draft-ietf-ecrit-lost-05.txt   draft-ietf-ecrit-lost-06.txt 
ECRIT T. Hardie ECRIT T. Hardie
Internet-Draft Qualcomm, Inc. Internet-Draft Qualcomm, Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track A. Newton Intended status: Standards Track A. Newton
Expires: September 5, 2007 SunRocket Expires: February 11, 2008 TranTech, Inc.
H. Schulzrinne H. Schulzrinne
Columbia U. Columbia University
H. Tschofenig H. Tschofenig
Siemens Networks GmbH & Co KG Nokia Siemens Networks
March 4, 2007 August 10, 2007
LoST: A Location-to-Service Translation Protocol LoST: A Location-to-Service Translation Protocol
draft-ietf-ecrit-lost-05.txt draft-ietf-ecrit-lost-06.txt
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Abstract Abstract
This document describes an XML-based protocol for mapping service This document describes an XML-based protocol for mapping service
identifiers and geodetic or civic location information to service identifiers and geodetic or civic location information to service
contact URIs. In particular, it can be used to determine the contact URIs. In particular, it can be used to determine the
location-appropriate PSAP for emergency services. location-appropriate PSAP for emergency services.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology and Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Terminology and Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3. Overview of Protocol Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3. Overview of Protocol Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4. LoST servers and Their Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. LoST Servers and Their Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. The <mapping> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. The <mapping> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1. The Data Source: 'source', 'sourceId' and 5.1. The Mapping Data Source: 'source', 'sourceId' and
'lastUpdated' Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 'lastUpdated' Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2. Validity: The 'expires' Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.2. Mapping Validity: The 'expires' Attribute . . . . . . . . 10
5.3. Describing the Service with the <displayName> Element . . 11 5.3. Describing the Service with the <displayName> Element . . 11
5.4. The Mapped Service: the <service> Element . . . . . . . . 11 5.4. The Mapped Service: the <service> Element . . . . . . . . 11
5.5. Defining the Service Region with the <serviceBoundary> 5.5. Defining the Service Region with the <serviceBoundary>
Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.6. Service Boundaries by Reference: the 5.6. Service Boundaries by Reference: the
<serviceBoundaryReference> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 <serviceBoundaryReference> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.7. The Service Number Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.7. The Service Number: the <serviceNumber> Element . . . . . 13
5.8. Service URLs: the <uri> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.8. Service URLs: the <uri> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6. Path of a Request: <path> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. Path of a Request: the <path> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7. Mapping a Location and Service to URLs: <findService> . . . . 15 7. Identifying the Location Element Used for Mapping:
7.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 <locationUsed> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.2. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 8. Mapping a Location and Service to URLs: <findService> . . . . 16
7.2.1. Example Using Geodetic Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . 15 8.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.2.2. Civic Address Mapping Example . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8.2. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.3. Components of the <findService> Request . . . . . . . . . 18 8.2.1. Example Using Geodetic Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.3.1. The <location> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 8.2.2. Civic Address Mapping Example . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7.3.2. Identifying the Service: The <service> Element . . . 19 8.3. Components of the <findService> Request . . . . . . . . . 19
7.3.3. Recursion and Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 8.3.1. The <location> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
7.3.4. Service Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 8.3.2. Identifying the Service: The <service> Element . . . 20
7.3.5. Requesting Civic Location Validation . . . . . . . . . 19 8.3.3. Recursion and Iteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7.4. Components of the Mapping Response 8.3.4. Service Boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
<findServiceResponse> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8.3.5. Requesting Civic Location Validation . . . . . . . . . 20
7.4.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 8.4. Components of the Mapping Response
7.4.2. Civic Address Validation: the <findServiceResponse> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
<locationValidation> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 8.4.1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8. Retrieving the Service Boundary via <getServiceBoundary> . . . 23 8.4.2. Civic Address Validation: the
9. List Services: <listServices> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 <locationValidation> Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
10. List Services By Location: <listServicesByLocation> . . . . . 27 9. Retrieving the Service Boundary via <getServiceBoundary> . . . 24
11. Location Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 10. List Services: <listServices> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
11.1. Location Profile Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 11. List Services By Location: <listServicesByLocation> . . . . . 28
11.2. Two Dimensional Geodetic Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 12. Location Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
11.3. Basic Civic Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 12.1. Location Profile Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
12. Errors, Warnings, and Redirects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 12.2. Two Dimensional Geodetic Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
12.1. Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 12.3. Basic Civic Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
12.2. Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 13. Errors, Warnings, and Redirects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
12.3. Redirects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 13.1. Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
13. LoST Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 13.2. Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
14. Relax NG Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 13.3. Redirects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
15. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 14. LoST Transport: HTTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
16. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 15. Relax NG Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
16.1. U-NAPTR Registrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 16. Internationalization Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
16.2. Content-type registration for 'application/lost+xml' . . . 47 17. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
16.3. LoST Relax NG Schema Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 17.1. U-NAPTR Registrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
16.4. LoST Namespace Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 17.2. Content-type registration for 'application/lost+xml' . . . 51
16.5. LoST Location Profile Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 17.3. LoST Relax NG Schema Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
17. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 17.4. LoST Namespace Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
18. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 17.5. LoST Location Profile Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
19. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 18. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
20. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 19. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
20.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 20. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
20.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 20.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Appendix A. Non-Normative RELAX NG Schema in XML Syntax . . . . . 57 20.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Appendix A. Non-Normative RELAX NG Schema in XML Syntax . . . . . 60
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 71 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 75
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Numerous techniques have been specified for the discovery of servers Protocols such as NAPTR records and the Service Location Protocol
for a particular service, including NAPTR records, SVRLOC and similar (SLP) can be used to discover servers offering a particular service.
protocols. However, there are an important class of services where However, for an important class of services the appropriate specific
the specific service instance that is to be connected to depends on service instance depends both on the identity of the service and the
the identity of the service and the location of the entity that needs geographic location of the entity that needs to reach it. Emergency
to reach it. An example of this is emergency telecommunications telecommunications services are an important example; here, the
services, where the service instance is a Public Safety Answering service instance is a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) that has
Point (PSAP) that has jurisdiction over the location of the user jurisdiction over the location of the user making the call. The
making the call. Here, the desired PSAP isn't necessarily the one desired PSAP isn't necessarily the one that is topologically or even
that is topologically or even line-of-sight closest to the caller; line-of-sight closest to the caller; rather, it is the one that
rather, it is the one that serves the callers location based on serves the callers location based on jurisdictional boundaries.
geopolitical boundaries. For this reason, the selected service
instance is a function of location and the desired service.
This document describes a protocol for mapping a service identifier This document describes a protocol for mapping a service identifier
[9] and location information compatible with PIDF-LO [6], namely (service URNs) [9] and location information compatible with PIDF-LO
revised civic location information [10] and GML [12]) to one or more [6], namely revised civic location information [10] and a subset of
service URL. Example service URL schemes include sip [14], xmpp the PIDF-LO profile [13] and consequently with the Geo-Shapes [12]
[15], and tel [16]. While the initial focus is on providing mapping defined for GML [11]) to one or more service URLs. Example service
functions for emergency services, it is likely that the protocol is URL schemes include sip [14], xmpp [15], and tel [16]. While the
applicable to any service URN. For example, in the United States, initial focus is on providing mapping functions for emergency
the "2-1-1" and "3-1-1" service numbers follow a similar location-to- services, it is likely that the protocol is applicable to other
service behavior as emergency services. service URNs. For example, in the United States, the "2-1-1" and
"3-1-1" service numbers follow a similar location-to-service behavior
as emergency services.
This document names this protocol "LoST", for Location-to-Service This document names this protocol "LoST", for Location-to-Service
Translation. LoST Satisfies the requirements [18] for mapping Translation. LoST Satisfies the requirements [18] for mapping
protocols. LoST provides a number of operations, centered around protocols. LoST provides a number of operations, centered around
mapping locations and service URNs to service URLs and associated mapping locations and service URNs to service URLs and associated
information. LoST mapping queries can contain either civic or information. LoST mapping queries can contain either civic or
geodetic location information. For civic addresses, LoST can geodetic location information. For civic addresses, LoST can
indicate which parts of the civic address are known to be valid or indicate which parts of the civic address are known to be valid or
invalid, thus providing address validation (see Section 3.5 of [18] invalid, thus providing address validation, as described in Section
for a description of validation). LoST indicates errors in the 3.5 of [18]. LoST indicates errors in the location data to
location data to facilitate debugging and proper user feedback, but facilitate debugging and proper user feedback, but also provides
also provides best-effort answers. best-effort answers.
LoST queries can be resolved recursively or iteratively. To minimize LoST queries can be resolved recursively or iteratively. To minimize
round trips and to provide robustness against network failures, LoST round trips and to provide robustness against network failures, LoST
supports caching of individual mappings and indicates the region for supports caching of individual mappings and indicates the region for
which the same answer would be returned ("service region"). which the same answer would be returned ("service region").
As defined in this document, LoST messages are carried in HTTP and As defined in this document, LoST messages are carried in HTTP and
HTTPS protocol exchanges, facilitating use of TLS for protecting the HTTPS protocol exchanges, facilitating use of TLS for protecting the
integrity and confidentiality of requests and responses. integrity and confidentiality of requests and responses.
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The query message carries location information and a service The query message carries location information and a service
identifier encoded as a Uniform Resource Name (URN) (see [9]) from identifier encoded as a Uniform Resource Name (URN) (see [9]) from
the LoST client to the LoST server. The LoST server uses its the LoST client to the LoST server. The LoST server uses its
database to map the input values to one or more Uniform Resource database to map the input values to one or more Uniform Resource
Identifiers (URI) and returns those URIs along with optional Identifiers (URI) and returns those URIs along with optional
information, such as hints about the service boundary, in a response information, such as hints about the service boundary, in a response
message to the LoST client. If the server cannot resolve the query message to the LoST client. If the server cannot resolve the query
itself, it may in turn query another server or return the address of itself, it may in turn query another server or return the address of
another LoST server, identified by a LoST server name. In addition another LoST server, identified by a LoST server name. In addition
to the mapping function described in Section 7, the protocol also to the mapping function described in Section 8, the protocol also
allows to retrieve the service boundary (see Section 8) and to list allows to retrieve the service boundary (see Section 9) and to list
the services available for a particular location (see Section 10) or the services available for a particular location (see Section 11) or
supported by a particular server (see Section 9). supported by a particular server (see Section 10).
2. Terminology and Requirements Notation 2. Terminology and Requirements Notation
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [1]. document are to be interpreted as described in [1].
This document uses the following terms: This document uses the following terms:
Mapping: Mapping: Mapping is a process that takes a location and a service
identifier as inputs and returns one or more URIs. Those URIs can
Mapping is a process that takes a location and a service either point to a host providing that service or to a host that in
identifier as inputs and returns one or more URIs that point to a turn routes the request to the final destination. This definition
host providing that service or acting as an intermediary to
establish communication with the serving entity. This definition
is a generalization of the term "mapping" as used in [18], because is a generalization of the term "mapping" as used in [18], because
of the potential for LoST to be used for non-emergency services. LoST can be used for non-emergency services.
LoST Client and Server: LoST client: A host acts as a LoST client if it sends LoST query
messages and receives LoST response messages.
"LoST client" is the role played by an entity that sends LoST LoST server: A host acts as a LoST server if it receives LoST query
query messages and receives LoST response messages. "LoST server" messages and sends LoST response messages. In recursive
is the role played by an entity that receives LoST query messages operation, the same entity may be both a client and a server.
and sends LoST response messages. In recursive operation, the
same entity may play both roles. This document also uses the term
"authoritative server" to designate an entity that acts in the
LoST server role only and successfully resolves the input location
and service identifier to a URI or set of URIs.
Service Boundary: Authoritative LoST server: An authoritative server acts only as a
server and successfully resolves the input location and service
identifier to a URI or set of URIs.
A service boundary is the boundary or set of boundaries of a Service boundary: A service boundary circumscribes the region within
geographic region, respectively set of geographic regions, within which all locations map to the same service URI or set of URIs for
which all locations will map to the same URI or set of URIs for a a given service. A service boundary may consist of several non-
given service. contiguous geometric shapes.
Validation: Validation:
The term "validation" as used in this document is a concrete The term "validation" describes the behavior defined as "location
realization of the term "location validation" as defined in validation" in Section 3.5 of [18].
Section 3.5 of [18].
Additional emergency service terminology can be found in [18]. Additional emergency service terminology can be found in [18].
3. Overview of Protocol Usage 3. Overview of Protocol Usage
The LoST protocol supports the following type of queries and The LoST protocol supports the following type of queries and
responses: responses:
<findService> and <findServiceResponse> <findService> and <findServiceResponse>
This message pattern allows to perform retrieve contact URIs based A LoST client retrieves contact URIs based on location information
on location information together with a service identifier. The and a service identifier with this request and response. The same
same query type may also ask for location validation and for query type may also ask for location validation and for service
service numbers, either integrated into mapping request or numbers, either combined with a mapping request or separately.
separately. The details can be found in Section 7 and The details can be found in Section 8 and Section 8.4.
Section 7.4.
<getServiceBoundary> and <getServiceBoundaryResponse> <getServiceBoundary> and <getServiceBoundaryResponse>
This message pattern allows query for a service boundary. The A LoST client obtains a service boundary with this request and
details can be found in Section 8. response, as described in Section 9.
<listServices> and <listServicesResponse> <listServices> and <listServicesResponse>
This message pattern enables a LoST client to ask a LoST server With this request and response, a LoST client can find out which
for the services it supports. The details can be found in services a LoST server supports, as described in Section 10.
Section 9.
<listServicesByLocation> and <listServicesByLocationResponse> <listServicesByLocation> and <listServicesByLocationResponse>
This message pattern provides the LoST client with the services A LoST client can determine with this request and response which
that are available for a specific location region. The details services are available for a specific location region. Section 11
can be found in Section 10. describes the details.
