draft-ietf-dnsop-kskroll-sentinel-17.txt   rfc8509.txt 
DNSOP G. Huston Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) G. Huston
Internet-Draft J. Damas Request for Comments: 8509 J. Damas
Intended status: Standards Track APNIC Category: Standards Track APNIC
Expires: April 23, 2019 W. Kumari ISSN: 2070-1721 W. Kumari
Google Google
October 20, 2018 December 2018
A Root Key Trust Anchor Sentinel for DNSSEC A Root Key Trust Anchor Sentinel for DNSSEC
draft-ietf-dnsop-kskroll-sentinel-17
Abstract Abstract
The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) were developed to provide origin The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) were developed to provide origin
authentication and integrity protection for DNS data by using digital authentication and integrity protection for DNS data by using digital
signatures. These digital signatures can be verified by building a signatures. These digital signatures can be verified by building a
chain of trust starting from a trust anchor and proceeding down to a chain of trust starting from a trust anchor and proceeding down to a
particular node in the DNS. This document specifies a mechanism that particular node in the DNS. This document specifies a mechanism that
will allow an end user and third parties to determine the trusted key will allow an end user and third parties to determine the trusted key
state for the root key of the resolvers that handle that user's DNS state for the root key of the resolvers that handle that user's DNS
queries. Note that this method is only applicable for determining queries. Note that this method is only applicable for determining
which keys are in the trust store for the root key. which keys are in the trust store for the root key.
[ This document is being collaborated on in Github at:
https://github.com/APNIC-Labs/draft-kskroll-sentinel. The most
recent version of the document, open issues, etc should all be
available here. The authors (gratefully) accept pull requests. RFC
Editor, please remove text in square brackets before publication. ]
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
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Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 23, 2019. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8509.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Sentinel Mechanism in Resolvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Sentinel Mechanism in Resolvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Preconditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Preconditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2. Special Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Special Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Sentinel Tests for a Single DNS Resolver . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Sentinel Tests for a Single DNS Resolver . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.1. Forwarders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1. Forwarders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4. Sentinel Tests for Multiple Resolvers . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4. Sentinel Tests for Multiple Resolvers . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1. Test Scenario and Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.1. Test Scenario and Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2. Test Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.2. Test Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3. Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.3. Test Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Privacy Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7. Implementation Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix A. Protocol Walk-Through Example . . . . . . . . . . . 16
11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix A. Protocol Walkthrough Example . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) [RFC4033], [RFC4034] and The DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) [RFC4033], [RFC4034], and
[RFC4035] were developed to provide origin authentication and [RFC4035] were developed to provide origin authentication and
integrity protection for DNS data by using digital signatures. integrity protection for DNS data by using digital signatures.
DNSSEC uses Key Tags to efficiently match signatures to the keys from DNSSEC uses Key Tags to efficiently match signatures to the keys from
which they are generated. The Key Tag is a 16-bit value computed which they are generated. The Key Tag is a 16-bit value computed
from the RDATA of a DNSKEY RR as described in Appendix B of from the RDATA of a DNSKEY Resource Record (RR) as described in
Appendix B of [RFC4034]. RRSIG RRs contain a Key Tag field whose
[RFC4034]. RRSIG RRs contain a Key Tag field whose value is equal to value is equal to the Key Tag of the DNSKEY RR that was used to
the Key Tag of the DNSKEY RR that was used to generate the generate the corresponding signature.
corresponding signature.
This document specifies how security-aware DNS resolvers that perform This document specifies how security-aware DNS resolvers that perform
validation of their responses can respond to certain queries in a validation of their responses can respond to certain queries in a
manner that allows an agent performing the queries to deduce whether manner that allows an agent performing the queries to deduce whether
a particular key for the root has been loaded into that resolver's a particular key for the root has been loaded into that resolver's
trusted key store. This document also describes a procedure where a trusted-key store. This document also describes a procedure where a
collection of resolvers can be tested to determine if at least one of collection of resolvers can be tested to determine whether at least
these resolvers has loaded a given key into its trusted key store. one of these resolvers has loaded a given key into its trusted-key
These tests can be used to determine whether a certain root zone Key store. These tests can be used to determine whether a certain root
Signing Key (KSK) is ready to be used as a trusted key, within the zone Key Signing Key (KSK) is ready to be used as a trusted key,
context of a planned root zone KSK key roll. within the context of a planned root zone KSK roll.
There are two primary use cases for this mechanism: There are two primary use cases for this mechanism:
o Users may wish to ascertain whether their DNS resolution o Users may wish to ascertain whether their DNS resolution
environment's resolver is ready for an upcoming root KSK rollover. environment's resolver is ready for an upcoming root KSK rollover.
o Researchers want to perform Internet-wide studies about the o Researchers want to perform Internet-wide studies about the
proportion of users who will be negatively impacted by an upcoming proportion of users who will be negatively impacted by an upcoming
root KSK rollover. root KSK rollover.
The mechanism described in this document satisfy the requirements of The mechanism described in this document satisfies the requirements
both these use-cases. This mechanism is OPTIONAL to implement and of both these use cases. This mechanism is OPTIONAL to implement and
use. If implemented, this mechanism SHOULD be enabled by default to use. If implemented, this mechanism SHOULD be enabled by default to
facilitate Internet-wide measurement. Configuration options MAY be facilitate Internet-wide measurement. Configuration options MAY be
provided to disable the mechanism for reasons of local policy. provided to disable the mechanism for reasons of local policy.
The KSK sentinel tests described in this document use a test The KSK sentinel tests described in this document use a test
comprising of a set of DNS queries to domain names that have special comprising a set of DNS queries to domain names that have special
values for the left-most label. The test relies on recursive values for the leftmost label. The test relies on recursive
resolvers supporting a mechanism that recognises this special name resolvers supporting a mechanism that recognizes this special name
pattern in queries, and under certain defined circumstances will pattern in queries; under certain defined circumstances, it will
return a DNS SERVFAIL response code (RCODE 2), mimicking the response return a DNS SERVFAIL response code (RCODE 2), mimicking the response
code that is returned by security-aware resolvers when DNSSEC code that is returned by security-aware resolvers when DNSSEC
validation fails. validation fails.
If a browser or operating system is configured with multiple If a browser or operating system is configured with multiple
resolvers, and those resolvers have different properties (for resolvers, and those resolvers have different properties (for
example, one performs DNSSEC validation and one does not), the example, one performs DNSSEC validation and one does not), the
sentinel test described in this document can still be used. The sentinel test described in this document can still be used. The
sentinel test makes a number of assumptions about DNS resolution sentinel test makes a number of assumptions about DNS resolution
behaviour that may not necessarily hold in all environments; if these behavior that may not necessarily hold in all environments; if these
assumptions do not hold (such as, for example, requiring the stub assumptions do not hold, then this test may produce indeterminate or
resolver to query the next recursive resolver in the locally inconsistent results. This might occur, for example, if the stub
configured set upon receipt of a SERVFAIL response code) then this resolver is required to query the next recursive resolver in the
test may produce indeterminate or inconsistent results. In some locally configured set upon receipt of a SERVFAIL response code. In
cases where these assumptions do not hold, repeating the same test some cases where these assumptions do not hold, repeating the same
query set may generate different results. test query set may generate different results.
Note that the measurements facilitated by the mechanism described in Note that the measurements facilitated by the mechanism described in
this document are different from those of [RFC8145]. RFC 8145 relies this document are different from those of [RFC8145]. RFC 8145 relies
on resolvers reporting towards the root servers a list of locally on resolvers reporting towards the root servers a list of locally
cached trust anchors for the root zone. Those reports can be used to cached trust anchors for the root zone. Those reports can be used to
infer how many resolvers may be impacted by a KSK roll, but not what infer how many resolvers may be impacted by a KSK roll but not what
the user impact of the KSK roll will be. the user impact of the KSK roll will be.
1.1. Terminology 1.1. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown here.
This document contains a number of terms related to the DNS. The This document contains a number of terms related to the DNS. The
current definitions of these terms can be found in [RFC7719]. current definitions of these terms can be found in [RFC7719].
