draft-ietf-drip-arch-12.txt   draft-ietf-drip-arch-13.txt 
drip S. Card drip S. Card
Internet-Draft A. Wiethuechter Internet-Draft A. Wiethuechter
Intended status: Informational AX Enterprize Intended status: Informational AX Enterprize
Expires: November 11, 2021 R. Moskowitz Expires: 28 November 2021 R. Moskowitz
HTT Consulting HTT Consulting
S. Zhao (Editor) S. Zhao (Editor)
Tencent Tencent
A. Gurtov A. Gurtov
Linkoeping University Linköping University
May 10, 2021 27 May 2021
Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) Architecture Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) Architecture
draft-ietf-drip-arch-12 draft-ietf-drip-arch-13
Abstract Abstract
This document describes an architecture for protocols and services to This document describes an architecture for protocols and services to
support Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking support Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking
(UAS RID), plus RID-related communications, conforming to proposed (UAS RID), plus RID-related communications. This architecture
and final regulations plus external technical standards, satisfying satisfies the requirements listed in the DRIP requirements document.
the requirements listed in the companion requirements document
[I-D.ietf-drip-reqs].
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 11, 2021. This Internet-Draft will expire on 28 November 2021.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Remote ID 1.1. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Remote ID (RID)
(RID) and Standardization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 and Standardization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Overview of Types of UAS Remote ID . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Overview of Types of UAS Remote ID . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.1. Broadcast RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2.1. Broadcast RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.2. Network RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.2. Network RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3. Overview of USS Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3. Overview of USS Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4. Overview of DRIP Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4. Overview of DRIP Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. Definitions and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. Definitions and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1. Additional Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1. Additional Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2. Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2. Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3. Claims, Assertions, Attestations, and Certificates . . . 10 3.3. Claims, Assertions, Attestations, and Certificates . . . 10
4. HHIT for DRIP Entity Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. HHIT for DRIP Entity Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1. UAS Remote Identifiers Problem Space . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1. UAS Remote Identifiers Problem Space . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2. HIT as A Trustworthy DRIP Entity Identifier . . . . . . . 12 4.2. HIT as A Trustworthy DRIP Entity Identifier . . . . . . . 12
4.3. HHIT for DRIP Identifier Registration and Lookup . . . . 13 4.3. HHIT for DRIP Identifier Registration and Lookup . . . . 13
4.4. HHIT for DRIP Identifier Cryptographic . . . . . . . . . 13 4.4. HHIT for DRIP Identifier Cryptographic . . . . . . . . . 14
5. DRIP Identifier Registration and Registries . . . . . . . . . 14 5. DRIP Identifier Registration and Registries . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1. Public Information Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1. Public Information Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.1.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2. Private Information Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2. Private Information Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2.1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2.2. Proposed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. Harvesting Broadcast Remote ID messages for UTM Inclusion . . 15 6. Harvesting Broadcast Remote ID messages for UTM Inclusion . . 15
6.1. The CS-RID Finder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.1. The CS-RID Finder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.2. The CS-RID SDSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.2. The CS-RID SDSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7. Privacy for Broadcast PII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. Privacy for Broadcast PII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix A. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Appendix A. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic
Management (UTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Management (UTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
A.1. Operation Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 A.1. Operation Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
A.2. UAS Service Supplier (USS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A.2. UAS Service Supplier (USS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
A.3. UTM Use Cases for UAS Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A.3. UTM Use Cases for UAS Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A.4. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) . . . 22 A.4. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) . . . 22
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes an architecture for protocols and services to This document describes an architecture for protocols and services to
support Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking support Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking
(UAS RID), plus RID-related communications, conforming to proposed (UAS RID), plus RID-related communications. The architecture takes
and final regulations plus external technical standards, satisfying into account both current (including proposed) regulations and non-
the requirements listed in the companion requirements document IETF technical standards.
[I-D.ietf-drip-reqs].
This document assumes the reader is familiar with The architecture adheres to the requirements listed in the DRIP
[I-D.ietf-drip-reqs]. requirements document [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs].