LoST clients may initiate any of the above queries at any time. LoST clients may initiate any of the above queries at any time.
Among the common triggers are: Among the common triggers are:
1. When the client initially starts up or attaches to a network. 1. When the client initially starts up or attaches to a network;
2. When the client detects that its location has changed 2. when the client detects that its location has changed
sufficiently that it is outside the bounds of the service region. sufficiently that it is outside the bounds of the service region;
3. An incoming message at a SIP proxy in a location-based routing 3. when a SIP message arrives at a SIP proxy performing location-
scenario that requires a routing decision to be made. based call routing;
4. When cached mapping information has expired. 4. when cached mapping information has expired;
5. When invoking a particular service. At that time, a client may 5. when invoking a particular service. At that time, a client may
omit requests for service boundaries or other auxiliary omit requests for service boundaries or other auxiliary
information. information.
A service-specific Best Current Practice (BCP) document, such as A service-specific Best Current Practice (BCP) document, such as
[20], governs whether a client is expected to invoke the mapping [20], governs whether a client is expected to invoke the mapping
service just before needing the service or whether to rely on cached service just before needing the service or whether to rely on cached
answers. Cache entries expire at their expiration time (see answers. Cache entries expire at their expiration time (see
Section 5.2), or they become invalid if the caller's device moves Section 5.2), or they become invalid if the caller's device moves
beyond the boundaries of the service region. beyond the boundaries of the service region.
4. LoST servers and Their Resolution 4. LoST Servers and Their Resolution
LoST servers are identified by U-NAPTR/DDDS [11] application unique
strings, in the form of a DNS name.
An example is 'lostserver.example.com' LoST servers are identified by U-NAPTR/DDDS [8] application unique
strings, in the form of a DNS name. An example is
'lostserver.example.com'.
Clients need to use the U-NAPTR [11] specification described below to Clients need to use the U-NAPTR [8] specification described below to
obtain a URI (indicating host and protocol) for the applicable LoST obtain a URI (indicating host and protocol) for the applicable LoST
service. In this document, only the HTTP and HTTPS URL schemes are service. In this document, only the HTTP and HTTPS URL schemes are
defined. Note that the HTTP URL can be any valid HTTP URL, including defined. Note that the HTTP URL can be any valid HTTP URL, including
those containing path elements. those containing path elements.
The following two DNS entries show the U-NAPTR resolution for The following two DNS entries show the U-NAPTR resolution for
"example.com" to the HTTPS URL https://lostserv.example.com/secure or "example.com" to the HTTPS URL https://lostserv.example.com/secure or
the HTTP URL http://lostserver.example.com, with the former being the HTTP URL http://lostserver.example.com, with the former being
preferred. preferred.
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Clients learn the LoST server's host name by means beyond the scope Clients learn the LoST server's host name by means beyond the scope
of this specification, such as SIP configuration and DHCP. of this specification, such as SIP configuration and DHCP.
5. The <mapping> Element 5. The <mapping> Element
The <mapping> element is the core data element in LoST, describing a The <mapping> element is the core data element in LoST, describing a
service region and the associated service URLs. Its attributes and service region and the associated service URLs. Its attributes and
elements are described in subsections below. elements are described in subsections below.
5.1. The Data Source: 'source', 'sourceId' and 'lastUpdated' Attributes 5.1. The Mapping Data Source: 'source', 'sourceId' and 'lastUpdated'
Attributes
The 'source', the 'sourceId' and the 'lastUpdated' attributes The 'source', the 'sourceId' and the 'lastUpdated' attributes
uniquely identify a particular mapping record. They are created by uniquely identify a particular mapping record. They are created by
the authoritative source for a mapping and never modified when a the authoritative source for a mapping and are never modified when a
mapping is served from a cache. All three attributes are REQUIRED mapping is served from a cache. All three attributes are REQUIRED
for all <mapping> elements. A receiver can replace a mapping with for all <mapping> elements. A receiver can replace a mapping with
another one having the same 'source' and 'sourceId' and a more recent another one having the same 'source' and 'sourceId' and a more recent
datum in 'lastUpdated'. time in 'lastUpdated'.
The 'source' attribute contains a LoST application unique string The 'source' attribute contains a LoST application unique string
identifying the authoritative generator of the mapping. See identifying the authoritative generator of the mapping (Section 4).
Section 4.
The 'sourceId' attribute identifies a particular mapping and contains The 'sourceId' attribute identifies a particular mapping and contains
an opaque token that MUST be unique among all different mappings an opaque token that MUST be unique among all different mappings
maintained by the authoritative source for that particular service. maintained by the authoritative source for that particular service.
For example, a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) is a suitable For example, a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) is a suitable
format. format.
The 'lastUpdated' attribute describes when a specific instance of The 'lastUpdated' attribute describes when a specific instance of
mapping, identified by the combination of 'source' and 'sourceId', mapping, identified by the combination of 'source' and 'sourceId',
was last changed. The contents of this attribute has the XML data was last changed. The contents of this attribute has the XML data
type dateTime in its timezoned form, using canonical UTC type dateTime in its timezoned form, using canonical UTC
representation with the letter 'Z' as the timezone indicator. representation with the letter 'Z' as the timezone indicator.
5.2. Validity: The 'expires' Attribute 5.2. Mapping Validity: The 'expires' Attribute
The 'expires' attribute contains the absolute time at which the The 'expires' attribute contains the absolute time at which the
mapping becomes invalid. The contents of this attribute is a mapping becomes invalid. The contents of this attribute is a
timezoned XML type dateTime, in canonical representation. See timezoned XML type dateTime, in canonical representation. See
Section 3 regarding how this value is to be utilized with a cache. Section 3 regarding how this value is to be utilized with a cache.
The 'expires' attribute is REQUIRED to be included in the <mapping> The 'expires' attribute is REQUIRED to be included in the <mapping>
element. element.
Optionally, this attribute may contain the values of 'NO-CACHE' and Optionally, this attribute may contain the values of 'NO-CACHE' and
'NO-EXPIRATION' instead of a dateTime value. The value 'NO-CACHE' is 'NO-EXPIRATION' instead of a dateTime value. The value 'NO-CACHE' is
skipping to change at page 11, line 10 skipping to change at page 11, line 10
'NO-EXPIRATION' is an indication that the mapping does not expire. 'NO-EXPIRATION' is an indication that the mapping does not expire.
On occasion, a server may be forced to return an expired mapping if On occasion, a server may be forced to return an expired mapping if
it cannot reach the authoritative server or the server fails to it cannot reach the authoritative server or the server fails to
return a usable answer. Clients and servers MAY cache the mapping so return a usable answer. Clients and servers MAY cache the mapping so
that they have at least some information available. Caching servers that they have at least some information available. Caching servers
that have such stale information SHOULD re-attempt the query each that have such stale information SHOULD re-attempt the query each
time a client requests a mapping. Since the expired mapping will be time a client requests a mapping. Since the expired mapping will be
returned to the client as a non-error/non-warning response it is the returned to the client as a non-error/non-warning response it is the
responsibility of the client to check the 'expires' attribute responsibility of the client to check the 'expires' attribute
associated with mapping data returned in a LoST response to detemine associated with mapping data returned in a LoST response to determine
whether the mapping is fresh. whether the mapping is fresh.
5.3. Describing the Service with the <displayName> Element 5.3. Describing the Service with the <displayName> Element
Zero or more <displayName> elements describe the service with a Zero or more <displayName> elements describe the service with a
string that is suitable for display to human users, each annotated string that is suitable for display to human users, each annotated
with the 'xml:lang' attribute that contains a language tag to aid in with the 'xml:lang' attribute that contains a language tag to aid in
the rendering of text. the rendering of text.
5.4. The Mapped Service: the <service> Element 5.4. The Mapped Service: the <service> Element
The <service> element identifies the service for which this mapping The mandatory <service> element identifies the service for which this
applies. Two cases need to be distinguished when the LoST server mapping applies. Two cases need to be distinguished when the LoST
sets the <service> element in the response message: server sets the <service> element in the response message:
1. If the requested service, identified by the service URN [9] in 1. If the requested service, identified by the service URN [9] in
the <service> element of the request, exists for the location the <service> element of the request, exists for the location
indicated, then the LoST server puts the service URN from the indicated, then the LoST server copies the service URN from the
request into the <service> element. request into the <service> element.
2. If, however, the requested service, identified by the service URN 2. If, however, the requested service, identified by the service URN
[9] in the <service> element in the request, does not exist for [9] in the <service> element in the request, does not exist for
the location indicated, the server can either return an the location indicated, the server can either return an
<serviceNotImplemented> (Section 12.1) error or can provide an <serviceNotImplemented> (Section 13.1) error or can provide an
alternate service that approximates the desired service for that alternate service that approximates the desired service for that
location. In the latter case, the server MUST include a location. In the latter case, the server MUST include a
<service> element with the alternative service URN. The choice <service> element with the alternative service URN. The choice
of service URN is left to local policy, but the alternate service of service URN is left to local policy, but the alternate service
should be able to satisfy the original service request. should be able to satisfy the original service request.
The <service> element is optional but may also be required if the
mapping is to be digitally signed.
5.5. Defining the Service Region with the <serviceBoundary> Element 5.5. Defining the Service Region with the <serviceBoundary> Element
A response MAY indicate the region for which the service URL returned A response MAY indicate the region for which the service URL returned
would be the same as in the actual query, the so-called _service would be the same as in the actual query, the so-called _service
region_. The service region can be indicated by value or by region_. The service region can be indicated by value or by
reference (see Section 5.6). If a client moves outside the service reference (see Section 5.6). If a client moves outside the service
area and wishes to obtain current service data, it sends a new query area and wishes to obtain current service data, it sends a new query
with its current location. The service region is described by value with its current location. The service region is described by value
in one or more <serviceBoundary> elements, each formatted according in one or more <serviceBoundary> elements, each formatted according
to a different location profile, identified by the 'profile' atribute to a specific location profile, identified by the 'profile' attribute
(see Section 11). If included in a response, the <serviceBoundary> (see Section 12). serviceBoundary elements formatted according to
element MUST contain at least one service boundary that uses the same different location profiles are alternative representations of the
profile as the request. The client only processes the first element same area, not additive to one another; this allows a client
that it can understand according to its list of supported location understanding only one of the profile types to be sure it has a
profiles. Thus, elements with geospatial coordinates are alternative complete view of the serviceBoundary. Within a serviceBoundary
descriptions of the same service region, not additive geometries. element there may, however, be multiple locations which _are_
additive; this is necessary because some serviceBoundary areas could
not be easily expressed with a single shape or civic location. If
included in a response, the <serviceBoundary> element MUST contain at
least one service boundary that uses the same profile as the request.
A service boundary is requested by the client (using the A service boundary is requested by the client, using the
'serviceBoundary' attribute in the request with the value set to 'serviceBoundary' attribute in the request with the value set to
"value"). "value".
A response MAY contain more than one <serviceBoundary> element with
profile 'civic'. Each <serviceBoundary> element describes a set of
civic addresses that fall within the service boundary, namely all
addresses that textually match the civic address elements provided,
regardless of the value of other address elements. A location falls
within the mapping's service boundary if it matches any of the
<serviceBoundary> elements.
5.6. Service Boundaries by Reference: the <serviceBoundaryReference> 5.6. Service Boundaries by Reference: the <serviceBoundaryReference>
Element Element
Since geodetic service boundaries may contain thousands of points and Since geodetic service boundaries may contain thousands of points and
thus be quite large, clients may opt to conserve bandwidth and can thus be quite large, clients may wish to conserve bandwidth by
request a reference to the service boundary instead of the value requesting a reference to the service boundary instead of the value
described in Section 5.5. The identifier of the service boundary is described in Section 5.5. The identifier of the service boundary is
returned as an attribute of the <serviceBoundaryReference> element, returned as an attribute of the <serviceBoundaryReference> element,
along with a LoST application unique string (see Section 4) along with a LoST application unique string (see Section 4)
identifying the server from where it can be retrieved. The actual identifying the server from where it can be retrieved. The actual
value of the service boundary is then retrieved with the value of the service boundary is then retrieved with the
getServiceBoundary (Section 8) request. getServiceBoundary (Section 9) request.
A reference to a service boundary is requested by the client (using A reference to a service boundary is requested by the client (using
the 'serviceBoundary' attribute in the request with the value set to the 'serviceBoundary' attribute in the request with the value set to
"reference"). A LoST server may decide, based on local policy, to "reference"). A LoST server may decide, based on local policy, to
return the service boundary per value or to omit the return the service boundary per value or to omit the
<serviceBoundaryReference> element in the response. <serviceBoundaryReference> element in the response.
The identifier is a random token with at least 128 bits of entropy The identifier is a random token with at least 128 bits of entropy
and can be assumed to be globally unique. It uniquely references a and can be assumed to be globally unique. It uniquely references a
particular boundary. If the boundary changes, a new identifier MUST particular boundary. If the boundary changes, a new identifier MUST
be chosen. Because of these properties, a client receiving a mapping be chosen. Because of these properties, a client receiving a mapping
response can simply check if it already has a copy of the boundary response can simply check if it already has a copy of the boundary
with that identifier. If so, it can skip checking with the server with that identifier. If so, it can skip checking with the server
whether the boundary has been updated. Since service boundaries are whether the boundary has been updated. Since service boundaries are
likely to remain unchanged for extended periods of time, possibly likely to remain unchanged for extended periods of time, possibly
exceeding the normal lifetime of the service URL, this approach exceeding the normal lifetime of the service URL, this approach
avoids unnecessarily refreshing the boundary information just because avoids unnecessarily refreshing the boundary information just because
the the remainder of the mapping has become invalid. the remainder of the mapping has become invalid.