2. Sentinel Mechanism in Resolvers 2. Sentinel Mechanism in Resolvers
DNSSEC-Validating resolvers that implement this mechanism MUST DNSSEC-validating resolvers that implement this mechanism MUST
perform validation of responses in accordance with the DNSSEC perform validation of responses in accordance with the DNSSEC
response validation specification [RFC4035]. response validation specification [RFC4035].
This sentinel mechanism makes use of two special labels: This sentinel mechanism makes use of two special labels:
o root-key-sentinel-is-ta-<key-tag> o root-key-sentinel-is-ta-<key-tag>
o root-key-sentinel-not-ta-<key-tag> o root-key-sentinel-not-ta-<key-tag>
These labels trigger special processing in the validating DNS These labels trigger special processing in the validating DNS
resolver when responses from authoritative servers are received. resolver when responses from authoritative servers are received.
Labels containing "root-key-sentinel-is-ta-<key-tag>" is used to Labels containing "root-key-sentinel-is-ta-<key-tag>" are used to
answer the question "Is this the Key Tag of a key which the answer the question, "Is this the Key Tag of a key that the
validating DNS resolver is currently trusting as a trust anchor?" validating DNS resolver is currently trusting as a trust anchor?"
Labels containing "root-key-sentinel-not-ta-<key-tag>" is used to Labels containing "root-key-sentinel-not-ta-<key-tag>" are used to
answer the question "Is this the Key Tag of a key which the answer the question, "Is this the Key Tag of a key that the
validating DNS resolver is *not* currently trusting as a trust validating DNS resolver is *not* currently trusting as a trust
anchor?". anchor?"
The special labels defined here came after extensive IETF evaluation The special labels defined here were chosen after extensive IETF
of alternative patterns and approaches in light of the desired evaluation of alternative patterns and approaches in light of the
behaviour (sections 2.1, 2.2) within the resolver and the applied desired behavior (Sections 2.1 and 2.2) within the resolver and the
testing methodology (section 4.3). As one example, underscore applied testing methodology (Section 4.3). As one example,
prefixed names were rejected because some browsers and operating underscore-prefixed names were rejected because some browsers and
systems would not fetch them because they domain names but not valid operating systems would not fetch them because they are domain names
hostnames (see [RFC7719] for these definitions). Attention was paid but not valid hostnames (see [RFC7719] for these definitions).
to the consideration of local collisions and the reservation of Consideration was given to local collisions and the reservation of
leftmost labels of a domain name, and the impact upon zone operators leftmost labels of a domain name, as well as the impact upon zone
who might desire to use a similarly constructed hostname for a operators who might desire to use a similarly constructed hostname
purpose other than as documented here. Therefore, it is important to for a purpose other than those documented here. Therefore, it is
note that the reservation of the labels in this manner is definitely important to note that the reservation of the labels in this manner
not considered "best practice". is definitely not considered "best practice".
2.1. Preconditions 2.1. Preconditions
All of the following conditions must be met to trigger special All of the following conditions must be met to trigger special
processing inside resolver code: processing inside resolver code:
o The DNS response is DNSSEC validated. o The DNS response is DNSSEC validated.
o The result of validation is "Secure". o The result of validation is "Secure".
o The EDNS(0) Checking Disabled (CD) bit in the query is not set. o The Extension Mechanisms for DNS (EDNS(0)) Checking Disabled (CD)
bit in the query is not set.
o The QTYPE is either A or AAAA (Query Type value 1 or 28). o The QTYPE is either A or AAAA (Query Type value 1 or 28).
o The OPCODE is QUERY. o The OPCODE is QUERY.
o The leftmost label of the original QNAME (the name sent in the o The leftmost label of the original QNAME (the name sent in the
Question Section in the original query) is either "root-key- Question Section in the original query) is either "root-key-
sentinel-is-ta-<key-tag>" or "root-key-sentinel-not-ta-<key-tag>". sentinel-is-ta-<key-tag>" or "root-key-sentinel-not-ta-<key-tag>".
If any one of the preconditions is not met, the resolver MUST NOT If any one of the preconditions is not met, the resolver MUST NOT
alter the DNS response based on the mechanism in this document. alter the DNS response based on the mechanism in this document.
Note that the <key-tag> is specified in the DNS label as unsigned Note that the <key-tag> is specified in the DNS label as an unsigned
decimal integer (as described in [RFC4034], section 5.3), but zero- decimal integer (as described in [RFC4034], Section 5.3) but is zero-
padded to five digits (for example, a Key Tag value of 42 would be padded to five digits (for example, a Key Tag value of 42 would be
represented in the label as 00042). The precise specification of the represented in the label as 00042). The precise specification of the
special labels above should be followed exactly. For example, a special labels above should be followed exactly. For example, a
label that does not include a Key Tag zero-padded to five digits does label that does not include a Key Tag zero-padded to five digits does
not match this specification, and should not be processed as if they not match this specification and should not be processed as if it did
did -- in other words, such queries should be handled as any other -- in other words, such queries should be handled as any other label
label and not according to Section 2.2. and not according to Section 2.2.
2.2. Special Processing 2.2. Special Processing
Responses which fulfil all of the preconditions in Section 2.1 Responses that fulfill all of the preconditions in Section 2.1
require special processing, depending on leftmost label in the QNAME. require special processing, depending on the leftmost label in the
QNAME.
First, the resolver determines if the numerical value of <key-tag> is First, the resolver determines if the numerical value of <key-tag> is
equal to any of the Key Tag values of an active root zone KSK which equal to any of the Key Tag values of an active root zone KSK that is
is currently trusted by the local resolver and is stored in its store currently trusted by the local resolver and stored in its store of
of trusted keys. An active root zone KSK is one which could trusted keys. An active root zone KSK is one that could currently be
currently be used for validation (that is, a key that is not in used for validation (that is, a key that is not in either the AddPend
either the AddPend or Revoked state as described in [RFC5011]). or Revoked state, as described in [RFC5011]).
Second, the resolver alters the response being sent to the original Second, the resolver alters the response being sent to the original
query based on both the left-most label and the presence of a key query based on both the leftmost label and the presence of a key with
with given Key Tag in the trust anchor store. Two labels and two given Key Tag in the trust-anchor store. Two labels and two possible
possible states of the corresponding key generate four possible states of the corresponding key generate four possible combinations,
combinations summarized in the table: summarized in the table:
Label | Key is trusted | Key is not trusted Label | Key is trusted | Key is not trusted
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------
is-ta | return original answer | return SERVFAIL is-ta | return original answer | return SERVFAIL
not-ta | return SERVFAIL | return original answer not-ta | return SERVFAIL | return original answer
Instruction "return SERVFAIL" means that the resolver MUST set The instruction "return SERVFAIL" means that the resolver MUST set
RCODE=SERVFAIL (value 2) and the ANSWER section of the DNS response RCODE=SERVFAIL (value 2) and the Answer Section of the DNS response
MUST be empty, ignoring all other documents which specify content of MUST be empty, ignoring all other documents that specify the content
the ANSWER section. of the Answer Section.
Instruction "return original answer" means that the resolver MUST The instruction "return original answer" means that the resolver MUST
process the query without any further special processing; that is, process the query without any further special processing, that is,
exactly as if the mechanism described in this document was not exactly as if the mechanism described in this document was not
implemented or was disabled. The answer for the A or AAAA query is implemented or was disabled. The answer for the A or AAAA query is
sent on to the client. sent on to the client.
3. Sentinel Tests for a Single DNS Resolver 3. Sentinel Tests for a Single DNS Resolver
This section describes the use of the sentinel detection mechanism This section describes the use of the sentinel detection mechanism
against a single DNS recursive resolver in order to determine whether against a single DNS recursive resolver in order to determine whether
this resolver is using a particular trust anchor to validate DNSSEC- this resolver is using a particular trust anchor to validate DNSSEC-
signed responses. signed responses.
Note that the test in this section applies to a single DNS resolver. Note that the test in this section applies to a single DNS resolver.
The test described in Section 4 applies instead to a collection of The test described in Section 4 applies instead to a collection of
DNS resolvers, as might be found in the DNS configuration of an end- DNS resolvers, as might be found in the DNS configuration of an end-
user environment. user environment.