1.1. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Remote ID (RID) and 1.1. Overview of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Remote ID (RID) and
Standardization Standardization
UAS Remote Identification (RID) is an application enabler for a UAS UAS Remote Identification (RID) is an application enabler for a UAS
to be identified by Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management to be identified by Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management
(UTM) and UAS Service Supplier (USS) (Appendix A) or third parties (UTM) and UAS Service Supplier (USS) (Appendix A) or third parties
entities such as law enforcement. Many safety and other entities such as law enforcement. Many considerations (e.g., safety)
considerations dictate that UAS be remotely identifiable. Civil dictate that UAS be remotely identifiable. Civil Aviation
Aviation Authorities (CAAs) worldwide are mandating UAS RID. The Authorities (CAAs) worldwide are mandating UAS RID. For example, the
European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) has published European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) has published
[Delegated] and [Implementing] Regulations. [Delegated] and [Implementing] Regulations.
CAAs currently promulgate performance-based regulations that do not CAAs currently promulgate performance-based regulations that do not
specify techniques, but rather cite industry consensus technical specify techniques, but rather cite industry consensus technical
standards as acceptable means of compliance. standards as acceptable means of compliance.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
The FAA published a Notice of Proposed Rule Making [NPRM] in 2019 The FAA published a Notice of Proposed Rule Making [NPRM] in 2019
and whereafter published the Final Rule [FAA_RID] in 2021. In and whereafter published the "Final Rule" in 2021 [FAA_RID]. In
FAA's final rule, it is clearly stating that Automatic Dependent FAA's final rule, it is clearly stated that Automatic Dependent
Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) Out and transponders can not be Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) Out and transponders can not be
used to serve the purpose of an remote identification. (More used to serve the purpose of an remote identification. More
about ADS-B in Appendix A.4) details about ADS-B can be found in Appendix A.4.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM International, Technical Committee F38 (UAS), Subcommittee ASTM International, Technical Committee F38 (UAS), Subcommittee
F38.02 (Aircraft Operations), Work Item WK65041, developed the F38.02 (Aircraft Operations), Work Item WK65041, developed the
ASTM [F3411-19] Standard Specification for Remote ID and Tracking. ASTM [F3411-19] Standard Specification for Remote ID and Tracking.
ASTM defines one set of RID information and two means, MAC-layer ASTM defines one set of RID information and two means, MAC-layer
broadcast and IP-layer network, of communicating it. If a UAS broadcast and IP-layer network, of communicating it. If an UAS
uses both communication methods, the same information must be uses both communication methods, the same information must be
provided via both means. The [F3411-19] is cited by FAA in its provided via both means. [F3411-19] is cited by FAA in its RID
RID final rule [FAA_RID] as "a potential means of compliance" to a final rule [FAA_RID] as "a potential means of compliance" to a
Remote ID rule. Remote ID rule.
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
With release 16, 3GPP completed the UAS RID requirement study With release 16, the 3GPP completed the UAS RID requirement study
[TS-22.825] and proposed use cases in the mobile network and the [TS-22.825] and proposed a set of use cases in the mobile network
services that can be offered based on RID. Release 17 and the services that can be offered based on RID. Release 17
specification works on enhanced UAS service requirements and specification focuses on enhanced UAS service requirements and
provides the protocol and application architecture support which provides the protocol and application architecture support that
is applicable for both 4G and 5G network. will be applicable for both 4G and 5G network.
1.2. Overview of Types of UAS Remote ID 1.2. Overview of Types of UAS Remote ID
1.2.1. Broadcast RID 1.2.1. Broadcast RID
A set of RID messages are defined for direct, one-way, broadcast A set of RID messages are defined for direct, one-way, broadcast
transmissions from the UA over Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. These are transmissions from the UA over Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. These are
currently defined as MAC-Layer messages. Internet (or other Wide currently defined as MAC-Layer messages. Internet (or other Wide
Area Network) connectivity is only needed for UAS registry Area Network) connectivity is only needed for UAS registry
information lookup by Observers using the locally directly received information lookup by Observers using the locally directly received
UAS RID as a key. Broadcast RID should be functionally usable in UAS RID as a key. Broadcast RID should be functionally usable in
situations with no Internet connectivity. situations with no Internet connectivity.
The Broadcast RID is illustrated in Figure 1 below. The Broadcast RID is illustrated in Figure 1.
x x UA x x UA
xxxxx xxxxx
| |
| |
| app messages directly over | app messages directly over
| one-way RF data link (no IP) | one-way RF data link (no IP)
| |
| |
+ +
x x
xxxxx xxxxx
x x
x x
x x Observer's device (e.g. smartphone) x x Observer's device (e.g. smartphone)
x x x x
Figure 1 Figure 1
With Broadcast RID, an Observer is limited to their radio "visible" With Broadcast RID, an Observer is limited to their radio "visible"
airspace for UAS awareness and information. With Internet queries airspace for UAS awareness and information. With queries sent over
using harvested RID (see Section 6), the Observer may gain more the Internet using harvested RID (see Section 6), the Observer may
information about those visible UAS. gain more information about those visible UAS.
