draft-ietf-drip-arch-04.txt   draft-ietf-drip-arch-05.txt 
DRIP S. Card, Ed. drip S. Card
Internet-Draft A. Wiethuechter Internet-Draft A. Wiethuechter
Intended status: Informational AX Enterprize Intended status: Informational AX Enterprize
Expires: 1 May 2021 R. Moskowitz Expires: 6 May 2021 R. Moskowitz
HTT Consulting HTT Consulting
S. Zhao S. Zhao (Editor)
Tencent Tencent
A. Gurtov A. Gurtov
Linköping University Linköping University
28 October 2020 2 November 2020
Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) Architecture Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) Architecture
draft-ietf-drip-arch-04 draft-ietf-drip-arch-05
Abstract Abstract
This document defines an architecture for protocols and services to This document defines an architecture for protocols and services to
support Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking support Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking
(UAS RID), plus RID-related communications, including required (UAS RID), plus RID-related communications, including required
architectural building blocks and their interfaces. architectural building blocks and their interfaces.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
skipping to change at page 1, line 39 skipping to change at page 1, line 39
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This Internet-Draft will expire on 1 May 2021. This Internet-Draft will expire on 6 May 2021.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1. Overview UAS Remote ID (RID) and RID Standardization . . 3
2.1. Requirements Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2. Overview of Types of UAS Remote ID . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Additional Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.1. Network RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Entities and their Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.2. Broadcast RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Private Information Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3. Overview of USS Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4. Overview of DRIP Archicture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2. Public Information Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Definitions and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1. Additional Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3. CS-RID concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. HHIT for UAS RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3.1. Proposed optional CS-RID SDSP . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5. DRIP RID Entities (WAS Entities and their interfaces) . . . . 10
3.3.2. Proposed optional CS-RID Finder . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.1. Private Information Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.1.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.1.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.2. Public Information Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. DRIP Transactions enabling Trustworthy UAS RID . . . . . . . 10 5.2.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6. Privacy for Broadcast PII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.3. CS-RID concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.3.1. Proposed optional CS-RID SDSP . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.3.2. Proposed optional CS-RID Finder . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6. UAS Remote Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Appendix A. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic 6.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Management (UTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. DRIP Transactions enabling Trustworthy . . . . . . . . . . . 14
A.1. Operation Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8. Privacy for Broadcast PII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A.2. UAS Service Supplier (USS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
A.3. UTM Use Cases for UAS Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
A.4. Overview UAS Remote ID (RID) and RID Standardization . . 18 11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Appendix B. Architectural implications of EASA requirements . . 18 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Appendix A. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
A.1. Operation Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
A.2. UAS Service Supplier (USS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
A.3. UTM Use Cases for UAS Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
A.4. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) . . . 22
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes a natural Internet based architecture for This document describes a natural Internet and MAC-layer broadcast-
Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking (UAS based architecture for Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification
RID), conforming to proposed regulations and external technical and tracking (UAS RID), conforming to proposed regulations and
standards, satisfying the requirements listed in the companion external technical standards, satisfying the requirements listed in
requirements document [drip-requirements]. The requirements document the companion requirements document [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs].
also provides an extended introduction to the problem space, use
cases, etc. Only a brief summary of that introduction will be
restated here as context, with reference to the general architecture
shown in Figure 1 below.
General x x Public
Public xxxxx xxxxx Safety
Observer x x Observer
x x
x x ---------+ +---------- x x
x x | | x x
| |
+ +
xxxxxxxxxx
x x
+----------+x Internet x+------------+
| x x |
UA1 x | xxxxxxxxxx | x UA2
Pilot xxxxx + + + xxxxx Pilot
Operator x | | | x Operator
x | | | x
x x | | | x x
x x | | | x x
| | |
+----------+ | | | +----------+
| |------+ | +-------| |
| Public | | | Private |
| Registry | +-----+ | Registry |
| | | DNS | | |
+----------+ +-----+ +----------+
Figure 1
Many considerations (especially safety) dictate that UAS be remotely Many considerations (especially safety) dictate that UAS be remotely
identifiable. Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs) worldwide are identifiable. Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs) worldwide are
mandating Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Remote Identification mandating Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Remote Identification
(RID). CAAs currently (2020) promulgate performance-based (RID). CAAs currently (2020) promulgate performance-based
regulations that do not specify techniques, but rather cite industry regulations that do not specify techniques, but rather cite industry
consensus technical standards as acceptable means of compliance. consensus technical standards as acceptable means of compliance.
ASTM International, Technical Committee F38 (UAS), Subcommittee 1.1. Overview UAS Remote ID (RID) and RID Standardization
F38.02 (Aircraft Operations), Work Item WK65041, developed the new
ASTM [F3411-19] Standard Specification for Remote ID and Tracking.
It defines one set of RID information and two means of communicating
it. If a UAS uses both communication methods, generally the same
information must provided via both means. While hybrids are possible
(and indeed one is proposed as an optional DRIP service), the two
basic methods are defined as follows:
Network RID defines a RID data dictionary and data flow: from a A RID is an application enabler for a UAS to be identified by a UTM/
UAS via unspecified means to a Network Remote ID Service Provider USS or third parties entities such as law enforcement. Many safety
(Net-RID SP); from the Net-RID SP to an integrated, or over the and other considerations dictate that UAS be remotely identifiable.
Internet to a separate, Network Remote ID Display Provider (Net- CAAs worldwide are mandating UAS RID. The European Union Aviation
RID DP); from the Net-RID DP via the Internet to Network Remote ID Safety Agency (EASA) has published [Delegated] and [Implementing]
clients in response to their queries (expected typically, but not Regulations. The FAA has published a Notice of Proposed Rule Making
specified exclusively, to be web based) specifying airspace [NPRM]. CAAs currently promulgate performance-based regulations that
volumes of interest. Network RID depends upon connectivity, in do not specify techniques, but rather cite industry consensus
several segments, via the Internet, from the UAS to the Observer. technical standards as acceptable means of compliance.
Broadcast RID defines a set of RID messages and how the UA ASTM
transmits them locally directly one-way, over Bluetooth or Wi-Fi.
Broadcast RID should need Internet (or other Wide Area Network)
connectivity only for UAS registry information lookup using the
locally directly received UAS ID as a key. Broadcast RID should
be functionally usable in situations with no Internet
connectivity.
The less constrained but more complex case of Network RID is ASTM International, Technical Committee F38 (UAS), Subcommittee
illustrated in Figure 2 below. F38.02 (Aircraft Operations), Work Item WK65041, developed the new
ASTM [F3411-19] Standard Specification for Remote ID and Tracking.
x x UA ASTM defines one set of RID information and two means, MAC-layer
xxxxx ******************** broadcast and IP-layer network, of communicating it. If a UAS
| * ------*---+------------+ uses both communication methods, generally the same information
| * / * | NET_Rid_SP | must provided via both means. The [F3411-19] is sighted by FAA in
| * ------------/ +---*--+------------+ its RID [NPRM] as "one potential means of compliance" to a Remote
| RF */ | * ID rule.
| * INTERNET | * +------------+
| /* +---*--| NET_Rid_DP |
| / * +----*--+------------+
+ / * | *
x / ****************|*** x
xxxxx | xxxxx
x +------- x
x x
x x Operator (GCS) Observer x x
x x x x
Figure 2 3GPP
3GPP provides UA service in the LTE network since release 15 in
published technical specification [TS-36.777]. Start from its
release 16, it completed the UAS RID requirement study in
[TS-22.825] and proposed use cases in the mobile network and the
services that can be offered based on RID and ongoing release 17
specification works on enhanced UAS service requirement and
provides the protocol and application architecture support which
is applicable for both 4G and 5G network. ATIS's recent report
[ATIS-I-0000074] proposes architecture approaches for the 3GPP
network to support UAS and one of which is put RID in higher 3GPP
protocol stack such as using ASTM remote ID [F3411-19].