The critical aspect of the DNS names used in this mechanism is that The critical aspect of the DNS names used in this mechanism is that
they contain the specified label for either the positive and negative they contain the specified label for either the positive or negative
test as the left-most label in the query name. test as the leftmost label in the query name.
The sentinel detection procedure can test a DNS resolver using three The sentinel detection procedure can test a DNS resolver using three
queries: queries:
o A query name containing the left-most label "root-key-sentinel-is- o A query name containing the leftmost label "root-key-sentinel-is-
ta-<key-tag>". This corresponds to a validly-signed name in the ta-<key-tag>". This corresponds to a validly signed name in the
parent zone, so that responses associated with this query name can parent zone, so that responses associated with this query name can
be authenticated by a DNSSEC-validating resolver. Any validly- be authenticated by a DNSSEC-validating resolver. Any validly
signed DNS zone can be used as the parent zone for this test. signed DNS zone can be used as the parent zone for this test.
o A query name containing the left-most label "root-key-sentinel- o A query name containing the leftmost label "root-key-sentinel-not-
not-ta-<key-tag>". This also corresponds to a validly-signed ta-<key-tag>". This also corresponds to a validly signed name.
name. Any validly-signed DNS zone can be used as the parent zone Any validly signed DNS zone can be used as the parent zone for
for this test. this test.
o A query name that is signed with a DNSSEC signature that cannot be o A query name that is signed with a DNSSEC signature that cannot be
validated (described as a "bogus" RRset in Section 5 of [RFC4033], validated (described as a "bogus" RRset in Section 5 of [RFC4033]
when, for example, an RRset associated with a zone that is not when, for example, an RRset is associated with a zone that is not
signed with a valid RRSIG record). signed with a valid RRSIG record).
The responses received from queries to resolve each of these query The responses received from queries to resolve each of these query
names can be evaluated to infer a trust key state of the DNS names can be evaluated to infer a trust key state of the DNS
resolver. resolver.
An essential assumption here is that this technique relies on An essential assumption here is that this technique relies on
security-aware (DNSSEC validating) resolvers responding with a security-aware (DNSSEC-validating) resolvers responding with a
SERVFAIL response code to queries where DNSSEC checking is requested SERVFAIL response code to queries where DNSSEC checking is requested
and the response cannot be validated. Note that other issues can and the response cannot be validated. Note that other issues can
also cause a resolver to return SERVFAIL responses, and so the also cause a resolver to return SERVFAIL responses, and so the
sentinel processing may sometimes result in incorrect or sentinel processing may sometimes result in incorrect or
indeterminate conclusions. indeterminate conclusions.
To describe this process of classification, DNS resolvers are To describe this process of classification, DNS resolvers are
classified by five distinct behavior types using the labels: "Vnew", classified by five distinct behavior types using the labels: "Vnew",
"Vold", "Vind", "nonV", and "other". These labels correspond to "Vold", "Vind", "nonV", and "other". These labels correspond to
resolver system behaviour types as follows: resolver-system behavior types as follows:
Vnew: A DNS resolver that is configured to implement this mechanism Vnew: A DNS resolver that is configured to implement this mechanism
and has loaded the nominated key into their local trusted key and has loaded the nominated key into its local trusted-key stores
stores will respond with an A or AAAA RRset response for the will respond with an A or AAAA RRset response for the associated
associated "root-key-sentinel-is-ta" queries, SERVFAIL for "root- "root-key-sentinel-is-ta" queries, SERVFAIL for "root-key-
key-sentinel-not-ta" queries and SERVFAIL for the signed name sentinel-not-ta" queries, and SERVFAIL for the signed name queries
queries that return "bogus" validation status. that return "bogus" validation status.
Vold: A DNS resolver that is configured to implement this mechanism Vold: A DNS resolver that is configured to implement this mechanism
and has not loaded the nominated key into their local trusted key and has not loaded the nominated key into its local trusted-key
stores will respond with an SERVFAIL for the associated "root-key- stores will respond with a SERVFAIL for the associated "root-key-
sentinel-is-ta" queries, an A or AAAA RRset response for "root- sentinel-is-ta" queries, an A or AAAA RRset response for "root-
key-sentinel-not-ta" queries and SERVFAIL for the signed name key-sentinel-not-ta" queries, and SERVFAIL for the signed name
queries that return "bogus" validation status. queries that return "bogus" validation status.
Vind: A DNS resolver that has is not configured to implement this Vind: A DNS resolver that is not configured to implement this
mechanism will respond with an A or AAAA RRset response for "root- mechanism will respond with an A or AAAA RRset response for "root-
key-sentinel-is-ta", an A or AAAA RRset response for "root-key- key-sentinel-is-ta", an A or AAAA RRset response for "root-key-
sentinel-not-ta" and SERVFAIL for the name that returns "bogus" sentinel-not-ta", and SERVFAIL for the name that returns "bogus"
validation status. This set of responses does not give any validation status. This set of responses does not give any
information about the trust anchors used by this resolver. information about the trust anchors used by this resolver.
nonV: A non-security-aware DNS resolver will respond with an A or nonV: A non-security-aware DNS resolver will respond with an A or
AAAA RRset response for "root-key-sentinel-is-ta", an A or AAAA AAAA RRset response for "root-key-sentinel-is-ta", an A or AAAA
RRset response for "root-key-sentinel-not-ta" and an A or AAAA RRset response for "root-key-sentinel-not-ta" and an A or AAAA
RRset response for the name that returns "bogus" validation RRset response for the name that returns "bogus" validation
status. status.
other: There is the potential to admit other combinations of other: There is the potential to admit other combinations of
responses to these three queries. While this may appear self- responses to these three queries. While this may appear self-
contradictory, there are cases where such an outcome is possible. contradictory, there are cases where such an outcome is possible.
For example, in DNS resolver farms what appears to be a single DNS For example, in DNS resolver farms, what appears to be a single
resolver that responds to queries passed to a single IP address is DNS resolver that responds to queries passed to a single IP
in fact constructed as a a collection of slave resolvers, and the address is in fact constructed as a collection of slave resolvers,
query is passed to one of these internal resolver engines. If and the query is passed to one of these internal resolver engines.
these individual slave resolvers in the farm do not behave If these individual slave resolvers in the farm do not behave
identically, then other sets of results can be expected from these identically, then other sets of results can be expected from these
three queries. In such a case, no determination about the three queries. In such a case, no determination about the
capabilities of this DNS resolver farm can be made. capabilities of this DNS resolver farm can be made.
Note that SERVFAIL might be cached according to Section 7 of Note that SERVFAIL might be cached according to Section 7 of
[RFC2308] for up to 5 minutes and a positive answer for up to its [RFC2308] for up to 5 minutes and a positive answer for up to its
TTL. TTL.
If a client directs these three queries to a single resolver, the If a client directs these three queries to a single resolver, the
responses should allow the client to determine the capability of the responses should allow the client to determine the capability of the
resolver, and if it supports this sentinel mechanism, whether or not resolver and, if it supports this sentinel mechanism, whether or not
it has a particular key in its trust anchor store, as in the it has a particular key in its trust-anchor store, as in the
following table: following table:
Query Query
+----------+-----------+------------+ +----------+-----------+------------+
| is-ta | not-ta | bogus | | is-ta | not-ta | bogus |
+-------+----------+-----------+------------+ +-------+----------+-----------+------------+
| Vnew | Y | SERVFAIL | SERVFAIL | | Vnew | Y | SERVFAIL | SERVFAIL |
| Vold | SERVFAIL | Y | SERVFAIL | | Vold | SERVFAIL | Y | SERVFAIL |
Type | Vind | Y | Y | SERVFAIL | Type | Vind | Y | Y | SERVFAIL |
| nonV | Y | Y | Y | | nonV | Y | Y | Y |
skipping to change at page 9, line 12 skipping to change at page 9, line 32
In this table, the "Y" response denotes an A or AAAA RRset response In this table, the "Y" response denotes an A or AAAA RRset response
(depending on the query type of A or AAAA records), "SERVFAIL" (depending on the query type of A or AAAA records), "SERVFAIL"
denotes a DNS SERVFAIL response code (RCODE 2), and "*" denotes denotes a DNS SERVFAIL response code (RCODE 2), and "*" denotes
either response. either response.
