draft-ietf-dnsop-as112-dname-00.txt   draft-ietf-dnsop-as112-dname-01.txt 
Network Working Group J. Abley Network Working Group J. Abley
Internet-Draft Dyn, Inc. Internet-Draft Dyn, Inc.
Updates: 6304 (if approved) B. Dickson Updates: 6304 (if approved) B. Dickson
Intended status: Informational Verisign Labs Intended status: Informational Verisign Labs
Expires: May 9, 2014 W. Kumari Expires: August 18, 2014 W. Kumari
Google Google
G. Michaelson G. Michaelson
APNIC APNIC
November 5, 2013 February 14, 2014
AS112 Redirection using DNAME AS112 Redirection using DNAME
draft-ietf-dnsop-as112-dname-00 draft-ietf-dnsop-as112-dname-01
Abstract Abstract
Many sites connected to the Internet make use of IPv4 addresses that Many sites connected to the Internet make use of IPv4 addresses that
are not globally unique. Examples are the addresses designated in are not globally unique. Examples are the addresses designated in
RFC 1918 for private use within individual sites. RFC 1918 for private use within individual sites.
Devices in such environments may occasionally originate Domain Name Devices in such environments may occasionally originate Domain Name
System (DNS) queries (so-called "reverse lookups") corresponding to System (DNS) queries (so-called "reverse lookups") corresponding to
those private-use addresses. Since the addresses concerned have only those private-use addresses. Since the addresses concerned have only
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on May 9, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 18, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
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8.2. Hosting of AS112.ARPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8.2. Hosting of AS112.ARPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8.3. Delegation of AS112.ARPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8.3. Delegation of AS112.ARPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Appendix A. Assessing Support for DNAME in the Real World . . . . 17 Appendix A. Assessing Support for DNAME in the Real World . . . . 17
A.1. Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A.1. Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
A.2. Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 A.2. Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix B. Updates to RFC6304 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Appendix B. Editorial Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
B.1. Changes to Section 2.1, Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 B.1. Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
B.2. Changes to Section 2.2, Nameservers . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
B.3. Changes to Section 3.4, Routing Software . . . . . . . . . 20
B.4. Changes to Section 3.5, DNS Software . . . . . . . . . . . 20
B.5. Changes to Section 3.6, Testing a Newly Installed Node . . 20
B.6. Changes to Section 6, On the Future of AS112 Nodes . . . . 20
B.7. Changes to Section 8, Security Considerations . . . . . . 21
B.8. Changes to Appendix A, History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix C. Editorial Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
C.1. Change History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The AS112 project is described in detail in [RFC6304]. The AS112 project is described in detail in [RFC6304].
The AS112 nameservers (PRISONER.IANA.ORG, BLACKHOLE-1.IANA.ORG and The AS112 nameservers (PRISONER.IANA.ORG, BLACKHOLE-1.IANA.ORG and
BLACKHOLE-2.IANA.ORG) are required to answer authoritatively for each BLACKHOLE-2.IANA.ORG) are required to answer authoritatively for each
and every zone that is delegated to them. and every zone that is delegated to them.
If a zone is delegated to AS112 nameservers without those nameservers If a zone is delegated to AS112 nameservers without those nameservers
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known as a "lame delegation". known as a "lame delegation".
AS112 nameserver operators are only loosely-coordinated, and hence AS112 nameserver operators are only loosely-coordinated, and hence
adding support for a new zone (or, correspondingly, removing support adding support for a new zone (or, correspondingly, removing support
for a zone that is no longer delegated to the AS112 nameservers) is for a zone that is no longer delegated to the AS112 nameservers) is
difficult to accomplish with accuracy; testing AS112 nameservers difficult to accomplish with accuracy; testing AS112 nameservers
remotely to see whether they are configured to answer authoritatively remotely to see whether they are configured to answer authoritatively
for a particular zone is similarly challenging since AS112 nodes are for a particular zone is similarly challenging since AS112 nodes are
distributed using anycast [RFC4786]. distributed using anycast [RFC4786].
