draft-ietf-dnsop-extended-error-03.txt   draft-ietf-dnsop-extended-error-04.txt 
Network Working Group W. Kumari Network Working Group W. Kumari
Internet-Draft Google Internet-Draft Google
Intended status: Standards Track E. Hunt Intended status: Standards Track E. Hunt
Expires: June 23, 2019 ISC Expires: July 11, 2019 ISC
R. Arends R. Arends
ICANN ICANN
W. Hardaker W. Hardaker
USC/ISI USC/ISI
D. Lawrence D. Lawrence
Oracle + Dyn Oracle + Dyn
December 20, 2018 January 07, 2019
Extended DNS Errors Extended DNS Errors
draft-ietf-dnsop-extended-error-03 draft-ietf-dnsop-extended-error-04
Abstract Abstract
This document defines an extensible method to return additional This document defines an extensible method to return additional
information about the cause of DNS errors. Though created primarily information about the cause of DNS errors. Though created primarily
to extend SERVFAIL to provide additional information about the cause to extend SERVFAIL to provide additional information about the cause
of DNS and DNSSEC failures, the Extended DNS Errors option defined in of DNS and DNSSEC failures, the Extended DNS Errors option defined in
this document allows all response types to contain extended error this document allows all response types to contain extended error
information. information.
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 23, 2019. This Internet-Draft will expire on July 11, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
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carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
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1. Introduction and background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction and background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Extended Error EDNS0 option format . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Extended Error EDNS0 option format . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Use of the Extended DNS Error option . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Use of the Extended DNS Error option . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. The R (Retry) flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. The R (Retry) flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. The RESPONSE-CODE field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. The RESPONSE-CODE field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3. The INFO-CODE field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3. The INFO-CODE field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.4. The EXTRA-TEXT field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.4. The EXTRA-TEXT field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Defined Extended DNS Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Defined Extended DNS Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: SERVFAIL(2) . . . 6 4.1. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: NOERROR(0) . . . . 6
4.1.1. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 1 - DNSSEC Bogus . . 6 4.1.1. NOERROR Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Unsupported
4.1.2. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 2 - DNSSEC DNSKEY Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1.2. NOERROR Extended DNS Error Code 2 - Unsupported
DS Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: SERVFAIL(2) . . . 6
4.2.1. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 1 - DNSSEC Bogus . . 6
4.2.2. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 2 - DNSSEC
Indeterminate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Indeterminate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1.3. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 3 - Signature 4.2.3. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 3 - Signature
Expired . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Expired . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1.4. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 4 - Signature Not 4.2.4. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 4 - Signature Not
Yet Valid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Yet Valid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1.5. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 5 - Unsupported 4.2.5. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 5 - DNSKEY missing . 6
DNSKEY Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2.6. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 6 - RRSIGs missing . 7
4.1.6. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 6 - Unsupported 4.2.7. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 7 - No Zone Key Bit
DS Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1.7. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 7 - DNSKEY missing . 6
4.1.8. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 8 - RRSIGs missing . 7
4.1.9. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 9 - No Zone Key Bit
Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: REFUSED(5) . . . . 7 4.3. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: REFUSED(5) . . . . 7
4.2.1. REFUSED Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Lame . . . . . . 7 4.3.1. REFUSED Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Lame . . . . . . 7
4.2.2. REFUSED Extended DNS Error Code 2 - Prohibited . . . 7 4.3.2. REFUSED Extended DNS Error Code 2 - Prohibited . . . 7
4.3. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: NXDOMAIN(3) . . . 7 4.4. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: NXDOMAIN(3) . . . 7
4.3.1. NXDOMAIN Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Blocked . . . . 7 4.4.1. NXDOMAIN Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Blocked . . . . 7
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.1. new Extended Error Code EDNS Option . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.1. new Extended Error Code EDNS Option . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.2. New Extended Error Code EDNS Option . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.2. New Extended Error Code EDNS Option . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Appendix A. Changes / Author Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Appendix A. Changes / Author Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
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length of the payload (everything after OPTION-LENGTH) in octets length of the payload (everything after OPTION-LENGTH) in octets
and should be 4 plus the length of the EXTRA-TEXT section (which and should be 4 plus the length of the EXTRA-TEXT section (which
may be a zero-length string). may be a zero-length string).
o The RETRY flag, 1 bit; the RETRY bit (R) indicates a flag defined o The RETRY flag, 1 bit; the RETRY bit (R) indicates a flag defined
for use in this specification. for use in this specification.
o The RESERVED bits, 15 bits: these bits are reserved for future o The RESERVED bits, 15 bits: these bits are reserved for future
use, potentially as additional flags. The RESERVED bits MUST be use, potentially as additional flags. The RESERVED bits MUST be
set to 0 by the sender and SHOULD be ignored by the receiver. set to 0 by the sender and SHOULD be ignored by the receiver.
o RESPONSE-CODE, 4 bits. o RESPONSE-CODE, 4 bits.
o INFO-CODE, 12-bits. o INFO-CODE, 12-bits.
o EXTRA-TEXT, a variable length, ASCII encoded, text field that may o EXTRA-TEXT, a variable length, UTF-8 encoded, text field that may
hold additional textual information. hold additional textual information.