5.7. The Service Number Element 5.7. The Service Number: the <serviceNumber> Element
The service number is returned in the optional <serviceNumber> The service number is returned in the optional <serviceNumber>
element. It contains a string of digits, * and # that a user on a element. It contains a string of digits, * and # that a user on a
device with a 12-key dial pad could use to reach that particular device with a 12-key dial pad could use to reach that particular
service. service.
5.8. Service URLs: the <uri> Element 5.8. Service URLs: the <uri> Element
The response returns the service URLs in one or more <uri> elements. The response returns the service URLs in one or more <uri> elements.
The URLs MUST be absolute URLs. The ordering of the URLs has no The URLs MUST be absolute URLs. The ordering of the URLs has no
particular significance. Each URL scheme MUST only appear at most particular significance. Each URL scheme MUST only appear at most
once, but it is permissible to include both secured and regular once, but it is permissible to include both secured and regular
versions of a protocol, such as both 'http' and 'https' or 'sip' and versions of a protocol, such as both 'http' and 'https' or 'sip' and
'sips'. 'sips'.
6. Path of a Request: <path> Element 6. Path of a Request: the <path> Element
To prevent loops and to allow tracing of request and response paths, To prevent loops and to allow tracing of request and response paths,
all requests that allow recursion include a <path> element that all requests that allow recursion include a <path> element that
contains one or more <via> elements, each possessing an attribute contains one or more <via> elements, each possessing an attribute
containing a LoST application unique string (see Section 4). The containing a LoST application unique string (see Section 4). The
order of <via> elements corresponds to the order of LoST servers, order of <via> elements corresponds to the order of LoST servers,
i.e., the first <via> element identifies the server that initially i.e., the first <via> element identifies the server that initially
received the request from the client issuing the request. The <via> received the request from the client issuing the request. The <via>
element is inserted logically on receipt of the request, so that element is inserted logically on receipt of the request, so that
every server in a recursive query operation is included in the <path> every server in a recursive query operation is included in the <path>
element. element.
The server that answers the request instead of forwarding it, such as The server that answers the request instead of forwarding it, such as
the authoritative server, copies the <path> element verbatim into the the authoritative server, copies the <path> element verbatim into the
response. The <path> element is not modified in responses as the response. The <path> element is not modified in responses as the
responses traverses the server chain back to the querying client. responses traverses the server chain back to the querying client.
If a query is answered iteratively, the querier includes all servers If a query is answered iteratively, the querier includes all servers
that it has already contacted. that it has already contacted.
When a cached mapping is returned then the <path> element cached
together with the mapping is returned.
The example in Figure 5 indicates that the answer was given to the The example in Figure 5 indicates that the answer was given to the
client by the LoST server at esgw.ueber-110.de.example, which got the client by the LoST server at esgw.ueber-110.de.example, which got the
answer from the (authoritative) LoST server at answer from the (authoritative) LoST server at
polizei.muenchen.de.example. polizei.muenchen.de.example.
7. Mapping a Location and Service to URLs: <findService> 7. Identifying the Location Element Used for Mapping: <locationUsed>
7.1. Overview Several of the requests can provide one or more <location> elements,
among which the server gets to choose. It is useful for the client
to be able to determine which one was actually used in producing the
result. For that purpose, the <location> tag MUST contain an 'id'
attribute that uniquely identifies the <location> element. The
format of the identifier is left to the client; it could, for
example, use a hash of the location information. The server returns
the identifier for the <location> element it used in the
<locationUsed> tag.
8. Mapping a Location and Service to URLs: <findService>
8.1. Overview
The <findService> query constitutes the core of the LoST The <findService> query constitutes the core of the LoST
functionality, mapping civic or geodetic locations to URLs and functionality, mapping civic or geodetic locations to URLs and
associated data. After giving an example, we enumerate the elements associated data. After giving an example, we enumerate the elements
of the query and response. of the query and response.
7.2. Examples 8.2. Examples
7.2.1. Example Using Geodetic Coordinates 8.2.1. Example Using Geodetic Coordinates
The following is an example of mapping a service to a location using The following is an example of mapping a service to a location using
geodetic coordinates, for the service associated with the police geodetic coordinates, for the service associated with the police
(urn:service:sos.police). (urn:service:sos.police).
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findService <findService
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml" xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
serviceBoundary="value" serviceBoundary="value"
recursive="true"> recursive="true">
<location profile="geodetic-2d"> <location id="6020688f1ce1896d" profile="geodetic-2d">
<p2:Point id="point1" srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326"> <p2:Point id="point1" srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326">
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.422</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.775 -122.422</p2:pos>
</p2:Point> </p2:Point>
</location> </location>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service> <service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
</findService> </findService>
Figure 2: A <findService> geodetic query Figure 2: A <findService> geodetic query
Given the query above, a server would respond with a service, and Given the query above, a server would respond with a service, and
information related to that service. In the example below, the information related to that service. In the example below, the
server has mapped the location given by the client for a police server has mapped the location given by the client for a police
service to the New York City Police Deparment, instructing the client service to the New York City Police Department, instructing the
that it may contact them via the URIs "sip:nypd@example.com" and client that it may contact them via the URIs "sip:nypd@example.com"
"xmpp:nypd@example.com". The server has also given the client a and "xmpp:nypd@example.com". The server has also given the client a
geodetic, two-dimensional boundary for this service. The mapping was geodetic, two-dimensional boundary for this service. The mapping was
last updated on November 1, 2006 and expires on January 1, 2007. If last updated on November 1, 2006 and expires on January 1, 2007. If
the client's location changes beyond the given service boundary or the client's location changes beyond the given service boundary or
the expiration time has been reached, it may want to requery for this the expiration time has been reached, it may want to requery for this
information, depending on the usage environment of LoST. information, depending on the usage environment of LoST.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" <findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml"> xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml">
<mapping <mapping
expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z" expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z"
lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z" lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z"
source="authoritative.example" source="authoritative.example"
sourceId="7e3f40b098c711dbb6060800200c9a66" version="1"> sourceId="7e3f40b098c711dbb6060800200c9a66">
<displayName xml:lang="en"> <displayName xml:lang="en">
New York City Police Department New York City Police Department
</displayName> </displayName>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service> <service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
<serviceBoundary profile="geodetic-2d"> <serviceBoundary profile="geodetic-2d">
<p2:Polygon srsName="urn:ogc:def::crs:EPSG::4326"> <p2:Polygon srsName="urn:ogc:def::crs:EPSG::4326">
<p2:exterior> <p2:exterior>
<p2:LinearRing> <p2:LinearRing>
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos>
<p2:pos>37.555 -122.4194</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.555 -122.4194</p2:pos>
skipping to change at page 16, line 35 skipping to change at page 17, line 35
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos>
</p2:LinearRing> </p2:LinearRing>
</p2:exterior> </p2:exterior>
</p2:Polygon> </p2:Polygon>
</serviceBoundary> </serviceBoundary>
<uri>sip:nypd@example.com</uri> <uri>sip:nypd@example.com</uri>
<uri>xmpp:nypd@example.com</uri> <uri>xmpp:nypd@example.com</uri>
<serviceNumber>911</serviceNumber> <serviceNumber>911</serviceNumber>
</mapping> </mapping>
<path> <path>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
<via source="resolver.example"/> <via source="resolver.example"/>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
</path> </path>
<locationUsed id="6020688f1ce1896d"/>
</findServiceResponse> </findServiceResponse>
Figure 3: A <findServiceResponse> geodetic answer Figure 3: A <findServiceResponse> geodetic answer
7.2.2. Civic Address Mapping Example 8.2.2. Civic Address Mapping Example
The following is an example of mapping a service to a location much The example below shows how to map a service to a location much like
like the example in Section 7.2.1, but using civic address location the example in Section 8.2.1, but using civic address location
information. In this example, the client requests the service information. In this example, the client requests the service
associated with police (urn:service:sos.police) along with a specific associated with police (urn:service:sos.police) along with a specific
civic address (house number 6 on a street named Otto-Hahn-Ring in civic address (house number 6 on a street named Otto-Hahn-Ring in
Munich, Germany). Munich, Germany).
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findService xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" <findService xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
recursive="true" serviceBoundary="value"> recursive="true" serviceBoundary="value">
<location <location id="627b8bf819d0bad4d" profile="civic">
profile="civic">
<civicAddress <civicAddress
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr">
<country>Germany</country> <country>Germany</country>
<A1>Bavaria</A1> <A1>Bavaria</A1>
<A3>Munich</A3> <A3>Munich</A3>
<A6>Otto-Hahn-Ring</A6> <A6>Otto-Hahn-Ring</A6>
<HNO>6</HNO> <HNO>6</HNO>
<PC>81675</PC> <PC>81675</PC>
</civicAddress> </civicAddress>
</location> </location>
skipping to change at page 18, line 11 skipping to change at page 19, line 11
January 1, 2007. This instructs the client to requery for the January 1, 2007. This instructs the client to requery for the
information if its location changes beyond the given service boundary information if its location changes beyond the given service boundary
(i.e., beyond the city of Munich) or after January 1, 2007. (i.e., beyond the city of Munich) or after January 1, 2007.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"> <findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1">
<mapping <mapping
expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z" expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z"
lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z" lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z"
source="esgw.ueber-110.de.example" source="esgw.ueber-110.de.example"
sourceId="e8b05a41d8d1415b80f2cdbb96ccf109" version="1" > sourceId="e8b05a41d8d1415b80f2cdbb96ccf109">
<displayName xml:lang="de"> <displayName xml:lang="de">
Muenchen Polizei-Abteilung Muenchen Polizei-Abteilung
</displayName> </displayName>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service> <service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
<serviceBoundary <serviceBoundary
profile="urn:ietf:params:lost:location-profile:basic-civic"> profile="urn:ietf:params:lost:location-profile:basic-civic">
<civicAddress <civicAddress
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr">
<country>Germany</country> <country>Germany</country>
<A1>Bavaria</A1> <A1>Bavaria</A1>
skipping to change at page 18, line 34 skipping to change at page 19, line 34
</civicAddress> </civicAddress>
</serviceBoundary> </serviceBoundary>
<uri>sip:munich-police@example.com</uri> <uri>sip:munich-police@example.com</uri>
<uri>xmpp:munich-police@example.com</uri> <uri>xmpp:munich-police@example.com</uri>
<serviceNumber>110</serviceNumber> <serviceNumber>110</serviceNumber>
</mapping> </mapping>
<path> <path>
<via source="esgw.ueber-110.de.example"/> <via source="esgw.ueber-110.de.example"/>
<via source="polizei.muenchen.de.example"/> <via source="polizei.muenchen.de.example"/>
</path> </path>
<locationUsed id="627b8bf819d0bad4d"/>
</findServiceResponse> </findServiceResponse>
Figure 5: A <findServiceResponse> civic address answer Figure 5: A <findServiceResponse> civic address answer
7.3. Components of the <findService> Request 8.3. Components of the <findService> Request
The <findService> request includes attributes that govern whether the The <findService> request includes attributes that govern whether the
request is handled iteratively or recursively, whether location request is handled iteratively or recursively, whether location
validation is performed and which elements may be contained in the validation is performed and which elements may be contained in the
response. response.
7.3.1. The <location> Element 8.3.1. The <location> Element
The <findService> query communicates location information using one The <findService> query communicates location information using one
or more <location> elements, which MUST conform to a location profile or more <location> elements, which MUST conform to a location profile
(see Section 11). There MUST NOT be more than one location element (see Section 12). There MUST NOT be more than one location element
for each distinct location profile. The order of location objects is for each distinct location profile. The order of location elements
significant; the server uses the first location object where it is significant; the server uses the first location element where it
understands the location profile. understands the location profile.
7.3.2. Identifying the Service: The <service> Element 8.3.2. Identifying the Service: The <service> Element
The type of service desired is specified by the <service> element. The type of service desired is specified by the <service> element.
It contains service URNs from the registry established in [9]. It contains service URNs from the registry established in [9].
7.3.3. Recursion and Iteration 8.3.3. Recursion and Iteration
LoST can operate in either recursive or iterative mode, on a request- LoST can operate in either recursive or iterative mode, on a request-
by-request basis. In recursive mode, the LoST server initiates by-request basis. In recursive mode, the LoST server initiates
queries on behalf of the requester and returns the result to the queries on behalf of the requester and returns the result to the
requester. requester.
In iterative mode, the server contacted returns a redirection In iterative mode, the server contacted returns a redirection
response indicating the next server to be queried. response indicating the next server to be queried if the server
contacted cannot provide an answer itself.
For the queries defined in this document, only LoST <findService> and For the queries defined in this document, only LoST <findService> and
<listServicesByLocation> queries can be recursive, as indicated by <listServicesByLocation> queries can be recursive, as indicated by
the 'recursive' attribute. A value of "true" indicates a recursive the 'recursive' attribute. A value of "true" indicates a recursive
query, with the default being "false" when the attribute is omitted. query, with the default being "false" when the attribute is omitted.
Regardless of the attribute, a server MAY always answer a query by Regardless of the attribute, a server MAY always answer a query by
providing a LoST application unique string (see Section 4), i.e., providing a LoST application unique string (see Section 4), i.e.,
indirection, however, it MUST NOT recurse if the attribute is indirection, however, it MUST NOT recurse if the attribute is
"false". "false".
