draft-ietf-dnsext-nsec-rdata-06.txt   rfc3845.txt 
DNS Extensions Working Group J. Schlyter, Ed. Network Working Group J. Schlyter, Ed.
Request for Comments: 3845 August 2004
Updates: RFC 2535, RFC TCR (if approved) Updates: 3755, 2535
Expires: November 8, 2004 Category: Standards Track
DNSSEC NSEC RDATA Format DNS Security (DNSSEC) NextSECure (NSEC) RDATA Format
draft-ietf-dnsext-nsec-rdata-06.txt
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). All Rights Reserved. Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).
Abstract Abstract
This document redefines the wire format of the "Type Bit Map" field This document redefines the wire format of the "Type Bit Map" field
in the NSEC resource record RDATA format to cover the full RR type in the DNS NextSECure (NSEC) resource record RDATA format to cover
space. the full resource record (RR) type space.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. The NSEC Resource Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. The NSEC Resource Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.1 NSEC RDATA Wire Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. NSEC RDATA Wire Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1.1 The Next Domain Name Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.1. The Next Domain Name Field . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1.2 The List of Type Bit Map(s) Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.2. The List of Type Bit Map(s) Field . . . . . . . 3
2.1.3 Inclusion of Wildcard Names in NSEC RDATA . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.3. Inclusion of Wildcard Names in NSEC RDATA . . . 4
2.2 The NSEC RR Presentation Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. The NSEC RR Presentation Format . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3 NSEC RR Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3. NSEC RR Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
A. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . 8 7. Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
8. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The NSEC [5] Resource Record (RR) is used for authenticated proof of The DNS [6][7] NSEC [5] Resource Record (RR) is used for
the non-existence of DNS owner names and types. The NSEC RR is based authenticated proof of the non-existence of DNS owner names and
on the NXT RR as described in RFC 2535 [2], and is similar except for types. The NSEC RR is based on the NXT RR as described in RFC 2535
the name and typecode. The RDATA format for the NXT RR has the [2], and is similar except for the name and typecode. The RDATA
limitation in that the RDATA could only carry information about the format for the NXT RR has the limitation in that the RDATA could only
existence of the first 127 types. RFC 2535 did reserve a bit to carry information about the existence of the first 127 types. RFC
specify an extension mechanism, but the mechanism was never actually 2535 did reserve a bit to specify an extension mechanism, but the
defined. mechanism was never actually defined.
In order to avoid the need to develop an extension mechanism into a In order to avoid needing to develop an extension mechanism into a
deployed base of DNSSEC aware servers and resolvers once the first deployed base of DNSSEC aware servers and resolvers once the first
127 type codes are allocated, this document redefines the wire format 127 type codes are allocated, this document redefines the wire format
of the "Type Bit Map" field in the NSEC RDATA to cover the full RR of the "Type Bit Map" field in the NSEC RDATA to cover the full RR
type space. type space.
This document introduces a new format for the type bit map. The This document introduces a new format for the type bit map. The
properties of the type bit map format are that it can cover the full properties of the type bit map format are that it can cover the full
possible range of typecodes, that it is relatively economical in the possible range of typecodes, that it is relatively economical in the
amount of space it uses for the common case of a few types with an amount of space it uses for the common case of a few types with an
owner name, that it can represent owner names with all possible types owner name, that it can represent owner names with all possible types
present in packets of approximately 8.5 kilobytes and that the present in packets of approximately 8.5 kilobytes, and that the
representation is simple to implement. Efficient searching of the representation is simple to implement. Efficient searching of the
type bitmap for the presence of certain types is not a requirement. type bitmap for the presence of certain types is not a requirement.
For convenience and completeness this document presents the syntax For convenience and completeness, this document presents the syntax
and semantics for the NSEC RR based on the specification in RFC 2535 and semantics for the NSEC RR based on the specification in RFC 2535
[2] and as updated by RFC TCR [5], thereby not introducing changes [2] and as updated by RFC 3755 [5], thereby not introducing changes
except for the syntax of the type bit map. except for the syntax of the type bit map.
This document updates RFC 2535 [2] and RFC TCR [5]. This document updates RFC 2535 [2] and RFC 3755 [5].
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1]. document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 [1].