Vnew: The nominated key is trusted by the resolver. Vnew: The nominated key is trusted by the resolver.
Vold: The nominated key is not yet trusted by the resolver. Vold: The nominated key is not yet trusted by the resolver.
Vind: There is no information about the trust anchors of the Vind: There is no information about the trust anchors of the
resolver. resolver.
nonV: The resolver does not perform DNSSEC validation. nonV: The resolver does not perform DNSSEC validation.
other: The properties of the resolver cannot be analyzed by this other: The properties of the resolver cannot be analyzed by this
protocol. protocol.
3.1. Forwarders 3.1. Forwarders
Some resolvers are configured not to answer queries using the Some resolvers are configured not to answer queries using the
recursive algorithm first described in [RFC1034] section 4.3.2, but recursive algorithm first described in [RFC1034], Section 4.3.2 but
instead relay queries to one or more other resolvers. Resolvers instead relay queries to one or more other resolvers. Resolvers
configured in this manner are referred to in this document as configured in this manner are referred to in this document as
"forwarders". "forwarders".
If the resolver is non-validating, and it has a single forwarder, If the resolver is non-validating and has a single forwarder, then it
then the resolver will presumably mirror the capabilities of the will presumably mirror the capabilities of the forwarder's target
forwarder's target resolver. resolver.
If the validating resolver has a forwarding configuration, and it If the validating resolver has a forwarding configuration, and it
sets the EDNS(0) Checking Disabled (CD) bit as described in sets the EDNS(0) Checking Disabled (CD) bit as described in
Section 3.2.2 of [RFC4035] on all forwarded queries, then this Section 3.2.2 of [RFC4035] on all forwarded queries, then this
resolver is acting in a manner that is identical to a standalone resolver is acting in a manner that is identical to a standalone
resolver. resolver.
A more complex case is where all of the following conditions hold: A more complex case is where all of the following conditions hold:
o Both the validating resolver and the forwarder target resolver o Both the validating resolver and the forwarder target resolver
support this trusted key sentinel mechanism support this trusted key sentinel mechanism.
o The local resolver's queries do not have the EDNS(0) CD bit set o The local resolver's queries do not have the EDNS(0) CD bit set.
o The trusted key state differs between the forwarding resolver and o The trusted key state differs between the forwarding resolver and
the forwarder's target resolver the forwarder's target resolver.
In such a case, either the outcome is indeterminate validating In such a case, either the outcome is indeterminate validating
("Vind"), or a case of mixed signals such as SERVFAIL in all three ("Vind") or there are mixed signals such as SERVFAIL in all three
responses, ("other") which is similarly an indeterminate response responses ("other"), which is similarly an indeterminate response
with respect to the trusted key state. with respect to the trusted key state.
4. Sentinel Tests for Multiple Resolvers 4. Sentinel Tests for Multiple Resolvers
The description in Section 3 describes a trust anchor test that can Section 3 describes a trust-anchor test that can be used in the
be used in the simple situation where the test queries were being simple situation where the test queries are being passed to a single
passed to a single recursive resolver that directly queried recursive resolver that directly queries authoritative name servers.
authoritative name servers.
However, the common end-user scenario is where a user's local DNS However, the common end-user scenario is where a user's local DNS
resolution environment is configured to use more than one recursive resolution environment is configured to use more than one recursive
resolver. The single resolver test technique will not function resolver. The single-resolver test technique will not function
reliably in such cases, as a a SERVFAIL response from one resolver reliably in such cases, as a SERVFAIL response from one resolver may
may cause the local stub resolver to repeat the query against one of cause the local stub resolver to repeat the query against one of the
the other configured resolvers and the results may be inconclusive. other configured resolvers, and the results may be inconclusive.
In describing a test procedure that can be used in this environment In describing a test procedure that can be used for a set of DNS
of a set of DNS resolvers there are some necessary changes to the resolvers, there are some necessary changes to the nature of the
nature of the question that this test can answer, the assumptions question that this test can answer, the assumptions about the
about the behaviour of the DNS resolution environment, and some behavior of the DNS resolution environment, and some further
further observations about potential variability in the test observations about potential variability in the test outcomes.
outcomes.
4.1. Test Scenario and Objective 4.1. Test Scenario and Objective
This test is not intended to expose which trust anchors are used by This test is not intended to expose which trust anchors are used by
any single DNS resolver. any single DNS resolver.
The test scenario is explicitly restricted to that of the KSK The test scenario is explicitly restricted to that of the KSK
environment where a current active KSK (called "KSK-current") is to environment where a current, active KSK (called "KSK-current") is to
be replaced with a new KSK (called "KSK-new"). The test is designed be replaced with a new KSK (called "KSK-new"). The test is designed
to be run between when KSK-new is introduced into the root zone and to be run between when KSK-new is introduced into the root zone and
when the root zone is signed with KSK-new. when the root zone is signed with KSK-new.
The objective of the test is to determine if the user will be The objective of the test is to determine if the user will be
negatively impacted by the KSK roll. A "negative impact" for the negatively impacted by the KSK roll. A "negative impact" for the
user is defined such that all the configured resolvers are security- user is defined such that all the configured resolvers are security-
aware resolvers that perform validation of DNSSEC-signed responses, aware resolvers that perform validation of DNSSEC-signed responses,
and none of these resolvers have loaded KSK-new into their local and none of these resolvers have loaded KSK-new into their local
trust anchor set. In this situation, it is anticipated that once the trust-anchor set. In this situation, it is anticipated that once the
KSK is rolled the entire set of the user's resolvers will not be able KSK is rolled, the entire set of the user's resolvers will not be
to validate the contents of the root zone and the user is likely to able to validate the contents of the root zone, and the user is
lose DNS service as a result of this inability to perform successful likely to lose DNS service as a result of this inability to perform
DNSSEC validation. successful DNSSEC validation.
4.2. Test Assumptions 4.2. Test Assumptions
There are a number of assumptions about the DNS environment used in There are a number of assumptions about the DNS environment used in
this test. Where these assumptions do not hold, the results of the this test. Where these assumptions do not hold, the results of the
test will be indeterminate. test will be indeterminate.
o When a recursive resolver returns SERVFAIL to the user's stub o When a recursive resolver returns SERVFAIL to the user's stub
resolver, the stub resolver will send the same query to the next resolver, the stub resolver will send the same query to the next
resolver in the locally configured resolver set. It will continue resolver in the locally configured resolver set. It will continue
to do this until it gets a non-SERVFAIL response or until it runs to do this until it either gets a non-SERVFAIL response or runs
out of resolvers to try. out of resolvers to try.
o When the user's stub resolver passes a query to a resolver in the o When the user's stub resolver passes a query to a resolver in the
configured resolver set, it will get a consistent answer over the configured resolver set, it will get a consistent answer over the
timeframe of the queries. This assumption implies that if the time frame of the queries. This assumption implies that if the
same query is asked by the same stub resolver multiple times in same query is asked by the same stub resolver multiple times in
succession to the same recursive resolver, the recursive succession to the same recursive resolver, the recursive
resolver's response will be the same for each of these queries. resolver's response will be the same for each of these queries.
o All DNSSEC-validating resolvers have KSK-current in their local o All DNSSEC-validating resolvers have KSK-current in their local
trust anchor cache. trust-anchor cache.
There is no current published measurement data that indicates to what There is no current published measurement data that indicates to what
extent the first two assumptions listed here are valid, and how many extent the first two assumptions listed here are valid or how many
end users may be impacted by these assumptions. In particular, the end users may be impacted by these assumptions. In particular, the
first assumption, that a consistent SERFAIL response will cause the first assumption, that a consistent SERVFAIL response will cause the
local stub DNS resolution environment to query all of its configured local stub DNS resolution environment to query all of its configured
recursive resolvers before concluding that the name cannot be recursive resolvers before concluding that the name cannot be
resolved, is a very critical assumption for this test. resolved, is a critical assumption for this test.