7.3.4. Service Boundary 8.3.4. Service Boundary
LoST <mapping> elements can describe the service boundary either by LoST <mapping> elements can describe the service boundary either by
value or by reference. Returning a service boundary reference is value or by reference. Returning a service boundary reference is
generally more space-efficient for geospatial (polygon) boundaries generally more space-efficient for geospatial (polygon) boundaries
and if the boundaries change rarely, but does incur an additional and if the boundaries change rarely, but does incur an additional
<getServiceBoundary> request. The querier can express a preference <getServiceBoundary> request. The querier can express a preference
for one or the other modality with the 'serviceBoundary' attribute in for one or the other modality with the 'serviceBoundary' attribute in
the <findService> request, but the server makes the final decision as the <findService> request, but the server makes the final decision as
to whether to return a reference or a value. to whether to return a reference or a value.
7.3.5. Requesting Civic Location Validation 8.3.5. Requesting Civic Location Validation
Civic address validation is requested by setting the optional Civic address validation is requested by setting the optional
attribute 'validateLocation' to true. If the attribute is omitted, attribute 'validateLocation' to true. If the attribute is omitted,
it is assumed to be false. The response is described in it is assumed to be false. The response is described in
Section 7.4.2. The example in Figure 6 demonstrates address Section 8.4.2. The example in Figure 6 demonstrates address
validation, omitting the standard response elements. validation. If the server chooses a geodetic location among the
locations provided in a request, the attribute is ignored.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findService <findService
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
recursive="true" recursive="true"
validateLocation="true" validateLocation="true"
serviceBoundary="value"> serviceBoundary="value">
<location profile="civic"> <location id="627b8bf819d0bad4d" profile="civic">
<civicAddress <civicAddress
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr">
<country>DE</country> <country>DE</country>
<A1>Bavaria</A1> <A1>Bavaria</A1>
<A3>Munich</A3> <A3>Munich</A3>
<A6>Otto-Hahn-Ring</A6> <A6>Otto-Hahn-Ring</A6>
<HNO>6</HNO> <HNO>6</HNO>
<PC>81675</PC> <PC>81675</PC>
</civicAddress> </civicAddress>
</location> </location>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service> <service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
</findService> </findService>
Figure 6: A <findService> query with address validation request Figure 6: A <findService> query with address validation request
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"> <findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1">
<mapping <mapping
expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z" expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z"
lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z" lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z"
source="authoritative.example" source="authoritative.example"
sourceId="4db898df52b84edfa9b6445ea8a0328e" sourceId="4db898df52b84edfa9b6445ea8a0328e">
version="1" >
<displayName xml:lang="de"> <displayName xml:lang="de">
Muenchen Polizei-Abteilung Muenchen Polizei-Abteilung
</displayName> </displayName>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service> <service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
<serviceBoundary profile="civic"> <serviceBoundary profile="civic">
<civicAddress <civicAddress
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr">
<country>Germany</country> <country>Germany</country>
<A1>Bavaria</A1> <A1>Bavaria</A1>
<A3>Munich</A3> <A3>Munich</A3>
<PC>81675</PC> <PC>81675</PC>
</civicAddress> </civicAddress>
</serviceBoundary> </serviceBoundary>
<uri>sip:munich-police@example.com</uri> <uri>sip:munich-police@example.com</uri>
<uri>xmpp:munich-police@example.com</uri> <uri>xmpp:munich-police@example.com</uri>
<serviceNumber>110</serviceNumber> <serviceNumber>110</serviceNumber>
</mapping> </mapping>
<locationValidation> <locationValidation>
<valid>country A1 A3 A6</valid> <valid>country A1 A3 A6</valid>
<invalid>PC</invalid> <invalid>PC</invalid>
<unchecked>HNO</unchecked>
</locationValidation> </locationValidation>
<path> <path>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
<via source="resolver.example"/> <via source="resolver.example"/>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
</path> </path>
<locationUsed id="627b8bf819d0bad4d"/>
</findServiceResponse> </findServiceResponse>
Figure 7: A <findServiceResponse> message with address validation Figure 7: A <findServiceResponse> message with address validation
information information
7.4. Components of the Mapping Response <findServiceResponse> 8.4. Components of the Mapping Response <findServiceResponse>
7.4.1. Overview 8.4.1. Overview
Mapping responses consist of the <mapping> element (Section 5) Mapping responses consist of the <mapping> element (Section 5)
describing the mapping itself, possibly followed by warnings describing the mapping itself, possibly followed by warnings
(Section 12.2), location validation information (Section 7.4.2), and (Section 13.2), location validation information (Section 8.4.2), and
an indication of the path (Section 6) the response has taken. an indication of the path (Section 6) the response has taken.
7.4.2. Civic Address Validation: the <locationValidation> Element 8.4.2. Civic Address Validation: the <locationValidation> Element
A server can indicate in its response which civic address elements it A server can indicate in its response which civic address elements it
has recognized as valid, which ones it has ignored and which ones it has recognized as valid, which ones it has ignored and which ones it
has checked and found to be invalid. The server SHOULD include this has checked and found to be invalid. The server SHOULD include this
information if the 'validateLocation' attribute in the request was information if the 'validateLocation' attribute in the request was
true but local policy at the server may allow this information to be true but local policy at the server may allow this information to be
omitted. Each element contains a list of tokens separated by white omitted. Each element contains a list of tokens separated by white
space, enumerating the civic location lables used in child elements space, enumerating the civic location labels used in child elements
of the <civicAddress> element. The <valid> element enumerates those of the <civicAddress> element. The <valid> element enumerates those
civic address elements that have been recognized as valid by the LoST civic address elements that have been recognized as valid by the LoST
server and that have been used to determine the mapping. The server and that have been used to determine the mapping. The
<unchecked> elements enumerates the civic address elements that the <unchecked> elements enumerates the civic address elements that the
server did not check and that were not used in determining the server did not check and that were not used in determining the
response. The <invalid> element enumerate civic address elements response. The <invalid> element enumerate civic address elements
that the server attempted to check, but that did not match the other that the server attempted to check, but that did not match the other
civic address elements found in the <valid> list. civic address elements found in the <valid> list. Civic location
tokens that are neither listed in the <valid>, the <invalid> and the
<unchecked> element belong to the class of unchecked tokens.
Note that the same address can yield different responses if parts of Note that the same address can yield different responses if parts of
the civic address contradict each other. For example, if the postal the civic address contradict each other. For example, if the postal
code does not match the city, local server policy determines whether code does not match the city, local server policy determines whether
the postal code or the city is considered valid. The mapping the postal code or the city is considered valid. The mapping
naturally corresponds to the valid elements. naturally corresponds to the valid elements.
The example (Figure 6) indicates that the tokens 'country', 'A1', The example shown in Figure 6 and in Figure 7 indicates that the
'A3', and 'A6' have been validated by the LoST server. The server tokens 'country', 'A1', 'A3', and 'A6' have been validated by the
considered the postal code 81675 in the <PC> element as not valid for LoST server. The server considered the postal code 81675 in the <PC>
this location. element as not valid for this location. The 'HNO' token belongs to
the class of unchecked location tokens.
8. Retrieving the Service Boundary via <getServiceBoundary> 9. Retrieving the Service Boundary via <getServiceBoundary>
As discussed in Section 5.5, the <findServiceResponse> can return a As discussed in Section 5.5, the <findServiceResponse> can return a
globally unique identifier in the 'serviceBoundary' attribute that globally unique identifier in the 'serviceBoundary' attribute that
can be used to retrieve the service boundary, rather than returning can be used to retrieve the service boundary, rather than returning
the boundary by value. This is shown in the example in Figure 8. the boundary by value. This is shown in the example in Figure 8 and
The client can then retrieve the boundary using the Figure 9. The client can then retrieve the boundary using the
<getServiceBoundary> request and obtains the boundary in the <getServiceBoundary> request and obtains the boundary in the
<getServiceBoundaryResponse>, illustrated in the example in <getServiceBoundaryResponse>, illustrated in the example in
Figure 10. The client issues the request to the server identified in Figure 10. The client issues the request to the server identified in
the 'server' attribute of the <serviceBoundaryReference> element. the 'server' attribute of the <serviceBoundaryReference> element.
These requests are always directed to the authoritative server and do These requests are always directed to the authoritative server and do
not recurse. not recurse.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findService <findService
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml" xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
recursive="true" recursive="true"
serviceBoundary="reference"> serviceBoundary="reference">
<location profile="geodetic-2d"> <location id="6020688f1ce1896d" profile="geodetic-2d">
<p2:Point id="point1" srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326"> <p2:Point id="point1" srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326">
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.422</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.775 -122.422</p2:pos>
</p2:Point> </p2:Point>
</location> </location>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service> <service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
</findService> </findService>
Figure 8: <findService> request and response with service boundary Figure 8: <findService> request and response with service boundary
reference reference
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" <findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml"> xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml">
<mapping <mapping
expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z" expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z"
lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z" lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z"
source="authoritative.example" source="authoritative.example"
sourceId="7e3f40b098c711dbb6060800200c9a66" sourceId="7e3f40b098c711dbb6060800200c9a66">
version="1">
<displayName xml:lang="en"> <displayName xml:lang="en">
New York City Police Department New York City Police Department
</displayName> </displayName>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service> <service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
<serviceBoundaryReference <serviceBoundaryReference
source="authoritative.example" source="authoritative.example"
key="7214148E0433AFE2FA2D48003D31172E" /> key="7214148E0433AFE2FA2D48003D31172E" />
<uri>sip:nypd@example.com</uri> <uri>sip:nypd@example.com</uri>
<uri>xmpp:nypd@example.com</uri> <uri>xmpp:nypd@example.com</uri>
<serviceNumber>911</serviceNumber> <serviceNumber>911</serviceNumber>
</mapping> </mapping>
<path> <path>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
<via source="resolver.example"/> <via source="resolver.example"/>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
</path> </path>
<locationUsed id="6020688f1ce1896d"/>
</findServiceResponse> </findServiceResponse>
Figure 9: <findServiceResponse> message with service boundary Figure 9: <findServiceResponse> message with service boundary
reference reference
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<getServiceBoundary xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" <getServiceBoundary xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
key="7214148E0433AFE2FA2D48003D31172E"/> key="7214148E0433AFE2FA2D48003D31172E"/>
Figure 10: Requesting a service boundary with <getServiceBoundary> Figure 10: Requesting a service boundary with <getServiceBoundary>
The <getServiceBoundary> request may also be used to retrieve service The <getServiceBoundary> request may also be used to retrieve service
boundaries that are expressed as civic addresses, as illustrated in boundaries that are expressed as civic addresses, as illustrated in
Figure 11. Figure 11.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<getServiceBoundaryResponse <getServiceBoundaryResponse
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1">
<serviceBoundary <serviceBoundary profile="civic">
profile="civic">
<civicAddress <civicAddress
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:pidf:geopriv10:civicAddr">
<country>US</country> <country>US</country>
<A1>New York</A1> <A1>New York</A1>
<A3>New York</A3> <A3>New York</A3>
</civicAddress> </civicAddress>
</serviceBoundary> </serviceBoundary>
<path> <path>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
<via source="resolver.example"/> <via source="resolver.example"/>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
</path> </path>
</getServiceBoundaryResponse> </getServiceBoundaryResponse>
Figure 11: Civic Address Service Boundary Response Figure 11: Civic Address Service Boundary Response
9. List Services: <listServices> 10. List Services: <listServices>
A LoST client can ask a LoST server for the list of services that it A LoST client can ask a LoST server for the list of services that it
understands, primarily for diagnostic purposes. The query does not understands, primarily for diagnostic purposes. The query does not
contain location information, as it simply provides an indication of contain location information, as it simply provides an indication of
which services the server can look up, not whether a particular which services the server can look up, not whether a particular
service is offered for a particular area. Typically, only top-level service is offered for a particular area. Typically, only top-level
services are included in the answer, implying support for all sub- services are included in the answer, implying support for all sub-
services. Since the query is answered by the queried server, there services. Since the query is answered by the queried server, there
is no notion of recursion or indirection and no path indication. The is no notion of recursion or indirection and no path indication. The
<listServicesByLocation (Section 10) query below can be used to find <listServicesByLocation> (Section 11) query below can be used to find
out whether a particular service is offered for a specific location. out whether a particular service is offered for a specific location.
An example request and response are shown in Figure 12. An example request and response are shown in Figure 12.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<listServices <listServices
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"> xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1">
<service>urn:service:sos</service> <service>urn:service:sos</service>
</listServices> </listServices>
Figure 12: Example of <ListServices> query Figure 12: Example of <ListServices> query
skipping to change at page 27, line 5 skipping to change at page 28, line 5
urn:service:sos.marine urn:service:sos.marine
urn:service:sos.physician urn:service:sos.physician
urn:service:sos.poison urn:service:sos.poison
urn:service:sos.police urn:service:sos.police
urn:service:sos.suicide urn:service:sos.suicide
</serviceList> </serviceList>
</listServicesResponse> </listServicesResponse>
Figure 13: Example of <ListServiceResponse> Figure 13: Example of <ListServiceResponse>
10. List Services By Location: <listServicesByLocation> 11. List Services By Location: <listServicesByLocation>
A LoST client can ask a LoST server for the list of services it knows A LoST client can ask a LoST server for the list of services it knows
about for a particular area. The <listServicesByLocation> query about for a particular area. The <listServicesByLocation> query
contains one or more <location> elements, each from a different contains one or more <location> elements, each from a different
location profile (Section 11), and may contain the <service> element. location profile (Section 12), and may contain the <service> element.
