DMM Working Group                                               A. Yegin
Internet-Draft                                                  Actility
Intended status: Informational                                  D. Moses
Expires: August 2, December 26, 2017                                         Intel
                                                                K. Kweon
                                                                  J. Lee
                                                                 J. Park
                                                                 S. Jeon
                                                 Sungkyunkwan University
                                                        January 29,
                                                           June 24, 2017

                     On Demand Mobility Management


   Applications differ with respect to whether they need IP session
   continuity and/or IP address reachability.  The network providing the
   same type of service to any mobile host and any application running
   on the host yields inefficiencies.  This document describes a
   solution for taking the application needs into account in by selectively
   providing IP session continuity and IP address reachability on a per-
   socket basis.

Status of This Memo

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   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 2, December 26, 2017.

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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Notational Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Solution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Types of IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  Granularity of Selection  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  On Demand Nature  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5   6
     3.4.  Conveying the Selection . . . . . . Desired Address Type  . . . . . . . . . . .   6   7
   4.  Usage example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9   8
   5.  Backwards Compatibility Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.1.  Applications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11  10
     5.2.  IP Stack in the Mobile Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11  10
     5.3.  Network Infrastructure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11  10
   6.  Summary of New Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.1.  New APIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.2.  New Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   9.  Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13  12
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13  12
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13  12
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

1.  Introduction

   In the context of Mobile IP [RFC5563][RFC6275][RFC5213][RFC5944], the
   following two attributes are defined for the IP service provided to
   mobile hosts:

   IP session continuity: The ability to maintain an ongoing IP session
   by keeping the same local end-point IP address throughout the session
   despite the mobile host changing its point of attachment within the
   IP network topology.  The IP address of the host may change between
   two independent IP sessions, but that does not jeopardize the its IP
   session continuity.  IP session continuity is essential for mobile
   hosts to maintain ongoing flows without any interruption.

   IP address reachability: The ability to maintain the same IP address
   for an extended period of time.  The IP address stays the same across
   independent IP sessions, and even in the absence of any IP session.
   The IP address may be published in a long-term registry (e.g., DNS),
   and it is made available for serving incoming (e.g., TCP) connections.
   IP address reachability is essential for mobile hosts to use
   specific/published IP addresses.

   Mobile IP is designed to provide both IP session continuity and IP
   address reachability to mobile hosts.  Architectures utilizing these
   protocols (e.g., 3GPP, 3GPP2, WIMAX) ensure that any mobile host
   attached to the compliant networks can enjoy these benefits.  Any
   application running on these mobile hosts is subjected to the same
   treatment with respect to the IP session continuity and IP address

   It should be noted that in reality not every application may need
   these benefits.  IP address reachability is required for applications
   running as servers (e.g., a web server running on the mobile host).
   But, a typical client application (e.g., web browser) does not
   necessarily require IP address reachability.  Similarly, IP session
   continuity is not required for all types of applications either.
   Applications performing brief communication (e.g., DNS client) ping) can survive
   without having IP session continuity support.

   Achieving IP session continuity and IP address reachability by using with
   Mobile IP incurs some cost.  Mobile IP protocol forces the mobile
   host's IP traffic to traverse a centrally-located router (Home Agent,
   HA), which incurs additional transmission latency and use of
   additional network resources, adds to the network CAPEX and OPEX, and
   decreases the reliability of the network due to the introduction of a
   single point of failure [RFC7333].  Therefore, IP session continuity
   and IP address reachability should be be provided only when needed. necessary.

   Furthermore, when an application needs session continuity, it may be
   able to satisfy that need by using a solution above the IP layer,
   such as MPTCP [RFC6824], SIP mobility [RFC3261], or an application-
   layer mobility solution.  Those  These higher-layer solutions are not
   subject to the same issues that arise with the use of Mobile IP since
   they can utilize the most direct data path between the end-points.
   But, if Mobile IP is being applied to the mobile host, those the higher-
   layer protocols are rendered useless because their operation is
   inhibited by the Mobile IP.  Since Mobile IP ensures that the IP address
   of the mobile host remains fixed (despite the location and movement
   of the mobile host), the higher-layer protocols never detect the IP-layer IP-
   layer change and never engage in mobility management.