3. Use of the Extended DNS Error option 3. Use of the Extended DNS Error option
The Extended DNS Error (EDE) is an EDNS option. It can be included The Extended DNS Error (EDE) is an EDNS option. It can be included
in any response (SERVFAIL, NXDOMAIN, REFUSED, etc) to a query that in any response (SERVFAIL, NXDOMAIN, REFUSED, etc) to a query that
includes an EDNS option. This document includes a set of initial includes an EDNS option. This document includes a set of initial
codepoints (and requests to the IANA to add them to the registry), codepoints (and requests to the IANA to add them to the registry),
but is extensible via the IANA registry to allow additional error and but is extensible via the IANA registry to allow additional error and
information codes to be defined in the future. information codes to be defined in the future.
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different RCODE. different RCODE.
3.3. The INFO-CODE field 3.3. The INFO-CODE field
This 12-bit value provides the additional context for the RESPONSE- This 12-bit value provides the additional context for the RESPONSE-
CODE value. This combination of the RESPONSE-CODE and the INFO-CODE CODE value. This combination of the RESPONSE-CODE and the INFO-CODE
serve as a joint-index into the IANA "Extended DNS Errors" registry. serve as a joint-index into the IANA "Extended DNS Errors" registry.
3.4. The EXTRA-TEXT field 3.4. The EXTRA-TEXT field
The ASCII-encoded, EXTRA-TEXT field may be zero-length, or may hold The UTF-8-encoded, EXTRA-TEXT field may be zero-length, or may hold
additional information useful to network operators. additional information useful to network operators.
4. Defined Extended DNS Errors 4. Defined Extended DNS Errors
This document defines some initial EDE codes. The mechanism is This document defines some initial EDE codes. The mechanism is
intended to be extensible, and additional code-points can be intended to be extensible, and additional code-points can be
registered in the "Extended DNS Errors" registry. This document registered in the "Extended DNS Errors" registry. This document
provides suggestions for the R flag, but the originating server may provides suggestions for the R flag, but the originating server may
ignore these recommendations if it knows better. ignore these recommendations if it knows better.
The RESPONSE-CODE and the INFO-CODE from the EDE EDNS option is used The RESPONSE-CODE and the INFO-CODE from the EDE EDNS option is used
to serve as a double index into the "Extended DNS Error codes" IANA to serve as a double index into the "Extended DNS Error codes" IANA
registry, the initial values for which are defined in the following registry, the initial values for which are defined in the following
sub-sections. sub-sections.
4.1. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: SERVFAIL(2) 4.1. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: NOERROR(0)
4.1.1. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 1 - DNSSEC Bogus 4.1.1. NOERROR Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Unsupported DNSKEY Algorithm
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but a DNSKEY
RRSET contained only unknown algorithms. The R flag should be set.
4.1.2. NOERROR Extended DNS Error Code 2 - Unsupported DS Algorithm
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but a DS RRSET
contained only unknown algorithms. The R flag should be set.
4.2. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: SERVFAIL(2)
4.2.1. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 1 - DNSSEC Bogus
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but validation The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but validation
ended in the Bogus state. The R flag should not be set. ended in the Bogus state. The R flag should not be set.
4.1.2. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 2 - DNSSEC Indeterminate 4.2.2. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 2 - DNSSEC Indeterminate
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but validation The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but validation
ended in the Indeterminate state. The R flag should not be set. ended in the Indeterminate state. The R flag should not be set.
4.1.3. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 3 - Signature Expired 4.2.3. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 3 - Signature Expired
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but the The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but the
signature was expired. The R flag should not be set. signature was expired. The R flag should not be set.
4.1.4. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 4 - Signature Not Yet Valid 4.2.4. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 4 - Signature Not Yet Valid
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but the The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but the
signatures received were not yet valid. The R flag should not be signatures received were not yet valid. The R flag should not be
set. set.
4.1.5. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 5 - Unsupported DNSKEY 4.2.5. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 5 - DNSKEY missing
Algorithm
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but a DNSKEY
RRSET contained only unknown algorithms. The R flag should be set.
4.1.6. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 6 - Unsupported DS Algorithm
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but a DS RRSET
contained only unknown algorithms. The R flag should be set.