As for <findService>, the server selects the first location element As for <findService>, the server selects the first location element
that has a profile the server understands and it can operate either that has a profile the server understands and it can operate either
recursively or iteratively; < via> elements track the progress of the recursively or iteratively; < via> elements track the progress of the
request. By its nature, the query can only indicate the services request. The query indicates the services that the server can
that a particular server can determine, not all possible services enumerate from within the forest structure of which it is a part.
that might be offered. Unlike <ListServices>, the answer describes Because LoST does not presume a single, overarching organization of
the services available at a specific location, not just those all potential service types, there may be services available within a
understood by the server. geographic area which could be described by other LoST servers
connected to other forest structures. As an example, the emergency
services forest for a region may be distinct from the forests that
locate commercial services within the same region
If the query contains the <service> element, the LoST server returns If the query contains the <service> element, the LoST server returns
only immediate child services of the queried service that are only immediate child services of the queried service that are
available for the provided location. If the <service> element is available for the provided location. If the <service> element is
absent, the LoST service returns all top-level services available for absent, the LoST service returns all top-level services available for
the provided location that it knows about. the provided location that it knows about.
A server responds to this query with a A server responds to this query with a
<listServicesByLocationResponse> response. This response MAY contain <listServicesByLocationResponse> response. This response MAY contain
<via> elements (see Section 6) and MUST contain a <serviceList> <via> elements (see Section 6) and MUST contain a <serviceList>
element, consisting of a whitespace-separated list of service URNs. element, consisting of a whitespace-separated list of service URNs.
The query and response are illustrated in Figure 14 and in Figure 15, The query and response are illustrated in Figure 14 and in Figure 15,
respectively. respectively.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<listServicesByLocation <listServicesByLocation
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml" xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
recursive="true"> recursive="true">
<location profile="geodetic-2d"> <location id="3e19dfb3b9828c3" profile="geodetic-2d">
<p2:Point srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326"> <p2:Point srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326">
<p2:pos>-34.407 150.883</p2:pos> <p2:pos>-34.407 150.883</p2:pos>
</p2:Point> </p2:Point>
</location> </location>
<service>urn:service:sos</service> <service>urn:service:sos</service>
</listServicesByLocation> </listServicesByLocation>
Figure 14: Example of <ListServicesbyLocation> query Figure 14: Example of <ListServicesbyLocation> query
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<listServicesByLocationResponse <listServicesByLocationResponse
skipping to change at page 28, line 20 skipping to change at page 29, line 20
urn:service:sos.fire urn:service:sos.fire
urn:service:sos.gas urn:service:sos.gas
urn:service:sos.mountain urn:service:sos.mountain
urn:service:sos.marine urn:service:sos.marine
urn:service:sos.physician urn:service:sos.physician
urn:service:sos.poison urn:service:sos.poison
urn:service:sos.police urn:service:sos.police
urn:service:sos.suicide urn:service:sos.suicide
</serviceList> </serviceList>
<path> <path>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
<via source="resolver.example"/> <via source="resolver.example"/>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
</path> </path>
<locationUsed id="3e19dfb3b9828c3"/>
</listServicesByLocationResponse> </listServicesByLocationResponse>
Figure 15: Example of <ListServices> response Figure 15: Example of <ListServices> response
11. Location Profiles 12. Location Profiles
LoST uses location information in <location> elements in requests and LoST uses location information in <location> elements in requests and
<serviceBoundary> elements in responses. Such location information <serviceBoundary> elements in responses. Such location information
may be expressed in a variety of ways. This variety can cause may be expressed in a variety of ways. This variety can cause
interoperability problems where a request or response contains interoperability problems where a request or response contains
location information in a format not understood by the server or the location information in a format not understood by the server or the
client, respectively. To achieve interoperability, this document client, respectively. To achieve interoperability, this document
defines two mandatory-to-implement baseline location profiles to defines two mandatory-to-implement baseline location profiles to
define the manner in which location information is transmitted. It define the manner in which location information is transmitted. It
possible to standardize other profiles in the future. The two is possible to standardize other profiles in the future. The three
baseline profiles are: baseline profiles are:
geodetic-2d: geodetic-2d:
a simple profile for two-dimensional geodetic location a profile for two-dimensional geodetic location information, as
information, as described in Section 11.2; described in Section 12.2;
civic: civic:
a profile consisting of civic address location information, as a profile consisting of civic address location information, as
described in Section 11.3. described in Section 12.3.
Requests and responses containing <location> or <serviceBoundary> Requests and responses containing <location> or <serviceBoundary>
elements MUST contain location information in exactly one of the two elements MUST contain location information in exactly one of the two
baseline profiles, in addition to zero or more additional profiles. baseline profiles, in addition to zero or more additional profiles.
The ordering of location information indicates a preference on the The ordering of location information indicates a preference on the
part of the sender. part of the sender.
Standards action is required for defining new profiles. A location Standards action is required for defining new profiles. A location
profile MUST define: profile MUST define:
skipping to change at page 30, line 5 skipping to change at page 31, line 5
3. The formal definition of the XML to be used in responses, i.e., 3. The formal definition of the XML to be used in responses, i.e.,
an enumeration and definition of the XML child elements of the an enumeration and definition of the XML child elements of the
<serviceBoundary> element; <serviceBoundary> element;
4. The declaration of whether geodetic-2d or civic is to be used as 4. The declaration of whether geodetic-2d or civic is to be used as
the baseline profile. It is necessary to explicitly declare the the baseline profile. It is necessary to explicitly declare the
baseline profile as future profiles may be combinations of baseline profile as future profiles may be combinations of
geodetic and civic location information. geodetic and civic location information.
11.1. Location Profile Usage 12.1. Location Profile Usage
A location profile is identified by a token in an IANA-maintained A location profile is identified by a token in an IANA-maintained
registry (Section 16.5). Clients send location information compliant registry (Section 17.5). Clients send location information compliant
with a location profile, and servers respond with location with a location profile, and servers respond with location
information compliant with that same location profile. information compliant with that same location profile.
When a LoST client sends a <findService> request that provides When a LoST client sends a <findService> request that provides
location information, it includes one or more <location> elements. A location information, it includes one or more <location> elements. A
<location> element carries a mandatory 'profile' attribute that <location> element carries an optional 'profile' attribute that
indicates the location format of the child elements. The concept of indicates the location format of the child elements. A client may
location profiles are described in Section 11. With the ability to obtain location information that does not conform to a profile it
specify more than one <location> element the client is able to convey recognizes or it may not have the capability to map XML to profiles.
location information for multiple location profiles in the same In that case, a client MAY omit the profile attribute and the server
request. should interpret the XML location data to the best of its ability,
returning a "locationProfileUnrecognized" error if it is unable to do
so.
The concept of location profiles are described in Section 12. With
the ability to specify more than one <location> element the client is
able to convey location information for multiple location profiles in
the same request.
When a LoST server sends a response that contains location When a LoST server sends a response that contains location
information, it uses the <serviceBoundary> elements much like the information, it uses the <serviceBoundary> elements much like the
client uses the <location> elements. Each <serviceBoundary> element client uses the <location> elements. Each <serviceBoundary> element
contains location information conformant to the location profile contains location information conforming to the location profile
specified in the 'profile' attribute. When multiple <location> specified in the 'profile' attribute. A response MAY contain
elements are included then it enables the server to send location multiple mappings or boundaries for the different <location>
information compliant with multiple location profiles. elements, subject to the restrictions below.
Using the location profiles defined in this document, the following Using the location profiles defined in this document, the following
rules insure basic interoperatiblity between clients and servers: rules ensure interoperability between clients and servers:
1. A client MUST be capable of understanding the response for the 1. A client MUST be capable of understanding the response for the
baseline profiles it used in the request. baseline profiles it used in the request.
2. If a client sends location information conformant to any location 2. If a client sends location information conformant to any location
profile other than geodetic-2d or civic, it MUST also send, in profile other than the ones described in this document, it MUST
the same request, location information conformant to one of the also send, in the same request, location information conformant
baseline profiles. Otherwise, the server might not be able to to one of the baseline profiles. Otherwise, the server might not
understand the request. be able to understand the request.
3. A client SHOULD NOT send multiple <location> profiles of derived 3. A client MUST NOT send multiple <location> objects that are
from different baseline profiles. Or said another way, a client derived from different baseline profiles. In other words, a
should only send location profiles from the same baseline profile client MUST only send location objects according to the same
in the same query. If a client has location information baseline profile in a query, but it MAY contain a location
primarily of geodetic nature and location information primarily element following a baseline profile in addition to some other
of a civic nature, it should send separate requests containing profile.
each type of location information.
4. There can only be one instance of each location profile in a 4. If a client has both location information primarily of geodetic
nature and location information primarily of a civic nature, it
MUST send separate requests containing each type of location
information.
5. There can only be one instance of each location profile in a
query. query.
5. Servers MUST implement the geodetic-2d and civic profiles. 6. Servers MUST implement all profiles described in this document.
6. A server uses the first-listed location profile that it 7. A server uses the first-listed location profile that it
understands and ignores the others. understands and ignores the others.
7. If a server receives a request that only contains location 8. If a server receives a request that only contains location
information using profiles it does not understand, the server information using profiles it does not understand, the server
responds with a <locationProfileError> (Section 12.1). responds with a <locationProfileError> (Section 13.1).
8. The <serviceBoundary> element MUST use the same location profile 9. The <serviceBoundary> element MUST use the same location profile
that was used to retrieve the answer and indicates which profile that was used to retrieve the answer and indicates which profile
has been used with the 'profile' attribute. has been used with the 'profile' attribute.
These rules enable the use of location profiles not yet specified, These rules enable the use of location profiles not yet specified,
while ensuring baseline interoperability. Take, for example, this while ensuring baseline interoperability. Take, for example, this
scenario. Client X has had its firmware upgraded to support the scenario. Client X has had its firmware upgraded to support the
uber-complex-3D location profile. Client X sends location 'not-yet-standardized-prism-profile' location profile. Client X
information to Server Y, which does not understand the sends location information to Server Y, which does not understand the
uber-complex-3D location profile. If Client X also sends location 'not-yet-standardized-prism-profile' location profile. If Client X
information using the geodetic-2D baseline profile, then Server Y also sends location information using the geodetic-2D baseline
will still be able to understand the request and provide an profile, then Server Y will still be able to understand the request
understandable response, though with location information that might and provide an understandable response, though with location
not be as precise or expressive as desired. This is possible because information that might not be as precise or expressive as desired.
both Client X and Server Y understand the baseline profile. This is possible because both Client X and Server Y understand the
baseline profile.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findService <findService
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/gml" xmlns:gml="http://www.opengis.net/gml"
xmlns:gs="http://www.opengis.net/pidflo/1.0"
recursive="true" recursive="true"
serviceBoundary="value"> serviceBoundary="value">
<location profile="uber-complex-3d"> <location profile="not-yet-standardized-prism-profile">
<p2:Point id="point1" srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326"> <gs:Prism srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4979">
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.422</p2:pos> <gs:base>
</p2:Point> <gml:Polygon>
<p2:Polygon srsName="urn:ogc:def::crs:EPSG::4326"> <gml:exterior>
<p2:exterior> <gml:LinearRing>
<p2:LinearRing> <gml:posList>
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos> 42.556844 -73.248157 36.6
<p2:pos>37.555 -122.4194</p2:pos> 42.656844 -73.248157 36.6
<p2:pos>37.555 -122.4264</p2:pos> 42.656844 -73.348157 36.6
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4264</p2:pos> 42.556844 -73.348157 36.6
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos> 42.556844 -73.248157 36.6
</p2:LinearRing> </gml:posList>
</p2:exterior> </gml:LinearRing>
</p2:Polygon> </gml:exterior>
<p2:Point id="point1" srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326"> </gml:Polygon>
<p2:pos>-122.422 37.775</p2:pos> </gs:base>
</p2:Point> <gs:height uom="urn:ogc:def:uom:EPSG::9001">
2.4
</gs:height>
</gs:Prism>
</location> </location>
<location profile="geodetic-2d"> <location profile="geodetic-2d">
<p2:Point id="point1" srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326"> <gml:Point id="point1" srsName="urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG:4326">
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.422</p2:pos> <gml:pos>42.656844 -73.348157</gml:pos>
</p2:Point> </gml:Point>
</location> </location>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service> <service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
</findService> </findService>
Figure 16: Example of a <findServices> query with baseline profile Figure 16: Example of a <findServices> query with baseline profile
interoperability interoperability
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findServiceResponse <findServiceResponse
xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/"> xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/">
<mapping <mapping
expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z" expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z"
lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z" lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z"
source="authoritative.example" source="authoritative.example"
sourceId="cf19bbb038fb4ade95852795f045387d" sourceId="cf19bbb038fb4ade95852795f045387d">
version="1">
<displayName xml:lang="en"> <displayName xml:lang="en">
New York City Police Department New York City Police Department
</displayName> </displayName>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service> <service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
<serviceBoundary profile="geodetic-2d"> <serviceBoundary profile="geodetic-2d">
<p2:Polygon srsName="urn:ogc:def::crs:EPSG::4326"> <p2:Polygon srsName="urn:ogc:def::crs:EPSG::4326">
<p2:exterior> <p2:exterior>
<p2:LinearRing> <p2:LinearRing>
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos>
<p2:pos>37.555 -122.4194</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.555 -122.4194</p2:pos>
<p2:pos>37.555 -122.4264</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.555 -122.4264</p2:pos>
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4264</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.775 -122.4264</p2:pos>
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos> <p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos>
</p2:LinearRing> </p2:LinearRing>
</p2:exterior> </p2:exterior>
</p2:Polygon> </p2:Polygon>
</serviceBoundary> </serviceBoundary>
<uri>sip:nypd@example.com</uri> <uri>sip:nypd@example.com</uri>
</mapping> </mapping>
<path> <path>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
<via source="resolver.example"/> <via source="resolver.example"/>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
</path> </path>
<locationUsed id="6020688f1ce1896d"/>
</findServiceResponse> </findServiceResponse>
Figure 17: Example of a <findServiceResponse> message with baseline Figure 17: Example of a <findServiceResponse> message with baseline
profile interoperability profile interoperability
11.2. Two Dimensional Geodetic Profile 12.2. Two Dimensional Geodetic Profile
The geodetic-2d location profile is identified by geodetic-2d. The "geodetic-2d" location profile is identified by "geodetic-2d".
