draft-ietf-drip-reqs-15.txt   draft-ietf-drip-reqs-16.txt 
DRIP S. Card, Ed. DRIP S. Card, Ed.
Internet-Draft A. Wiethuechter Internet-Draft A. Wiethuechter
Intended status: Informational AX Enterprize Intended status: Informational AX Enterprize
Expires: 27 December 2021 R. Moskowitz Expires: 29 December 2021 R. Moskowitz
HTT Consulting HTT Consulting
A. Gurtov A. Gurtov
Linköping University Linköping University
25 June 2021 27 June 2021
Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) Requirements Drone Remote Identification Protocol (DRIP) Requirements
draft-ietf-drip-reqs-15 draft-ietf-drip-reqs-16
Abstract Abstract
This document defines terminology and requirements for Drone Remote This document defines terminology and requirements for Drone Remote
Identification Protocol (DRIP) Working Group solutions to support Identification Protocol (DRIP) Working Group solutions to support
Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking (UAS RID) Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Identification and tracking (UAS RID)
for security, safety, and other purposes (e.g., initiation of for security, safety, and other purposes (e.g., initiation of
identity based network sessions supporting UAS applications). identity based network sessions supporting UAS applications).
Complementing external technical standards as regulator-accepted Complementing external technical standards as regulator-accepted
means of compliance with UAS RID regulations, DRIP will facilitate means of compliance with UAS RID regulations, DRIP will facilitate
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on 27 December 2021. This Internet-Draft will expire on 29 December 2021.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/ Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Motivation and External Influences . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Motivation and External Influences . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Concerns and Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2. Concerns and Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3. DRIP Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3. DRIP Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4. Document Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4. Document Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2. Terms and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1. Requirements Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.1. Requirements Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3. UAS RID Problem Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. UAS RID Problem Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.1. Network RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.1. Network RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3.2. Broadcast RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.2. Broadcast RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.3. USS in UTM and RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.3. USS in UTM and RID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.4. DRIP Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.4. DRIP Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.1.1. Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.1.1. Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.1.2. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4.1.2. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.2. Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.2. Identifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.2.1. Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.2.1. Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.2.2. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.2.2. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.3. Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.3. Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.3.1. Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.3.1. Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
4.3.2. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.3.2. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.4. Registries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.4. Registries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.4.1. Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.4.1. Normative Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.4.2. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.4.2. Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7. Privacy and Transparency Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7. Privacy and Transparency Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Appendix A. Discussion and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Appendix A. Discussion and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
For any unfamiliar or _a priori_ ambiguous terminology herein, see For any unfamiliar or _a priori_ ambiguous terminology herein, see
Section 2. Section 2.
1.1. Motivation and External Influences 1.1. Motivation and External Influences
Many considerations (especially safety and security) necessitate Many considerations (especially safety and security) necessitate
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Remote Identification and tracking Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Remote Identification and tracking
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UA, unless and until one is provided somehow. RID provides an UA, unless and until one is provided somehow. RID provides an
identifier, which, if well chosen, can facilitate use of a variety of identifier, which, if well chosen, can facilitate use of a variety of
Internet family protocols and services to support arbitrary Internet family protocols and services to support arbitrary
applications, beyond the basic security functions of RID. For most applications, beyond the basic security functions of RID. For most
of these, some type of identifier is essential, e.g., Network Access of these, some type of identifier is essential, e.g., Network Access
Identifier (NAI), Digital Object Identifier (DOI), Uniform Resource Identifier (NAI), Digital Object Identifier (DOI), Uniform Resource
Identifier (URI), domain name, or public key. DRIP motivations Identifier (URI), domain name, or public key. DRIP motivations
include both the basic security and the broader application support include both the basic security and the broader application support
functions of RID. The general scenario is illustrated in Figure 1. functions of RID. The general scenario is illustrated in Figure 1.