Note that additional precision / determinism may be achievable by Note that additional precision/determinism may be achievable by
bypassing the normal OS behavior and explicitly testing using each bypassing the normal OS behavior and explicitly testing using each
configured recursive resolver (e.g using 'dig'). configured recursive resolver (e.g., using "dig").
4.3. Test Procedure 4.3. Test Procedure
The sentinel detection process tests a DNS resolution environment The sentinel detection process tests a DNS resolution environment
with three query names. Note that these same general categories of with three query names. Note that these are the same general
query as in Section 3 but the key tag used is different for some categories of query as in Section 3, but the Key Tag used is
queries: different for some queries:
o A query name that is signed with a DNSSEC signature that cannot be o A query name that is signed with a DNSSEC signature that cannot be
validated (described as a "bogus" RRset in Section 5 of [RFC4033], validated (described as a "bogus" RRset in Section 5 of [RFC4033]
when, for example, an RRset is not signed with a valid RRSIG when, for example, an RRset is not signed with a valid RRSIG
record). record).
o A query name containing the left-most label "root-key-sentinel- o A query name containing the leftmost label "root-key-sentinel-not-
not-ta-<key-tag-of-KSK-current>". This name MUST be a validly- ta-<key-tag-of-KSK-current>". This name MUST be a validly signed
signed name. Any validly-signed DNS zone can be used for this name. Any validly signed DNS zone can be used for this test.
test.
o A query name containing the left-most label "root-key-sentinel-is- o A query name containing the leftmost label "root-key-sentinel-is-
ta-<key-tag-of-KSK-new>". This name MUST be a validly-signed ta-<key-tag-of-KSK-new>". This name MUST be a validly signed
name. Any validly-signed DNS zone can be used for this test. name. Any validly signed DNS zone can be used for this test.
The responses received from queries to resolve each of these names The responses received from queries to resolve each of these names
can be evaluated to infer a trust key state of the user's DNS can be evaluated to infer a trust key state of the user's DNS
resolution environment. resolution environment.
The responses to these queries are described using a simplified The responses to these queries are described using a simplified
notation. Each query will either result in a SERFVAIL response notation. Each query will result in either a SERVFAIL response
(denoted as "S"), indicating that all of the resolvers in the (denoted "S"), indicating that all of the resolvers in the recursive
recursive resolver set returned the SERVFAIL response code, or result resolver set returned the SERVFAIL response code, or a response with
in a response with the desire RRset value (denoted as "A"). The the desired RRset value (denoted "A"). The queries are ordered by
queries are ordered by the "invalid" name, the "root-key-sentinel- the "invalid" name, the "root-key-sentinel-not-ta" label, then the
not-ta" label, then the "root-key-sentinel-is-ta" label, and a "root-key-sentinel-is-ta" label, and a triplet notation denotes a
triplet notation denotes a particular response. For example, the particular response. For example, the triplet "(S S A)" denotes a
triplet "(S S A)" denotes a SERVFAIL response to the invalid query, a SERVFAIL response to the invalid query, a SERVFAIL response to the
SERVFAIL response to the "root-key-sentinel-not-ta" query and a RRset "root-key-sentinel-not-ta" query, and an RRset response to the "root-
response to the "root-key-sentinel-is-ta" query. key-sentinel-is-ta" query.
The set of all possible responses to these three queries are: The set of all possible responses to these three queries are:
(A * *): If any resolver returns an "A" response for the query for (A * *): If any resolver returns an "A" response for the query for
the invalid name, then the resolver set contains at least one non- the invalid name, then the resolver set contains at least one
validating DNS resolver, and the user will not be impacted by the non-validating DNS resolver, and the user will not be impacted by
KSK roll. the KSK roll.
(S A *): If any of the resolvers returns an "A" response the the (S A *): If any of the resolvers returns an "A" response for the
"root-key-sentinel-not-ta" query, then at least one of the "root-key-sentinel-not-ta" query, then at least one of the
resolvers does not recognise the sentinel mechanism, and the resolvers does not recognize the sentinel mechanism, and the
behaviour of the collection of resolvers during the KSK roll behavior of the collection of resolvers during the KSK roll cannot
cannot be reliably determined. be reliably determined.
(S S A): This case implies that all of the resolvers in the set (S S A): This case implies that all of the resolvers in the set
perform DNSSEC-validation, all of the resolvers are aware of the perform DNSSEC validation, all of the resolvers are aware of the
sentinel mechanism, and at least one resolver has loaded KSK-new sentinel mechanism, and at least one resolver has loaded KSK-new
as a local trust anchor. The user will not be impacted by the KSK as a local trust anchor. The user will not be impacted by the KSK
roll. roll.
(S S S): This case implies that all of the resolvers in the set (S S S): This case implies that all of the resolvers in the set
perform DNSSEC-validation, all of the resolvers are aware of the perform DNSSEC validation, all of the resolvers are aware of the
sentinel mechanism, and none of the resolvers has loaded KSK-new sentinel mechanism, and none of the resolvers has loaded KSK-new
as a local trust anchor. The user will be negatively impacted by as a local trust anchor. The user will be negatively impacted by
the KSK roll. the KSK roll.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
This document describes a mechanism to allow users to determine the This document describes a mechanism for allowing users to determine
trust anchor state of root zone key signing keys in the DNS the trust-anchor state of root zone key signing keys in the DNS
resolution system that they use. If the user executes third party resolution system that they use. If the user executes third-party
code, then this information may also be available to the third party. code, then this information may also be available to the third party.
The mechanism does not require resolvers to set otherwise The mechanism does not require resolvers to set otherwise-
unauthenticated responses to be marked as authenticated, and does not unauthenticated responses to be marked as authenticated and does not
alter the security properties of DNSSEC with respect to the alter the security properties of DNSSEC with respect to the
interpretation of the authenticity of responses that are so marked. interpretation of the authenticity of responses that are so marked.
The mechanism does not require any further significant processing of The mechanism does not require any further significant processing of
DNS responses, and queries of the form described in this document do DNS responses, and queries of the form described in this document do
not impose any additional load that could be exploited in an attack not impose any additional load that could be exploited in an attack
over the normal DNSSEC validation processing load. over the normal DNSSEC-validation processing load.
6. Privacy Considerations 6. Privacy Considerations
The mechanism in this document enables third parties (with either The mechanism in this document enables third parties (with either
good or bad intentions) to learn something about the security good or bad intentions) to learn something about the security
configuration of recursive DNS resolvers. That is, someone who can configuration of recursive DNS resolvers. That is, someone who can
cause an Internet user to make specific DNS queries (e.g. via web- cause an Internet user to make specific DNS queries (e.g., via web-
based advertisements or javascript in web pages), can, under certain based advertisements or JavaScript in web pages) can, under certain
specific circumstances that includes additional knowledge of the specific circumstances that include additional knowledge of the
resolvers that are invoked by the user, determine which trust anchors resolvers that are invoked by the user, determine which trust anchors
are configured in these resolvers. Without this additional are configured in these resolvers. Without this additional
knowledge, the third party can infer the aggregate capabilities of knowledge, the third party can infer the aggregate capabilities of
the user's DNS resolution environment, but cannot necessarily infer the user's DNS resolution environment but cannot necessarily infer
the trust configuration of any recursive name server. the trust configuration of any recursive name server.