2. The NSEC Resource Record 2. The NSEC Resource Record
The NSEC resource record lists two separate things: the owner name of The NSEC resource record lists two separate things: the owner name of
the next RRset in the canonical ordering of the zone, and the set of the next RRset in the canonical ordering of the zone, and the set of
RR types present at the NSEC RR's owner name. The complete set of RR types present at the NSEC RR's owner name. The complete set of
NSEC RRs in a zone both indicate which RRsets exist in a zone and NSEC RRs in a zone indicate which RRsets exist in a zone, and form a
also form a chain of owner names in the zone. This information is chain of owner names in the zone. This information is used to
used to provide authenticated denial of existence for DNS data, as provide authenticated denial of existence for DNS data, as described
described in RFC 2535 [2]. in RFC 2535 [2].
The type value for the NSEC RR is 47. The type value for the NSEC RR is 47.
The NSEC RR RDATA format is class independent and defined for all The NSEC RR RDATA format is class independent and defined for all
classes. classes.
The NSEC RR SHOULD have the same TTL value as the SOA minimum TTL The NSEC RR SHOULD have the same TTL value as the SOA minimum TTL
field. This is in the spirit of negative caching [8]. field. This is in the spirit of negative caching [8].
2.1 NSEC RDATA Wire Format 2.1. NSEC RDATA Wire Format
The RDATA of the NSEC RR is as shown below: The RDATA of the NSEC RR is as shown below:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
/ Next Domain Name / / Next Domain Name /
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
/ List of Type Bit Map(s) / / List of Type Bit Map(s) /
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
2.1.1 The Next Domain Name Field 2.1.1. The Next Domain Name Field
The Next Domain Name field contains the owner name of the next RR in The Next Domain Name field contains the owner name of the next RR in
the canonical ordering of the zone. The value of the Next Domain the canonical ordering of the zone. The value of the Next Domain
Name field in the last NSEC record in the zone is the name of the Name field in the last NSEC record in the zone is the name of the
zone apex (the owner name of the zone's SOA RR). zone apex (the owner name of the zone's SOA RR).
A sender MUST NOT use DNS name compression on the Next Domain Name A sender MUST NOT use DNS name compression on the Next Domain Name
field when transmitting an NSEC RR. field when transmitting an NSEC RR.
Owner names of RRsets not authoritative for the given zone (such as Owner names of RRsets that are not authoritative for the given zone
glue records) MUST NOT be listed in the Next Domain Name unless at (such as glue records) MUST NOT be listed in the Next Domain Name
least one authoritative RRset exists at the same owner name. unless at least one authoritative RRset exists at the same owner
name.
2.1.2 The List of Type Bit Map(s) Field 2.1.2. The List of Type Bit Map(s) Field
The RR type space is split into 256 window blocks, each representing The RR type space is split into 256 window blocks, each representing
the low-order 8 bits of the 16-bit RR type space. Each block that has the low-order 8 bits of the 16-bit RR type space. Each block that
at least one active RR type is encoded using a single octet window has at least one active RR type is encoded using a single octet
number (from 0 to 255), a single octet bitmap length (from 1 to 32) window number (from 0 to 255), a single octet bitmap length (from 1
indicating the number of octets used for the window block's bitmap, to 32) indicating the number of octets used for the window block's
and up to 32 octets (256 bits) of bitmap. bitmap, and up to 32 octets (256 bits) of bitmap.
Window blocks are present in the NSEC RR RDATA in increasing Window blocks are present in the NSEC RR RDATA in increasing
numerical order. numerical order.
"|" denotes concatenation "|" denotes concatenation
Type Bit Map(s) Field = ( Window Block # | Bitmap Length | Bitmap ) + Type Bit Map(s) Field = ( Window Block # | Bitmap Length | Bitmap ) +
Each bitmap encodes the low-order 8 bits of RR types within the Each bitmap encodes the low-order 8 bits of RR types within the
window block, in network bit order. The first bit is bit 0. For window block, in network bit order. The first bit is bit 0. For
window block 0, bit 1 corresponds to RR type 1 (A), bit 2 corresponds window block 0, bit 1 corresponds to RR type 1 (A), bit 2 corresponds
to RR type 2 (NS), and so forth. For window block 1, bit 1 to RR type 2 (NS), and so forth. For window block 1, bit 1
corresponds to RR type 257, bit 2 to RR type 258. If a bit is set to corresponds to RR type 257, and bit 2 to RR type 258. If a bit is
1, it indicates that an RRset of that type is present for the NSEC set to 1, it indicates that an RRset of that type is present for the
RR's owner name. If a bit is set to 0, it indicates that no RRset of NSEC RR's owner name. If a bit is set to 0, it indicates that no
that type is present for the NSEC RR's owner name. RRset of that type is present for the NSEC RR's owner name.