1.2.2. Network RID 1.2.2. Network RID
A RID data dictionary and data flow for Network RID are defined in A RID data dictionary and data flow for Network RID are defined in
[F3411-19]. This data flow is emitted from a UAS via unspecified [F3411-19]. This data flow is emitted from an UAS via unspecified
means (but at least in part over the Internet) to a Network Remote ID means (but at least in part over the Internet) to a Network Remote ID
Service Provider (Net-RID SP). These Net-RID SPs provide the RID Service Provider (Net-RID SP). A Net-RID SP provides the RID data to
data to Network Remote ID Display Providers (Net-RID DP). It is the Network Remote ID Display Providers (Net-RID DP). It is the Net-RID
Net-RID DP that responds to queries from Network Remote ID Observers DP that responds to queries from Network Remote ID Observers
(expected typically, but not specified exclusively, to be web-based) (expected typically, but not specified exclusively, to be web-based)
specifying airspace volumes of interest. Network RID depends upon specifying airspace volumes of interest. Network RID depends upon
connectivity, in several segments, via the Internet, from the UAS to connectivity, in several segments, via the Internet, from the UAS to
the Observer. the Observer.
The Network RID is illustrated in Figure 2 below: The Network RID is illustrated in Figure 2:
x x UA x x UA
xxxxx ******************** xxxxx ********************
| \ * ------*---+------------+ | \ * ------*---+------------+
| \ * / * | NET_RID_SP | | \ * / * | NET_RID_SP |
| \ * ------------/ +---*--+------------+ | \ * ------------/ +---*--+------------+
| RF \ */ | * | RF \ */ | *
| * INTERNET | * +------------+ | * INTERNET | * +------------+
| /* +---*--| NET_RID_DP | | /* +---*--| NET_RID_DP |
| / * +---*--+------------+ | / * +---*--+------------+
+ / * | * + / * | *
x / *****************|*** x x / *****************|*** x
xxxxx | xxxxx xxxxx | xxxxx
x +------- x x +------- x
x x x x
x x Operator (GCS) Observer x x x x Operator (GCS) Observer x x
x x x x x x x x
Figure 2 Figure 2
Command and Control (C2) must flow from the GCS to the UA via some Command and Control (C2) must flow from the GCS to the UA via some
path, currently (in the year of 2021) typically a direct RF link, but path, currently (in the year of 2021) typically a direct RF link, but
with increasing BVLOS operations expected often to be wireless links with increasing BVLOS operations expected often to be wireless links
at either end with the Internet between. For all but the simplest at either end with the Internet between. For all, but the simplest
hobby aircraft, telemetry (at least position and heading) flows from hobby aircraft, telemetry (at least position and heading) flows from
the UA to the GCS via some path, typically the reverse of the C2 the UA to the GCS via some path, typically the reverse of the C2
path. Thus RID information pertaining to both the GCS and the UA can path. Thus, RID information pertaining to both the GCS and the UA
be sent, by whichever has Internet connectivity, to the Net-RID SP, can be sent, by whichever has Internet connectivity, to the Net-RID
typically the USS managing the UAS operation. SP, typically the USS managing the UAS operation.
The Net-RID SP forwards RID information via the Internet to The Net-RID SP forwards RID information via the Internet to
subscribed Net-RID DP, typically a USS. Subscribed Net-RID DP subscribed Net-RID DP, typically a USS. Subscribed Net-RID DP
forward RID information via the Internet to subscribed Observer forward RID information via the Internet to subscribed Observer
devices. Regulations require and [F3411-19] describes RID data devices. Regulations require and [F3411-19] describes RID data
elements that must be transported end-to-end from the UAS to the elements that must be transported end-to-end from the UAS to the
subscribed Observer devices. subscribed Observer devices.