   This document proposes a solution for the applications running on the mobile host
   hosts to indicate whether they need IP session continuity or IP
   address reachability.  The network protocol stack on the mobile host,
   in conjunction with the network infrastructure, would provide the
   required type of IP service.  It is for the benefit of both the users
   and the network operators not to engage an extra level of service
   unless it is absolutely necessary.  So it  It is expected that applications
   and networks compliant with this specification would utilize this
   solution to use network resources more efficiently.

2.  Notational Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Solution

3.1.  Types of IP Addresses


   Four types of IP addresses are defined with respect to the mobility

   - Fixed IP Address

   A Fixed IP address is an address with a guarantee to be valid for a
   very long time, regardless of whether it is being used in any packet
   to/from the mobile host, or whether or not the mobile host is
   connected to the network, or whether it moves from one point-of-
   attachment to another (with a different subnet or IP prefix) while it is

   Fixed IP addresses are required by applications that need both IP
   session continuity and IP address reachability.

   - Session-lasting IP Address

   A session-lasting IP address is an address with a guarantee to be
   valid throughout the IP session(s) for which it was requested.  It is
   guaranteed to be valid even after the mobile host had moved from one
   point-of-attachment to another (with a different subnet or IP prefix).

   Session-lasting IP addresses are required by applications that need
   IP session continuity but do not need IP address reachability.

   - Non-persistent IP Address

   This type of IP address provides neither does not provide IP session continuity nor IP
   address reachability.  The IP address is created from an IP prefix
   that is obtained from the serving IP gateway and it is not maintained
   across gateway changes.  In other words, the IP address prefix may be
   released and replaced by a new IP
   address one when the IP gateway changes due to
   the movement of the mobile
   host. host forcing the creation of a new source
   IP address with the updated allocated IP prefix.

   - Graceful Replacement IP Address

   In some cases, the network cannot guarantee the validity of the
   provided IP prefix throughout the duration of the IP session, but can
   provide a limited graceful period of time in which both the original
   IP prefix and a new one are valid.  This enables the application some
   flexibility in the transition from the existing source IP address to
   the new one.

   This gracefulness is still better than the non-persistence type of
   address for applications that can handle a change in their source IP
   address but require that extra flexibility.

   Applications running as servers at a published IP address require a
   Fixed IP Address.  Long-standing applications (e.g., an SSH session)
   may also require this type of address.  Enterprise applications that
   connect to an enterprise network via virtual LAN require a Fixed IP

   Applications with short-lived transient IP sessions can use Session-
   lasting IP Addresses.  For example: Web browsers.

   Applications with very short IP sessions, such as DNS clients and
   instant messengers, can utilize Non-persistent IP Addresses.  Even
   though they could very well use Fixed or Session-lasting IP
   Addresses, the transmission latency would be minimized when a Non-
   persistent IP Addresses are used.

   The network creates the desired guarantee (Fixed, Session-lasting or
   Non-persistent) by either assigning the address prefix (as part of

   Applications that can tolerate a
   stateless address generation process), or by assigning an short interruption in connectivity
   can use the Graceful-replacement IP address
   (as part of addresses.  For example, a stateful IP address generation).

   The exact mechanism
   streaming client that has buffering capabilities.

3.2.  Granularity of prefix or Selection

   IP address assignment is outside the
   scope of this specification.

3.2.  Granularity of Selection

   The IP address type selection type selection is made on a per-socket granularity.
   Different parts of the same application may have different needs.
   For example, the control-plane of an application may require a Fixed
   IP Address in order to stay reachable, whereas the data-plane of the
   same application may be satisfied with a Session-lasting IP Address.

3.3.  On Demand Nature

   At any point in time, a mobile host may have a combination of IP
   addresses configured.  Zero or more Non-persistent, zero or more
   Session-lasting, and zero or more Fixed and zero or more Graceful-
   Replacement IP addresses may be configured on by the IP stack of the
   host.  The combination may be as a result of the host policy,
   application demand, or a mix of the two.

   When an application requires a specific type of IP address and such
   an address is not already configured on the host, the IP stack shall
   attempt to configure one.  For example, a host may not always have a
   Session-lasting IP address available.  When an application requests
   one, the IP stack shall make an attempt to configure one by issuing a
   request to the network (see section Section 3.4 below for more details).  If
   the operation fails, the IP stack shall fail the associated socket
   request and return an error.  If successful, a Session-lasting IP
   Address gets configured on the mobile host.  If another socket
   requests a Session-lasting IP address at a later time, the same IP
   address may be served to that socket as well.  When the last socket
   using the same configured IP address is closed, the IP address may be
   released or kept for future applications that may be launched and
   require a Session-lasting IP address.