This document proposes that instead of delegating individual zones to This document proposes a more flexibl approach for sinking queries on
AS112 nameservers, DNAME [RFC6672] redirection be used instead. This AS112 infrastructure that can be deployed alongside unmodified,
approach has the advantage that query traffic for arbitrary parts of existing AS112 nodes. Instead of delegating additional zones
the namespace can be directed to AS112 servers without those servers directly to AS112 nameservers, DNAME [RFC6672] redirection is used
having to be reconfigured every time a zone is added or removed. instead. This approach has the advantage that query traffic for
arbitrary parts of the namespace can be directed to AS112 servers
without those servers having to be reconfigured every time a zone is
added or removed.
2. Design Overview 2. Design Overview
A new zone, EMPTY.AS112.ARPA, is delegated to a single nameserver A new zone, EMPTY.AS112.ARPA, is delegated to a single nameserver
BLACKHOLE.AS112.ARPA (IPv4 address TBAv4-1, IPv6 address TBAv6-1). BLACKHOLE.AS112.ARPA (IPv4 address TBAv4-1, IPv6 address TBAv6-1).
The IPv4 address TBAv4-1 has been assigned by the IANA such that the The IPv4 address TBAv4-1 has been assigned by the IANA such that the
address is coverable by a single IPv4 /24 prefix, and that no other address is coverable by a single IPv4 /24 prefix, and that no other
address covered by that prefix is in use. The IPv6 address TBAv6-1 address covered by that prefix is in use. The IPv6 address TBAv6-1
has been similarly assigned such that no other address within a has been similarly assigned such that no other address within a
covering /48 is in use. This addressing plan accommodates the covering /48 is in use. This addressing plan accommodates the
anycast distribution of the BLACKHOLE.AS112.ARPA service using a anycast distribution of the BLACKHOLE.AS112.ARPA service using a
single IPv4 service prefix and a single IPv6 service prefix. See single IPv4 service prefix and a single IPv6 service prefix. See
[RFC4786] for more discussion of anycast service distribution; see [RFC4786] for more discussion of anycast service distribution; see
Section 8 for the specific requests this document makes of the IANA. Section 8 for the specific requests this document makes of the IANA.
Some or all of the existing AS112 nodes should be extended to support Some or all of the existing AS112 nodes should be extended to support
these new nameserver addresses, and to host the EMPTY.AS112.ARPA these new nameserver addresses, and to host the EMPTY.AS112.ARPA
zone. See Section 3.1 for guidance to AS112 server operators. zone. See [I-D.jabley-dnsop-rfc6304bis] for revised guidance to
AS112 server operators.
Each part of the DNS namespace for which it is desirable to sink Each part of the DNS namespace for which it is desirable to sink
queries at AS112 nameservers should be redirected to the queries at AS112 nameservers should be redirected to the
EMPTY.AS112.ARPA zone using DNAME [RFC6672]. See Section 3.2 for EMPTY.AS112.ARPA zone using DNAME [RFC6672]. See Section 3.2 for
guidance to zone administrators. guidance to zone administrators.
3. AS112 Operations 3. AS112 Operations
3.1. Extensions to Support DNAME Redirection 3.1. Extensions to Support DNAME Redirection
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It is only necessary for a single AS112 server operator to implement It is only necessary for a single AS112 server operator to implement
these extensions for this mechanism to function as intended. It is these extensions for this mechanism to function as intended. It is
beneficial if many more than one AS112 server operators make these beneficial if many more than one AS112 server operators make these
changes, however, since that provides for greater distribution and changes, however, since that provides for greater distribution and
capacity for the nameservers serving the EMPTY.AS112.ARPA zone. It capacity for the nameservers serving the EMPTY.AS112.ARPA zone. It
is not necessary for all AS112 server operators to make these changes is not necessary for all AS112 server operators to make these changes
for the mechanism to be viable. for the mechanism to be viable.
Detailed instructions for the implementation of these extensions is Detailed instructions for the implementation of these extensions is
included in Appendix B. included in [I-D.jabley-dnsop-rfc6304bis].