1.2. Overview of Types of UAS Remote ID
1.2.1. Network RID
Network RID defines a RID data dictionary and data flow: from a UAS
via unspecified means to a Network Remote ID Service Provider (Net-
RID SP); from the Net-RID SP to an integrated, or over the Internet
to a separate, Network Remote ID Display Provider (Net- RID DP); from
the Net-RID DP via the Internet to Network Remote ID clients in
response to their queries (expected typically, but not specified
exclusively, to be web based) specifying airspace volumes of
interest. Network RID depends upon connectivity, in several
segments, via the Internet, from the UAS to the Observer.
The Network RID is illustrated in Figure 1 below.
x x UA
xxxxx ********************
| * ------*---+------------+
| * / * | NET_Rid_SP |
| * ------------/ +---*--+------------+
| RF */ | *
| * INTERNET | * +------------+
| /* +---*--| NET_Rid_DP |
| / * +----*--+------------+
+ / * | *
x / ****************|*** x
xxxxx | xxxxx
x +------- x
x x
x x Operator (GCS) Observer x x
x x x x
Figure 1
Via the direct Radio Frequency (RF) link between the UA and GCS: Via the direct Radio Frequency (RF) link between the UA and GCS:
Command and Control (C2) flows from the GCS to the UA; for all but Command and Control (C2) flows from the GCS to the UA; for all but
the simplest hobby aircraft, position and status flow from the UA to the simplest hobby aircraft, position and status flow from the UA to
the GCS. Via the Internet, through three distinct segments, Network the GCS. Via the Internet, through three distinct segments, Network
RID information flows from the UAS (comprising the UA and its GCS) to RID information flows from the UAS (comprising the UA and its GCS) to
the Observer. the Observer.
Other Standards Development Organizations (SDOs, e.g., 3GPP, 1.2.2. Broadcast RID
Appendix A.4) may define their own communication methods for both
Network and Broadcast RID. The CAAs expect any additional methods to
maintain consistency of the RID messages. Encapsulation of Broadcast
RID messages in IP packets is infeasible over data links that support
only very small transmission frames, such as the [F3411-19] specified
Bluetooth 4 one-way advertisements, which cannot fit IP much less
transport layer overhead (even with header compression); but emerging
data links such as [I-D.maeurer-raw-ldacs] should not suffer such
severe limitations.
For sharing location information, manned aviation uses a technology Broadcast RID defines a set of RID messages and how the UA transmits
known as Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B), which is them locally directly one-way, over Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. Broadcast
a ground and satellite based system designed in the early 2000s. RID should need Internet (or other Wide Area Network) connectivity
Broadcast RID is conceptually similar to ADS-B. However, for only for UAS registry information lookup using the locally directly
numerous technical and regulatory reasons, ADS-B itself is not received UAS ID as a key. Broadcast RID should be functionally
suitable for low-flying small UA. Technical reasons include: needing usable in situations with no Internet connectivity.
RF-LOS to large, expensive (hence scarce) ground stations; needing
both a satellite receiver and 1090 MHz transceiver onboard CSWaP The Broadcast RID is illustrated in Figure 2 below.
constrained UA; the limited bandwidth of both uplink and downlink,
which are adequate for the current manned aviation traffic volume, Editor's note: Is there a need to add interconnections between
but would likely be saturated by large numbers of UAS, endangering B-RID and N-RID in the drawing
manned aviation; etc. Understanding these technical shortcomings,
regulators world-wide have ruled out use of ADS-B for the small UAS x x UA
for which UAS RID and DRIP are intended. xxxxx
|
|
| app messages directly over
| one-way RF data link (no IP)
|
|
+
x
xxxxx
x
x
x x Observer's device (e.g. smartphone)
x x
Figure 2
Editor's note: the following may more clarification:
* what Broadcast RID can do w/ & w/o Observer Internet connectivity
* How Broadcast RID transmits public info (obviating some registry
lookups)
* how Network RID is "less constrained" than Broadcast RID
1.3. Overview of USS Interoperability
Editor's Note: Show how DRIP RID is an enabler of USS
Interoperability Figure 3
+-------+
| DSS |
+-------+
/ \
/ \
/ \
+-------+ +-------+
| USS-1 | <----------> | USS-2 |
+-------+ +-------+
Figure 3
1.4. Overview of DRIP Archicture
The requirements document also provides an extended introduction to
the problem space, use cases, etc. Only a brief summary of that
introduction will be restated here as context, with reference to the
general architecture shown in Figure 4 below.
General x x Public
Public xxxxx xxxxx Safety
Observer x x Observer
x x
x x ---------+ +---------- x x
x x | | x x
| |
+ +
xxxxxxxxxx
x x
+----------+x Internet x+------------+
| x x |
UA1 x | xxxxxxxxxx | x UA2
Pilot xxxxx + + + xxxxx Pilot
Operator x | | | x Operator
x | | | x
x x | | | x x
x x | | | x x
| | |
+----------+ | | | +----------+
| |------+ | +-------| |
| Public | | | Private |
| Registry | +-----+ | Registry |
| | | DNS | | |
+----------+ +-----+ +----------+
Figure 4
Editor's note: the archteture may need more clarification, and
address the following:
* add network RID and broadcast RID in the picture (since those are
the focus points)
* connectivity requirements among UA, GCS, SP, DP (if necessary) ...
DRIP will enable leveraging existing Internet resources (standard DRIP will enable leveraging existing Internet resources (standard
protocols, services, infrastructure and business models) to meet UAS protocols, services, infrastructure and business models) to meet UAS
RID and closely related needs. DRIP will specify how to apply IETF RID and closely related needs. DRIP will specify how to apply IETF
standards, complementing [F3411-19] and other external standards, to standards, complementing [F3411-19] and other external standards, to
satisfy UAS RID requirements. DRIP will update existing and develop satisfy UAS RID requirements. DRIP will update existing and develop
new protocol standards as needed to accomplish the foregoing. new protocol standards as needed to accomplish the foregoing.
This document will outline the UAS RID architecture into which DRIP This document will outline the UAS RID architecture into which DRIP
must fit, and an architecture for DRIP itself. This includes must fit, and an architecture for DRIP itself. This includes
presenting the gaps between the CAAs' Concepts of Operations and presenting the gaps between the CAAs' Concepts of Operations and
[F3411-19] as it relates to use of Internet technologies and UA [F3411-19] as it relates to use of Internet technologies and UA
direct RF communications. Issues include, but are not limited to: direct RF communications. Issues include, but are not limited to:
* Trustworthy Remote ID and trust in RID messages * Mechanisms to leverage Domain Name System (DNS: [RFC1034]) and
* Privacy in RID messages (PII protection) Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP [RFC5731]) technology to
provide for private (Section 5.1) and public (Section 5.2)
Information Registry.