[F3411-19] prescribes the protocols only between the Net-RID SP, Net- [F3411-19] prescribes the protocols only between the Net-RID SP, Net-
RID DP, and the Discovery and Synchronization Service (DSS). DRIP RID DP, and the Discovery and Synchronization Service (DSS). DRIP
skipping to change at page 7, line 29 skipping to change at page 7, line 29
/ \ / \
+-------+ +-------+ +-------+ +-------+
| USS-1 | <-------> | USS-2 | | USS-1 | <-------> | USS-2 |
+-------+ +-------+ +-------+ +-------+
\ / \ /
\ / \ /
+------+ +------+
| DSS | | DSS |
+------+ +------+
Figure 3 Figure 3
1.4. Overview of DRIP Architecture 1.4. Overview of DRIP Architecture
The requirements document [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs] also provides an The requirements document [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs] provides an extended
extended introduction to the problem space, use cases, etc. Only a introduction to the problem space and use cases. Only a brief
brief summary of that introduction will be restated here as context, summary of that introduction is restated here as context, with
with reference to the general UAS RID usage scenarios shown in reference to the general UAS RID usage scenarios shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4 below.
General x x Public General x x Public
Public xxxxx xxxxx Safety Public xxxxx xxxxx Safety
Observer x x Observer Observer x x Observer
x x x x
x x ---------+ +---------- x x x x ---------+ +---------- x x
x x | | x x x x | | x x
| | | |
UA1 x x | | +------------ x x UA2 UA1 x x | | +------------ x x UA2
xxxxx | | | xxxxx xxxxx | | | xxxxx
skipping to change at page 8, line 33 skipping to change at page 8, line 33
x x | | | x x x x | | | x x
x x | | | x x x x | | | x x
| | | | | |
+----------+ | | | +----------+ +----------+ | | | +----------+
| |------+ | +-------| | | |------+ | +-------| |
| Public | | | Private | | Public | | | Private |
| Registry | +-----+ | Registry | | Registry | +-----+ | Registry |
| | | DNS | | | | | | DNS | | |
+----------+ +-----+ +----------+ +----------+ +-----+ +----------+
Figure 4 Figure 4
DRIP will enable leveraging existing Internet resources (standard DRIP is meant to leverage existing Internet resources (standard
protocols, services, infrastructure, and business models) to meet UAS protocols, services, infrastructures, and business models) to meet
RID and closely related needs. DRIP will specify how to apply IETF UAS RID and closely related needs. DRIP will specify how to apply
standards, complementing [F3411-19] and other external standards, to IETF standards, complementing [F3411-19] and other external
satisfy UAS RID requirements. DRIP will update existing and develop standards, to satisfy UAS RID requirements.
new protocol standards as needed to accomplish the foregoing.
This document will outline the UAS RID architecture into which DRIP This document outlines the UAS RID architecture into which DRIP must
must fit and the architecture for DRIP itself. This includes fit and the architecture for DRIP itself. This includes presenting
presenting the gaps between the CAAs' Concepts of Operations and the gaps between the CAAs' Concepts of Operations and [F3411-19] as
[F3411-19] as it relates to the use of Internet technologies and UA it relates to the use of Internet technologies and UA direct RF
direct RF communications. Issues include, but are not limited to: communications. Issues include, but are not limited to:
* Design of trustworthy remote ID and trust in RID messages - Design of trustworthy remote ID and trust in RID messages
(Section 4) (Section 4)
* Mechanisms to leverage Domain Name System (DNS: [RFC1034]), - Mechanisms to leverage Domain Name System (DNS: [RFC1034]),
Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP [RFC5731]) and Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP [RFC5731]) and
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) ([RFC7482]) to provide Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) ([RFC7482]) to provide
for private (Section 5.2) and public (Section 5.1) Information for private (Section 5.2) and public (Section 5.1) information
Registry. registry.
* Harvesting broadcast remote ID messages for UTM inclusion - Harvesting broadcast RID messages for UTM inclusion
(Section 6) (Section 6).
* Privacy in RID messages (PII protection) (Section 7) - Privacy in RID messages (PII protection) (Section 7).
2. Conventions 2. Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
"OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown above. capitals, as shown above.
3. Definitions and Abbreviations 3. Definitions and Abbreviations
skipping to change at page 10, line 37 skipping to change at page 10, line 33
around X.509 certificates. These types of certificates and Public around X.509 certificates. These types of certificates and Public
Key Infrastructure invoke more legal and public policy considerations Key Infrastructure invoke more legal and public policy considerations
than probably any other electronic communication sector. It emerged than probably any other electronic communication sector. It emerged
as a governmental platform for trusted identity management and was as a governmental platform for trusted identity management and was
pursued in intergovernmental bodies with links into treaty pursued in intergovernmental bodies with links into treaty
instruments. instruments.