Clients use this profile by placing a <Point> element, as described Clients and servers use this profile by placing the following
in Section 7.2.1 of [13], within the <location> element. Section location shapes into the <serviceBoundary> or into the <location>
7.2.1 of [13] describes the specification of a <Point> with either a element (unless indicated otherwise):
two dimensional position (latitude and longitude) or three
dimensional position (latitude, longitude, and altitude). A client
MAY use the three dimensional position, and servers MAY interpret a
three dimensional position as a two dimensional position by ignoring
altitude.
Servers use this profile by placing a <Polygon> element, as described Point:
in Section 7.2.2 of [13], within the <serviceBoundary> element. This
is defined by the 'polygon' pattern in the LoST schema (see
Section 14).
With respect to the description in Section 7.2.2 of [13] the The <Point> element is described in Section 5.2.1 of [13].
restriction to 16 points for a polygon is not applicable to this Section 5.2.1 of [13] shows also the specification of a <Point>
document. With this profile servers MUST use WGS 84 (latitude, with either a two dimensional position (latitude and longitude) or
longitude), i.e., the srsName set to 'urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::4326' three dimensional position (latitude, longitude, and altitude). A
where altitude information is omitted. The orientation of the points client MAY use the three dimensional position, and servers MAY
in the polygon is upward normal as described in Section 7.2.2 of interpret a three dimensional position as a two dimensional
[13]. position by ignoring the altitude value. A <Point> element is not
placed into a <serviceBoundary> element.
11.3. Basic Civic Profile Polygon:
The <Polygon> element is described in Section 5.2.2 of [13]. The
restriction to 16 points for a polygon contained in Section 7.2.2
of [12] is not applicable to this document.
Circle:
The <Circle> element is described in Section 5.2.3 of [13].
Ellipse:
The <Ellipse> element is described in Section 5.2.4 of [13].
ArcBand:
The <ArcBand> element is described in Section 5.2.5 of [13].
When clients place a <Polygon>, <Circle>, <Ellipse> or <ArcBand>
element within the <location> element then it indicates that the
query is about any point contained in the given area; it is left to
the server to select an appropriate matching algorithm, such as using
computing the centroid. A server MAY return multiple <mapping>
elements if the polygon extends across multiple service areas.
When geodetic location information of this location profile is placed
in the <serviceBoundary> element then the elements with geospatial
coordinates are alternative descriptions of the same service region,
not additive geometries.
12.3. Basic Civic Profile
The basic-civic location profile is identified by the token 'civic'. The basic-civic location profile is identified by the token 'civic'.
Clients use this profile by placing a <civicAddress> element, defined Clients use this profile by placing a <civicAddress> element, defined
in [10], within the <location> element. in [10], within the <location> element.
Servers use this profile by placing a <civicAddress> element, defined Servers use this profile by placing a <civicAddress> element, defined
in [10], within the <serviceBoundary> element. in [10], within the <serviceBoundary> element.
12. Errors, Warnings, and Redirects A response MAY contain more than one <serviceBoundary> element with
profile 'civic'. Each <serviceBoundary> element describes a set of
civic addresses that fall within the service boundary, namely all
addresses that textually match the civic address elements provided,
regardless of the value of other address elements. A location falls
within the mapping's service boundary if it matches any of the
<serviceBoundary> elements. Hence, a response may contain multiple
<serviceBoundary> elements with civic and/or geodetic location
profiles.
13. Errors, Warnings, and Redirects
When a LoST server cannot fulfill a request completely, it can return When a LoST server cannot fulfill a request completely, it can return
either an error or a warning, depending on the severity of the either an error or a warning, depending on the severity of the
problem. It returns an error element if no useful response can be problem. It returns an error element if no useful response can be
returned for the query. It returns a <warnings> element as part of returned for the query. It returns a <warnings> element as part of
another response element if it was able to respond in part, but the another response element if it was able to respond in part, but the
response may not be quite what the client had desired. This document response may not be quite what the client had desired. For both
does not define warnings. For both elements, the 'source' attribute elements, the 'source' attribute names the server that originally
names the server that originally generated the error or warning, such generated the error or warning, such as the authoritative server.
as the authoritative server. Unless otherwise noted, all elements Unless otherwise noted, all elements below can be either an error or
below can be either an error or a warning, depending on whether a a warning, depending on whether a default response, such as a
default response, such as a mapping, is included. mapping, is included.
12.1. Errors 13.1. Errors
LoST defines a pattern for errors, defined as <errors> elements in LoST defines a pattern for errors, defined as <errors> elements in
the Relax NG schema. This pattern defines a 'message' attribute the Relax NG schema. This pattern defines a 'message' attribute
containing human readable text and an 'xml:lang' attribute denoting containing human readable text and an 'xml:lang' attribute denoting
the language of the human readable text. One or more such error the language of the human readable text. One or more such error
elements are contained in the <errors> element. elements are contained in the <errors> element.
The following errors follow this basic pattern: The following errors follow this basic pattern:
badRequest badRequest
The server could not parse or otherwise understand a request, The server could not parse or otherwise understand a request,
e.g., because the XML was malformed. e.g., because the XML was malformed.
forbidden forbidden
The server refused to send an answer. This generally only occurs The server refused to send an answer. This generally only occurs
for recursive queries, namely if the client tried to contact the for recursive queries, namely if the client tried to contact the
authoritative server and was refused. (For HTTP as the underlying authoritative server and was refused.
protocol, an HTTP 401 error would be returned.)
internalError internalError
The server could not satisfy a request due to misconfiguration or The server could not satisfy a request due to misconfiguration or
other operational and non-protocol related reasons. other operational and non-protocol related reasons.
locationProfileUnrecognized locationProfileUnrecognized
None of the profiles in the request were recognized by the server None of the profiles in the request were recognized by the server
(see Section 11). (see Section 12).
locationInvalid
The geodetic or civic location in the request was invalid. For
example, the longitude or latitude values fall outside the
acceptable ranges.
SRSInvalid
The spatial reference system (SRS) contained in the location
element was not recognized or does not match the location profile.
loop loop
During a recursive query, the server was about to visit a server During a recursive query, the server was about to visit a server
that was already in the server list in the <path> element, that was already in the server list in the <path> element,
indicating a request loop. indicating a request loop.
notFound notFound
The server could not find an answer to the query. The server could not find an answer to the query.
skipping to change at page 36, line 40 skipping to change at page 39, line 13
An example is below: An example is below:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<errors xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" <errors xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
source="resolver.example"> source="resolver.example">
<internalError message="Software bug." xml:lang="en"/> <internalError message="Software bug." xml:lang="en"/>
</errors> </errors>
Figure 18: Example of an error resonse Figure 18: Example of an error resonse
12.2. Warnings 13.2. Warnings
A response MAY contain zero or more warnings. This pattern defines a A response MAY contain zero or more warnings. This pattern defines a
'message' attribute containing human readable text and an 'xml:lang' 'message' attribute containing human readable text and an 'xml:lang'
attribute denoting the language of the human readable text. One or attribute denoting the language of the human readable text. One or
more such warning elements are contained in the <warnings> element. more such warning elements are contained in the <warnings> element.
To provide human readable text in an appropriate language the HTTP
content negotiation capabilities (see Section 14) MAY be utilized by
a server.
This version of the specification does not define any warning This version of the specification defines the following warnings:
elements.
12.3. Redirects locationValidationUnavailable
The <locationValidationUnavailable> element MAY be returned when a
server wishes to notify a client that it cannot fulfill a location
validation request. This warning allows a server to return
mapping information while signalling this exception state.
serviceSubstitution
The <serviceSubstitution> element MAY be returned when a server
was not able to fulfill a <findService> request for a given
service URN. For example, a <findService> request with the
'urn:service:sos.police' service URN for a location in Uruguay may
cause the LoST service to return a mapping for the
'urn:service:sos' service URN since Uruguay does not make use of
the sub-services police, fire and ambulance. If this warning is
returned then the <service> element in the response provides
information about the service URN that refers to the mapping.
defaultMappingReturned
The <defaultMappingReturned> element MAY be returned when a server
was not able to fulfill a <findService> request for a given
location but is able to respond with a default URI. For example,
a nearby PSAP may be returned.
An example of a warning is shown below:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<findServiceResponse xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
xmlns:p2="http://www.opengis.net/">
<mapping
expires="2007-01-01T01:44:33Z"
lastUpdated="2006-11-01T01:00:00Z"
source="authoritative.example"
sourceId="fb8ed888433343b7b27865aeb38f3a99">
<displayName xml:lang="en">
New York City Police Department
</displayName>
<service>urn:service:sos.police</service>
<serviceBoundary profile="geodetic-2d">
<p2:Polygon srsName="urn:ogc:def::crs:EPSG::4326">
<p2:exterior>
<p2:LinearRing>
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos>
<p2:pos>37.555 -122.4194</p2:pos>
<p2:pos>37.555 -122.4264</p2:pos>
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4264</p2:pos>
<p2:pos>37.775 -122.4194</p2:pos>
</p2:LinearRing>
</p2:exterior>
</p2:Polygon>
</serviceBoundary>
<uri>sip:nypd@example.com</uri>
</mapping>
<warnings source="authoritative.example">
<defaultMappingReturned
message="Unable to determine PSAP for the given location;
using default PSAP"
xml:lang="en"/>
</warnings>
<path>
<via source="resolver.example"/>
<via source="authoritative.example"/>
</path>
</findServiceResponse>
Figure 19: Example of an warning resonse
13.3. Redirects
A LoST server can respond indicating that the querier should redirect A LoST server can respond indicating that the querier should redirect
the query to another server, using the <redirect> element. The the query to another server, using the <redirect> element. The
element includes a 'target' attribute indicating the LoST application element includes a 'target' attribute indicating the LoST application
unique string (see Section 4) that the client SHOULD be contacting unique string (see Section 4) that the client SHOULD be contacting
next, as well as the 'source' attribute indicating the server that next, as well as the 'source' attribute indicating the server that
generated the redirect response and a 'message' attribute explaining generated the redirect response and a 'message' attribute explaining
the reason for the redirect response. During a recursive query, a the reason for the redirect response. During a recursive query, a
server receiving a <redirect> response can decide whether it wants to server receiving a <redirect> response can decide whether it wants to
follow the redirection or simply return the response to its upstream follow the redirection or simply return the response to its upstream
querier. querier.
An example is below: An example is below:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<redirect xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" <redirect xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
target="eastpsap.example" target="eastpsap.example"
source="westpsap.example" source="westpsap.example"
message="We have temporarily failed over." xml:lang="en"/> message="We have temporarily failed over." xml:lang="en"/>
Figure 19: Example of a redirect resonse Figure 20: Example of a redirect response
13. LoST Transport 14. LoST Transport: HTTP
LoST needs an underlying protocol transport mechanisms to carry LoST needs an underlying protocol transport mechanisms to carry
requests and responses. This document defines the use of LoST over requests and responses. This document defines the use of LoST over
HTTP and LoST over HTTP-over-TLS; other mechanisms are left to future HTTP and LoST over HTTP-over-TLS; other mechanisms are left to future
documents. The available transport mechanisms are determined through documents. The available transport mechanisms are determined through
the use of the LoST U-NAPTR application. In protocols that support the use of the LoST U-NAPTR application. In protocols that support
content type indication, LoST uses the media type application/ content type indication, LoST uses the media type application/
lost+xml. lost+xml.
When using HTTP [3] and HTTP-over-TLS [4], LoST requests use the HTTP When using HTTP [3] and HTTP-over-TLS [4], LoST requests use the HTTP
POST method. All HTTP responses are applicable. The HTTP URL is POST method. The HTTP request MUST use the Cache-Control response
derived from the LoST server name via U-NAPTR application, as directive "no-cache" to HTTP-level "caching even by caches that have
discussed above been configured to return stale responses to client requests."
14. Relax NG Schema All LoST responses, including those indicating a LoST warning or
error, are carried in 2xx responses, typically 200 (OK). Other 2xx
responses, in particular 203 (Non-authoritative information) may be
returned by HTTP caches that disregard the caching instructions. 3xx,
4xx and 5xx HTTP response codes indicates that the HTTP request
itself failed or was redirected; these responses do not contain any
LoST XML elements.
The HTTP URL is derived from the LoST server name via U-NAPTR
application, as discussed above.
15. Relax NG Schema
This section provides the Relax NG schema used by LoST protocol in This section provides the Relax NG schema used by LoST protocol in
the compact form. The verbose form is included in Appendix A. the compact form. The verbose form is included in Appendix A.
namespace a = "http://relaxng.org/ns/compatibility/annotations/1.0" namespace a = "http://relaxng.org/ns/compatibility/annotations/1.0"
default namespace ns1 = "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" default namespace ns1 = "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
## ##
## Location-to-Service Translation Protocol (LoST) ## Location-to-Service Translation Protocol (LoST)
## ##
skipping to change at page 41, line 5 skipping to change at page 45, line 5
div { div {
commonResponsePattern = warnings*, path, extensionPoint commonResponsePattern = warnings*, path, extensionPoint
} }
## ##
## Location Information ## Location Information
## ##
div { div {
locationInformation = locationInformation =
extensionPoint+, extensionPoint+,
attribute profile { xsd:NMTOKEN } attribute profile { xsd:NMTOKEN }?
