DNSOP                                                        W. Hardaker
Internet-Draft                                             Parsons, Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track                       February 14,                            May 13, 2014
Expires: August 18, November 14, 2014

                 Child To Parent Synchronization in DNS
                draft-ietf-dnsop-child-syncronization-00
                draft-ietf-dnsop-child-syncronization-01

Abstract

   This document specifies how a child zone in the DNS can publish a
   record to indicate to a parental agent that it may copy and process
   certain records from the child zone.  The existence of and value
   change of the record may be monitored by a parental agent, after which the parent
   may act agent and acted
   on the data appropriately. as appropriate.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 18, November 14, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Terminology Used in This Document  . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Definition of the CSYNC RRType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     2.1.  The CSYNC Resource Record Format . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       2.1.1.  The CSYNC Resource Record Wire Format  . . . . . . . .  4  5
       2.1.2.  The CSYNC Presentation Format  . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       2.1.3.  CSYNC RR Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.2.
   3.  CSYNC Data Processing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       2.2.1.
     3.1.  Processing Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
       2.2.2.
     3.2.  CSYNC Record Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     2.3.
       3.2.1.  The NS type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.2.2.  The A and AAAA types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   4.  Operational Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       2.3.1.
     4.1.  Error Reporting  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       2.3.2.
     4.2.  Child Nameserver Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
       2.3.3.  Documented Parental Agent Type Support
     4.3.  Out-of-balliwick NS Records  . . . . . . . . 10
       2.3.4.  Other Considerations . . . . . . . 10
     4.4.  Documented Parental Agent Type Support . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3.
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   4. 11
   6.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   5.
   7.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.
   8.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     6.1. 12
     8.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     6.2. 12
     8.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 12
   Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 13

1.  Introduction

   This document specifies how a child zone in the DNS ([RFC1034],
   [RFC1035]) can publish a record to indicate to a parental agent that
   it may copy and process certain records from the child zone.  The
   existence of and value change of the record may be monitored by a
   parental agent, after which the parent
   may act agent and acted on the data appropriately. as appropriate.

   Some resource records (RRs) in a parent zone are typically expected
   to be in-sync with the source data in the child's zone.  The most
   common records, to date, records that should match match, to date, are the nameserver (NS)
   records and any necessary associated address "glue" records (A and
   AAAA). AAAA),
   also known as "glue records".  These records are referred to as
   "delegation records".

   It has been traditionally challenging for children child DNS operators to
   update their delegation records within the parent's set in a timely
   fashion.  This difficulty is frequently from simple operator laziness
   or because of the complexities of maintaining a large number of DNS
   zones.  Having an automated mechanism for signaling updates will
   greatly ease the child zone operator's maintenance burden and improve
   the robustness of the DNS as a whole.

   This draft introduces a new RR type Resource Record Type (RRType) named
   "CSYNC" that indicates which delegation records published by a child
   DNS operator should be processed by a parental agent and used to
   update the parent zone's DNS data.

   This specification does not address how to perform bootstrapping
   operations to get the required initial DNSSEC-secured operating
   environment in place.  Additionally, this specification was not designed to synchronize DNSSEC security
   records, such as DS pointers. RRsets.  For such a solution, please solution to this problem, see the
   complimentary solution
   [I-D.kumari-ogud-dnsop-cds] for maintaining
   [I-D.ietf-dnsop-delegation-trust-maintainance], which is designed to
   maintain security delegation information.  In addition, this
   specification does not address how to perform bootstrapping
   operations, including to get the required initial DNSSEC-secured
   operating environment in place.

1.1.  Terminology Used in This Document

   The terminology used in this document is defined in this section.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

   This document is aimed at the case where there is an organizational
   separation of

   Terminology describing relationships between the child and parent.  In interacting roles
   involved in this case there document are many
   different operating situations.  A common case is the Registrant/
   Registrar/Registry relationship, used by many Top Level Domains defined in the DNS.  In this case, the parent consists of Registrar and
   Registry, with different rules about what each can do or not do.  To
   remain operating model neutral we will use the neutral word "Parental
   Agent" as the following list:

   Child:  The entity on record that uses results of DNS queries discussed in
   this document to update has the delegation records into of the domain
      from the parent zone.