Claims: Claims:
A claim in DRIP is a predicate (e.g., "X is Y", "X has property A claim in DRIP is a predicate (e.g., "X is Y", "X has property
Y", and most importantly "X owns Y" or "X is owned by Y"). One Y", and most importantly "X owns Y" or "X is owned by Y").
basic use case of a claim is an entity using an HHIT as an
identifier, e.g., a UAS using an HHIT as a UAS ID.
Assertions: Assertions:
An assertion in DRIP is a set of claims. This definition is An assertion in DRIP is a set of claims. This definition is
borrowed from JWT/CWT. An HHIT of itself can be seen as an borrowed from JWT [RFC7519] and CWT [RFC8392].
assertion: a claim that the identifier is a handle to an
asymmetric keypair owned by the entity, and a claim that the
identifier is in the registry specified by the HID embedded in the
identifier.
Attestations: Attestations:
An attestation in DRIP is a signed assertion. The signer may be a An attestation in DRIP is a signed assertion. The signer may be a
claimant or a third party. Under DRIP this is normally used when claimant or a third party. Under DRIP this is normally used when
an entity asserts a relationship with another entity, along with an entity asserts a relationship with another entity, along with
other information, and the asserting entity signs the assertion, other information, and the asserting entity signs the assertion,
thereby making it an attestation. thereby making it an attestation.
Certificates: Certificates:
skipping to change at page 17, line 48 skipping to change at page 18, line 8
volunteers who have contributed to this draft include Amelia volunteers who have contributed to this draft include Amelia
Andersdotter and Mohamed Boucadair. Andersdotter and Mohamed Boucadair.
10. References 10. References
10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-drip-reqs] [I-D.ietf-drip-reqs]
Card, S. W., Wiethuechter, A., Moskowitz, R., and A. Card, S. W., Wiethuechter, A., Moskowitz, R., and A.
Gurtov, "Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) Gurtov, "Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP)
Requirements", draft-ietf-drip-reqs-10 (work in progress), Requirements", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
April 2021. ietf-drip-reqs-12, 23 May 2021,
<https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-drip-reqs-
12.txt>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[CTA2063A] [CTA2063A] ANSI, "Small Unmanned Aerial Systems Serial Numbers",
ANSI, "Small Unmanned Aerial Systems Serial Numbers",
2019. 2019.
[Delegated] [Delegated]
European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), "EU European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), "EU
Commission Delegated Regulation 2019/945 of 12 March 2019 Commission Delegated Regulation 2019/945 of 12 March 2019
on unmanned aircraft systems and on third-country on unmanned aircraft systems and on third-country
operators of unmanned aircraft systems", 2019. operators of unmanned aircraft systems", 2019.
[F3411-19] [F3411-19] ASTM, "Standard Specification for Remote ID and Tracking",
ASTM, "Standard Specification for Remote ID and Tracking",
2019. 2019.
[FAA_RID] United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), [FAA_RID] United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),
"Remote Identification of Unmanned Aircraft", 2021, "Remote Identification of Unmanned Aircraft", 2021,
<https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2021-01-15/ <https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2021-01-15/
pdf/2020-28948.pdf>. pdf/2020-28948.pdf>.
[FAA_UAS_Concept_Of_Ops] [FAA_UAS_Concept_Of_Ops]
United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),
"Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) "Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM)
Concept of Operations (V2.0)", 2020, Concept of Operations (V2.0)", 2020,
<https://www.faa.gov/uas/research_development/ <https://www.faa.gov/uas/research_development/
traffic_management/media/UTM_ConOps_v2.pdf>. traffic_management/media/UTM_ConOps_v2.pdf>.
[I-D.ietf-drip-rid] [I-D.ietf-drip-rid]
Moskowitz, R., Card, S. W., Wiethuechter, A., and A. Moskowitz, R., Card, S. W., Wiethuechter, A., and A.
Gurtov, "UAS Remote ID", draft-ietf-drip-rid-07 (work in Gurtov, "UAS Remote ID", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
progress), January 2021. draft-ietf-drip-rid-07, 28 January 2021,
<https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-drip-rid-
07.txt>.
[Implementing] [Implementing]
European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), "EU European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), "EU
Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/947 of 24 May 2019 Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/947 of 24 May 2019
on the rules and procedures for the operation of unmanned on the rules and procedures for the operation of unmanned
aircraft", 2019. aircraft", 2019.