7. Implementation Experience 7. IANA Considerations
[ RFC Editor: Please remove before publication. As this section will
be removed, it is more conversational than would appear in a
published doc. ]
List of known resolver implementations (alphabetical):
BIND Ondrej Sury of ISC reported to the DNSOP Working Group in
April 2018 that this technique was peer-reviewed and merged into
BIND master branch with the intent to backport the feature into
older release branches. The merge request:
https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/merge_requests/123
Information on configuring this can be found in the BIND 9.13.0
Administrator Reference Manual (ARM), available at
https://ftp.isc.org/isc/bind9/9.13.0/doc/arm/Bv9ARM.pdf
Knot resolver Petr Spacek implemented early versions of this
technique into the Knot resolver, identified a number of places
where it wasn't clear, and provided very helpful text to address
these issues and make the document mode clear. Petr also
identified an embarrassingly large number of typos (and similar)
in the ksk-test setup. More information is at http://knot-
resolver.readthedocs.io/en/stable/modules.html#sentinel-for-
detecting-trusted-keys
Unbound Benno Overeinder of NLnet Labs reported to the DNSOP Working
Group in April 2018 an intention to support this technique in
Unbound in the near future. This is now implemented in Unbound
version 1.7.1, available from http://unbound.nlnetlabs.nl/
download.html . Configuration information is at
http://unbound.nlnetlabs.nl/documentation/unbound.conf.html
A (partial) list of "client" / user side implementations (the author
was keeping a more complete list of implementations, but has
misplaced it - apologies, I'm happy to re-add them if you send me a
note.):
http://www.ksk-test.net An Javascript implementation of the client
side of this protocol is available at: http://www.ksk-test.net
http://test.kskroll.dnssec.lab.nic.cl/ Hugo Salgado-Hernandez has
created an implementation at
http://test.kskroll.dnssec.lab.nic.cl/
http://sentinel.research.icann.org/ The code for this implementation
is published at https://github.com/paulehoffman/sentinel-testbed
http://www.bellis.me.uk/sentinel/ Ray Bellis client implementation -
http://www.bellis.me.uk/sentinel/
8. IANA Considerations
This document has no IANA actions. This document has no IANA actions.
9. Acknowledgements 8. References
This document has borrowed extensively from [RFC8145] for the
introductory text, and the authors would like to acknowledge and
thank the authors of that document both for some text excerpts and
for the more general stimulation of thoughts about monitoring the
progress of a roll of the KSK of the root zone of the DNS.
The authors would like to thank Joe Abley, Mehmet Akcin, Mark
Andrews, Richard Barnes, Ray Bellis, Stephane Bortzmeyer, David
Conrad, Ralph Dolmans, John Dickinson, Steinar Haug, Bob Harold, Wes
Hardaker, Paul Hoffman, Matt Larson, Jinmei Tatuya, Edward Lewis,
George Michaelson, Benno Overeinder, Matthew Pounsett, Hugo Salgado-
Hernandez, Andreas Schulze, Mukund Sivaraman, Petr Spacek, Job
Snijders, Andrew Sullivan, Ondrej Sury, Paul Vixie, Duane Wessels and
Paul Wouters for their helpful feedback.
The authors would like to especially call out Paul Hoffman and Duane
Wessels for providing comments in the form of pull requests. Joe
Abley also helpfully provided extensive review and OLD / NEW text.
Petr Spacek wrote some very early implementations, and provided
significant feedback (including pointing out when the test bed didn't
match the document!)
10. Change Log
RFC Editor: Please remove this section!
Note that this document is being worked on in GitHub - see Abstract.
The below is mainly large changes, and is not authoritative.
From -16 to -17:
o Thank to Paul Hoffman for "Lots of editorial fixes for post-IESG
draft" ( https://github.com/APNIC-Labs/draft-kskroll-sentinel/
pull/28 )
o Repeat after me: Do not drive git while on cold meds...
From -15 to -16:
o Addressed IESG comments
o Benjamin Kaduk's Discuss on draft-ietf-dnsop-kskroll-sentinel
o Also added Terry's "This a bad design pattern, but we decided the
benefits outweigh the costs this time." text.
o Suggestion from Adam to clarify that bypassing e.g gethostbyname()
can provide better testing.
o Nit: Forgot 'name' in 'This name MUST be a validly-signed name.'
o Clarified that 'bogus.example.com' is intentionally DNSSEC bogus /
invalid.
From -14 to -15:
o Addressed Joe Abley's thorough review, at:
https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/msg/dnsop/8ZnN1xj55Yimet2cg-
LrdoJafEA
From -13 to -14:
o Addressed nits from Bob Harold -
https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/msg/dnsop/
j4Serw0z24o470AnlD8ISo8o9k4
o Formatting changes (and a bit more text) in the implementation
section.
o Closes PR #21: Clarify indeterminate and resolution systems,
o Closes PR #22: Updates to -13 describing the test procedure for a
set of resolvers
o Closes PR #23: Fix sundry typos,
o Closes PR #24: Editorial and clarifications to the new text
o Closes PR #25: Clarified when the test can be run
From -12 to -13:
o Merged Paul Hoffmans PR#19, PR#20.
o Moved toy ksk-test.net to implementation section.
o Split the test procedures between the test of a single DNS
resolvers and the test of a collection of DNS resolvers as would
be found in an end user environment.
From -11 to -12:
o Moved the Walkthrough Example to the end of the document as an
appendix.
o Incorporated changes as proposed by Ondrej Sury, relating to a
consistent use of Key Tag and a reference to the definition of a
Bogus RRset.
o Corrected minor typos.
o Revised the Privacy Considerations.
o In response to a request from DNSOP Working Group chairs, a
section on reported Implementation Experience has been added,
based on postings to the DNSOP Working Group mailing list.
From -10 to -11:
o Clarified the preconditions for this mechanism as per Working
Group mailing list discussion.
o Corrected minor typo.
From -09 to -10:
o Clarified the precondition list to specify that the resolver had
performed DNSSEC-validation by setting the AD bit in the response
o Clarified the language referring to the operation of RFC8145
signalling.
From -08 to -09:
o Incorporated Paul Hoffman's PR # 15 (Two issues from the
Hackathon) - https://github.com/APNIC-Labs/draft-kskroll-sentinel/
pull/15
o Clarifies that the match is on the *original* QNAME.
From -08 to -07:
o Changed title from "A Sentinel for Detecting Trusted Keys in
DNSSEC" to "A Root Key Trust Anchor Sentinel for DNSSEC".
o Changed magic string from "kskroll-sentinel-" to "root-key-
sentinel-" -- this time for sure, Rocky!
From -07 to -06:
o Addressed GitHub PR #14: Clarifications regarding caching and
SERVFAIL responses
o Addressed GitHub PR #12, #13: Clarify situation with multiple
resolvers, Fix editorial nits.
From -05 to -06:
o Paul improved my merging of Petr's text to make it more readable.
Minor change, but this is just before the cut-off, so I wanted it
maximally readable.
From -04 to -05:
o Incorporated Duane's #10
o Integrated Petr Spacek's Issue - https://github.com/APNIC-Labs/
draft-kskroll-sentinel/issues/9 (note that commit-log incorrectly
referred to Duane's PR as number 9, it is actually 10).
From -03 to -04:
o Addressed GitHub pull requests #4, #5, #6, #7 #8.
o Added Duane's privacy concerns
o Makes the use cases clearer
o Fixed some A/AAAA stuff
o Changed the example numbers
o Made it clear that names and addresses must be real
From -02 to -03:
o Integrated / published comments from Paul in GitHub PR #2 -
https://github.com/APNIC-Labs/draft-kskroll-sentinel/pull/2
o Made the Key Tag be decimal, not hex (thread / consensus in
https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/msg/dnsop/
Kg7AtDhFRNw31He8n0_bMr9hBuE )
From -01 to 02:
o Removed Address Record definition.
o Clarified that many things can cause SERVFAIL.
o Made examples FQDN.
o Fixed a number of typos.
o Had accidentally said that Charlie was using a non-validating
resolver in example.
o [ TODO(WK): Doc says Key Tags are hex, is this really what the WG
wants? ]
o And active key is one that can be used *now* (not e.g AddPend)
From -00 to 01:
o Added a conversational description of how the system is intended
to work.
o Clarification that this is for the root.
o Changed the label template from _is-ta-<key-tag> to kskroll-
sentinel-is-ta-<key-tag>. This is because BIND (at least) will
not allow records which start with an underscore to have address
records (CNAMEs, yes, A/AAAA no). Some browsers / operating
systems also will not fetch resources from names which start with
an underscore.
11. References
11.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", [RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
STD 13, RFC 1034, DOI 10.17487/RFC1034, November 1987, STD 13, RFC 1034, DOI 10.17487/RFC1034, November 1987,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1034>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1034>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC2308] Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS [RFC2308] Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS
NCACHE)", RFC 2308, DOI 10.17487/RFC2308, March 1998, NCACHE)", RFC 2308, DOI 10.17487/RFC2308, March 1998,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2308>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2308>.