* Trustworthy Remote ID and trust in RID messages Section 6
* Privacy in RID messages (PII protection) Section 8
Eiditor's Note: The following aspects are not covered in this
draft, yet. We may consider add sections for each of them if
necessary.
* UA -> Ground communications including Broadcast RID * UA -> Ground communications including Broadcast RID
* Broadcast RID 'harvesting' and secure forwarding into the UTM * Broadcast RID 'harvesting' and secure forwarding into the UTM
* Secure UAS -> Net-RID SP communications * Secure UAS -> Net-RID SP communications
* Secure Observer -> Pilot communications * Secure Observer -> Pilot communications
2. Terms and Definitions 2. Conventions
2.1. Requirements Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here. capitals, as shown above.
2.2. Additional Definitions 3. Definitions and Abbreviations
This document uses terms defined in [drip-requirements]. 3.1. Additional Definitions
3. Entities and their Interfaces Editor's Note: to be updated.
This document uses terms defined in [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs].
Editor's note: in order to make it self-contain, listing terms
used in this draft should be okie, comments?
3.2. Abbreviations
Editor's Note: to be updated.
ADS-B: Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast
DSS: Discovery & Synchronization Service
EdDSA: Edwards-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
GCS: Ground Control Station
HHIT: Hierarchical HIT Registries
HIP: Host Identity Protocol
HIT: Host Identity Tag
RID: Remote ID
Net-RID SP: Network RID Service Provider
Net-RID DP: Network RID Display Provider.
PII: Personally Identifiable Information
RF: Radio Frequency
SDSP: Supplemental Data Service Provider
UA: Unmanned Aircraft
UAS: Unmanned Aircraft System
USS: UAS Service Supplier
UTM: UAS Traffic Management
4. HHIT for UAS RID
Editor's note: I think we should explain HHIT designs for UAS RID
first and give readers a direct imporession what this draft is
offering. This is one of Daniel's comment, we shall focus on
solutions, without repeating too much of details from a sepecifc
draft.
This document describes the use of Hierarchical Host Identity Tags
(HHITs) as self-asserting IPv6 addresses and thereby a trustable
Identifier for use as the UAS Remote ID. HHITs self-attest to the
included explicit hierarchy that provides Registrar discovery for
3rd-party ID attestation.
HITs are statistically unique through the cryptographic hash feature
of second-preimage resistance. The cryptographically-bound addition
of the Hierarchy and a HHIT registration process (TBD; e.g. based on
Extensible Provisioning Protocol, [RFC5730]) provide complete, global
HHIT uniqueness. This is in contrast to general IDs (e.g. a UUID or
device serial number) as the subject in an X.509 certificate.
other pointers: (mostly list how HHIT satisfy the reqs-)
* Why DRIP RID should/MUST/May be a HHIT?
* HHIT RID format, metadate, and other useful info
* HHIT RID registar workflow
* HHIT Users (operator/USS/NETRID-SP?)
- expand on different uses of & relationship between optional
manufacturer-assigned HI & subsequent single-use HIs
* how security is guaranteed
- call X.509 PKI not "standard" but "classical", describe it to
justify why it won't work here
- explain continuing role of some kind of CA even w/o X.509 PKI
Editors' note: this is also one of the Michael's comment, we
can address it here
* how DNS lookup may happen (Reverse DNS?)
* ....
5. DRIP RID Entities (WAS Entities and their interfaces)
Editor: This section descrips the DRIP RID ecosystem such as RID
design philosophy, PII registration, Still not sure this is a good
title since here mainly talks about regiter, maybe use this seciton
focus on HHIT RID registration?? I also have suggestion to move the
CS-RID to a seperated section
Any DRIP solutions for UAS RID must fit into the UTM (or U-space) Any DRIP solutions for UAS RID must fit into the UTM (or U-space)
system. This implies interaction with entities including UA, GCS, system. This implies interaction with entities including UA, GCS,
USS, Net-RID SP, Net-RID DP, Observers, Operators, Pilots In Command, USS, Net-RID SP, Net-RID DP, Observers, Operators, Pilots In Command,
Remote Pilots, possibly SDSP, etc. The only additional entities Remote Pilots, possibly SDSP, etc. The only additional entities
introduced in this document are registries, required but not introduced in this document are registries, required but not
specified by the regulations and [RFC7401], and optionally CS-RID specified by the regulations and [RFC7401], and optionally CS-RID
SDSP and Finder nodes. SDSP and Finder nodes.
UAS registries hold both public and private UAS information. The UAS registries hold both public and private UAS information. The
public information is primarily pointers to the repositories of, and public information is primarily pointers to the repositories of, and
keys for looking up, the private information. Given these different keys for looking up, the private information. Given these different
uses, and to improve scalability, security and simplicity of uses, and to improve scalability, security and simplicity of
administration, the public and private information can be stored in administration, the public and private information can be stored in
different registries, indeed different types of registry. different registries, indeed different types of registry.
3.1. Private Information Registry Editor's note: what are differences & relationships among public &
3.1.1. Background private registries, DP, SP, USS
5.1. Private Information Registry
5.1.1. Background
The private information required for UAS RID is similar to that The private information required for UAS RID is similar to that
required for Internet domain name registration. Thus a DRIP RID required for Internet domain name registration. Thus a DRIP RID
solution can leverage existing Internet resources: registration solution can leverage existing Internet resources: registration
protocols, infrastructure and business models, by fitting into an ID protocols, infrastructure and business models, by fitting into an ID
structure compatible with DNS names. This implies some sort of structure compatible with DNS names. This implies some sort of
hierarchy, for scalability, and management of this hierarchy. It is hierarchy, for scalability, and management of this hierarchy. It is
expected that the private registry function will be provided by the expected that the private registry function will be provided by the
same organizations that run USS, and likely integrated with USS. same organizations that run USS, and likely integrated with USS.
3.1.2. Proposed Approach 5.1.2. Proposed Approach
A DRIP UAS ID MUST be amenable to handling as an Internet domain name A DRIP UAS ID MUST be amenable to handling as an Internet domain name
(at an arbitrary level in the hierarchy), MUST be registered in at (at an arbitrary level in the hierarchy), MUST be registered in at
least a pseudo-domain (e.g. .ip6.arpa for reverse lookup), and MAY be least a pseudo-domain (e.g. .ip6.arpa for reverse lookup), and MAY be
registered as a sub-domain (for forward lookup). registered as a sub-domain (for forward lookup).
