Network Working Group S. Weiler Internet-Draft SPARTA, Inc Updates: 4034, 4035 (if approved)
May 23, 2005R. Austein Expires: November 24, 2005July 15, 2006 ISC January 11, 2006 Clarifications and Implementation Notes for DNSSECbis draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-bis-updates-01draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-bis-updates-02 Status of this Memo By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet- Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 24, 2005.July 15, 2006. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005).(2006). Abstract This document is a collection of minor technical clarifications to the DNSSECbis document set. It is meant to serve as a resource to implementors as well as an interim repository of possible DNSSECbis errata. Proposed additions in future versions An index sorted by the section of DNSSECbis being clarified. A list of proposed protocol changes being made in other documents, such as NSEC3[I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-online-signing] and Epsilon.[I-D.ietf-dnsext- nsec3]. This document would not make those changes, merely provide an index into the documents that are making changes. Changes between -01 and -02 Added Section 4.4. Changes between -00 and -01 Document significantly restructured. Added section on QTYPE=ANY.Section 2.3. Changes between personal submission and first WG draft Added Section 2.1 based on namedroppers discussions from March 9-10, 2005. Added Section 3.4, Section 3.3, Section 4.3, and Section 2.2. Added the DNSSECbis RFC numbers. Figured out the confusion in Section 4.1. Table of Contents 1. Introduction and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.11.1. Structure of this Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.21.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Significant Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.12.1. Clarifications on Non-Existence Proofs . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.22.2. Empty Non-Terminal Proofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.32.3. Validating Responses to an ANY Query . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Interoperability Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.13.1. Unknown DS Message Digest Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.23.2. Private Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.33.3. Caution About Local Policy and Multiple RRSIGs . . . . . . 6 3.43.4. Key Tag Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Minor Corrections and Clarifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.14.1. Finding Zone Cuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.24.2. Clarifications on DNSKEY Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.34.3. Errors in Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.4. Errors in Canonical Form Type Code List . . . . . . . . . 8 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.19 7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.29 7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Author's Address . . .Appendix A. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Authors' Addresses . 9 A. Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 11. . 12 1. Introduction and Terminology This document lists some minor clarifications and corrections to DNSSECbis, as described in , ,[RFC4033], [RFC4034], and .[RFC4035]. It is intended to serve as a resource for implementors and as a repository of items that need to be addressed when advancing the DNSSECbis documents from Proposed Standard to Draft Standard. In this version (-01 of the WG document), feedback is particularly solicited on the structure of the document and whether the text in the recently added sections is correct and sufficient. Proposed substantive additions to this document should be sent to the namedroppers mailing list as well as to the editoreditors of this document. The editoreditors would greatly prefer contributions of text suitable for direct inclusion in this document. 1.11.1. Structure of this Document The clarifications to DNSSECbis are sorted according to the editor'seditors' impression of their importance, starting with ones which could, if ignored, lead to security and stability problems and progressing down to clarifications that are likely to have little operational impact. Mere typos and awkward phrasings are not addressed unless they could lead to misinterpretation of the DNSSECbis documents. 1.21.2. Terminology The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 .[RFC2119]. 2. Significant Concerns This section provides clarifications that, if overlooked, could lead to security issues or major interoperability problems. 2.12.1. Clarifications on Non-Existence Proofs RFC4035[RFC4035] Section 5.4 slightly underspecifies the algorithm for checking non-existence proofs. In particular, the algorithm there might incorrectly allow the NSEC from the parent side of a zone cut to prove the non-existence of either other RRs at that name in the child zone or other names in the child zone. It might also allow a NSEC at the same name as a DNAME to prove the non-existence of names beneath that DNAME. A parent-side delegation NSEC (one with the NS bit set, but no SOA bit set, and with a singer field that's shorter than the owner name) must not be used to assume non-existence of any RRs below that zone cut (both RRs at that ownername and at ownernames with more leading labels, no matter their content). Similarly, an NSEC with the DNAME bit set must not be used to assume the non-existence of any descendant of that NSEC's owner name. 2.22.2. Empty Non-Terminal Proofs To be written, based on Roy Arends' May 11th message to namedroppers. 2.3The editors are trying to figure out whether what's really required here is a discussion of the relationship between DNS RCODEs and DNSSECbis. 