   In some cases it might be preferable for the mobile host to request a
   new Session-lasting IP address for a new opening of an IP session
   (even though one was already assigned to the mobile host by the
   network and might be in use in a different, already active IP
   session).  It is outside the scope of this specification to define
   criteria for selecting choosing to use available addresses or choose choosing to
   request new ones.  It supports both alternatives (and any

   It is outside the scope of this specification to define how the host
   requests a specific type of address (Fixed, Session-lasting or Non-
   persistent) prefix and how the network indicates the
   type of address prefix in its advertisement of IP prefixes or addresses (or in its reply to a request).

   The following are matters of policy, which may be dictated by the
   host itself, the network operator, or the system architecture

   - The initial set of IP addresses configured on the host at boot

   - Permission to grant various types of IP addresses to a requesting

   - Determination of a default address type when an application does
   not make any explicit indication, whether it already supports the
   required API or it is just a legacy application.

3.4.  Conveying the Selection

   The selection of the address type is conveyed from Desired Address Type

   [RFC5014] introduced the ability of applications to the IP stack in order to influence the
   source address selection
   algorithm [RFC6724].

   The current source address selection algorithm operates on the
   available set of IP addresses, when selecting an address.  According
   to the proposed solution, if the requested IP address type is not
   available at the time of the request, the IP stack shall make an
   attempt to configure one such IP address.  The selected IP address
   shall be compliant with the requested IP address type, whether it is
   selected among available addresses or dynamically configured.  In the
   absence of a matching type (because it is not available and not
   configurable on demand), the source address selection algorithm shall
   return an empty set.

   A Socket API-based interface for enabling applications to influence
   the source address selection algorithm is described in [RFC5014].
   That specification defines IPV6_ADDR_PREFERENCES IPV6_ADDR_PREFERENCE option at the
   IPPROTO_IPV6 level.  That  This option can be is used with setsockopt() and
   getsockopt() calls to set and get set/get address selection preferences.

   Furthermore, that RFC also specifies two flags that relate to IP
   mobility management: IPV6_PREFER_SRC_HOME and IPV6_PREFER_SRC_COA.

   Extending this further by adding more flags are used does not work when a
   request for influencing the source an address selection to
   prefer either a Home Address or of a Care-of Address.

   Unfortunately, these flags do not satisfy certain type results in requiring the aforementioned needs
   due IP
   stack to the following reasons:

   - Current flags indicate a "preference" whereas there is a need wait for
   indicating "requirement".  Source address selection algorithm does
   not have the network to produce an provide the desired source IP address compliant with prefix
   and hence causing the "preference" ,
   but it has setsockopt() call to produce block until the prefix is
   allocated (or an IP address compliant with error indication from the "requirement".

   - Current flags influence the selection made among available IP
   addresses.  The new flags force the IP stack to configure network is received).

   Alternatively a compliant
   IP address if none new Socket API is available at the time of the request. defined - The Home vs. Care-of Address distinction is not sufficient getsc() which allows
   applications to
   capture the three different types express their desired type of IP addresses described in
   Section 2.1. session continuity
   service.  The following new flags are defined in this document and they shall
   be used with Socket getsc() API in compliance with [RFC5014]:

   IPV6_REQUIRE_FIXED_IP /* Require a Fixed IP address as source */

   IPV6_REQUIRE_SESSION_LASTING_IP /* Require a Session-lasting IP
   address as source */

   IPV6_REQUIRE_NON_PERSISTENT_IP /* Require a Non-persistent IP will return an IPv6 address
   as source */
   Only one of these flags may be set on that is
   associated with the same socket.  If an desired session continuity service and with
   status information indicating whether or not the desired service was

   An application attempts that wishes to set more than one flag, the most recent
   setting secure a desired service will be the one in effect.

   When any of these new flags is used, the IPV6_PREFER_SRC_HOME and
   IPV6_PREFER_SRC_COA flags, if used, shall be ignored.