A DRIP private information registry MUST support essential Internet A DRIP private information registry MUST support essential Internet
domain name registry operations (e.g. add, delete, update, query) domain name registry operations (e.g. add, delete, update, query)
using interoperable open standard protocols. It SHOULD support the using interoperable open standard protocols. It SHOULD support the
Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) and the Registry Data Access Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) and the Registry Data Access
Protocol (RDAP) with access controls. It MAY use XACML to specify Protocol (RDAP) with access controls. It MAY use XACML to specify
those access controls. It MUST be listed in a DNS: that DNS MAY be those access controls. It MUST be listed in a DNS: that DNS MAY be
private; but absent any compelling reasons for use of private DNS, private; but absent any compelling reasons for use of private DNS,
SHOULD be the definitive public Internet DNS hierarchy. The DRIP SHOULD be the definitive public Internet DNS hierarchy. The DRIP
private information registry in which a given UAS is registered MUST private information registry in which a given UAS is registered MUST
be locatable, starting from the UAS ID, using the methods specified be findable, starting from the UAS ID, using the methods specified in
in [RFC7484]. A DRIP private information registry MAY support [RFC7484]. A DRIP private information registry MAY support WebFinger
WebFinger as specified in [RFC7033]. as specified in [RFC7033].
3.2. Public Information Registry 5.2. Public Information Registry
3.2.1. Background 5.2.1. Background
The public information required to be made available by UAS RID is The public information required to be made available by UAS RID is
transmitted as cleartext to local observers in Broadcast RID and is transmitted as cleartext to local observers in Broadcast RID and is
served to a client by a Net-RID DP in Network RID. Therefore, while served to a client by a Net-RID DP in Network RID. Therefore, while
IETF can offer e.g. [RFC6280] as one way to implement Network RID, IETF can offer e.g. [RFC6280] as one way to implement Network RID,
the only public information required to support essential DRIP the only public information required to support essential DRIP
functions for UAS RID is that required to look up Internet domain functions for UAS RID is that required to look up Internet domain
hosts, services, etc. hosts, services, etc.
3.2.2. Proposed Approach 5.2.2. Proposed Approach
A DRIP public information registry MUST be a standard DNS server, in A DRIP public information registry MUST be a standard DNS server, in
the definitive public Internet DNS hierarchy. It MUST support NS, the definitive public Internet DNS hierarchy. It MUST support NS,
MX, SRV, TXT, AAAA, PTR, CNAME and HIP RR (the last per [RFC8005]) MX, SRV, TXT, AAAA, PTR, CNAME and HIP RR (the last per [RFC8005])
types. If a DRIP public information registry lists, in a HIP RR, any types. If a DRIP public information registry lists, in a HIP RR, any
HIP RVS servers for a given DRIP UAS ID, those RVS servers MUST HIP RVS servers for a given DRIP UAS ID, those RVS servers MUST
restrict relay services per AAA policy; this may require extensions restrict relay services per AAA policy; this may require extensions
to [RFC8004] to [RFC8004].
3.3. CS-RID concept 5.3. CS-RID concept
Editor's Note: if CS-RID is optional, may be added in separately
section stating optional features Maybe add the CS into
architecture diagram
ASTM anticipated that regulators would require both Broadcast RID and ASTM anticipated that regulators would require both Broadcast RID and
Network RID for large UAS, but allow RID requirements for small UAS Network RID for large UAS, but allow RID requirements for small UAS
to be satisfied with the operator's choice of either Broadcast RID or to be satisfied with the operator's choice of either Broadcast RID or
Network RID. The EASA initially specified Broadcast RID for UAS of Network RID. The EASA initially specified Broadcast RID for UAS of
essentially all UAS and is now considering Network RID also. The FAA essentially all UAS and is now considering Network RID also. The FAA
NPRM requires both for Standard RID and specifies Network RID only NPRM requires both for Standard RID and specifies Network RID only
for Limited RID. One obvious opportunity is to enhance the for Limited RID. One obvious opportunity is to enhance the
architecture with gateways from Broadcast RID to Network RID. This architecture with gateways from Broadcast RID to Network RID. This
provides the best of both and gives regulators and operators provides the best of both and gives regulators and operators
skipping to change at page 8, line 42 skipping to change at page 12, line 30
Surveillance SDSPs can use messages with precise date/time/position Surveillance SDSPs can use messages with precise date/time/position
stamps from the gateways to multilaterate UA location, independent of stamps from the gateways to multilaterate UA location, independent of
the locations claimed in the messages, which are entirely operator the locations claimed in the messages, which are entirely operator
self-reported in UAS RID and UTM. Further, gateways with additional self-reported in UAS RID and UTM. Further, gateways with additional
sensors (e.g. smartphones with cameras) can provide independent sensors (e.g. smartphones with cameras) can provide independent
information on the UA type and size, confirming or refuting those information on the UA type and size, confirming or refuting those
claims made in the RID messages. CS-RID would be an option, beyond claims made in the RID messages. CS-RID would be an option, beyond
baseline DRIP functionality; if implemented, it adds two more entity baseline DRIP functionality; if implemented, it adds two more entity
types. types.
3.3.1. Proposed optional CS-RID SDSP 5.3.1. Proposed optional CS-RID SDSP
A CS-RID SDSP MUST appear (i.e. present the same interface) to a Net- A CS-RID SDSP MUST appear (i.e. present the same interface) to a Net-
RID SP as a Net-RID DP. A CS-RID SDSP MUST appear to a Net-RID DP as RID SP as a Net-RID DP. A CS-RID SDSP MUST appear to a Net-RID DP as
a Net-RID SP. A CS-RID SDSP MUST NOT present a standard GCS-facing a Net-RID SP. A CS-RID SDSP MUST NOT present a standard GCS-facing
interface as if it were a Net-RID SP. A CS-RID SDSP MUST NOT present interface as if it were a Net-RID SP. A CS-RID SDSP MUST NOT present
a standard client-facing interface as if it were a Net-RID DP. A CS- a standard client-facing interface as if it were a Net-RID DP. A CS-
RID SDSP MUST present a TBD interface to a CS-RID Finder; this RID SDSP MUST present a TBD interface to a CS-RID Finder; this
interface SHOULD be based upon but readily distinguishable from that interface SHOULD be based upon but readily distinguishable from that
between a GCS and a Net-RID SP. between a GCS and a Net-RID SP.
3.3.2. Proposed optional CS-RID Finder 5.3.2. Proposed optional CS-RID Finder
A CS-RID Finder MUST present a TBD interface to a CS-RID SDSP; this A CS-RID Finder MUST present a TBD interface to a CS-RID SDSP; this
interface SHOULD be based upon but readily distinguishable from that interface SHOULD be based upon but readily distinguishable from that
between a GCS and a Net-RID SP. A CS-RID Finder must implement, between a GCS and a Net-RID SP. A CS-RID Finder must implement,
integrate, or accept outputs from, a Broadcast RID receiver. A CS- integrate, or accept outputs from, a Broadcast RID receiver. A CS-
RID Finder MUST NOT interface directly with a GCS, Net-RID SP, Net- RID Finder MUST NOT interface directly with a GCS, Net-RID SP, Net-
RID DP or Network RID client. RID DP or Network RID client.
4. Identifiers 6. UAS Remote Identifiers
4.1. Background 6.1. Background
A DRIP UA ID needs to be "Trustworthy". This means that within the A DRIP UA ID needs to be "Trustworthy". This means that within the
framework of the RID messages, an observer can establish that the RID framework of the RID messages, an observer can establish that the RID
used does uniquely belong to the UA. That the only way for any other used does uniquely belong to the UA. That the only way for any other
UA to assert this RID would be to steal something from within the UA. UA to assert this RID would be to steal something from within the UA.