   Parent:  The domain in which the child is registered

   Child DNS operator:  The entity that performs the changes in maintains and publishes the zone
      information for the child DNS is called "DNS
   Publisher".

   Parental agent:  The entity that the child has relationship with, to
      change its delegation information

2.  Definition of the CSYNC RRType

   The CSYNC RRType contains, in its RDATA component, these parts: an
   SOA serial number, a set of flags and a simple bit-list indicating
   the DNS RRTypes in the child that should be processed by the parental
   agent in order to modify the DNS delegation records for the child within the
   parent's zone.  Children zone for the child DNS operator.  Child DNS operators
   wanting a parental agent to perform the synchronization steps
   outlined in this document MUST publish a CSYNC record at the apex of
   the child zone.  Parental agent implementations MAY choose to query
   child zones for this record and process DNS record data as indicated
   by the Type Bit Map field in the RDATA of the CSYNC record.  How the
   data is processed is described
   later in Section Section 2.2. 3.

   Parental agents MUST process the entire set of child data indicated
   by the Type Bit Map field (i.e., all record types indicated along
   with all of the necessary records to support processing of that type)
   or else parental agents MUST NOT make any changes to parental records
   at all.  Errors due to unsupported Type Bit Map bits bits, or otherwise
   nonpunishable data data, SHALL result in no change to the parent zone's
   delegation information for the child. Child.  Parental agents MUST ignore a
   child's
   Child's CSYNC RDATA set if multiple CSYNC resource records are found;
   only a single CSYNC record should ever be expected. present.

   The parental agent MUST perform DNSSEC validation ([RFC4033],
   [RFC4034], [RFC4035]), of the CSYNC RRType data and MUST perform
   DNSSEC validation of any data to be copied from the child Child to the parent.
   Parent.  Parents MUST not NOT process any data from any of these records
   if any of the validation results indicate any anything other than
   "Secure" [RFC4034]. [RFC4034] or if any the required data can not be
   successfully retrieved.

2.1.  The CSYNC Resource Record Format
2.1.1.  The CSYNC Resource Record Wire Format

   The CSYNC RDATA consists of the following fields:

                           1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                          SOA Serial                           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |       Flags                   |            Type Bit Map       /
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      /                     Type Bit Map (continued)                  /
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

2.1.1.1.  The SOA Serial Field

   The SOA Serial field contains a copy of the 32-bit SOA serial number
   from the child zone.  If the value soaminimum flag is non-zero, set, parental agents
   querying children's authoritative servers MUST NOT act on data from
   zones advertising an SOA serial number less than this value.  A
   special  See
   [RFC1982] for properly implementing "less than" logic.  If the
   soaminimum flag is not set, parental agents MUST ignore the value of 0 indicates that no such restriction in
   the SOA Serial Field.  Clients can set the field to any value if the
   soaminimum flag is in place. unset, such as the number zero.

   Note that a child zone's current SOA serial number may be greater
   than the number indicated by the CSYNC record.  A child SHOULD update
   the SOA Serial field in the CSYNC record every time the data being
   referenced by the CSYNC record is changed (e.g. an NS record or
   associated address record is changed).  A child MAY choose to update
   the SOA Serial field to always match the current SOA serial field.

   Parental agents MAY cache SOA serial numbers from data they use and
   refuse to process data from zones older than the last instance they
   pulled data from.

2.1.1.2.  The Flags Field

   The Flags field contains 16 bits of boolean flags defining operations that define
   operations which affect the processing of the CSYNC record.  The
   flags defined in this document are as follows:

      0x00 0x01: "immediate"

      0x00 0x02: "soaminimum"

   The definitions for how the flags are to be used can be found later
   in Section Section 2.2. 3.

   The remaining flags are reserved for use by future specifications.
   Undefined flags MUST be set to 0 by CSYNC publishers.  Parental
   agents MUST NOT process a CSYNC record if it contains a 1 value for a
   flag that is unknown to or unsupported by the parental agent.