3.2. Redirection of Query Traffic to AS112 Servers 3.2. Redirection of Query Traffic to AS112 Servers
Once the EMPTY.AS112.ARPA zone has been deployed using the Once the EMPTY.AS112.ARPA zone has been deployed using the
nameservers described in Section 3.1, redirections may be installed nameservers described in Section 3.1, redirections may be installed
in the DNS namespace for queries that are intended to be answered by in the DNS namespace for queries that are intended to be answered by
the AS112 infrastructure. the AS112 infrastructure.
For example, reverse queries corresponding to TEST-NET-1 For example, reverse queries corresponding to TEST-NET-1
(192.0.2.0/24) [RFC5737] could be redirected to AS112 nameservers by (192.0.2.0/24) [RFC5737] could be redirected to AS112 nameservers by
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1209600 ; expire 1209600 ; expire
3600 ) ; negative cache TTL 3600 ) ; negative cache TTL
NS A.IANA-SERVERS.NET. NS A.IANA-SERVERS.NET.
NS B.IANA-SERVERS.NET. NS B.IANA-SERVERS.NET.
NS C.IANA-SERVERS.NET. NS C.IANA-SERVERS.NET.
BLACKHOLE A TBAv4-1 BLACKHOLE A TBAv4-1
AAAA TBAv6-1 AAAA TBAv6-1
HOSTNAME NS BLACKHOLE
EMPTY NS BLACKHOLE EMPTY NS BLACKHOLE
Figure 2 Figure 2
8.3. Delegation of AS112.ARPA 8.3. Delegation of AS112.ARPA
Once the AS112.ARPA zone is being hosted in production, the IANA is Once the AS112.ARPA zone is being hosted in production, the IANA is
requested to arrange delegation from the ARPA zone according to requested to arrange delegation from the ARPA zone according to
normal IANA procedure for ARPA zone management, to the nameservers normal IANA procedure for ARPA zone management, to the nameservers
used in carrying out the direction in Section 8.2. The following used in carrying out the direction in Section 8.2. The following
metadata is suggested for the delegation, but may be changed by the metadata is suggested for the delegation, but may be changed by the
IANA if required: IANA if required:
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[RFC6304]. [RFC6304].
10. Acknowledgements 10. Acknowledgements
Your name here, etc. Your name here, etc.
11. References 11. References
11.1. Normative References 11.1. Normative References
[I-D.jabley-dnsop-rfc6304bis]
Abley, J. and W. Maton, "AS112 Nameserver Operations",
draft-jabley-dnsop-rfc6304bis-00 (work in progress),
February 2014.
[RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and [RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987. specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.
[RFC2308] Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS [RFC2308] Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS
NCACHE)", RFC 2308, March 1998. NCACHE)", RFC 2308, March 1998.
[RFC6304] Abley, J. and W. Maton, "AS112 Nameserver Operations", [RFC6304] Abley, J. and W. Maton, "AS112 Nameserver Operations",
RFC 6304, July 2011. RFC 6304, July 2011.
[RFC6672] Rose, S. and W. Wijngaards, "DNAME Redirection in the [RFC6672] Rose, S. and W. Wijngaards, "DNAME Redirection in the
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resolvers that fail to resolve a domain name that contains a DNAME resolvers that fail to resolve a domain name that contains a DNAME
redirection. However the failure rate of slightly lower than 3% for redirection. However the failure rate of slightly lower than 3% for
the control URL indicates that the failure rate for the DNAME the control URL indicates that the failure rate for the DNAME
construct lies within the bounds of error within the experimental construct lies within the bounds of error within the experimental
framework. We conclude that there is no evidence of a consistent framework. We conclude that there is no evidence of a consistent
failure on the part of deployed DNS resolvers to correctly resolve a failure on the part of deployed DNS resolvers to correctly resolve a
DNAME construct. DNAME construct.
This experiment was conducted by Geoff Huston and George Michaelson. This experiment was conducted by Geoff Huston and George Michaelson.