[LAANC] United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), "Low [LAANC] United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), "Low
Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability", n.d., Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability", n.d.,
<https://www.faa.gov/uas/programs_partnerships/ <https://www.faa.gov/uas/programs_partnerships/
skipping to change at page 19, line 49 skipping to change at page 20, line 14
[RFC7482] Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access [RFC7482] Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access
Protocol (RDAP) Query Format", RFC 7482, Protocol (RDAP) Query Format", RFC 7482,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7482, March 2015, DOI 10.17487/RFC7482, March 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7482>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7482>.
[RFC7484] Blanchet, M., "Finding the Authoritative Registration Data [RFC7484] Blanchet, M., "Finding the Authoritative Registration Data
(RDAP) Service", RFC 7484, DOI 10.17487/RFC7484, March (RDAP) Service", RFC 7484, DOI 10.17487/RFC7484, March
2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7484>. 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7484>.
[RFC7519] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
(JWT)", RFC 7519, DOI 10.17487/RFC7519, May 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7519>.
[RFC8002] Heer, T. and S. Varjonen, "Host Identity Protocol [RFC8002] Heer, T. and S. Varjonen, "Host Identity Protocol
Certificates", RFC 8002, DOI 10.17487/RFC8002, October Certificates", RFC 8002, DOI 10.17487/RFC8002, October
2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8002>. 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8002>.
[RFC8004] Laganier, J. and L. Eggert, "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) [RFC8004] Laganier, J. and L. Eggert, "Host Identity Protocol (HIP)
Rendezvous Extension", RFC 8004, DOI 10.17487/RFC8004, Rendezvous Extension", RFC 8004, DOI 10.17487/RFC8004,
October 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8004>. October 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8004>.
[RFC8032] Josefsson, S. and I. Liusvaara, "Edwards-Curve Digital [RFC8032] Josefsson, S. and I. Liusvaara, "Edwards-Curve Digital
Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)", RFC 8032, Signature Algorithm (EdDSA)", RFC 8032,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8032, January 2017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8032, January 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8032>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8032>.
[RFC8392] Jones, M., Wahlstroem, E., Erdtman, S., and H. Tschofenig,
"CBOR Web Token (CWT)", RFC 8392, DOI 10.17487/RFC8392,
May 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8392>.
[RFC8949] Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object [RFC8949] Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
Representation (CBOR)", STD 94, RFC 8949, Representation (CBOR)", STD 94, RFC 8949,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8949, December 2020, DOI 10.17487/RFC8949, December 2020,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8949>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8949>.
[TS-22.825] [TS-22.825]
3GPP, "UAS RID requirement study", n.d., 3GPP, "UAS RID requirement study", n.d.,
<https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/ <https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/
SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=3527>. SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=3527>.
skipping to change at page 22, line 37 skipping to change at page 23, line 10
Understanding these technical shortcomings, regulators worldwide have Understanding these technical shortcomings, regulators worldwide have
ruled out the use of ADS-B for the small UAS for which UAS RID and ruled out the use of ADS-B for the small UAS for which UAS RID and
DRIP are intended. DRIP are intended.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Stuart W. Card Stuart W. Card
AX Enterprize AX Enterprize
4947 Commercial Drive 4947 Commercial Drive
Yorkville, NY 13495 Yorkville, NY, 13495
USA United States of America
Email: stu.card@axenterprize.com Email: stu.card@axenterprize.com
Adam Wiethuechter Adam Wiethuechter
AX Enterprize AX Enterprize
4947 Commercial Drive 4947 Commercial Drive
Yorkville, NY 13495 Yorkville, NY, 13495
USA United States of America
Email: adam.wiethuechter@axenterprize.com Email: adam.wiethuechter@axenterprize.com
Robert Moskowitz Robert Moskowitz
HTT Consulting HTT Consulting
Oak Park, MI 48237 Oak Park, MI, 48237
USA United States of America
Email: rgm@labs.htt-consult.com Email: rgm@labs.htt-consult.com
Shuai Zhao Shuai Zhao
Tencent Tencent
2747 Park Blvd 2747 Park Blvd
Palo Alto 94588 Palo Alto, 94588
USA United States of America
Email: shuai.zhao@ieee.org Email: shuai.zhao@ieee.org
Andrei Gurtov Andrei Gurtov
Linkoeping University Linköping University
IDA IDA
Linkoeping SE-58183 Linkoeping SE-58183 Linköping Linköping
Sweden Sweden
Email: gurtov@acm.org Email: gurtov@acm.org
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