} }
## ##
## Service Boundary ## Service Boundary
## ##
div { div {
serviceBoundary = element serviceBoundary { locationInformation }+ serviceBoundary = element serviceBoundary { locationInformation }+
} }
## ##
skipping to change at page 42, line 47 skipping to change at page 46, line 47
element invalid { qnameList }?, element invalid { qnameList }?,
element unchecked { qnameList }?, element unchecked { qnameList }?,
extensionPoint extensionPoint
} }
} }
## ##
## Errors and Warnings Container. ## Errors and Warnings Container.
## ##
div { div {
errorContainer = exceptionContainer =
(badRequest? (badRequest?
& internalError? & internalError?
& serviceSubstitution? & serviceSubstitution?
& defaultMappingReturned?
& forbidden? & forbidden?
& notFound? & notFound?
& loop? & loop?
& serviceNotImplemented? & serviceNotImplemented?
& serverTimeout? & serverTimeout?
& serverError? & serverError?
& locationInvalid?
& locationProfileUnrecognized?), & locationProfileUnrecognized?),
extensionPoint, extensionPoint,
source source
errors = element errors { errorContainer } errors = element errors { exceptionContainer }
warnings = element warnings { errorContainer } warnings = element warnings { exceptionContainer }
} }
## ##
## Basic Errors ## Basic Exceptions
## ##
div { div {
## ##
## Error pattern. ## Exception pattern.
## ##
basicError = message, extensionPoint basicException = message, extensionPoint
badRequest = element badRequest { basicError } badRequest = element badRequest { basicException }
internalError = element internalError { basicError } internalError = element internalError { basicException }
serviceSubstitution = element serviceSubstitution { basicError } serviceSubstitution = element serviceSubstitution { basicException }
forbidden = element forbidden { basicError } defaultMappingReturned =
notFound = element notFound { basicError } element defaultMappingReturned { basicException }
loop = element loop { basicError } forbidden = element forbidden { basicException }
serviceNotImplemented = element serviceNotImplemented { basicError } notFound = element notFound { basicException }
serverTimeout = element serverTimeout { basicError } loop = element loop { basicException }
serverError = element serverError { basicError } serviceNotImplemented =
element serviceNotImplemented { basicException }
serverTimeout = element serverTimeout { basicException }
serverError = element serverError { basicException }
locationInvalid = element locationInvalid { basicException }
locationValidationUnavailable =
element locationValidationUnavailable { basicException }
locationProfileUnrecognized = locationProfileUnrecognized =
element locationProfileUnrecognized { element locationProfileUnrecognized {
attribute unsupportedProfiles { xsd:NMTOKENS }, attribute unsupportedProfiles { xsd:NMTOKENS },
basicError basicException
} }
} }
## ##
## Redirect. ## Redirect.
## ##
div { div {
## ##
## Redirect pattern ## Redirect pattern
## ##
redirect = redirect =
element redirect { element redirect {
attribute target { appUniqueString }, attribute target { appUniqueString },
source, source,
message, message,
extensionPoint extensionPoint
} }
skipping to change at page 44, line 45 skipping to change at page 49, line 4
notLost = element * - (ns1:* | ns1:*) { anyElement } notLost = element * - (ns1:* | ns1:*) { anyElement }
## ##
## A wildcard pattern for including any element ## A wildcard pattern for including any element
## from any other namespace. ## from any other namespace.
## ##
anyElement = anyElement =
(element * { anyElement } (element * { anyElement }
| attribute * { text } | attribute * { text }
| text)* | text)*
## ##
## A point where future extensions ## A point where future extensions
## (elements from other namespaces) ## (elements from other namespaces)
## can be added. ## can be added.
## ##
extensionPoint = notLost* extensionPoint = notLost*
} }
Figure 20: RelaxNG schema Figure 21: RelaxNG schema
15. Internationalization Considerations 16. Internationalization Considerations
This mechanism is largely for passing protocol information from one The LoST protocol is mostly meant for machine-to-machine
subsystem to another; as such, most of its elements are tokens not communications; as such, most of its elements are tokens not meant
meant for direct human consumption. If these tokens are presented to for direct human consumption. If these tokens are presented to the
the end user, some localization may need to occur. The content of end user, some localization may need to occur. The content of the
the <displayName> element and the 'message' attributes may be <displayName> element and the 'message' attributes may be displayed
displayed to the end user, and they are thus a complex types designed to the end user, and they are thus complex types designed for this
for this purpose. purpose.
LoST exchanges information using XML. All XML processors are LoST exchanges information using XML. All XML processors are
required to understand UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings, and therefore all required to understand UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings, and therefore all
LoST clients and servers MUST understand UTF-8 and UTF-16 encoded LoST clients and servers MUST understand UTF-8 and UTF-16 encoded
XML. Additionally, LoST servers and clients MUST NOT encode XML with XML. Additionally, LoST servers and clients MUST NOT encode XML with
encodings other than UTF-8 or UTF-16. encodings other than UTF-8 or UTF-16.
16. IANA Considerations 17. IANA Considerations
16.1. U-NAPTR Registrations 17.1. U-NAPTR Registrations
This document registers the following U-NAPTR application service This document registers the following U-NAPTR application service
tag: tag:
Application Service Tag: LoST Application Service Tag: LoST
Defining Publication: The specification contained within this Defining Publication: The specification contained within this
document. document.
This document registers the following U-NAPTR application protocol This document registers the following U-NAPTR application protocol
skipping to change at page 47, line 32 skipping to change at page 51, line 32
Application Protocol Tag: http Application Protocol Tag: http
Defining Publication: RFC 2616 [3] Defining Publication: RFC 2616 [3]
o o
Application Protocol Tag: https Application Protocol Tag: https
Defining Publication: RFC 2818 [4] Defining Publication: RFC 2818 [4]
16.2. Content-type registration for 'application/lost+xml' 17.2. Content-type registration for 'application/lost+xml'
This specification requests the registration of a new MIME type This specification requests the registration of a new MIME type
according to the procedures of RFC 4288 [7] and guidelines in RFC according to the procedures of RFC 4288 [7] and guidelines in RFC
3023 [5]. 3023 [5].
MIME media type name: application MIME media type name: application
MIME subtype name: lost+xml MIME subtype name: lost+xml
Mandatory parameters: none Mandatory parameters: none
Optional parameters: charset Optional parameters: charset
Indicates the character encoding of enclosed XML. Indicates the character encoding of enclosed XML.
Encoding considerations: Encoding considerations: Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit
characters, depending on the character encoding used. See RFC
Uses XML, which can employ 8-bit characters, depending on the 3023 [5], Section 3.2.
character encoding used. See RFC 3023 [5], Section 3.2.
Security considerations:
This content type is designed to carry LoST protocol payloads. Security considerations: This content type is designed to carry LoST
protocol payloads.
Interoperability considerations: None Interoperability considerations: None
Published specification: RFCXXXX [NOTE TO IANA/RFC-EDITOR: Please Published specification: RFCXXXX [NOTE TO IANA/RFC-EDITOR: Please
replace XXXX with the RFC number of this specification.] this replace XXXX with the RFC number of this specification.]
document
Applications which use this media type:
Emergency and Location-based Systems Applications which use this media type: Emergency and Location-based
Systems
Additional information: Additional information:
Magic Number: None Magic Number: None
File Extension: .lostxml File Extension: .lostxml
Macintosh file type code: 'TEXT' Macintosh file type code: 'TEXT'
Personal and email address for further information: Hannes Personal and email address for further information: Hannes
Tschofenig, Hannes.Tschofenig@siemens.com Tschofenig, Hannes.Tschofenig@nsn.com
Intended usage: LIMITED USE Intended usage: LIMITED USE
Author: Author:
This specification is a work item of the IETF ECRIT working group, This specification is a work item of the IETF ECRIT working group,
with mailing list address <ecrit@ietf.org>. with mailing list address <ecrit@ietf.org>.
Change controller: Change controller:
The IESG <iesg@ietf.org> The IESG <iesg@ietf.org>
16.3. LoST Relax NG Schema Registration 17.3. LoST Relax NG Schema Registration
URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1 URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1
Registrant Contact: IETF ECRIT Working Group, Hannes Tschofenig Registrant Contact: IETF ECRIT Working Group, Hannes Tschofenig
(Hannes.Tschofenig@siemens.com). (Hannes.Tschofenig@nsn.com).
Relax NG Schema: The Relax NG schema to be registered is contained Relax NG Schema: The Relax NG schema to be registered is contained
in Section 14. Its first line is in Section 15. Its first line is
default namespace = "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" default namespace = "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
and its last line is and its last line is
} }
16.4. LoST Namespace Registration 17.4. LoST Namespace Registration
URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1 URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1
Registrant Contact: IETF ECRIT Working Group, Hannes Tschofenig Registrant Contact: IETF ECRIT Working Group, Hannes Tschofenig
(Hannes.Tschofenig@siemens.com). (Hannes.Tschofenig@nsn.com).
XML: XML:
BEGIN BEGIN
<?xml version="1.0"?> <?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN" <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd"> "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head> <head>
<meta http-equiv="content-type" <meta http-equiv="content-type"
skipping to change at page 50, line 6 skipping to change at page 54, line 6
<h1>Namespace for LoST</h1> <h1>Namespace for LoST</h1>
<h2>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1</h2> <h2>urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1</h2>
<p>See <a href="[URL of published RFC]">RFCXXXX <p>See <a href="[URL of published RFC]">RFCXXXX
[NOTE TO IANA/RFC-EDITOR: [NOTE TO IANA/RFC-EDITOR:
Please replace XXXX with the RFC number of this Please replace XXXX with the RFC number of this
specification.]</a>.</p> specification.]</a>.</p>
</body> </body>
</html> </html>
END END
16.5. LoST Location Profile Registry 17.5. LoST Location Profile Registry
This document seeks to create a registry of location profile names This document seeks to create a registry of location profile names
for the LoST protocol. Profile names are XML tokens. This registry for the LoST protocol. Profile names are XML tokens. This registry
will operate in accordance with RFC 2434 [2], Standards Action. will operate in accordance with RFC 2434 [2], Standards Action.
geodetic-2d: geodetic-2d:
Defined in Section 11.2 Defined in Section 12.2.
civic: civic:
Defined in Section 11.3 Defined in Section 12.3.
17. Security Considerations 18. Security Considerations
There are multiple threats to the overall system of which service There are several threats to the overall system of which service
mapping forms a part. An attacker that can obtain service contact mapping forms a part. An attacker that can obtain service contact
URIs can use those URIs to attempt to disrupt those services. An URIs can use those URIs to attempt to disrupt those services. An
attacker that can prevent the lookup of contact URIs can impair the attacker that can prevent the lookup of contact URIs can impair the
reachability of such services. An attacker that can eavesdrop on the reachability of such services. An attacker that can eavesdrop on the
communication requesting this lookup can surmise the existence of an communication requesting this lookup can surmise the existence of an
emergency and possibly its nature, and may be able to use this to emergency and possibly its nature, and may be able to use this to
launch a physical attack on the caller. launch a physical attack on the caller.
To avoid that an attacker can modify the query or its result, the use To avoid that an attacker can modify the query or its result, the use
of channel security, such as TLS, is RECOMMENDED. of channel security, such as TLS, is RECOMMENDED.
Generally, authentication and authorization is not required for Generally, authentication and authorization is not required for
mapping queries. If it is, authentication mechanism of the mapping queries. If it is, authentication mechanism of the
underlying transport mechanism, such as HTTP basic and digest underlying transport mechanism, such as HTTP basic and digest
authentication, MAY be used. (Basic authentication SHOULD only be authentication, MAY be used. (Basic authentication SHOULD only be
used in combination with TLS.) used in combination with TLS.)
A more detailed description of threats and security requirements are A more detailed description of threats and security requirements are
provided in [17]. provided in [17].
18. Acknowledgments 19. Acknowledgments
We would like to the thank the following working group members for We would like to the thank the following working group members for
the detailed review of previous LoST document versions: the detailed review of previous LoST document versions:
o Martin Thomson (Review July 2006) o Martin Thomson (Review July 2006)
o Jonathan Rosenberg (Review July 2006) o Jonathan Rosenberg (Review July 2006)
o Leslie Daigle (Review September 2006) o Leslie Daigle (Review September 2006)
skipping to change at page 52, line 35 skipping to change at page 56, line 35
reviewer) reviewer)
o Jonathan Rosenberg (Review February 2007) o Jonathan Rosenberg (Review February 2007)
o Tom Taylor (Review February 2007) o Tom Taylor (Review February 2007)
o Theresa Reese (Review February 2007) o Theresa Reese (Review February 2007)
o Shida Schubert (Review February 2007) o Shida Schubert (Review February 2007)
o James Winterbottom (Review July 2007)
We would also like to thank the following working group members for We would also like to thank the following working group members for
their input to selected design aspects of the LoST protocol: their input to selected design aspects of the LoST protocol:
o Leslie Daigle and Martin Thomson (DNS-based LoST discovery o Leslie Daigle and Martin Thomson (DNS-based LoST discovery
procedure) procedure)
o John Schnizlein (authoritive LoST answers) o John Schnizlein (authoritive LoST answers)
o Rohan Mahy (display names) o Rohan Mahy (display names)
skipping to change at page 54, line 5 skipping to change at page 57, line 36
URN) URN)
o Otmar Lendl (LoST aggregation) o Otmar Lendl (LoST aggregation)
o Tom Taylor (Terminology) o Tom Taylor (Terminology)
Klaus Darilion and Marc Linsner provided miscellaneous input to the Klaus Darilion and Marc Linsner provided miscellaneous input to the
design of the protocol. Finally, we would like to thank Brian Rosen design of the protocol. Finally, we would like to thank Brian Rosen
who participated in almost every discussion thread. who participated in almost every discussion thread.