The RID is self-generated by the UAS (either UA or GCS) and The RID is self-generated by the UAS (either UA or GCS) and
registered with the USS. registered with the USS.
Within the limitations of Broadcast RID, this is extremely Within the limitations of Broadcast RID, this is extremely
challenging as: challenging as:
skipping to change at page 9, line 40 skipping to change at page 13, line 31
* The ASTM Basic RID message (the message containing the RID) is 25 * The ASTM Basic RID message (the message containing the RID) is 25
characters; only 3 characters are currently unused characters; only 3 characters are currently unused
* The ASTM Authentication message, with some changes from [F3411-19] * The ASTM Authentication message, with some changes from [F3411-19]
can carry 224 bytes of payload. can carry 224 bytes of payload.
Standard approaches like X.509 and PKI will not fit these Standard approaches like X.509 and PKI will not fit these
constraints, even using the new EdDSA algorithm. An example of a constraints, even using the new EdDSA algorithm. An example of a
technology that will fit within these limitations is an enhancement technology that will fit within these limitations is an enhancement
of the Host Identity Tag (HIT) of HIPv2 [RFC7401] introducing of the Host Identity Tag (HIT) of HIPv2 [RFC7401] introducing
hierarchy as defined in HHIT [hierarchical-hit]; using Hierarchical hierarchy as defined in HHIT [I-D.moskowitz-hip-hierarchical-hit];
HITs for UAS RID is outlined in HHIT based UAS RID [drip-uas-rid]. using Hierarchical HITs for UAS RID is outlined in HHIT based UAS RID
As PKI with X.509 is being used in other systems with which UAS RID [I-D.ietf-drip-rid]. As PKI with X.509 is being used in other
must interoperate (e.g. the UTM Discovery and Synchronization Service systems with which UAS RID must interoperate (e.g. the UTM Discovery
and the UTM InterUSS protocol) mappings between the more flexible but and Synchronization Service and the UTM InterUSS protocol) mappings
larger X.509 certificates and the HHIT based structures must be between the more flexible but larger X.509 certificates and the HHIT
devised. based structures must be devised.
By using the EdDSA HHIT suite, self-assertions of the RID can be done By using the EdDSA HHIT suite, self-assertions of the RID can be done
in as little as 84 bytes. Third-party assertions can be done in 200 in as little as 84 bytes. Third-party assertions can be done in 200
bytes. An observer would need Internet access to validate a self- bytes. An observer would need Internet access to validate a self-
assertion claim. A third-party assertion can be validated via a assertion claim. A third-party assertion can be validated via a
small credential cache in a disconnected environment. This third- small credential cache in a disconnected environment. This third-
party assertion is possible when the third-party also uses HHITs for party assertion is possible when the third-party also uses HHITs for
its identity and the UA has the public key for that HHIT. its identity and the UA has the public key for that HHIT.
4.2. Proposed Approach 6.2. Proposed Approach
A DRIP UAS ID MUST be a HHIT. It SHOULD be self-generated by the UAS A DRIP UAS ID MUST be a HHIT. It SHOULD be self-generated by the UAS
(either UA or GCS) and MUST be registered with the Private (either UA or GCS) and MUST be registered with the Private
Information Registry identified in its hierarchy fields. Each UAS ID Information Registry identified in its hierarchy fields. Each UAS ID
HHIT MUST NOT be used more than once, with one exception as follows. HHIT MUST NOT be used more than once, with one exception as follows.
Each UA MAY be assigned, by its manufacturer, a single HI and derived Each UA MAY be assigned, by its manufacturer, a single HI and derived
HHIT encoded as a hardware serial number per [CTA2063A]. Such a HHIT encoded as a hardware serial number per [CTA2063A]. Such a
static HHIT SHOULD be used only to bind one-time use UAS IDs (other static HHIT SHOULD be used only to bind one-time use UAS IDs (other
HHITs) to the unique UA. Depending upon implementation, this may HHITs) to the unique UA. Depending upon implementation, this may
skipping to change at page 10, line 43 skipping to change at page 14, line 28
relaying rather than sourcing Network RID messages). Each observer relaying rather than sourcing Network RID messages). Each observer
device MUST be provisioned with public keys of the UAS RID root device MUST be provisioned with public keys of the UAS RID root
registries and MAY be provisioned with public keys or certificates registries and MAY be provisioned with public keys or certificates
for subordinate registries. for subordinate registries.
Operators and Private Information Registries MUST possess and other Operators and Private Information Registries MUST possess and other
UTM entities MAY possess UAS ID style HHITs. When present, such UTM entities MAY possess UAS ID style HHITs. When present, such
HHITs SHOULD be used with HIP to strongly mutually authenticate and HHITs SHOULD be used with HIP to strongly mutually authenticate and
optionally encrypt communications. optionally encrypt communications.
5. DRIP Transactions enabling Trustworthy UAS RID 7. DRIP Transactions enabling Trustworthy
Each Operator MUST generate a Host Identity of the Operator (HIo) and Each Operator MUST generate a Host Identity of the Operator (HIo) and
derived Hierarchical HIT of the Operator (HHITo), register them with derived Hierarchical HIT of the Operator (HHITo), register them with
a Private Information Registry along with whatever Operator data a Private Information Registry along with whatever Operator data
(inc. PII) is required by the cognizant CAA and the registry, and (inc. PII) is required by the cognizant CAA and the registry, and
obtain a Certificate from the Registry on the Operator (Cro) signed obtain a Certificate from the Registry on the Operator (Cro) signed
with the Host Identity of the Registry private key (HIr(priv)) with the Host Identity of the Registry private key (HIr(priv))
proving such registration. proving such registration.
To add an UA, an Operator MUST generate a Host Identity of the To add an UA, an Operator MUST generate a Host Identity of the
skipping to change at page 11, line 30 skipping to change at page 15, line 16
and MUST periodically broadcast Cra. UAS engaging in Network RID MUST and MUST periodically broadcast Cra. UAS engaging in Network RID MUST
use HIa(priv) to sign Auth Messages. Observers MUST use HIa from use HIa(priv) to sign Auth Messages. Observers MUST use HIa from
received Cra to verify received Broadcast RID Auth messages. received Cra to verify received Broadcast RID Auth messages.
Observers without Internet connectivity MAY use Cra to identify the Observers without Internet connectivity MAY use Cra to identify the
trust class of the UAS based on known registry vetting. Observers trust class of the UAS based on known registry vetting. Observers
with Internet connectivity MAY use HHITa to perform lookups in the with Internet connectivity MAY use HHITa to perform lookups in the
Public Information Registry and MAY then query the Private Public Information Registry and MAY then query the Private
Information Registry, which MUST enforce AAA policy on Operator PII Information Registry, which MUST enforce AAA policy on Operator PII
and other sensitive information. and other sensitive information.
6. Privacy for Broadcast PII 8. Privacy for Broadcast PII
Editor's ntoe: move this to a subsction of Operator Privacy?