2.1.1.2.1.  The Type Bit Map Field

   The Type Bit Map field indicates the record types to be processed by
   the parental agent, according to the procedures in Section Section 2.2. 3.
   The Type Bit Map field is encoded in the same way as the Type Bit
   Maps field of the NSEC record, described in [RFC4034], Section 4.1.2.
   If a bit has been set that a parental agent implementation does not
   understand, the parental agent MUST NOT act upon the record.
   Specifically: a parental agent must not copy data blindly; An IETF
   proposed (or higher) standard specification must exist that defines
   how the data should be processed for a given bit.

2.1.2.  The CSYNC Presentation Format

   The CSYNC presentation format is as follows:

      The SOA Serial field is represented as an integer.

      The Flags field is represented as an integer.

      The Type Bit Map field is represented as a sequence of RR type
      mnemonics.  When the mnemonic is not known, the TYPE
      representation described in [RFC3597], Section 5, MUST be used.
      Implementations that support parsing of presentation format
      records SHOULD be able to read and understand these TYPE
      representations as well.

2.1.3.  CSYNC RR Example

   The following CSYNC RR shows an example entry for "example.com" that
   indicates the NS, A and AAAA bits are set and should be processed by
   the parental agent for example.com.  The parental agent should pull
   data only from a zone using a minimum SOA serial number of 66 (0x42
   in hexadecimal).

   example.com. 3600 IN CSYNC 66 1 3 A NS AAAA

   The RDATA component of the example CSYNC RR would be encoded on the
   wire as follows:

     0x00 0x00 0x00 0x42             (SOA Serial)
     0x00 0x01 0x03                       (Flags [the = immediate bit is set]) | soaminimum)
     0x00 0x04 0x60 0x00 0x00 0x08   (Type Bit Map)

2.2.

3.  CSYNC Data Processing

   The CSYNC record and associated data must be processed as an "all or
   nothing" operation set.  If a parental agent fails to successfully
   query for any of the required records, the whole operation MUST be
   aborted.  (Note that a query resulting in "no records exist" as
   proven by NSEC or NSEC3 is to be considered successful).

   Parental agents MAY:

      Process the CSYNC record immediately after noticing it if the "immediate" flag is
      set.  If the "immediate" flag is not set, the parental agent MUST not
      NOT act until the zone administrator approves the operation
      through an out-of-band mechanism (such as through pushing a button
      via a web interface).

      Require that the child zone administrator approve the operation
      through an out-of-band mechanism (such as through pushing a button
      via a web interface).  I.e., a parental agent MAY choose not to
      support the "immediate" flag.

   Note: how the approval is done out-of-band is outside the scope of
   this document and is implementation-specific to parental agents.

2.2.1.

3.1.  Processing Procedure

   The following shows a sequence of steps that SHOULD be used when
   collecting and processing CSYNC records from a child zone.  Because
   DNS queries are not allowed to contain more than one "question" at a
   time, a sequence of requests is needed.  When processing a CSYNC
   transaction request, all DNS queries should be sent to a single
   authoritative name server for the child zone.  To ensure a single
   host is being addressed, DNS over TCP SHOULD be used to avoid
   conversing with multiple nodes at an anycast address.

   1.  Query for the child zone's SOA record

   2.  Query for the child zone's CSYNC record

   3.  Query for the child zone's data records, as required by the CSYNC
       record's Type Bit Map field

   4.  Query for the child zone's SOA record again

   If the SOA records from the first and last steps have different
   serial numbers, then the CSYNC record obtained in the second set MUST
   NOT be processed.  The operation MAY be restarted or retried in the
   future.

   If the SOA serial numbers are equal but less than the CSYNC record's
   SOA Serial Field, Field [RFC1982], the record MUST NOT be processed.  If
   state is being kept by the parental agent and the SOA serial number
   is less than the last time a CSYNC record was processed, this CSYNC
   record SHOULD NOT be processed.  Similarly, if state is being kept by
   the parental agent and the SOA Serial Field of the CSYNC record is
   less than the SOA Serial Field of the CSYNC record from last time,
   then this CSYNC record SHOULD NOT be processed.

