Company Prefix
Index, and Individual Asset Reference. Index, and Individual Asset Reference.
A.1.10. Description of the RFID-GIAI-96 type A.1.10. Description of the RFID-GIAI-96 Type
The RFID-GIAI-96 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The The RFID-GIAI-96 type is encoded as specified in [EPC-Tag-Data]. The
GIAI-96 includes five fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition, GIAI-96 includes five fields: Header, Filter Value, Partition,
Company Prefix, and Individual Asset Reference. Company Prefix, and Individual Asset Reference.
A.1.11. Description of the RFID-DoD-64 type A.1.11. Description of the RFID-DoD-64 Type
The RFID-DoD-64 type is encoded as specified in [RFID-DoD-spec]. The The RFID-DoD-64 type is encoded as specified in [RFID-DoD-spec]. The
DoD-64 type includes four fields: Header, Filter Value, Government DoD-64 type includes four fields: Header, Filter Value, Government
Managed Identifier, and Serial Number. Managed Identifier, and Serial Number.
A.1.12. Description of the RFID-DoD-96 type A.1.12. Description of the RFID-DoD-96 Type
The RFID-DoD-96 type is encoded as specified in [RFID-DoD-spec]. The The RFID-DoD-96 type is encoded as specified in [RFID-DoD-spec]. The
DoD-96 type includes four fields: Header, Filter Value, Government DoD-96 type includes four fields: Header, Filter Value, Government
Managed Identifier, and Serial Number. Managed Identifier, and Serial Number.
A.1.13. Description of the RFID URI types A.1.13. Description of the RFID URI Types
In some cases, it is desirable to encode in URI form a specific In some cases, it is desirable to encode in URI form a specific
encoding of an RFID tag. For example, an application may prefer a encoding of an RFID tag. For example, an application may prefer a
URI representation for report preparation. Applications that wish to URI representation for report preparation. Applications that wish to
manipulate any additional data fields on tags may need some manipulate any additional data fields on tags may need some
representation other than the pure identity forms. representation other than the pure identity forms.
For this purpose, the fields as represented the previous sections are For this purpose, the fields as represented in previous sections are
associated with specified fields in the various URI types. For associated with specified fields in the various URI types. For
instance, the URI may have fields such as CompanyPrefix, instance, the URI may have fields such as CompanyPrefix,
ItemReference, or SerialNumber. For details and encoding specifics, ItemReference, or SerialNumber. For details and encoding specifics,
consult [EPC-Tag-Data]. consult [EPC-Tag-Data].
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to acknowledge Hakima Chaouchi, Tatuya Jinmei, Jouni
Korhonen, Sri Gundavelli, Suresh Krishnan, Dapeng Liu, Dale Worley,
Joseph Salowey, Linda Dunbar, and Mirja Kuehlewind for their helpful
comments. The authors also wish to acknowledge the RFC Editor for a
number of valuable suggestions and updates during the final stages of
producing this document.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Charles E. Perkins Charles E. Perkins
Futurewei Inc. Futurewei Inc.
2330 Central Expressway 2330 Central Expressway
Santa Clara, CA 95050 Santa Clara, CA 95050
USA United States of America
Phone: +1-408-330-4586 Phone: +1-408-330-4586
Email: charliep@computer.org Email: charliep@computer.org
Vijay Devarapalli Vijay Devarapalli
Vasona Networks Vasona Networks
2900 Lakeside Drive, Suite 180 2900 Lakeside Drive, Suite 180
Santa Clara, CA 95054 Santa Clara, CA 95054
USA United States of America
Email: dvijay@gmail.com Email: dvijay@gmail.com
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