[RFC4033] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. [RFC4033] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005, RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4033>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4033>.
[RFC4034] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. [RFC4034] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
skipping to change at page 19, line 48 skipping to change at page 15, line 14
[RFC4035] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. [RFC4035] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S.
Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, March 2005, Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, March 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4035>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4035>.
[RFC5011] StJohns, M., "Automated Updates of DNS Security (DNSSEC) [RFC5011] StJohns, M., "Automated Updates of DNS Security (DNSSEC)
Trust Anchors", STD 74, RFC 5011, DOI 10.17487/RFC5011, Trust Anchors", STD 74, RFC 5011, DOI 10.17487/RFC5011,
September 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5011>. September 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5011>.
11.2. Informative References [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
8.2. Informative References
[RFC7719] Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A., and K. Fujiwara, "DNS [RFC7719] Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A., and K. Fujiwara, "DNS
Terminology", RFC 7719, DOI 10.17487/RFC7719, December Terminology", RFC 7719, DOI 10.17487/RFC7719, December
2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7719>. 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7719>.
[RFC8145] Wessels, D., Kumari, W., and P. Hoffman, "Signaling Trust [RFC8145] Wessels, D., Kumari, W., and P. Hoffman, "Signaling Trust
Anchor Knowledge in DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)", Anchor Knowledge in DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)",
RFC 8145, DOI 10.17487/RFC8145, April 2017, RFC 8145, DOI 10.17487/RFC8145, April 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8145>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8145>.
Appendix A. Protocol Walkthrough Example Appendix A. Protocol Walk-Through Example
This Appendix provides a non-normative example of how the sentinel This appendix provides a non-normative example of how the sentinel
mechanism could be used, and what each participant does. It is mechanism could be used and what each participant does. It is
provided in a conversational tone to be easier to follow. The provided in a conversational tone to be easier to follow. The
examples here all assume that each person has just one resolver, or a examples here all assume that each person has just one resolver or a
system of resolvers that have the same properties. system of resolvers that have the same properties.
Alice is in charge of the DNS root KSK (Key Signing Key), and would Alice is in charge of the DNS root KSK (Key Signing Key) and would
like to roll / replace the key with a new one. She publishes the new like to roll/replace the key with a new one. She publishes the new
KSK, but would like to be able to predict / measure what the impact KSK but would like to be able to predict/measure what the impact will
will be before removing/revoking the old key. The current KSK has a be before removing/revoking the old key. The current KSK has a Key
Key Tag of 11112, the new KSK has a Key Tag of 02323. Users want to Tag of 11112; the new KSK has a Key Tag of 02323. Users want to
verify that their resolver will not break after Alice rolls the root verify that their resolver will not break after Alice rolls the root
KSK key (that is, starts signing with just the KSK whose Key Tag is KSK (that is, starts signing with just the KSK whose Key Tag is
02323). 02323).
Bob, Charlie, Dave, Ed are all users. They use the DNS recursive Bob, Charlie, Dave, and Ed are all users. They use the DNS recursive
resolvers supplied by their ISPs. They would like to confirm that resolvers supplied by their ISPs. They would like to confirm that
their ISPs have picked up the new KSK. Bob's ISP does not perform their ISPs have picked up the new KSK. Bob's ISP does not perform
validation. Charlie's ISP does validate, but the resolvers have not validation. Charlie's ISP does validate, but the resolvers have not
yet been upgraded to support this mechanism. Dave and Ed's resolvers yet been upgraded to support this mechanism. Dave and Ed's resolvers
have been upgraded to support this mechanism; Dave's resolver has the have been upgraded to support this mechanism; Dave's resolver has the
new KSK, Ed's resolver hasn't managed to install the 02323 KSK in its new KSK, but Ed's resolver hasn't managed to install the 02323 KSK in
trust store yet. its trust store yet.
Geoff is a researcher, and would like to both provide a means for Geoff is a researcher. He would like to both provide a means for
Bob, Charlie, Dave and Ed to be able to perform tests, and also would Bob, Charlie, Dave, and Ed to perform tests and himself be able to
like to be able to perform Internet-wide measurements of what the perform Internet-wide measurements of what the impact will be (and
impact will be (and report this back to Alice). report this back to Alice).
Geoff sets an authoritative DNS server for example.com, and also a Geoff sets an authoritative DNS server for example.com and also a web
webserver (www.example.com). He adds three address records to server (www.example.com). He adds three address records to
example.com: example.com:
bogus.example.com. IN AAAA 2001:db8::1 bogus.example.com. IN AAAA 2001:db8::1
root-key-sentinel-is-ta-02323.example.com. IN AAAA 2001:db8::1 root-key-sentinel-is-ta-02323.example.com. IN AAAA 2001:db8::1
root-key-sentinel-not-ta-11112.example.com. IN AAAA 2001:db8::1 root-key-sentinel-not-ta-11112.example.com. IN AAAA 2001:db8::1
Note that the use of "example.com" names and the addresses here are Note that the use of "example.com" names and the addresses here are
examples, and "bogus" intentionally has invalid DNSSEC signatures. examples, and "bogus" intentionally has invalid DNSSEC signatures.
In a real deployment, the domain names need to be under the control
of the researcher, and the addresses must be real, reachable
addresses.
In a real deployment, the domain names need to be under control of Geoff then DNSSEC signs the example.com zone and intentionally makes
the researcher, and the addresses must be real, reachable addresses.
Geoff then DNSSEC signs the example.com zone, and intentionally makes
the bogus.example.com record have bogus validation status (for the bogus.example.com record have bogus validation status (for
example, by editing the signed zone and entering garbage for the example, by editing the signed zone and entering garbage for the
signature). Geoff also configures his webserver to listen on signature). Geoff also configures his web server to listen on
2001:db8::1 and serve a resource (for example, a 1x1 GIF, 1x1.gif) 2001:db8::1 and serve a resource (for example, a 1x1 GIF, 1x1.gif)
for all of these names. The webserver also serves a webpage for all of these names. The web server also serves a web page
(www.example.com) which contains links to these 3 resources (www.example.com) that contains links to these three resources
(http://bogus.example.com/1x1.gif, http://root-key-sentinel-is-ta- (http://bogus.example.com/1x1.gif, http://root-key-sentinel-is-ta-
02323.example.com/1x1.gif, http://root-key-sentinel-not-ta- 02323.example.com/1x1.gif, and http://root-key-sentinel-not-ta-
11112.example.com/1x1.gif). 11112.example.com/1x1.gif).
Geoff then asks Bob, Charlie, Dave and Ed to browse to Geoff then asks Bob, Charlie, Dave, and Ed to browse to
www.example.com. Using the methods described in this document, the www.example.com. Using the methods described in this document, the
users can figure out what their fate will be when the 11112 KSK is users can figure out what their fate will be when the 11112 KSK is
removed. removed.
Bob is not using a validating resolver. This means that he will be Bob is not using a validating resolver. This means that he will be
able to resolve bogus.example.com (and fetch the 1x1 GIF) - this able to resolve bogus.example.com (and fetch the 1x1 GIF); this tells
tells him that the KSK roll does not affect him, and so he will be him that the KSK roll does not affect him, and so he will be OK.
OK.
Charlie's resolvers are validating, but they have not been upgraded Charlie's resolvers are validating, but they have not been upgraded
to support the KSK sentinel mechanism. Charlie will not be able to to support the KSK sentinel mechanism. Charlie will not be able to
fetch the http://bogus.example.com/1x1.gif resource (the fetch the http://bogus.example.com/1x1.gif resource (the
bogus.example.com record is bogus, and none of his resolvers will bogus.example.com record is bogus, and none of his resolvers will
resolve it). He is able to fetch both of the other resources - from resolve it). He is able to fetch both of the other resources; from
this he knows (see the logic in the body of this document) that he is this, he knows (see the logic in the body of this document) that he
using validating resolvers, but at least one of these resolvers is is using validating resolvers but that at least one of these
not configured to perform sentinel processing. The KSK sentinel resolvers is not configured to perform sentinel processing. The KSK
method cannot provide him with a definitive answer to the question of sentinel method cannot provide him with a definitive answer to the
whether he will be impacted by the KSK roll. question of whether he will be impacted by the KSK roll.