Broadcast RID messages may contain PII. This may be information Broadcast RID messages may contain PII. This may be information
about the UA such as its destination or Operator information such as about the UA such as its destination or Operator information such as
GCS location. There is no absolute "right" in hiding PII, as there GCS location. There is no absolute "right" in hiding PII, as there
will be times (e.g., disasters) and places (buffer zones around will be times (e.g., disasters) and places (buffer zones around
airports and sensitive facilities) where policy may mandate all airports and sensitive facilities) where policy may mandate all
information be sent as cleartext. Otherwise, the modern general information be sent as cleartext. Otherwise, the modern general
position (consistent with, e.g., the EU General Data Protection position (consistent with, e.g., the EU General Data Protection
Regulation) is to hide PII unless otherwise instructed. While some Regulation) is to hide PII unless otherwise instructed. While some
have argued that a system like that of automobile registration plates have argued that a system like that of automobile registration plates
skipping to change at page 12, line 12 skipping to change at page 15, line 49
service) and receive the key to directly decrypt all PII content from service) and receive the key to directly decrypt all PII content from
the UA. the UA.
PII is protected unless the UAS is informed otherwise. This may come PII is protected unless the UAS is informed otherwise. This may come
from operational instructions to even permit flying in a space/time. from operational instructions to even permit flying in a space/time.
It may be special instructions at the start or during an operation. It may be special instructions at the start or during an operation.
PII protection should not be used if the UAS loses connectivity to PII protection should not be used if the UAS loses connectivity to
the USS. The USS always has the option to abort the operation if PII the USS. The USS always has the option to abort the operation if PII
protection is disallowed. protection is disallowed.
An authorized Observer may instruct a UAS via the USS that conditions An authorized observer may instruct a UAS via the USS that conditions
have changed mandating no PII protection or land the UA. have changed mandating no PII protection or land the UA.
7. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
This document does not make any request to IANA. Editor's note: placeholder
8. Security Considerations 10. Security Considerations
DRIP is all about safety and security, so content pertaining to such DRIP is all about safety and security, so content pertaining to such
is not limited to this section. The security provided by asymmetric is not limited to this section. The security provided by asymmetric
cryptographic techniques depends upon protection of the private keys. cryptographic techniques depends upon protection of the private keys.
A manufacturer that embeds a private key in an UA may have retained a A manufacturer that embeds a private key in an UA may have retained a
copy. A manufacturer whose UA are configured by a closed source copy. A manufacturer whose UA are configured by a closed source
application on the GCS which communicates over the Internet with the application on the GCS which communicates over the Internet with the
factory may be sending a copy of a UA or GCS self-generated key back factory may be sending a copy of a UA or GCS self-generated key back
to the factory. Keys may be extracted from a GCS or UA; the RID to the factory. Keys may be extracted from a GCS or UA; the RID
sender of a small harmless UA (or the entire UA) could be carried by sender of a small harmless UA (or the entire UA) could be carried by
a larger dangerous UA as a "false flag." Compromise of a registry a larger dangerous UA as a "false flag." Compromise of a registry
private key could do widespread harm. Key revocation procedures are private key could do widespread harm. Key revocation procedures are
as yet to be determined. These risks are in addition to those as yet to be determined. These risks are in addition to those
involving Operator key management practices. involving Operator key management practices.
9. References 11. Acknowledgements
9.1. Normative References The work of the FAA's UAS Identification and Tracking (UAS ID)
Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) is the foundation of later ASTM
and proposed IETF DRIP WG efforts. The work of ASTM F38.02 in
balancing the interests of diverse stakeholders is essential to the
necessary rapid and widespread deployment of UAS RID. IETF
volunteers who have contributed to this draft include Amelia
Andersdotter and Mohamed Boucadair.
[drip-requirements] 12. References
12.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-drip-reqs]
Card, S., Wiethuechter, A., Moskowitz, R., and A. Gurtov, Card, S., Wiethuechter, A., Moskowitz, R., and A. Gurtov,
"Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) "Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP)
Requirements", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft- Requirements", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
ietf-drip-reqs-05, 16 October 2020, ietf-drip-reqs-06, 1 November 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-drip-reqs-05>. internet-drafts/draft-ietf-drip-reqs-06.txt>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
9.2. Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[ATIS-I-0000074] [ATIS-I-0000074]
ATIS, "Report on UAS in 3GPP", ATIS, "Report on UAS in 3GPP", n.d.,
<https://access.atis.org/apps/group_public/ <https://access.atis.org/apps/group_public/
download.php/48760/ATIS-I-0000074.pdf>. download.php/48760/ATIS-I-0000074.pdf>.
[crowd-sourced-rid]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S., Wiethuechter, A., Zhao, S., and
H. Birkholz, "Crowd Sourced Remote ID", Work in Progress,
Internet-Draft, draft-moskowitz-drip-crowd-sourced-rid-04,
20 May 2020, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-moskowitz-
drip-crowd-sourced-rid-04>.
[CTA2063A] ANSI, "Small Unmanned Aerial Systems Serial Numbers", [CTA2063A] ANSI, "Small Unmanned Aerial Systems Serial Numbers",
September 2019. 2019.
[Delegated] [Delegated]
European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), "EU European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), "EU
Commission Delegated Regulation 2019/945 of 12 March 2019 Commission Delegated Regulation 2019/945 of 12 March 2019
on unmanned aircraft systems and on third-country on unmanned aircraft systems and on third-country
operators of unmanned aircraft systems", March 2019. operators of unmanned aircraft systems", 2019.
[drip-auth] [F3411-19] ASTM, "Standard Specification for Remote ID and Tracking",
Wiethuechter, A., Card, S., and R. Moskowitz, "DRIP 2019.
Authentication Formats", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
draft-wiethuechter-drip-auth-04, 21 September 2020,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-wiethuechter-drip-auth-
04>.
[drip-identity-claims] [I-D.ietf-drip-rid]
Wiethuechter, A., Card, S., and R. Moskowitz, "DRIP Moskowitz, R., Card, S., Wiethuechter, A., and A. Gurtov,
Identity Claims", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft- "UAS Remote ID", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
wiethuechter-drip-identity-claims-02, 26 October 2020, ietf-drip-rid-04, 1 November 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-wiethuechter-drip- internet-drafts/draft-ietf-drip-rid-04.txt>.
identity-claims-02>.
[drip-secure-nrid-c2] [I-D.maeurer-raw-ldacs]
Maeurer, N., Graeupl, T., and C. Schmitt, "L-band Digital
Aeronautical Communications System (LDACS)", Work in
Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-maeurer-raw-ldacs-06, 2
October 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-
maeurer-raw-ldacs-06.txt>.
[I-D.moskowitz-drip-crowd-sourced-rid]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S., Wiethuechter, A., Zhao, S., and
H. Birkholz, "Crowd Sourced Remote ID", Work in Progress,
Internet-Draft, draft-moskowitz-drip-crowd-sourced-rid-04,
20 May 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-
moskowitz-drip-crowd-sourced-rid-04.txt>.