Since bit 0 in window block 0 refers to the non-existing RR type 0, Since bit 0 in window block 0 refers to the non-existing RR type 0,
it MUST be set to 0. After verification, the validator MUST ignore it MUST be set to 0. After verification, the validator MUST ignore
the value of bit 0 in window block 0. the value of bit 0 in window block 0.
Bits representing Meta-TYPEs or QTYPEs as specified in RFC 2929 [3] Bits representing Meta-TYPEs or QTYPEs, as specified in RFC 2929 [3]
(section 3.1) or within the range reserved for assignment only to (section 3.1), or within the range reserved for assignment only to
QTYPEs and Meta-TYPEs MUST be set to 0, since they do not appear in QTYPEs and Meta-TYPEs MUST be set to 0, since they do not appear in
zone data. If encountered, they must be ignored upon reading. zone data. If encountered, they must be ignored upon reading.
Blocks with no types present MUST NOT be included. Trailing zero Blocks with no types present MUST NOT be included. Trailing zero
octets in the bitmap MUST be omitted. The length of each block's octets in the bitmap MUST be omitted. The length of each block's
bitmap is determined by the type code with the largest numerical bitmap is determined by the type code with the largest numerical
value, within that block, among the set of RR types present at the value within that block, among the set of RR types present at the
NSEC RR's owner name. Trailing zero octets not specified MUST be NSEC RR's owner name. Trailing zero octets not specified MUST be
interpretted as zero octets. interpreted as zero octets.
2.1.3 Inclusion of Wildcard Names in NSEC RDATA 2.1.3. Inclusion of Wildcard Names in NSEC RDATA
If a wildcard owner name appears in a zone, the wildcard label ("*") If a wildcard owner name appears in a zone, the wildcard label ("*")
is treated as a literal symbol and is treated the same as any other is treated as a literal symbol and is treated the same as any other
owner name for purposes of generating NSEC RRs. Wildcard owner names owner name for purposes of generating NSEC RRs. Wildcard owner names
appear in the Next Domain Name field without any wildcard expansion. appear in the Next Domain Name field without any wildcard expansion.
RFC 2535 [2] describes the impact of wildcards on authenticated RFC 2535 [2] describes the impact of wildcards on authenticated
denial of existence. denial of existence.
2.2 The NSEC RR Presentation Format 2.2. The NSEC RR Presentation Format
The presentation format of the RDATA portion is as follows: The presentation format of the RDATA portion is as follows:
The Next Domain Name field is represented as a domain name. The Next Domain Name field is represented as a domain name.
The List of Type Bit Map(s) Field is represented as a sequence of RR The List of Type Bit Map(s) Field is represented as a sequence of RR
type mnemonics. When the mnemonic is not known, the TYPE type mnemonics. When the mnemonic is not known, the TYPE
representation as described in RFC 3597 [4] (section 5) MUST be used. representation as described in RFC 3597 [4] (section 5) MUST be used.
2.3 NSEC RR Example 2.3. NSEC RR Example
The following NSEC RR identifies the RRsets associated with The following NSEC RR identifies the RRsets associated with
alfa.example.com. and identifies the next authoritative name after alfa.example.com. and the next authoritative name after
alfa.example.com. alfa.example.com.
alfa.example.com. 86400 IN NSEC host.example.com. A MX RRSIG NSEC TYPE1234 alfa.example.com. 86400 IN NSEC host.example.com. A MX RRSIG NSEC
TYPE1234
The first four text fields specify the name, TTL, Class, and RR type The first four text fields specify the name, TTL, Class, and RR type
(NSEC). The entry host.example.com. is the next authoritative name (NSEC). The entry host.example.com. is the next authoritative name
after alfa.example.com. in canonical order. The A, MX, RRSIG, NSEC after alfa.example.com. in canonical order. The A, MX, RRSIG, NSEC,
and TYPE1234 mnemonics indicate there are A, MX, RRSIG, NSEC and and TYPE1234 mnemonics indicate there are A, MX, RRSIG, NSEC, and
TYPE1234 RRsets associated with the name alfa.example.com. TYPE1234 RRsets associated with the name alfa.example.com.