4.1.7. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 7 - DNSKEY missing
A DS record existed at a parent, but no DNSKEY record could be found A DS record existed at a parent, but no DNSKEY record could be found
for the child. The R flag should not be set. for the child. The R flag should not be set.
4.1.8. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 8 - RRSIGs missing 4.2.6. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 6 - RRSIGs missing
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but no RRSIGs The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but no RRSIGs
could be found for at least one RRset where RRSIGs were expected. could be found for at least one RRset where RRSIGs were expected.
4.1.9. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 9 - No Zone Key Bit Set 4.2.7. SERVFAIL Extended DNS Error Code 7 - No Zone Key Bit Set
The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but no Zone Key The resolver attempted to perform DNSSEC validation, but no Zone Key
Bit was set in a DNSKEY. Bit was set in a DNSKEY.
4.2. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: REFUSED(5) 4.3. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: REFUSED(5)
4.2.1. REFUSED Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Lame 4.3.1. REFUSED Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Lame
An authoritative resolver that receives a query (with the RD bit An authoritative resolver that receives a query (with the RD bit
clear) for a domain for which it is not authoritative SHOULD include clear) for a domain for which it is not authoritative SHOULD include
this EDE code in the REFUSED response. Implementations should set this EDE code in the REFUSED response. Implementations should set
the R flag in this case (another nameserver might not be lame). the R flag in this case (another nameserver might not be lame).
4.2.2. REFUSED Extended DNS Error Code 2 - Prohibited 4.3.2. REFUSED Extended DNS Error Code 2 - Prohibited
An authoritative or recursive resolver that receives a query from an An authoritative or recursive resolver that receives a query from an
"unauthorized" client can annotate its REFUSED message with this "unauthorized" client can annotate its REFUSED message with this
code. Examples of "unauthorized" clients are recursive queries from code. Examples of "unauthorized" clients are recursive queries from
IP addresses outside the network, blacklisted IP addresses, local IP addresses outside the network, blacklisted IP addresses, local
policy, etc. policy, etc.
Implementations SHOULD allow operators to define what to set the R Implementations SHOULD allow operators to define what to set the R
flag to in this case. flag to in this case.
4.3. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: NXDOMAIN(3) 4.4. INFO-CODEs for use with RESPONSE-CODE: NXDOMAIN(3)
4.3.1. NXDOMAIN Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Blocked 4.4.1. NXDOMAIN Extended DNS Error Code 1 - Blocked
The resolver attempted to perfom a DNS query but the domain is The resolver attempted to perfom a DNS query but the domain is
blacklisted due to a security policy. The R flag should not be set. blacklisted due to a security policy. The R flag should not be set.
5. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
5.1. new Extended Error Code EDNS Option 5.1. new Extended Error Code EDNS Option
This document defines a new EDNS(0) option, entitled "Extended DNS This document defines a new EDNS(0) option, entitled "Extended DNS
Error", assigned a value of TBD1 from the "DNS EDNS0 Option Codes Error", assigned a value of TBD1 from the "DNS EDNS0 Option Codes
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"Extended DNS Error codes" registry. The codepoint space for each "Extended DNS Error codes" registry. The codepoint space for each
INFO-CODE index is to be broken into 3 ranges: INFO-CODE index is to be broken into 3 ranges:
o 0 - 3583: Specification required. o 0 - 3583: Specification required.
o 3584 - 3839: First Come First Served. o 3584 - 3839: First Come First Served.
o 3840 - 4095: Experimental / Private use o 3840 - 4095: Experimental / Private use
A starting set of entries, based on the contents of this document, is A starting set of entries, based on the contents of this document, is
as follows: as follows:
RESPONSE-CODE: 0 (NOERROR)
INFO-CODE: 1
Purpose: Unsupported DNSKEY
Reference: Section 4.1.1
RESPONSE-CODE: 0 (NOERROR)
INFO-CODE: 2
Purpose: Unsupported DS Algorithm
Reference: Section 4.1.2
RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL) RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL)
INFO-CODE: 1 INFO-CODE: 1
Purpose: DNSSEC Bogus Purpose: DNSSEC Bogus
Reference: Section 4.1.1 Reference: Section 4.2.1
RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL) RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL)
INFO-CODE: 2 INFO-CODE: 2
Purpose: DNSSEC Indeterminate Purpose: DNSSEC Indeterminate
Reference: Section 4.1.2 Reference: Section 4.2.2
RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL) RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL)
INFO-CODE: 3 INFO-CODE: 3
Purpose: Signature Expired Purpose: Signature Expired
Reference: Section 4.1.3 Reference: Section 4.2.3
RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL) RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL)
INFO-CODE: 4 INFO-CODE: 4
Purpose: Signature Not Yet Valid Purpose: Signature Not Yet Valid
Reference: Section 4.1.4 Reference: Section 4.2.4
RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL) RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL)
INFO-CODE: 5 INFO-CODE: 5
Purpose: Unsupported DNSKEY
Reference: Section 4.1.5
RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL)
INFO-CODE: 6
Purpose: Unsupported DS Algorithm
Reference: Section 4.1.6
RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL)
INFO-CODE: 7
Purpose: DNSKEY missing Purpose: DNSKEY missing
Reference: Section 4.1.7 Reference: Section 4.2.5
RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL) RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL)
INFO-CODE: 8 INFO-CODE: 6
Purpose: RRSIGs missing Purpose: RRSIGs missing
Reference: Section 4.1.8 Reference: Section 4.2.6
RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL) RESPONSE-CODE: 2 (SERVFAIL)
INFO-CODE: 9 INFO-CODE: 7
Purpose: No Zone Key Bit Set Purpose: No Zone Key Bit Set
Reference: Section 4.1.9 Reference: Section 4.2.7
RESPONSE-CODE: 3 (NXDOMAIN) RESPONSE-CODE: 3 (NXDOMAIN)
INFO-CODE: 1 INFO-CODE: 1
Purpose: Blocked Purpose: Blocked
Reference: Section 4.3.1 Reference: Section 4.4.1
RESPONSE-CODE: 5 (REFUSED) RESPONSE-CODE: 5 (REFUSED)
INFO-CODE: 1 INFO-CODE: 1
Purpose: Lame Purpose: Lame
Reference: Section 4.2.1 Reference: Section 4.3.1
RESPONSE-CODE: 5 (REFUSED) RESPONSE-CODE: 5 (REFUSED)
INFO-CODE: 2 INFO-CODE: 2
Purpose: Prohibited Purpose: Prohibited
Reference: Section 4.2.2 Reference: Section 4.3.2
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
Though DNSSEC continues to be deployed, unfortunately a significant Though DNSSEC continues to be deployed, unfortunately a significant
number of clients (~11% according to [GeoffValidation]) that receive number of clients (~11% according to [GeoffValidation]) that receive
a SERVFAIL from a validating resolver because of a DNSSEC validaion a SERVFAIL from a validating resolver because of a DNSSEC validaion
issue will simply ask the next (potentially non-validating) resolver issue will simply ask the next (potentially non-validating) resolver
in their list, and thus don't get any of the protections which DNSSEC in their list, and thus don't get any of the protections which DNSSEC
should provide. This is very similar to a kid asking his mother if should provide. This is very similar to a kid asking his mother if
he can have another cookie. When the mother says "No, it will ruin he can have another cookie. When the mother says "No, it will ruin
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mechanisms, there are some tradeoffs. As an example, an attacker who mechanisms, there are some tradeoffs. As an example, an attacker who
is able to insert the DNSSEC Bogus Extended Error into a packet could is able to insert the DNSSEC Bogus Extended Error into a packet could
instead simply reply with a fictitious address (A or AAAA) record. instead simply reply with a fictitious address (A or AAAA) record.
The R bit hint and extended error information are informational - The R bit hint and extended error information are informational -
implementations can choose how much to trust this information and implementations can choose how much to trust this information and
validating resolvers / stubs may choose to put a different weight on validating resolvers / stubs may choose to put a different weight on
it. it.
7. Acknowledgements 7. Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank Joe Abley, Mark Andrews, Peter DeVries, The authors wish to thank Joe Abley, Mark Andrews, Vladimir Cunat,
Peter van Dijk, Donald Eastlake, Bob Harold, Evan Hunt, Geoff Huston, Peter DeVries, Peter van Dijk, Donald Eastlake, Bob Harold, Evan
Shane Kerr, Edward Lewis, Carlos M. Martinez, George Michelson, Petr Hunt, Geoff Huston, Shane Kerr, Edward Lewis, Carlos M. Martinez,
Spacek, Ondrej Sury, Loganaden Velvindron, and Paul Vixie. They also George Michelson, Petr Spacek, Ondrej Sury, Loganaden Velvindron, and
vaguely remember discussing this with a number of people over the Paul Vixie. They also vaguely remember discussing this with a number
years, but have forgotten who all they were -- if you were one of of people over the years, but have forgotten who all they were -- if
them, and are not listed, please let us know and we'll acknowledge you were one of them, and are not listed, please let us know and
you. we'll acknowledge you.
I also want to thank the band "Infected Mushroom" for providing a I also want to thank the band "Infected Mushroom" for providing a
good background soundtrack (and to see if I can get away with this!) good background soundtrack (and to see if I can get away with this!)
Another author would like to thank the band "Mushroom Infectors". Another author would like to thank the band "Mushroom Infectors".
This was funny at the time we wrote it, but I cannot remember why... This was funny at the time we wrote it, but I cannot remember why...
8. References 8. References
8.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
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