[I-D.moskowitz-drip-secure-nrid-c2]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S., Wiethuechter, A., and A. Gurtov, Moskowitz, R., Card, S., Wiethuechter, A., and A. Gurtov,
"Secure UAS Network RID and C2 Transport", Work in "Secure UAS Network RID and C2 Transport", Work in
Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-moskowitz-drip-secure- Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-moskowitz-drip-secure-
nrid-c2-01, 27 September 2020, nrid-c2-01, 27 September 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-moskowitz-drip-secure- internet-drafts/draft-moskowitz-drip-secure-nrid-
nrid-c2-01>. c2-01.txt>.
[drip-uas-rid]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S., Wiethuechter, A., and A. Gurtov,
"UAS Remote ID", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
moskowitz-drip-uas-rid-06, 17 August 2020,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-moskowitz-drip-uas-rid-
06>.
[F3411-19] ASTM, "Standard Specification for Remote ID and Tracking",
December 2019.
[hhit-registries] [I-D.moskowitz-hip-hhit-registries]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S., and A. Wiethuechter, Moskowitz, R., Card, S., and A. Wiethuechter,
"Hierarchical HIT Registries", Work in Progress, Internet- "Hierarchical HIT Registries", Work in Progress, Internet-
Draft, draft-moskowitz-hip-hhit-registries-02, 9 March Draft, draft-moskowitz-hip-hhit-registries-02, 9 March
2020, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-moskowitz-hip- 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-
hhit-registries-02>. moskowitz-hip-hhit-registries-02.txt>.
[hierarchical-hit] [I-D.moskowitz-hip-hierarchical-hit]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S., and A. Wiethuechter, Moskowitz, R., Card, S., and A. Wiethuechter,
"Hierarchical HITs for HIPv2", Work in Progress, Internet- "Hierarchical HITs for HIPv2", Work in Progress, Internet-
Draft, draft-moskowitz-hip-hierarchical-hit-05, 13 May Draft, draft-moskowitz-hip-hierarchical-hit-05, 13 May
2020, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-moskowitz-hip- 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-
hierarchical-hit-05>. moskowitz-hip-hierarchical-hit-05.txt>.
[I-D.maeurer-raw-ldacs] [I-D.moskowitz-hip-new-crypto]
Maeurer, N., Graeupl, T., and C. Schmitt, "L-band Digital Moskowitz, R., Card, S., and A. Wiethuechter, "New
Aeronautical Communications System (LDACS)", Work in Cryptographic Algorithms for HIP", Work in Progress,
Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-maeurer-raw-ldacs-06, 2 Internet-Draft, draft-moskowitz-hip-new-crypto-05, 26 July
October 2020, 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-maeurer-raw-ldacs-06>. moskowitz-hip-new-crypto-05.txt>.
[I-D.moskowitz-orchid-cshake]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S., and A. Wiethuechter, "Using
cSHAKE in ORCHIDs", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
draft-moskowitz-orchid-cshake-01, 21 May 2020,
<http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-moskowitz-
orchid-cshake-01.txt>.
[I-D.wiethuechter-drip-auth]
Wiethuechter, A., Card, S., and R. Moskowitz, "DRIP
Authentication Formats", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
draft-wiethuechter-drip-auth-04, 21 September 2020,
<http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-wiethuechter-
drip-auth-04.txt>.
[I-D.wiethuechter-drip-identity-claims]
Wiethuechter, A., Card, S., and R. Moskowitz, "DRIP
Identity Claims", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
wiethuechter-drip-identity-claims-02, 26 October 2020,
<http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-wiethuechter-
drip-identity-claims-02.txt>.
[Implementing] [Implementing]
European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), "EU European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), "EU
Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/947 of 24 May 2019 Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/947 of 24 May 2019
on the rules and procedures for the operation of unmanned on the rules and procedures for the operation of unmanned
aircraft", May 2019. aircraft", 2019.
[LAANC] United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), "Low [LAANC] United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), "Low
Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability", Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability", n.d.,
<https://www.faa.gov/uas/programs_partnerships/ <https://www.faa.gov/uas/programs_partnerships/
data_exchange/>. data_exchange/>.
[new-hip-crypto]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S., and A. Wiethuechter, "New
Cryptographic Algorithms for HIP", Work in Progress,
Internet-Draft, draft-moskowitz-hip-new-crypto-05, 26 July
2020, <https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-moskowitz-hip-
new-crypto-05>.
[new-orchid]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S., and A. Wiethuechter, "Using
cSHAKE in ORCHIDs", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
draft-moskowitz-orchid-cshake-01, 21 May 2020,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-moskowitz-orchid-
cshake-01>.
[NPRM] United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), [NPRM] United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),
"Notice of Proposed Rule Making on Remote Identification "Notice of Proposed Rule Making on Remote Identification
of Unmanned Aircraft Systems", December 2019. of Unmanned Aircraft Systems", 2019.
[RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities",
STD 13, RFC 1034, DOI 10.17487/RFC1034, November 1987,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1034>.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally [RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4122, July 2005, DOI 10.17487/RFC4122, July 2005,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4122>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4122>.
[RFC5730] Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)",
STD 69, RFC 5730, DOI 10.17487/RFC5730, August 2009,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5730>.
[RFC5731] Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
Domain Name Mapping", STD 69, RFC 5731,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5731, August 2009,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5731>.
[RFC6280] Barnes, R., Lepinski, M., Cooper, A., Morris, J., [RFC6280] Barnes, R., Lepinski, M., Cooper, A., Morris, J.,
Tschofenig, H., and H. Schulzrinne, "An Architecture for Tschofenig, H., and H. Schulzrinne, "An Architecture for
Location and Location Privacy in Internet Applications", Location and Location Privacy in Internet Applications",
BCP 160, RFC 6280, DOI 10.17487/RFC6280, July 2011, BCP 160, RFC 6280, DOI 10.17487/RFC6280, July 2011,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6280>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6280>.
[RFC7033] Jones, P., Salgueiro, G., Jones, M., and J. Smarr, [RFC7033] Jones, P., Salgueiro, G., Jones, M., and J. Smarr,
"WebFinger", RFC 7033, DOI 10.17487/RFC7033, September "WebFinger", RFC 7033, DOI 10.17487/RFC7033, September
2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7033>. 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7033>.
skipping to change at page 15, line 49 skipping to change at page 20, line 27
[RFC8004] Laganier, J. and L. Eggert, "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) [RFC8004] Laganier, J. and L. Eggert, "Host Identity Protocol (HIP)
Rendezvous Extension", RFC 8004, DOI 10.17487/RFC8004, Rendezvous Extension", RFC 8004, DOI 10.17487/RFC8004,
October 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8004>. October 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8004>.
[RFC8005] Laganier, J., "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Domain Name [RFC8005] Laganier, J., "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Domain Name
System (DNS) Extension", RFC 8005, DOI 10.17487/RFC8005, System (DNS) Extension", RFC 8005, DOI 10.17487/RFC8005,
October 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8005>. October 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8005>.
[TS-22.825] [TS-22.825]
3GPP, "UAS RID requirement study", 3GPP, "UAS RID requirement study", n.d.,
<https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/ <https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/
SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=3527>. SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=3527>.
[TS-36.777] [TS-36.777]
3GPP, "UAV service in the LTE network", 3GPP, "UAV service in the LTE network", n.d.,
<https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/ <https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/
SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=3231>. SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=3231>.