*************** *************** +-----+ +-----+
* UAS1 * * UAS2 * | UA1 | | UA2 |
* * * * +-----+ +-----+
* +--------+ * DAA/V2V * +--------+ *
* | UA o--*----------------------------------------*--o UA | *
* +--o--o--+ * * +--o--o--+ *
* | | * +------+ Lookups +------+ * | | *
* | | * | GPOD o------. .------o PSOD | * | | *
* | | * +------+ | | +------+ * | | *
* | | * | | * | | *
* C2 | | * V2I ************ V2I * | | C2 *
* | '-----*--------------* *--------------*-----' | *
* | * * * * | *
* | o====NetRID====* *====NetRID====o | *
* +--o--+ * * Internet * * +--o--+ *
* | GCS o-----*--------------* *--------------*-----o GCS | *
* +-----+ * Registration * * Registration * +-----+ *
* * (and UTM) * * (and UTM) * *
*************** ************ ***************
| | |
+----------+ | | | +----------+
| Public o---' | '---o Private |
| Registry | | | Registry |
+----------+ | +----------+
+--o--+
| DNS |
+-----+
GPOD: General Public Observer Device (used only to fit this figure) +----------+ +----------+
PSOD: Public Safety Observer Device (used only to fit this figure) | General | | Public |
| Public | | Safety |
| Observer o------\ /------o Observer |
+----------+ | | +----------+
| |
*************
+----------+ * * +----------+
| UA1 | * * | UA2 |
| Pilot/ o------* Internet *------o Pilot/ |
| Operator | * * | Operator |
+----------+ * * +----------+
*************
| | |
+----------+ | | | +----------+
| Public o---/ | \---o Private |
| Registry | | | Registry |
+----------+ | +----------+
+--o--+
| DNS |
+-----+
Figure 1: "General UAS RID Usage Scenario" Figure 1: "General UAS RID Usage Scenario"
Figure 1 illustrates a typical case where there may be: multiple Figure 1 illustrates a typical case where there may be: multiple
Observers, some of them members of the general public, others Observers, some of them members of the general public, others
government officers with public safety/security responsibilities; government officers with public safety/security responsibilities;
multiple UA in flight within observation range, each with its own multiple UA in flight within observation range, each with its own
pilot/operator; at least one registry each for lookup of public and pilot/operator; at least one registry each for lookup of public and
(by authorized parties only) private information regarding the UAS (by authorized parties only) private information regarding the UAS
and their pilots/operators; and in the DRIP vision, DNS resolving and their pilots/operators; and in the DRIP vision, DNS resolving
various identifiers and locators of the entities involved. Note that various identifiers and locators of the entities involved. Note the
Broadcast RID direct RF links are not shown, as they are indeed absence of any links to/from the UA in the figure; this is because
broadcast, so reach anywhere within range; they do not connect UAS RID and other connectivity involving the UA varies, as described
specific entity pairings, as edges do vertices in a graph. Further, subsequently herein under Figure 3. Remote Observer connectivity to
RID and other connectivity involving the UA varies, as described the Internet may be very intermittent.
subsequently herein under Figure 3. Not all the links shown in
Figure 1 above necessarily exist in all scenarios (e.g., UA support
for direct connectivity to the Internet is very rare as of 2021), and
even those links that exist sometimes in a given scenario are not
necessarily up at all times in that same scenario (e.g., remote
Observer connectivity to the Internet may be very intermittent).
An Observer of UA may need to classify them, as illustrated An Observer of UA may need to classify them, as illustrated
notionally in Figure 2, for basic airspace Situational Awareness notionally in Figure 2, for basic airspace Situational Awareness
(SA). An Observer who classifies a UAS: as Taskable, can ask it to (SA). An Observer who classifies a UAS: as Taskable, can ask it to
do something useful; as Low Concern, can reasonably assume it is not do something useful; as Low Concern, can reasonably assume it is not
malicious and would cooperate with requests to modify its flight malicious and would cooperate with requests to modify its flight
plans for safety concerns that arise; as High Concern or plans for safety concerns that arise; as High Concern or
Unidentified, can focus surveillance on it. Unidentified, can focus surveillance on it.
xxxxxxx xxxxxxx
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Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/945 of 12 March 2019 on Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/945 of 12 March 2019 on
unmanned aircraft systems and on third-country operators unmanned aircraft systems and on third-country operators
of unmanned aircraft systems", March 2019, of unmanned aircraft systems", March 2019,
<https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg_del/2019/945/oj>. <https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg_del/2019/945/oj>.
[drip-architecture] [drip-architecture]
Card, S. W., Wiethuechter, A., Moskowitz, R., Zhao, S., Card, S. W., Wiethuechter, A., Moskowitz, R., Zhao, S.,
and A. Gurtov, "Drone Remote Identification Protocol and A. Gurtov, "Drone Remote Identification Protocol
(DRIP) Architecture", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, (DRIP) Architecture", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
draft-ietf-drip-arch-11, 23 February 2021, draft-ietf-drip-arch-11, 23 February 2021,
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-drip-arch-11>. <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-drip-
arch-11>.