   These new flags are used call
   getsc() with setsockopt()/getsockopt(),
   getaddrinfo(), the service type definition and inet6_is_srcaddr() functions [RFC5014].  Similar a place to contain the setsockopt()/getsockopt() calls, the getaddrinfo() call shall
   also trigger configuration of the required
   provided IP address type, if one is
   not already available.  When the new flags are used with
   getaddrinfo() address, and the triggered configuration fails, the
   getaddrinfo() call shall ignore that failure (i.e., not return an
   error code bind() to indicate associate that failure).  Only the setsockopt() shall
   return an error when configuration of the requested IP address type
   with the Socket (See code example in Section 4 below).

   When the IP stack is required to use a source IP address of a
   specified type, it can perform one of the following: It can use an existing address (if it has one), address, or it can create request a new one from an
   existing IP
   prefix of (of the desired type. same type) from the network and create a new one.  If
   the host does not already have an IPv6 prefix of the that specific type,
   it can must request one from the network.

   Using an existing address from an existing prefix is faster but might
   yield a less optimal route (if a hand-off event occurred since after its
   configuration), on
   configuration).  On the other hand, acquiring a new IP prefix from the
   network may take some time (due to signaling exchange with the
   network) and may fail due to network policies.

   An additional new flag - ON_NET flag - enables the application to
   direct the IP stack whether to use a preconfigured source IP address
   (if exists) or to request a new IPv6 prefix from the current serving
   network and configure a new IP address:

   IPV6_REQUIRE_SRC_ON_NET /* Set IP stack address allocation behavior

   If set, the IP stack will request a new IPv6 prefix of the desired
   type from the current serving network and configure a new source IP
   address.  If reset, the IP stack will use a preconfigured one if
   exists.  If there is no preconfigured IP address of the desired type,
   the IP stack will request a IPv6 new IP prefix from
   the current serving network (regardless of whether this flag is set or not).

   The ON_NET flag must may be used together slower due to signaling exchange with one of the 3 flags defined
   above.  If ON_NET flag is used without any of these flags, it must be
   ignored.  If network.

   Applications can control the stack's operation by setting a new flag
   - ON_NET flag is not used, - which directs the IP stack is free whether to
   either use an existing a
   preconfigured source IP address (if preconfigured) exists) or access to request a new IPv6
   prefix from the current serving network to and configure a new one (the decision IP

   This new flag is left added to

   The following new error codes are also defined in the document and
   will be used set of flags in the Socket API in compliance with [RFC5014].

   EAI_REQUIREDIPNOTSUPPORTED /* The network does not support
   IPV6_ADDR_PREFERENCES option at the
   ability IPPROTO_IPV6 level.  It is used
   in setsockopt() to request that specific IP address type */

   EAI_REQUIREDIPFAILED /* The network could not assign that specific IP
   address type */ set the desired behavior.

4.  Usage example

   The following example shows the code for creating a Stream socket
   (TCP) with a Session-Lasting source IP address:

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinnet/in.h>

  // Socket information
int              s ;                // Socket id

  // Source information (for secsc() and bind())
sockaddr_in6     serverAddress ;     sourceInfo         // server info my address and port for connect()
uint32_t flags bind()
in6_addr         sourceAddress      // will contain the provisioned source
                                    // IP address
uint8_t          sc_type = IPV6_REQUIRE_SESSION_LASTING_IP ;
                                    // For requesting a Session-Lasting
                                    // source IP address

  // Destination information (for connect())
sockaddr_in6     serverInfo ;       // server info for connect()

  // Create an IPv6 TCP socket
s = socket(AF_INET6, SOCK_STREAM, 0) ;
if (s!=0) {
      // Handle socket creation error
      // ...
} // if socket creation failed
else {
       // Socket creation is successful
       // The application cannot connect yet, since it wants to use a
       // Session-Lasting source IP address It needs to request the
       // Session-Lasting source IP before connecting
     if (setsockopt(s,
                   (void *) flags,
                   sizeof(flags)) (setsc(s, &sourceAddress, &sc_type)) == 0){
          // setting session continuity to Session Lasting is successful
          // The application can connect sourceAddress now contains the Session-Lasting source IP
          // address