2.3. Validating Responses to an ANY Query RFC4035[RFC4035] does not address nowhow to validate responses when QTYPE=*. As described in Section 6.2.2 of RFC1034,[RFC1034], a proper response to QTYPE=* may include a subset of the RRsets at a given name -- it is not necessary to include all RRsets at the QNAME in the response. When validating a response to QTYPE=*, validate all received RRsets that match QNAME and QCLASS. If any of those RRsets fail validation, treat the answer as Bogus. If there are no RRsets matching QNAME and QCLASS, validate that fact using the rules in RFC4035[RFC4035] Section 5.4 (as clarified in this document). To be clear, a validator must not insist on receiving all records at the QNAME in response to QTYPE=*. 3. Interoperability Concerns 3.13.1. Unknown DS Message Digest Algorithms Section 5.2 of RFC4035[RFC4035] includes rules for how to handle delegations to zones that are signed with entirely unsupported algorithms, as indicated by the algorithms shown in those zone's DS RRsets. It does not explicitly address how to handle DS records that use unsupported message digest algorithms. In brief, DS records using unknown or unsupported message digest algorithms MUST be treated the same way as DS records referring to DNSKEY RRs of unknown or unsupported algorithms. The existing text says: If the validator does not support any of the algorithms listed in an authenticated DS RRset, then the resolver has no supported authentication path leading from the parent to the child. The resolver should treat this case as it would the case of an authenticated NSEC RRset proving that no DS RRset exists, as described above. To paraphrase the above, when determining the security status of a zone, a validator discards (for this purpose only) any DS records listing unknown or unsupported algorithms. If none are left, the zone is treated as if it were unsigned. Modified to consider DS message digest algorithms, a validator also discards any DS records using unknown or unsupported message digest algorithms. 3.23.2. Private Algorithms As discussed above, section 5.2 of RFC4035[RFC4035] requires that validators make decisions about the security status of zones based on the public key algorithms shown in the DS records for those zones. In the case of private algorithms, as described in RFC4034[RFC4034] Appendix A.1.1, the eight-bit algorithm field in the DS RR is not conclusive about what algorithm(s) is actually in use. If no private algorithms appear in the DS set or if any supported algorithm appears in the DS set, no special processing will be needed. In the remaining cases, the security status of the zone depends on whether or not the resolver supports any of the private algorithms in use (provided that these DS records use supported hash functions, as discussed in Section 3.1). In these cases, the resolver MUST retrieve the corresponding DNSKEY for each private algorithm DS record and examine the public key field to determine the algorithm in use. The security-aware resolver MUST ensure that the hash of the DNSKEY RR's owner name and RDATA matches the digest in the DS RR. If they do not match, and no other DS establishes that the zone is secure, the referral should be considered BAD data, as discussed in RFC4035.[RFC4035]. This clarification facilitates the broader use of private algorithms, as suggested by . 3.3[I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-experiments]. 3.3. Caution About Local Policy and Multiple RRSIGs When multiple RRSIGs cover a given RRset, RFC4035[RFC4035] Section 5.3.3 suggests that "the local resolver security policy determines whether the resolver also has to test these RRSIG RRs and how to resolve conflicts if these RRSIG RRs lead to differing results." In most cases, a resolver would be well advised to accept any valid RRSIG as sufficient. If the first RRSIG tested fails validation, a resolver would be well advised to try others, giving a successful validation result if any can be validated and giving a failure only if all RRSIGs fail validation. If a resolver adopts a more restrictive policy, there's a danger that properly-signed data might unnecessarily fail validation, perhaps because of cache timing issues. Furthermore, certain zone management techniques, like the Double Signature Zone-signing Key Rollover method described in section 188.8.131.52 of [I-D.ietf-dnsop-dnssec- operational-practices] might not work reliably. 3.43.4. Key Tag Calculation RFC4034[RFC4034] Appendix B.1 incorrectly defines the Key Tag field calculation for algorithm 1. It correctly says that the Key Tag is the most significant 16 of the least significant 24 bits of the public key modulus. However, RFC4034[RFC4034] then goes on to incorrectly say that this is 4th to last and 3rd to last octets of the public key modulus. It is, in fact, the 3rd to last and 2nd to last octets. 4. Minor Corrections and Clarifications 4.14.1. Finding Zone Cuts Appendix C.8 of RFC4035[RFC4035] discusses sending DS queries to the servers for a parent zone. To do that, a resolver may first need to apply special rules to discover what those servers are. As explained in Section 184.108.40.206 of RFC4035,[RFC4035], security-aware name servers need to apply special processing rules to handle the DS RR, and in some situations the resolver may also need to apply special rules to locate the name servers for the parent zone if the resolver does not already have the parent's NS RRset. Section 4.2 of RFC4035[RFC4035] specifies a mechanism for doing that. 4.24.2. Clarifications on DNSKEY Usage Questions of the form "can I use a different DNSKEY for signing the X" have occasionally arisen. The short answer is "yes, absolutely". You can even use a different DNSKEY for each RRset in a zone, subject only to practical limits on the size of the DNSKEY RRset. However, be aware that there is no way to tell resolvers what a particularly DNSKEY is supposed to be used for -- any DNSKEY in the zone's signed DNSKEY RRset may be used to authenticate any RRset in the zone. For example, if a weaker or less trusted DNSKEY is being used to authenticate NSEC RRsets or all dynamically updated records, that same DNSKEY can also be used to sign any other RRsets from the zone. Furthermore, note that the SEP bit setting has no effect on how a DNSKEY may be used -- the validation process is specifically prohibited from using that bit by RFC4034[RFC4034] section 2.1.2. It possible to use a DNSKEY without the SEP bit set as the sole secure entry point to the zone, yet use a DNSKEY with the SEP bit set to sign all RRsets in the zone (other than the DNSKEY RRset). It's also possible to use a single DNSKEY, with or without the SEP bit set, to sign the entire zone, including the DNSKEY RRset itself. 