19. Open Issues Early implementation efforts lead to good feedback by two open source
implementation groups. We would like to thank the implementers for
their work and for helping us to improve the quality of the
specification:
Please find open issues at: http://www.ietf-ecrit.org:8080/lost/ o Wonsang Song
o Jong-Yul Kim
o Anna Makarowska
o Krzysztof Rzecki
o Blaszczyk Piotr
20. References 20. References
20.1. Normative References 20.1. Normative References
[1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[2] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA [2] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA
Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434,
skipping to change at page 55, line 31 skipping to change at page 58, line 31
[5] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media Types", [5] Murata, M., St. Laurent, S., and D. Kohn, "XML Media Types",
RFC 3023, January 2001. RFC 3023, January 2001.
[6] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object [6] Peterson, J., "A Presence-based GEOPRIV Location Object
Format", RFC 4119, December 2005. Format", RFC 4119, December 2005.
[7] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and [7] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005. Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005.
[8] Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and [8] Daigle, L., "Domain-Based Application Service Location Using
Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes", BCP 115, URIs and the Dynamic Delegation Discovery Service (DDDS)",
RFC 4395, February 2006. RFC 4848, April 2007.
[9] Schulzrinne, H., "A Uniform Resource Name (URN) for Services", [9] Schulzrinne, H., "A Uniform Resource Name (URN) for Services",
draft-ietf-ecrit-service-urn-05 (work in progress), draft-ietf-ecrit-service-urn-06 (work in progress), March 2007.
August 2006.
[10] Thomson, M. and J. Winterbottom, "Revised Civic Location Format [10] Thomson, M. and J. Winterbottom, "Revised Civic Location Format
for PIDF-LO", draft-ietf-geopriv-revised-civic-lo-05 (work in for PIDF-LO", draft-ietf-geopriv-revised-civic-lo-05 (work in
progress), February 2007. progress), February 2007.
[11] Daigle, L., "Domain-based Application Service Location Using [11] Cox, S., Daisey, P., Lake, R., Portele, C., and A. Whiteside,
URIs and the Dynamic Delegation Discovery Service (DDDS)",
draft-daigle-unaptr-02 (work in progress), February 2007.
[12] Cox, S., Daisey, P., Lake, R., Portele, C., and A. Whiteside,
"Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML)", OGC "Geographic information - Geography Markup Language (GML)", OGC
Standard OpenGIS 03-105r1, April 2004. Standard OpenGIS 03-105r1, April 2004.
[13] Reed, C. and M. Thomson, "GML 3.1.1 PIDF-LO Shape Application [12] Reed, C. and M. Thomson, "GML 3.1.1 PIDF-LO Shape Application
Schema for use by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)", Schema for use by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)",
Candidate OpenGIS Implementation Specification , December 2006. Candidate OpenGIS Implementation Specification , December 2006.
20.2. Informative References 20.2. Informative References
[13] Tschofenig, H., "GEOPRIV PIDF-LO Usage Clarification,
Considerations and Recommendations",
draft-ietf-geopriv-pdif-lo-profile-08 (work in progress),
July 2007.
[14] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A., [14] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A.,
Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP: Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP:
Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002. Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002.
[15] Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "Extensible Messaging and Presence [15] Saint-Andre, P., Ed., "Extensible Messaging and Presence
Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and Presence", RFC 3921, Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and Presence", RFC 3921,
October 2004. October 2004.
[16] Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for Telephone Numbers", RFC 3966, [16] Schulzrinne, H., "The tel URI for Telephone Numbers", RFC 3966,
December 2004. December 2004.
[17] Taylor, T., "Security Threats and Requirements for Emergency [17] Taylor, T., "Security Threats and Requirements for Emergency
Call Marking and Mapping", draft-ietf-ecrit-security-threats-03 Call Marking and Mapping", draft-ietf-ecrit-security-threats-04
(work in progress), July 2006. (work in progress), April 2007.
[18] Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, "Requirements for Emergency [18] Schulzrinne, H. and R. Marshall, "Requirements for Emergency
Context Resolution with Internet Technologies", Context Resolution with Internet Technologies",
draft-ietf-ecrit-requirements-12 (work in progress), draft-ietf-ecrit-requirements-13 (work in progress),
August 2006. March 2007.
[19] Schulzrinne, H., "Location-to-URL Mapping Architecture and [19] Schulzrinne, H., "Location-to-URL Mapping Architecture and
Framework", draft-ietf-ecrit-mapping-arch-01 (work in Framework", draft-ietf-ecrit-mapping-arch-02 (work in
progress), December 2006. progress), July 2007.
[20] Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for [20] Rosen, B. and J. Polk, "Best Current Practice for
Communications Services in support of Emergency Calling", Communications Services in support of Emergency Calling",
draft-ietf-ecrit-phonebcp-00 (work in progress), October 2006. draft-ietf-ecrit-phonebcp-01 (work in progress), March 2007.
Appendix A. Non-Normative RELAX NG Schema in XML Syntax Appendix A. Non-Normative RELAX NG Schema in XML Syntax
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<grammar ns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1" <grammar ns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:lost1"
xmlns="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0" xmlns="http://relaxng.org/ns/structure/1.0"
xmlns:a="http://relaxng.org/ns/compatibility/annotations/1.0" xmlns:a="http://relaxng.org/ns/compatibility/annotations/1.0"
datatypeLibrary="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-datatypes"> datatypeLibrary="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-datatypes">
<start> <start>
<a:documentation> <a:documentation>
Location-to-Service Translation Protocol (LoST) Location-to-Service Translation Protocol (LoST)
A LoST XML instance has three request types, each with A LoST XML instance has three request types, each with
a cooresponding response type: find service, list services, a cooresponding response type: find service, list services,
and get service boundary. and get service boundary.
</a:documentation> </a:documentation>
<choice> <choice>
<ref name="findService" /> <ref name="findService" />
<ref name="listServices" /> <ref name="listServices" />
<ref name="listServicesByLocation" /> <ref name="listServicesByLocation" />
<ref name="getServiceBoundary" /> <ref name="getServiceBoundary" />
<ref name="findServiceResponse" /> <ref name="findServiceResponse" />
skipping to change at page 60, line 36 skipping to change at page 63, line 40
<div> <div>
<a:documentation> <a:documentation>
Location Information Location Information
</a:documentation> </a:documentation>
<define name="locationInformation"> <define name="locationInformation">
<oneOrMore> <oneOrMore>
<ref name="extensionPoint"/> <ref name="extensionPoint"/>
</oneOrMore> </oneOrMore>
<optional>
<attribute name="profile"> <attribute name="profile">
<data type="NMTOKEN" /> <data type="NMTOKEN" />
</attribute> </attribute>
</optional>
</define> </define>
</div> </div>
<div> <div>
<a:documentation> <a:documentation>
Service Boundary Service Boundary
</a:documentation> </a:documentation>
<define name="serviceBoundary"> <define name="serviceBoundary">
<oneOrMore> <oneOrMore>
<element name="serviceBoundary"> <element name="serviceBoundary">
<ref name="locationInformation" /> <ref name="locationInformation" />
</element> </element>
</oneOrMore> </oneOrMore>
</define> </define>
</div> </div>
<div> <div>
skipping to change at page 64, line 16 skipping to change at page 67, line 21
<ref name="extensionPoint"/> <ref name="extensionPoint"/>
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
</div> </div>
<div> <div>
<a:documentation> <a:documentation>
Errors and Warnings Container. Errors and Warnings Container.
</a:documentation> </a:documentation>
<define name="errorContainer"> <define name="exceptionContainer">
<interleave> <interleave>
<optional> <optional>
<ref name="badRequest" /> <ref name="badRequest" />
</optional> </optional>
<optional> <optional>
<ref name="internalError" /> <ref name="internalError" />
</optional> </optional>
<optional> <optional>
<ref name="serviceSubstitution" /> <ref name="serviceSubstitution" />
</optional> </optional>
skipping to change at page 64, line 46 skipping to change at page 67, line 51
<optional> <optional>
<ref name="serviceNotImplemented" /> <ref name="serviceNotImplemented" />
</optional> </optional>
<optional> <optional>
<ref name="serverTimeout" /> <ref name="serverTimeout" />
</optional> </optional>
<optional> <optional>
<ref name="serverError" /> <ref name="serverError" />
</optional> </optional>
<optional> <optional>
<ref name="locationInvalid" />
</optional>
<optional>
<ref name="locationProfileUnrecognized" /> <ref name="locationProfileUnrecognized" />
</optional> </optional>
</interleave> </interleave>
<ref name="extensionPoint" /> <ref name="extensionPoint" />
<ref name="source" /> <ref name="source" />
</define> </define>
<define name="errors"> <define name="errors">
<element name="errors"> <element name="errors">
<ref name="errorContainer" /> <ref name="exceptionContainer" />
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="warnings"> <define name="warnings">
<element name="warnings"> <element name="warnings">
<ref name="errorContainer" /> <ref name="exceptionContainer" />
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
</div> </div>
<div> <div>
<a:documentation> <a:documentation>
Basic Errors Basic Exceptions
</a:documentation> </a:documentation>
<define name="basicError"> <define name="basicException">
<a:documentation> <a:documentation>
Error pattern. Exception pattern.
</a:documentation> </a:documentation>
<ref name="message"/> <ref name="message"/>
<ref name="extensionPoint" /> <ref name="extensionPoint" />
</define> </define>
<define name="badRequest"> <define name="badRequest">
<element name="badRequest"> <element name="badRequest">
<ref name="basicError"/> <ref name="basicException"/>
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="internalError"> <define name="internalError">
<element name="internalError"> <element name="internalError">
<ref name="basicError"/> <ref name="basicException"/>
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="serviceSubstitution"> <define name="serviceSubstitution">
<element name="serviceSubstitution"> <element name="serviceSubstitution">
<ref name="basicError"/> <ref name="basicException"/>
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="forbidden"> <define name="forbidden">
<element name="forbidden"> <element name="forbidden">
<ref name="basicError"/> <ref name="basicException"/>
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="notFound"> <define name="notFound">
<element name="notFound"> <element name="notFound">
<ref name="basicError"/> <ref name="basicException"/>
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="loop"> <define name="loop">
<element name="loop"> <element name="loop">
<ref name="basicError" /> <ref name="basicException" />
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="serviceNotImplemented"> <define name="serviceNotImplemented">
<element name="serviceNotImplemented"> <element name="serviceNotImplemented">
<ref name="basicError"/> <ref name="basicException"/>
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="serverTimeout"> <define name="serverTimeout">
<element name="serverTimeout"> <element name="serverTimeout">
<ref name="basicError"/> <ref name="basicException"/>
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="serverError"> <define name="serverError">
<element name="serverError"> <element name="serverError">
<ref name="basicError"/> <ref name="basicException"/>
</element>
</define>
<define name="locationInvalid">
<element name="locationInvalid">
<ref name="basicException"/>
</element>
</define>
<define name="locationValidationUnavailable">
<element name="locationValidationUnavailable">
<ref name="basicException" />
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
<define name="locationProfileUnrecognized"> <define name="locationProfileUnrecognized">
<element name="locationProfileUnrecognized"> <element name="locationProfileUnrecognized">
<attribute name="unsupportedProfiles"> <attribute name="unsupportedProfiles">
<data type="NMTOKENS" /> <data type="NMTOKENS" />
</attribute> </attribute>
<ref name="basicError"/> <ref name="basicException"/>
</element> </element>
</define> </define>
</div> </div>
<div> <div>
<a:documentation> <a:documentation>
Redirect. Redirect.
</a:documentation> </a:documentation>
<define name="redirect"> <define name="redirect">
<a:documentation> <a:documentation>
Redirect pattern Redirect pattern
</a:documentation> </a:documentation>
<element name="redirect"> <element name="redirect">
<attribute name="target"> <attribute name="target">
<ref name="appUniqueString" /> <ref name="appUniqueString" />
</attribute> </attribute>
<ref name="source" /> <ref name="source" />
<ref name="message" /> <ref name="message" />
skipping to change at page 69, line 29 skipping to change at page 73, line 4
can be added. can be added.
</a:documentation> </a:documentation>
<zeroOrMore> <zeroOrMore>
<ref name="notLost" /> <ref name="notLost" />
</zeroOrMore> </zeroOrMore>
</define> </define>
</div> </div>
</grammar> </grammar>
Figure 25
Figure 24
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Ted Hardie Ted Hardie
Qualcomm, Inc. Qualcomm, Inc.
Email: hardie@qualcomm.com Email: hardie@qualcomm.com
Andrew Newton Andrew Newton
SunRocket TranTech, Inc.
8045 Leesburg Pike, Suite 300 4900 Seminary Road, Suite 215
Vienna, VA 22182 Alexandria, VA 22311
US US
Phone: +1 703 636 0852 Phone: +1 703 671 9873
Email: andy@hxr.us Email: andy@hxr.us
Henning Schulzrinne Henning Schulzrinne
Columbia University Columbia University
Department of Computer Science Department of Computer Science
450 Computer Science Building 450 Computer Science Building
New York, NY 10027 New York, NY 10027
US US
Phone: +1 212 939 7004 Phone: +1 212 939 7004
Email: hgs+ecrit@cs.columbia.edu Email: hgs+ecrit@cs.columbia.edu
URI: http://www.cs.columbia.edu URI: http://www.cs.columbia.edu
Hannes Tschofenig Hannes Tschofenig
Siemens Networks GmbH & Co KG Nokia Siemens Networks
Otto-Hahn-Ring 6 Otto-Hahn-Ring 6
Munich, Bavaria 81739 Munich, Bavaria 81739
Germany Germany
Phone: +49 89 636 40390 Phone: +49 89 636 40390
Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@siemens.com Email: Hannes.Tschofenig@nsn.com
URI: http://www.tschofenig.com URI: http://www.tschofenig.com
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights. retain all their rights.
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