draft-ietf-forces-mib-02.txt   draft-ietf-forces-mib-03.txt 
Forwarding and Control Element R. Haas Forwarding and Control Element R. Haas
Separation (forces) IBM Separation (forces) IBM
Expires: October 3, 2006 Expires: January 5, 2007
ForCES MIB ForCES MIB
draft-ietf-forces-mib-02 draft-ietf-forces-mib-03
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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This Internet-Draft will expire on October 3, 2006. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 5, 2007.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006). Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
Abstract Abstract
This memo defines a Management Information Base (MIB) for use with This memo defines a Management Information Base (MIB) for use with
network management protocols in the Internet community. In network management protocols in the Internet community. In
particular, it defines a MIB for the Forwarding and Control Element particular, it defines a MIB for the Forwarding and Control Element
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is defining a protocol to allow a Control Element (CE) to control the is defining a protocol to allow a Control Element (CE) to control the
behavior of a Forwarding Element (FE). behavior of a Forwarding Element (FE).
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Requirements notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Design of the ForCES MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Design of the ForCES MIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4. Association State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. Association State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
5. ForCES MIB Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5. ForCES MIB Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8. Changes from Previous Draft Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8. Changes from Previous Draft Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Appendix A. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Appendix A. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 13 Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 14
1. Requirements notation 1. Requirements notation
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
2. Introduction 2. Introduction
The ForCES MIB is a primarily read-only MIB that captures information The ForCES MIB is a primarily read-only MIB that captures information
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by the CE since the association is UP. by the CE since the association is UP.
o Number of other ForCES messages sent from the CE and received by o Number of other ForCES messages sent from the CE and received by
the CE since the association is UP. Only messages other than the CE since the association is UP. Only messages other than
Heartbeat, Association Setup, Association Setup Response, and Heartbeat, Association Setup, Association Setup Response, and
Association Teardown are counted. Association Teardown are counted.
Finally, the MIB defines the following notifications: Finally, the MIB defines the following notifications:
o Whenever an association enters the UP state, a notification is o Whenever an association enters the UP state, a notification is
issued containing the CE and FE IDs. issued containing the version of the ForCES protocol running.
Note that as CE ID and FE ID are indexes, they appear in the OID
of the ForCES-protocol running-version object.
o Whenever an association leaves the UP state, a notification is o Whenever an association leaves the UP state, a notification is
issued containing the CE and FE IDs as well as all other issued containing all associated information for this association.
associated information for this association. The reason is that The reason is that the association and all its associated
the association and all its associated information will be removed information will be removed from the MIB immediately after this
from the MIB immediately after this notification has been issued. notification has been issued.
FORCES-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN FORCES-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN
IMPORTS IMPORTS
MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE, NOTIFICATION-TYPE, MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE, NOTIFICATION-TYPE,
Counter32 Counter32
FROM SNMPv2-SMI FROM SNMPv2-SMI
TEXTUAL-CONVENTION, TimeStamp TEXTUAL-CONVENTION, TimeStamp
FROM SNMPv2-TC; FROM SNMPv2-TC
forcesMIB MODULE-IDENTITY MODULE-COMPLIANCE, OBJECT-GROUP,
LAST-UPDATED "200606261200Z" -- Jun 26, 2006 NOTIFICATION-GROUP
FROM SNMPv2-CONF;
forcesMib MODULE-IDENTITY
LAST-UPDATED "200607041200Z" -- Jul 4, 2006
ORGANIZATION "Forwarding and Control Element Separation ORGANIZATION "Forwarding and Control Element Separation
(ForCES) Working Group" (ForCES) Working Group"
CONTACT-INFO CONTACT-INFO
"Robert Haas (rha@zurich.ibm.com), IBM" "Robert Haas (rha@zurich.ibm.com), IBM"
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"Initial version, published as RFC yyyy. This MIB "This MIB contains managed object definitions for the
contains managed object definitions for the ForCES ForCES Protocol."
Protocol." REVISION "200607041200Z" -- Jul 4, 2006
DESCRIPTION
"Initial version, published as RFC yyyy."