Appendix B. Updates to RFC6304 Appendix B. Editorial Notes
The following changes are required to [RFC6304] to provide support
for AS112 redirection. It is proposed that a successor document to
[RFC6304] be prepared for joint publication with this document in the
interests of providing clear advice to prospective new AS112
operators. The following sub-sections are hence provided mainly only
to describe the scope of the changes required for 6304bis, and are
not intended for publication in this document. References to this
section in this document should ultimately be replaced with
references to 6304bis.
B.1. Changes to Section 2.1, Zones
The list of zones that the AS112 nameserver should answer
authoritatively for is extended to include EMPTY.AS112.ARPA.
B.2. Changes to Section 2.2, Nameservers
The nameserver BLACKHOLE.AS112.ARPA (IPv4 address TBAv4-1, IPv6
address TBAv6-1) is added to the list of nameserver addresses that
the AS112 node should support. The IPv4 prefix TBAv4/24 and the IPv6
prefix TBAv6/48 are added as new prefixes to be originated.
B.3. Changes to Section 3.4, Routing Software
The sample configuration provided in this section is extended to
accommodate the IPv4 and IPv6 service prefixes associated with AS112
redirection, TBAv4/24 and TBAv6/48, respectively.
B.4. Changes to Section 3.5, DNS Software
The sample configuration provided in this section is extended to
accommodate the TBAv4-1 and TBAv6-1 addresses and the
EMPTY.AS112.ARPA zone. The contents of the EMPTY.AS112.ARPA zone
should be specified (nameservers differ from that included as
"db.empty").
B.5. Changes to Section 3.6, Testing a Newly Installed Node
Testing should be extended to test for correct hosting of the
EMPTY.AS112.ARPA zone.
B.6. Changes to Section 6, On the Future of AS112 Nodes
A reference to this document should be included.
B.7. Changes to Section 8, Security Considerations
Mention should be made that AS112 redirection, as specified in this
document, supports DNSSEC in the sense that the DNAME records which
signal the redirection can be signed.
B.8. Changes to Appendix A, History
A reference to this document should be included.
Appendix C. Editorial Notes
This section (and sub-sections) to be removed prior to publication. This section (and sub-sections) to be removed prior to publication.
C.1. Change History B.1. Change History
00 Initial write-up of Brian's idea, circulated for the purposes of 00 Initial write-up of Brian's idea, circulated for the purposes of
entertainment. entertainment.
01 Some particularly egregious spelling mistakes fixed. Warren 01 Some particularly egregious spelling mistakes fixed. Warren
Kumari and George Michaelson added as co-authors. Intended status Kumari and George Michaelson added as co-authors. Intended status
changed to informational. Appendix on DNAME testing added, changed to informational. Appendix on DNAME testing added,
describing an experiment conducted by Geoff Huston and George describing an experiment conducted by Geoff Huston and George
Michaelson. Michaelson.
00 Adopted by dnsop in IETF88, Vancouver; resubmitted as 00 Adopted by dnsop in IETF88, Vancouver; resubmitted as
draft-ietf-dnsop-as112-dname. Changed contact info for Brian. draft-ietf-dnsop-as112-dname. Changed contact info for Brian.
01 Minor updates following submission of
[I-D.jabley-dnsop-rfc6304bis].
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Joe Abley Joe Abley
Dyn, Inc. Dyn, Inc.
470 Moore Street 470 Moore Street
London, ON N6C 2C2 London, ON N6C 2C2
Canada Canada
Phone: +1 519 670 9327 Phone: +1 519 670 9327
Email: jabley@dyn.com Email: jabley@dyn.com
Brian Dickson Brian Dickson
Verisign Labs Verisign Labs
12061 Bluemont Way 12061 Bluemont Way
Reston, VA 20190 Reston, VA 20190
USA
Email: bdickson@verisign.com Email: bdickson@verisign.com
Warren Kumari Warren Kumari
Google Google
1600 Amphitheatre Parkway 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View, CA 94043 Mountain View, CA 94043
USA
Email: warren@kumari.net Email: warren@kumari.net
George Michaelson George Michaelson
APNIC APNIC
Email: ggm@apnic.net Email: ggm@apnic.net
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