          // Bind to that source IP address
        sourceInfo.sin6_family = AF_INET6 ;
        sourceInfo.sin6_port = 0    // let the server stack choose the port
        sourceInfo.sin6_address = sourceAddress ;
                                    // Use the source address that was
                                    // generated by the setsc() call
        if (bind(s, &sourceInfo, sizeof(sourceInfo))==0){
             // Set the desired server's port# and IP address
        serverAddress.sin6_port information for connect()
           serverInfo.sin6_family = AF_INET6 ;
           serverInfo.sin6_port = serverPort SERVER_PORT_NUM ;
           serverAddress.sin6_addr = serverIpAddress SERVER_IPV6_ADDRESS ;

             // Connect to the server
           if (connect(s, &serverAddress, sizeof(serverAddress))==0) &serverInfo, sizeof(serverInfo))==0) {
               // connect successful (3-way handshake has been completed
               // with Session-Lasting source address.
               // Continue application functionality
               // ...
           }  // if connect() is successful
           else {
               // connect failed
               // ...
               // Application code that handles connect failure and closes
               // the socket
               // ...
           } // if connect() failed
        } // if bind() successful
        else {
               // bind() failed
               // ...
               // Application code that handles bind failure and closes
               // the request socket
               // ...
            } // if bind() failed
     }  // if setsc() was successful and of a Session-Lasting source address was successful provided
     else {
          // application code that does not use Session-lasting IP address
          // The application may either connect without the desired
          // Session-lasting service, or close the socket
    } // if the socket was successfully created but a Session-Lasting source Session-lasting service, or close the socket
     } // address was not provided if setsc() failed
}  // if socket was created successfully

  // The rest of the application's code
  // .. ...

5.  Backwards Compatibility Considerations

   Backwards compatibility support is required by the following 3 types
   of entities:

   - The Applications on the mobile host

   - The IP stack in the mobile host

   - The network infrastructure

5.1.  Applications

   Legacy applications that do not support the new flags OnDemand functionality
   will use the legacy API to the IP stack and will not enjoy be able to take advantage of the
   On-Demand Mobility feature.

   Applications using the new flags OnDemand functionality must be aware that
   they may be executed in legacy environments that do not support the On-Demand Mobility
   feature. it.
   Such environments may include a legacy IP stack in on the mobile host,
   legacy network infrastructure, or both.  In either case, the API will
   return an error code and the invoking applications must
   respond with using may just give up
   and use legacy calls without the On-Demand Mobility
   feature. calls.

5.2.  IP Stack in the Mobile Host

   New IP stacks must continue to support all legacy operations.  If an
   application does not use On-Demand Mobility feature, functionality, the IP stack must
   respond in a legacy manner.

   If the network infrastructure supports On-Demand Mobility feature, functionality, the
   IP stack should follow the application request: If the application
   requests a specific address type, the stack should forward this
   request to the network.  If the application does not request an
   address type, the IP stack must not request an address type and leave
   it to the network's default behavior to choose the type of the
   allocated IP prefix.  If an IP prefix was already allocated to the
   host, the IP stack uses it and may not request a new one from the

5.3.  Network Infrastructure

   The network infrastructure may or may not support the On-Demand
   Mobility feature.
   functionality.  How the IP stack on the host and the network
   infrastructure behave in case of a compatibility issue is outside the
   scope of this API specification.

6.  Summary of New Definitions


6.1.  New APIs

   setsc() enables applications to request a specific type of source IP
   address in terms of session continuity.  Its definition is:

int setsc (int sockfd, in6_addr *sourceAddress, sc_type addressType) ;

 - sockfd -        is the socket descriptor of the socket with which a
                   specific address type is associated
 - sourceAddress - is a pointer to an area allocated for setsc() to place
                   the generated source IP address of the desired session
                                   continuity type
 - addressType -   Is the desired type of session continuity service.
                   It is a 3-bit field containing one of the following list summarizes
                   0 - Reserved
                   1 - FIXED_IPV6_ADDRESS
                   2 - SESSION_LASTING_IPV6_ADDRESS
                   3 - NON_PERSISTENT_IPV6_ADDRESS
                   5-7 - Reserved

setsc() returns the new constants definitions discussed
   in this memo:

    <netdb.h>              IPV6_REQUIRE_FIXED_IP
    <netdb.h>              IPV6_REQUIRE_SESSION_LASTING_IP
    <netdb.h>              IPV6_REQUIRE_NON_PERSISTENT_IP
    <netdb.h>              IPV6_REQUIRE_SRC_ON_NET
    <netdb.h> status of the operation:
 - 0 - Address was successfully generated
    <netdb.h> - the required service type is not supported