[U-Space] European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation [U-Space] European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation
(EUROCONTROL), "U-space Concept of Operations", October (EUROCONTROL), "U-space Concept of Operations", 2019,
2019,
<https://www.sesarju.eu/sites/default/files/documents/u- <https://www.sesarju.eu/sites/default/files/documents/u-
space/CORUS%20ConOps%20vol2.pdf>. space/CORUS%20ConOps%20vol2.pdf>.
Appendix A. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Appendix A. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic
Management (UTM)
A.1. Operation Concept A.1. Operation Concept
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and FAAs' The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and FAAs'
effort of integrating UAS's operation into the national airspace effort of integrating UAS's operation into the national airspace
system (NAS) leads to the development of the concept of UTM and the system (NAS) leads to the development of the concept of UTM and the
ecosystem around it. The UTM concept was initially presented in ecosystem around it. The UTM concept was initially presented in
2013. The eventual development and implementation are conducted by 2013. The eventual development and implementation are conducted by
the UTM research transition team which is the joint workforce by FAA the UTM research transition team which is the joint workforce by FAA
and NASA. World efforts took place afterward. The Single European and NASA. World efforts took place afterward. The Single European
skipping to change at page 17, line 46 skipping to change at page 22, line 20
database, obtaining the air traffic control (ATC) authorization database, obtaining the air traffic control (ATC) authorization
and monitor the UAS fly path in order to maintain safe boundary and monitor the UAS fly path in order to maintain safe boundary
and follow the pre-authorized route. and follow the pre-authorized route.
2. For a UAS participating in UTM and take off or land in an 2. For a UAS participating in UTM and take off or land in an
uncontrolled airspace (ex. Class Golf in the United States), uncontrolled airspace (ex. Class Golf in the United States),
pre-fly authorization must be obtained from a USS when operating pre-fly authorization must be obtained from a USS when operating
beyond-visual-of-sight (BVLOS) operation. The USS either accepts beyond-visual-of-sight (BVLOS) operation. The USS either accepts
or rejects received intended fly plan from the UAS. Accepted UAS or rejects received intended fly plan from the UAS. Accepted UAS
operation may share its current fly data such as GPS position and operation may share its current fly data such as GPS position and
altitude to USS. The USS may keep the UAS flight status near altitude to USS. The USS may keep the UAS operation status near
real-time and may keep it as a record for overall airspace air real-time and may keep it as a record for overall airspace air
traffic monitor. traffic monitor.
A.4. Overview UAS Remote ID (RID) and RID Standardization A.4. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)
A RID is an application enabler for a UAS to be identified by a UTM/
USS or third parties entities such as law enforcement. Many safety
and other considerations dictate that UAS be remotely identifiable.
CAAs worldwide are mandating UAS RID. The European Union Aviation
Safety Agency (EASA) has published [Delegated] and [Implementing]
Regulations. The FAA has published a Notice of Proposed Rule Making
[NPRM]. CAAs currently promulgate performance-based regulations that
do not specify techniques, but rather cite industry consensus
technical standards as acceptable means of compliance.
3GPP provides UA service in the LTE network since release 15 in
published technical specification [TS-36.777]. Start from its
release 16, it completed the UAS RID requirement study in [TS-22.825]
and proposed use cases in the mobile network and the services that
can be offered based on RID and ongoing release 17 specification
works on enhanced UAS service requirement and provides the protocol
and application architecture support which is applicable for both 4G
and 5G network. ATIS's recent report [ATIS-I-0000074] proposes
architecture approaches for the 3GPP network to support UAS and one
of which is put RID in higher 3GPP protocol stack such as using ASTM
remote ID [F3411-19].
Appendix B. Architectural implications of EASA requirements
According to EASA, in EU broadcasting drone identification will be
mandatory from July 2020. Following info should be sent in cleartext
over Wifi or Bluetooth. In real time during the whole duration of
the flight, the direct periodic broadcast from the UA using an open
and documented transmission protocol, of the following data, in a way
that they can be received directly by existing mobile devices within
the broadcasting range:
i) the UAS operator registration number;
ii) the unique physical serial number of the UA compliant with
standard ANSI/CTA2063;
iii) the geographical position of the UA and its height above the
surface or take-off point;
iv) the route course measured clockwise from true north and ground
speed of the UA; and
v) the geographical position of the remote pilot or, if not
available, the take-off point;
The architecture proposed in this document partially satisfies EASA
requirements. In particular, i) is included to Operator-ID Message
as optional. ii) cannot be directly supported due to its heavy
privacy implications. A cryptographic identifier that needs to be
resolved is proposed instead. iii) and iv) are included into
Location/Vector Message. v) is included into a System Message
(optional).
Acknowledgments
The work of the FAA's UAS Identification and Tracking (UAS ID) The ADS-B is the de facto technology used in manned aviation for
Aviation Rulemaking Committee (ARC) is the foundation of later ASTM sharing locaiton infomraiton, which is a ground and satellite based
and proposed IETF DRIP WG efforts. The work of ASTM F38.02 in system designed in the early 2000s. Broadcast RID is conceptually
balancing the interests of diverse stakeholders is essential to the similar to ADS-B. However, for numerous technical and regulatory
necessary rapid and widespread deployment of UAS RID. IETF reasons, ADS-B itself is not suitable for low-flying small UA.
volunteers who have contributed to this draft include Amelia Technical reasons include: needing RF-LOS to large, expensive (hence
Andersdotter and Mohamed Boucadair. scarce) ground stations; needing both a satellite receiver and 1090
MHz transceiver onboard CSWaP constrained UA; the limited bandwidth
of both uplink and downlink, which are adequate for the current
manned aviation traffic volume, but would likely be saturated by
large numbers of UAS, endangering manned aviation; etc.
Understanding these technical shortcomings, regulators world-wide
have ruled out use of ADS-B for the small UAS for which UAS RID and
DRIP are intended.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Stuart W. Card (editor) Stuart W. Card
AX Enterprize AX Enterprize
4947 Commercial Drive 4947 Commercial Drive
Yorkville, NY 13495 Yorkville, NY, 13495
United States of America United States of America
Email: stu.card@axenterprize.com Email: stu.card@axenterprize.com
Adam Wiethuechter Adam Wiethuechter
AX Enterprize AX Enterprize
4947 Commercial Drive 4947 Commercial Drive
Yorkville, NY 13495 Yorkville, NY, 13495
United States of America United States of America
Email: adam.wiethuechter@axenterprize.com Email: adam.wiethuechter@axenterprize.com
Robert Moskowitz Robert Moskowitz
HTT Consulting HTT Consulting
Oak Park, MI 48237 na
Oak Park, MI, 48237
United States of America United States of America
Email: rgm@labs.htt-consult.com Email: rgm@labs.htt-consult.com
Shuai Zhao Shuai Zhao
Tencent Tencent
CA 2747 Park Blvd
Palo Alto, 94588
United States of America United States of America
Email: shuaiizhao@tencent.com Email: shuai.zhao@ieee.org
Andrei Gurtov Andrei Gurtov
Linköping University Linköping University
IDA IDA
SE-58183 Linköping SE-58183 Linköping Linköping
Sweden Sweden
Email: gurtov@acm.org Email: gurtov@acm.org
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