   If a failure occurs of any kind while trying to obtain any of the
   required data, or if DNSSEC fails to validate all of the data
   returned for these queries as "secure", then this CSYNC record MUST
   NOT be processed.

   See the "Operational Consideration" section (Section Section 2.3) 4) for
   additional guidance about processing.

2.2.2.

3.2.  CSYNC Record Types

   This document defines how the following record types may be processed
   if the CSYNC Type Bit Map field indicates they should are to be processed.

2.2.2.1.

3.2.1.  The NS type

   The NS type flag indicates that the NS records from the child zone
   should be copied into the parent's delegation information records for
   the child.

   NS records found within the child's zone should be copied verbatim
   and the result published within the parent zone should be an exact
   matching set of NS records.  If the child has published a new NS
   record within their set, this record should be added to the parent
   zone.  Similarly, if NS records in the parent's delegation records
   for the child contain records that have been removed in the child's
   NS set, then they should be removed in the parent's set as well.

   Parental agents MAY refuse to perform NS updates if the replacement
   records fail to meet NS record policies required by the parent zone
   (e.g. "every child zone must have at least 2 NS records").

2.2.2.2.

3.2.2.  The A and AAAA types

   The A and AAAA type flags indicates that the A and AAAA,
   respectively, address glue records for in-bailiwick NS records within
   the child zone should be copied into the parent's delegation
   information.

   Queries should be sent by the parental agent to determine the A and
   AAAA record addresses for each NS record within a NS set for the
   child that are in-bailiwick.

   Note: only the matching types should be queried.  E.g., if the AAAA
   bit has not been set, then the AAAA records (if any) in the parent's
   delegation should remain as is.  If a given address type is set and
   the child's zone contains no data for that type (as proven by
   appropriate NSEC or NSEC3 records), then the result in the parent's
   delegation records for the child should be an empty set.

   The procedure for querying for A and AAAA records MUST occur after
   the procedure, if required, for querying for NS records as defined in
   Section Section 2.2.2.1. 3.2.1.  This ensures that the right set of NS records
   is used as provided by the current NS set of the child.  I.e,  I.e., for
   CSYNC records that have the NS bit set, the NS set used should be the
   ones
   one pulled from the child while processing the CSYNC record.  For
   CSYNC records without the NS bit set, the existing NS records within
   the parent should be used to determine which A and/or AAAA records to
   update.

2.3.

4.  Operational Considerations

   There are a number of important things operational aspects to consider when
   deploying a CSYNC RRType.

2.3.1.

4.1.  Error Reporting

   There is no inline mechanism for a parental agent to report errors to
   operators of child zones.  Thus, the only error reporting mechanisms
   must be out of band, such as through a web console or over email.
   Child operators utilizing the "immediate" flag that fail to see an
   update within the parental agent's specified operational window
   should access the parental agent's error logging interface to
   determine why an update failed to be processed.

2.3.2.

4.2.  Child Nameserver Selection

   Parental agents will need to poll child nameservers in search of
   CSYNC records and related data records.

   Parental agents MAY perform best-possible verification by querying
   all NS records for available data to determine which has the most
   recent SOA and CSYNC version (in an ideal world, they would all be
   equal
   equal, but this is not possible in practice due to synchronization
   delays and transfer failures).

   Parental agents MAY offer a configuration interface to allow child
   operators to specify which nameserver should be considered the master
   to send data queries too.  This master may not MAY be one of a different nameserver
   than the publically listed nameservers in the NS set (i.e., it may be
   a "hidden master").

2.3.3.

   Parental agents MAY offer a programmatic interface to let children
   indicate that new CSYNC records and data are available for polling.

4.3.  Out-of-balliwick NS Records

   When a zone contains NS records where the domain-name pointed at does
   not fall within the zone itself, there is no way for the parent to
   safely update the associated glue records.  Thus, the child DNS
   operator MAY indicate that the NS records should be synchronized, and
   may set any glue record flags (A, AAAA) as well, but the parent will
   only update those glue records which are below the child's delegation
   point.