[ENISACSIRT] [ENISACSIRT]
European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA), European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA),
"Actionable information for Security Incident Response", "Actionable information for Security Incident Response",
November 2014, <https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/csirt- November 2014, <https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/csirt-
cert-services/reactive-services/copy_of_actionable- cert-services/reactive-services/copy_of_actionable-
information>. information>.
[EU2018] European Parliament and Council, "2015/0277 (COD) PE-CONS [EU2018] European Parliament and Council, "2015/0277 (COD) PE-CONS
2/18", February 2018, 2/18", February 2018,
skipping to change at page 41, line 27 skipping to change at page 42, line 9
unmanned-aircraft>. unmanned-aircraft>.
[GDPR] European Parliament and Council, "General Data Protection [GDPR] European Parliament and Council, "General Data Protection
Regulation", April 2016, Regulation", April 2016,
<https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2016/679/oj>. <https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2016/679/oj>.
[I-D.maeurer-raw-ldacs] [I-D.maeurer-raw-ldacs]
Maeurer, N., Graeupl, T., and C. Schmitt, "L-band Digital Maeurer, N., Graeupl, T., and C. Schmitt, "L-band Digital
Aeronautical Communications System (LDACS)", Work in Aeronautical Communications System (LDACS)", Work in
Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-maeurer-raw-ldacs-06, 2 Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-maeurer-raw-ldacs-06, 2
October 2020, October 2020, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
<https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-maeurer-raw-ldacs-06>. draft-maeurer-raw-ldacs-06>.
[ICAOATM] International Civil Aviation Organization, "Doc 4444: [ICAOATM] International Civil Aviation Organization, "Doc 4444:
Procedures for Air Navigation Services: Air Traffic Procedures for Air Navigation Services: Air Traffic
Management", November 2016, <https://store.icao.int/en/ Management", November 2016, <https://store.icao.int/en/
procedures-for-air-navigation-services-air-traffic- procedures-for-air-navigation-services-air-traffic-
management-doc-4444>. management-doc-4444>.
[ICAODEFS] International Civil Aviation Organization, "Defined terms [ICAODEFS] International Civil Aviation Organization, "Defined terms
from the Annexes to the Chicago Convention and ICAO from the Annexes to the Chicago Convention and ICAO
guidance material", July 2017, guidance material", July 2017,
skipping to change at page 44, line 9 skipping to change at page 44, line 41
(UAS) Electronic Identification", June 2020. (UAS) Electronic Identification", June 2020.
[WiFiNAN] Wi-Fi Alliance, "Wi-Fi Aware™ Specification Version 3.2", [WiFiNAN] Wi-Fi Alliance, "Wi-Fi Aware™ Specification Version 3.2",
October 2020, <https://www.wi-fi.org/downloads-registered- October 2020, <https://www.wi-fi.org/downloads-registered-
guest/Wi-Fi_Aware_Specification_v3.2.pdf/29731>. guest/Wi-Fi_Aware_Specification_v3.2.pdf/29731>.
Appendix A. Discussion and Limitations Appendix A. Discussion and Limitations
This document is largely based on the process of one SDO, ASTM. This document is largely based on the process of one SDO, ASTM.
Therefore, it is tailored to specific needs and data formats of this Therefore, it is tailored to specific needs and data formats of this
standard. Other organizations, for example in EU, do not necessary standard. Other organizations, for example in EU, do not necessarily
follow the same architecture. follow the same architecture.
The need for drone ID and operator privacy is an open discussion The need for drone ID and operator privacy is an open discussion
topic. For instance, in the ground vehicular domain each car carries topic. For instance, in the ground vehicular domain each car carries
a publicly visible plate number. In some countries, for nominal cost a publicly visible plate number. In some countries, for nominal cost
or even for free, anyone can resolve the identity and contact or even for free, anyone can resolve the identity and contact
information of the owner. Civil commercial aviation and maritime information of the owner. Civil commercial aviation and maritime
industries also have a tradition of broadcasting plane or ship ID, industries also have a tradition of broadcasting plane or ship ID,
coordinates, and even flight plans in plain text. Community networks coordinates, and even flight plans in plain text. Community networks
such as OpenSky [OpenSky] and Flightradar24 [FR24] use this open such as OpenSky [OpenSky] and Flightradar24 [FR24] use this open
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