4.34.3. Errors in Examples The text in RFC4035[RFC4035] Section C.1 refers to the examples in B.1 as "x.w.example.com" while B.1 uses "x.w.example". This is painfully obvious in the second paragraph where it states that the RRSIG labels field value of 3 indicates that the answer was not the result of wildcard expansion. This is true for "x.w.example" but not for "x.w.example.com", which of course has a label count of 4 (antithetically, a label count of 3 would imply the answer was the result of a wildcard expansion). The first paragraph of RFC4035[RFC4035] Section C.6 also has a minor error: the reference to "a.z.w.w.example" should instead be "a.z.w.example", as in the previous line. 4.4. Errors in Canonical Form Type Code List [RFC4034] Section 6.2 item 3 has a list of resource record types for which DNS names in the RDATA are downcased for purposes of DNSSEC canonical form (for both ordering and signing). That list contains HINFO twice. The implementor is encouraged to exercise good discretion and professional judgement when deciding whether to downcase such DNS names once or twice. Further, it is worth noting that the list of RR types in [RFC3597] has the same bug and, as could be expected, doesn't include RRSIG or NSEC. 5. IANA Considerations This document specifies no IANA Actions. 6. Security Considerations This document does not make fundamental changes to the DNSSEC protocol, as it was generally understood when DNSSECbis was published. It does, however, address some ambiguities and omissions in those documents that, if not recognized and addressed in implementations, could lead to security failures. In particular, the validation algorithm clarifications in Section 2 are critical for preserving the security properties DNSSEC offers. Furthermore, failure to address some of the interoperability concerns in Section 3 could limit the ability to later change or expand DNSSEC, including by adding new algorithms. 7. References 7.17.1. Normative References [RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", RFC 1034, STD 13, November 1987. [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997. [RFC4033] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC 4033, March 2005. [RFC4034] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4034, March 2005. [RFC4035] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4035, March 2005.  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. 7.27.2. Informative References [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-experiments] Blacka, D., "DNSSEC Experiments", draft-blacka-dnssec-experiments-00draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-experiments-01 (work in progress), July 2005. [I-D.ietf-dnsext-dnssec-online-signing] Weiler, S. and J. Ihren, "Minimally Covering NSEC Records and DNSSEC On-line Signing", draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-online-signing-01 (work in progress), January 2006. [I-D.ietf-dnsext-nsec3] Laurie, B., "DNSSEC Hash Authenticated Denial of Existence", draft-ietf-dnsext-nsec3-03 (work in progress), December 2004. October 2005. [I-D.ietf-dnsop-dnssec-operational-practices] Gieben, R. and O. Kolkman, "DNSSEC Operational Practices", draft-ietf-dnsop-dnssec-operational-practices-04draft-ietf-dnsop-dnssec-operational-practices-06 (work in progress), MayOctober 2005. Author's Address Samuel Weiler SPARTA, Inc 7075 Samuel Morse Drive Columbia, Maryland 21046 US Email: firstname.lastname@example.org[RFC3597] Gustafsson, A., "Handling of Unknown DNS Resource Record (RR) Types", RFC 3597, September 2003. Appendix A. Acknowledgments The editor iseditors are extremely grateful to those who, in addition to finding errors and omissions in the DNSSECbis document set, have provided text suitable for inclusion in this document. The lack of specificity about handling private algorithms, as described in Section 3.2, and the lack of specificity in handling ANY queries, as described in Section 2.3, were discovered by David Blacka. The error in algorithm 1 key tag calculation, as described in Section 3.4, was found by Abhijit Hayatnagarkar. Donald Eastlake contributed text for Section 3.4. The bug relating to delegation NSEC RR's in Section 2.1 was found by Roy Badami. Roy Arends found the related problem with DNAME. The errors in the RFC4035[RFC4035] examples were found by Roy Arends, who also contributed text for Section 4.3 of this document. The editoreditors would like to thank Danny Mayer, Olafur GudmundssonGudmundsson, and Scott Rose for their substantive comments on the text of this document. Authors' Addresses Samuel Weiler SPARTA, Inc 7075 Samuel Morse Drive Columbia, Maryland 21046 US Email: email@example.com Rob Austein ISC 950 Charter Street Redwood City, CA 94063 USA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Intellectual Property Statement The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in this document or the extent to which any license under such rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights. Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be found in BCP 78 and BCP 79. 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