Dave's resolvers implement the sentinel method, and have picked up Dave's resolvers implement the sentinel method and have picked up the
the new KSK. For the same reason as Charlie, he cannot fetch the new KSK. For the same reason as Charlie, he cannot fetch the "bogus"
"bogus" resource. His resolver resolves the root-key-sentinel-is-ta- resource. His resolver resolves the root-key-sentinel-is-ta-
02323.example.com name normally (it contacts the example.com 02323.example.com name normally (it contacts the example.com
authoritative servers, etc); as it supports the sentinel mechanism, authoritative servers, etc.); as it supports the sentinel mechanism,
just before Dave's recursive resolver sends the reply to Dave's stub, just before Dave's recursive resolver sends the reply to Dave's stub,
it performs the KSK Sentinel check. The QNAME starts with "root-key- it performs the KSK sentinel check. The QNAME starts with "root-key-
sentinel-is-ta-", and the recursive resolver does indeed have a key sentinel-is-ta-", and the recursive resolver does indeed have a key
with the Key Tag of 02323 in its root trust store. This means that with the Key Tag of 02323 in its root trust store. This means that
that this part of the KSK Sentinel check passes (it is true that Key this part of the KSK sentinel check passes (it is true that Key Tag
Tag 02323 is in the trust anchor store), and the recursive resolver 02323 is in the trust-anchor store), and the recursive resolver
replies normally (with the answer provided by the authoritative replies normally (with the answer provided by the authoritative
server). Dave's recursive resolver then resolves the root-key- server). Dave's recursive resolver then resolves the root-key-
sentinel-not-ta-11112.example.com name. Once again, it performs the sentinel-not-ta-11112.example.com name. Once again, it performs the
normal resolution process, but because it implements KSK Sentinel normal resolution process, but because it implements KSK sentinel
(and the QNAME starts with "root-key-sentinel-not-ta-"), just before (and the QNAME starts with "root-key-sentinel-not-ta-"), just before
sending the reply, it performs the KSK Sentinel check. As it has the sending the reply, it performs the KSK sentinel check. As it has the
key with key-tag 11112 in it's trust anchor store, the answer to "is key with key-tag 11112 in its trust-anchor store, the answer to "is
this *not* a trust anchor" is false, and so the recursive resolver this *not* a trust anchor" is false, and so the recursive resolver
does not reply with the answer from the authoritative server - does not reply with the answer from the authoritative server.
instead, it replies with a SERVFAIL (note that replying with SERVFAIL Instead, it replies with a SERVFAIL (note that replying with SERVFAIL
instead of the original answer is the only mechanism that KSK instead of the original answer is the only mechanism that KSK
Sentinel uses). This means that Dave cannot fetch "bogus", he can Sentinel uses). This means that Dave cannot fetch "bogus", he can
fetch "root-key-sentinel-is-ta-02323", but he cannot fetch "root-key- fetch "root-key-sentinel-is-ta-02323", but he cannot fetch "root-key-
sentinel-not-ta-11112". From this, Dave knows that he is behind an sentinel-not-ta-11112". From this, Dave knows that he is behind a
collection of resolvers that all validate, all have the key with key collection of resolvers that all validate, all have the key with Key
tag 11112 loaded and at least one of these resolvers has loaded the Tag 11112 loaded, and at least one of these resolvers has loaded the
key with key-tag 02323 into its local trust anchor cache, Dave will key with Key Tag 02323 into its local trust-anchor cache. Dave will
not be impacted by the KSK roll. not be impacted by the KSK roll.
Just like Charlie and Dave, Ed cannot fetch the "bogus" record. This Just like Charlie and Dave, Ed cannot fetch the "bogus" record. This
tells him that his resolvers are validating. When his (sentinel- tells him that his resolvers are validating. When his (sentinel-
aware) resolvers performs the KSK Sentinel check for "root-key- aware) resolvers perform the KSK sentinel check for "root-key-
sentinel-is-ta-02323", none of them have loaded the new key with key- sentinel-is-ta-02323", none of them have loaded the new key with Key
tag 02323 in their local trust anchor store. This means check fails, Tag 02323 in their local trust-anchor store. This means the check
and Ed's recursive resolver converts the (valid) answer into a fails, and Ed's recursive resolver converts the (valid) answer into a
SERVFAIL error response. It performs the same check for root-key- SERVFAIL error response. It performs the same check for root-key-
sentinel-not-ta-11112.example.com, and as all of Ed's resolvers both sentinel-not-ta-11112.example.com, and as all of Ed's resolvers both
perform DNSSEC validation and recognise the sentinel label Ed will be perform DNSSEC validation and recognize the sentinel label, Ed will
unable to fetch the "root-key-sentinel-not-ta-11112" resource. This be unable to fetch the "root-key-sentinel-not-ta-11112" resource.
tells Ed that his resolvers have not installed the new KSK and he This tells Ed that his resolvers have not installed the new KSK and
will be negatively implacted by the KSK roll.. he will be negatively impacted by the KSK roll.
Geoff would like to do a large scale test and provide the information Geoff would like to do a large-scale test and provide the information
back to Alice. He uses some mechanism such as causing users to go to back to Alice. He uses some mechanism such as causing users to go to
a web page to cause a large number of users to attempt to resolve the a web page to cause a large number of users to attempt to resolve the
three resources, and then analyzes the results of the tests to three resources, and he then analyzes the results of the tests to
determine what percentage of users will be affected by the KSK determine what percentage of users will be affected by the KSK
rollover event. rollover event.
This description is a simplified example - it is not anticipated that This description is a simplified example. It is not anticipated that
Bob, Charlie, Dave and Ed will actually look for the absence or Bob, Charlie, Dave, and Ed will actually look for the absence or
presence of web resources; instead, the webpage that they load would presence of web resources; instead, the web page that they load would
likely contain JavaScript (or similar) which displays the result of likely contain JavaScript (or similar) that displays the result of
the tests, sends the results to Geoff, or both. This sentinel the tests, sends the results to Geoff, or both. This sentinel
mechanism does not rely on the web: it can equally be used by trying mechanism does not rely on the web: it can equally be used by trying
to resolve the names (for example, using the common "dig" command) to resolve the names (for example, using the common "dig" command)
and checking which result in a SERVFAIL. and checking which names result in a SERVFAIL.
Acknowledgements
This document has borrowed extensively from [RFC8145] for the
introductory text, and the authors would like to acknowledge and
thank the authors of that document both for some text excerpts and
for the more general stimulation of thoughts about monitoring the
progress of a roll of the KSK of the root zone of the DNS.
The authors would like to thank Joe Abley, Mehmet Akcin, Mark
Andrews, Richard Barnes, Ray Bellis, Stephane Bortzmeyer, David
Conrad, Ralph Dolmans, John Dickinson, Steinar Haug, Bob Harold, Wes
Hardaker, Paul Hoffman, Matt Larson, Jinmei Tatuya, Edward Lewis,
George Michaelson, Benno Overeinder, Matthew Pounsett, Hugo Salgado-
Hernandez, Andreas Schulze, Mukund Sivaraman, Petr Spacek, Job
Snijders, Andrew Sullivan, Ondrej Sury, Paul Vixie, Duane Wessels,
and Paul Wouters for their helpful feedback.
The authors would like to especially call out Paul Hoffman and Duane
Wessels for providing comments in the form of pull requests. Joe
Abley also helpfully provided extensive review and OLD / NEW text.
Petr Spacek wrote some very early implementations and provided
significant feedback -- including pointing out when the test bed
didn't match the document!
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Geoff Huston Geoff Huston
Email: gih@apnic.net Email: gih@apnic.net
URI: http://www.apnic.net URI: http://www.apnic.net
Joao Silva Damas Joao Silva Damas
Email: joao@apnic.net Email: joao@apnic.net
URI: http://www.apnic.net URI: http://www.apnic.net
Warren Kumari Warren Kumari
Email: warren@kumari.net Email: warren@kumari.net
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