   Children deploying NS records pointing to domain-names within their
   own children (the "grandchildren") SHOULD ensure the grandchildren's
   associated glue records are properly set before publishing the CSYNC
   record.  I.e., it is imperative that proper communication and
   synchronization exist between the child and the grandchild.

4.4.  Documented Parental Agent Type Support

   Parental agents that support processing CSYNC records SHOULD publicly
   document the following minimum processing characteristics:

      The fact that they support CSYNC processing

      The Type Bit Map bits they support

      The frequency with which they poll clients (which MAY also be
      configurable by the client)

      If they support the "immediate" flag

      If they poll a child's single nameserver, a configured list of
      nameservers, or all of the advertised nameservers when querying
      records

      If they support SOA serial number caching to avoid issues with
      regression and/or replay

      Where errors for CSYNC processing are published
      If they support sending queries to a "hidden master".

2.3.4.  Other Considerations

   XXX: Discuss complete replacement scenarios and if allowed.

3.

5.  Security Considerations

   This specification requires the use of DNSSEC in order to determine
   that the data being updated was unmodified by third-parties.
   Parental agents implementing CSYNC processing MUST ensure all DNS
   transactions are validated by DNSSEC as "secure".  Clients deploying
   CSYNC MUST ensure their zones are signed, current and properly linked
   to the parent zone with a DS record that points to an appropriate
   DNSKEY of the child's zone.

   This specification does not address how to perform bootstrapping
   operations to get the required initial DNSSEC-secured operating
   environment in place.  Additionally, this specification was not
   designed to synchronize DNSSEC security records, such as DS pointers.
   For such a solution, please see the complimentary solution
   [I-D.kumari-ogud-dnsop-cds]
   [I-D.ietf-dnsop-delegation-trust-maintainance] for maintaining
   security delegation information.

4.

6.  IANA Considerations

   TBD

5.

   This document defines a set of single-bit "Flags" for use in the
   CSYNC record within the 16 bit Flags field.  Thus, a maximum of 16
   flags may be defined.  The two initial flags defined by this document
   are:

      0x00 0x01: "immediate"

      0x00 0x02: "soaminimum"

   Assignment of new flag values are subject to "RFC Required"
   specifications [RFC5226].

7.  Acknowledgments

   A thank you goes out to Warren Kumari and Olafur Gu[eth]mundsson,
   who's work on the CDS record type helped inspire the work in this
   document, as well as the definition for "Parental Agent" and "DNS
   Publisher" definitions. the "parental agent"
   definition.  A thank you also goes out to Ed Lewis, who the author
   held many conversations with about the issues surrounding
   parent/child parent/
   child relationships and synchronization.  Much of the work in this
   document is derived from the careful existing analysis of these three
   esteemed colleagues.  Thank you to the following people who have
   contributed text to the document: Matthijs Mekking and Petr Spacek.

   A special thanks goes to Roy Arends, for taking the "bite out of that
   hamburger" challenge while discussing this document.

6.

8.  References

6.1.

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC1982]  Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Serial Number Arithmetic", RFC 1982,
              August 1996.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3597]  Gustafsson, A., "Handling of Unknown DNS Resource Record
              (RR) Types", RFC 3597, September 2003.

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions",
              RFC 4034, March 2005.

6.2.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC1034]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
              STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, March 2005.

   [RFC4035]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
              Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4035, March 2005.

   [I-D.kumari-ogud-dnsop-cds]

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [I-D.ietf-dnsop-delegation-trust-maintainance]
              Kumari, W., Gudmundsson, O., and G. Barwood, "Automating
              DNSSEC delegation trust maintenance",
              draft-kumari-ogud-dnsop-cds-05 Delegation Trust Maintenance",
              draft-ietf-dnsop-delegation-trust-maintainance-13 (work in
              progress),
              October 2013. May 2014.

Author's Address

   Wes Hardaker
   Parsons, Inc.
   P.O. Box 382
   Davis, CA  95617
   US

   Phone: +1 530 792 1913
   Email: ietf@hardakers.net