    <netinet/in.h>         IPV6_REQUIRE_FIXED_IP
    <netinet/in.h>         IPV6_REQUIRE_SESSION_LASTING_IP
    <netinet/in.h>         IPV6_REQUIRE_NON_PERSISTENT_IP
    <netinet/in.h> - the network could not fulfill the desired request

6.2.  New Flags

   The following flag is added to the list of flags in the
   IPV6_ADDR_PREFERENCE option at the IPPROTO6 level:

    <netinet/in.h>         EAI_REQUIREDIPNOTSUPPORTED
    <netinet/in.h>         EAI_REQUIREDIPFAILED - set IP stack address allocation behavior

   If set, the IP stack will request a new IPv6 prefix of the desired
   type from the current serving network and configure a new source IP
   address.  If reset, the IP stack will use a preconfigured one if it
   exists.  If there is no preconfigured IP address of the desired type,
   a new prefix will be requested and used for creating the IP address.

7.  Security Considerations

   The setting of certain IP address type on a given socket may be
   restricted to privileged applications.  For example, a Fixed IP
   Address may be provided as a premium service and only certain
   applications may be allowed to use them.  Setting and enforcement of
   such privileges are outside the scope of this document.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no IANA considerations.

9.  Contributors

   This document was merged with [I-D.sijeon-dmm-use-cases-api-source].
   We would like to acknowledge the contribution of the following people
   to that document as well:

   Sergio Figueiredo
   Altran Research, France

   Younghan Kim
   Soongsil University, Korea

   John Kaippallimalil
   Huawei, USA

10.  Acknowledgements

   We would like to thank Wu-chi Feng, Alexandru Petrescu, Jouni
   Korhonen, Sri Gundavelli, Dave Dolson and Lorenzo Colitti for their
   valuable comments and suggestions on this work.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC5014]  Nordmark, E., Chakrabarti, S., and J. Laganier, "IPv6
              Socket API for Source Address Selection", RFC 5014,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5014, September 2007,

   [RFC6724]  Thaler, D., Ed., Draves, R., Matsumoto, A., and T. Chown,
              "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol Version 6
              (IPv6)", RFC 6724, DOI 10.17487/RFC6724, September 2012,

11.2.  Informative References

              Jeon, S., Figueiredo, S., Kim, Y., and J. Kaippallimalil,
              "Use Cases and API Extension for Source IP Address
              Selection", draft-sijeon-dmm-use-cases-api-source-05 draft-sijeon-dmm-use-cases-api-source-06 (work
              in progress), October 2016. March 2017.

   [RFC3261]  Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston,
              A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E.
              Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3261, June 2002,

   [RFC5213]  Gundavelli, S., Ed., Leung, K., Devarapalli, V.,
              Chowdhury, K., and B. Patil, "Proxy Mobile IPv6",
              RFC 5213, DOI 10.17487/RFC5213, August 2008,

   [RFC5563]  Leung, K., Dommety, G., Yegani, P., and K. Chowdhury,
              "WiMAX Forum / 3GPP2 Proxy Mobile IPv4", RFC 5563,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5563, February 2010,

   [RFC5944]  Perkins, C., Ed., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4, Revised",
              RFC 5944, DOI 10.17487/RFC5944, November 2010,

   [RFC6275]  Perkins, C., Ed., Johnson, D., and J. Arkko, "Mobility
              Support in IPv6", RFC 6275, DOI 10.17487/RFC6275, July
              2011, <>.

   [RFC6824]  Ford, A., Raiciu, C., Handley, M., and O. Bonaventure,
              "TCP Extensions for Multipath Operation with Multiple
              Addresses", RFC 6824, DOI 10.17487/RFC6824, January 2013,

   [RFC7333]  Chan, H., Ed., Liu, D., Seite, P., Yokota, H., and J.
              Korhonen, "Requirements for Distributed Mobility
              Management", RFC 7333, DOI 10.17487/RFC7333, August 2014,

Authors' Addresses

   Alper Yegin


   Danny Moses
   Intel Corporation
   Petah Tikva


   Kisuk Kweon
   South Korea


   Jinsung Lee
   South Korea


   Jungshin Park
   South Korea

   Seil Jeon
   Sungkyunkwan University
   South Korea