The RDATA section of the NSEC RR above would be encoded as: The RDATA section of the NSEC RR above would be encoded as:
0x04 'h' 'o' 's' 't' 0x04 'h' 'o' 's' 't'
0x07 'e' 'x' 'a' 'm' 'p' 'l' 'e' 0x07 'e' 'x' 'a' 'm' 'p' 'l' 'e'
0x03 'c' 'o' 'm' 0x00 0x03 'c' 'o' 'm' 0x00
0x00 0x06 0x40 0x01 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x03 0x00 0x06 0x40 0x01 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x03
0x04 0x1b 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x04 0x1b 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00
0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00
0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00
0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x20 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x20
Assuming that the resolver can authenticate this NSEC record, it Assuming that the resolver can authenticate this NSEC record, it
could be used to prove that beta.example.com does not exist, or could could be used to prove that beta.example.com does not exist, or could
be used to prove there is no AAAA record associated with be used to prove that there is no AAAA record associated with
alfa.example.com. Authenticated denial of existence is discussed in alfa.example.com. Authenticated denial of existence is discussed in
RFC 2535 [2]. RFC 2535 [2].
3. IANA Considerations 3. IANA Considerations
This document introduces no new IANA considerations, because all of This document introduces no new IANA considerations, because all of
the protocol parameters used in this document have already been the protocol parameters used in this document have already been
assigned by RFC TCR [5]. assigned by RFC 3755 [5].
4. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
The update of the RDATA format and encoding does not affect the The update of the RDATA format and encoding does not affect the
security of the use of NSEC RRs. security of the use of NSEC RRs.
Normative References 5. References
5.1. Normative References
[1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[2] Eastlake, D., "Domain Name System Security Extensions", RFC [2] Eastlake 3rd, D., "Domain Name System Security Extensions", RFC
2535, March 1999. 2535, March 1999.
[3] Eastlake, D., Brunner-Williams, E. and B. Manning, "Domain Name [3] Eastlake 3rd, D., Brunner-Williams, E., and B. Manning, "Domain
System (DNS) IANA Considerations", BCP 42, RFC 2929, September Name System (DNS) IANA Considerations", BCP 42, RFC 2929,
2000. September 2000.
[4] Gustafsson, A., "Handling of Unknown DNS Resource Record (RR) [4] Gustafsson, A., "Handling of Unknown DNS Resource Record (RR)
Types", RFC 3597, September 2003. Types", RFC 3597, September 2003.
[5] Weiler, S., "Legacy Resolver Compatibility for Delegation [5] Weiler, S., "Legacy Resolver Compatibility for Delegation Signer
Signer", draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-2535typecode-change-05 (work (DS)", RFC 3755, May 2004.
in progress), October 2003.
Informational References 5.2. Informative References
[6] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD [6] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD
13, RFC 1034, November 1987. 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.
[7] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and [7] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987. specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.
[8] Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS NCACHE)", RFC [8] Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS NCACHE)", RFC
2308, March 1998. 2308, March 1998.
Author's Address 6. Acknowledgements
The encoding described in this document was initially proposed by
Mark Andrews. Other encodings where proposed by David Blacka and
Michael Graff.
7. Author's Address
Jakob Schlyter (editor) Jakob Schlyter (editor)
Karl Gustavsgatan 15 NIC-SE
Goteborg SE-411 25 Box 5774
Stockholm SE-114 87
Sweden Sweden
EMail: jakob@schlyter.se EMail: jakob@nic.se
URI: http://www.nic.se/
Appendix A. Acknowledgements 8. Full Copyright Statement
The encoding described in this document was initially proposed by Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).
Mark Andrews. Other encodings where proposed by David Blacka and
Michael Graff.
Intellectual Property Statement This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
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 End of changes. 

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