-- RFC Ed.: replace yyyy with actual RFC number & remove this note -- RFC Ed.: replace yyyy with actual RFC number & remove this note
::= { mib-2 XXX } ::= { mib-2 XXX }
-- RFC Ed.: replace XXX with IANA-assigned number & remove this note -- RFC Ed.: replace XXX with IANA-assigned number & remove this note
--**************************************************************** --****************************************************************
forcesMibNotifications OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { forcesMib 0 }
forcesMibObjects OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { forcesMib 1 }
forcesMibConformance OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { forcesMib 2 }
ForcesID ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION ForcesID ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"The ForCES identifier is a four octet quantity." "The ForCES identifier is a four octet quantity."
SYNTAX OCTET STRING (SIZE (4)) SYNTAX OCTET STRING (SIZE (4))
ForcesProtocolVersion ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION ForcesProtocolVersion ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"ForCES protocol version number." "ForCES protocol version number."
SYNTAX INTEGER (1..255) SYNTAX INTEGER (1..255)
-- Notifications
forcesAssociationEntryUp NOTIFICATION-TYPE
OBJECTS {
forcesAssociationRunningProtocolVersion
}
STATUS current
DESCRIPTION
"This notification is generated when a
forcesAssociationEntry object is created."
::= { forcesMibNotifications 1 }
forcesAssociationEntryDown NOTIFICATION-TYPE
OBJECTS {
forcesAssociationRunningProtocolVersion,
forcesAssociationTimeUp,
forcesAssociationTimeDown,
forcesAssociationHBMsgSent,
forcesAssociationHBMsgReceived,
forcesAssociationOtherMsgSent,
forcesAssociationOtherMsgReceived }
STATUS current
DESCRIPTION
"This notification is generated when a
forcesAssociationEntry object is destroyed."
::= { forcesMibNotifications 2 }
-- Objects
forcesLatestProtocolVersionSupported OBJECT-TYPE forcesLatestProtocolVersionSupported OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX ForcesProtocolVersion SYNTAX ForcesProtocolVersion
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"The ForCES protocol version supported by the CE. "The ForCES protocol version supported by the CE.
The current protocol version is 1. The current protocol version is 1.
Note that the CE must also allow interaction Note that the CE must also allow interaction
with FEs supporting earlier versions." with FEs supporting earlier versions."
::= { forcesMIB 1 } ::= { forcesMibObjects 1 }
forcesAssociations OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { forcesMIB 2 } forcesAssociations OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { forcesMibObjects 2 }
forcesAssociationTable OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationTable OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX SEQUENCE OF ForcesAssociationEntry SYNTAX SEQUENCE OF ForcesAssociationEntry
MAX-ACCESS not-accessible MAX-ACCESS not-accessible
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"The (conceptual) table of associations." "The (conceptual) table of associations."
::= { forcesAssociations 1 } ::= { forcesAssociations 1 }
forcesAssociationEntry OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationEntry OBJECT-TYPE
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forcesAssociationTimeUp TimeStamp, forcesAssociationTimeUp TimeStamp,
forcesAssociationTimeDown TimeStamp, forcesAssociationTimeDown TimeStamp,
forcesAssociationHBMsgSent Counter32, forcesAssociationHBMsgSent Counter32,
forcesAssociationHBMsgReceived Counter32, forcesAssociationHBMsgReceived Counter32,
forcesAssociationOtherMsgSent Counter32, forcesAssociationOtherMsgSent Counter32,
forcesAssociationOtherMsgReceived Counter32 } forcesAssociationOtherMsgReceived Counter32 }
forcesAssociationCEID OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationCEID OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX ForcesID SYNTAX ForcesID
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS not-accessible
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"The ForCES ID of the CE." "The ForCES ID of the CE."
::= { forcesAssociationEntry 1 } ::= { forcesAssociationEntry 2 }
forcesAssociationFEID OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationFEID OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX ForcesID SYNTAX ForcesID
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS not-accessible
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"The ForCES ID of the FE." "The ForCES ID of the FE."
::= { forcesAssociationEntry 2 } ::= { forcesAssociationEntry 3 }
forcesAssociationRunningProtocolVersion OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationRunningProtocolVersion OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX ForcesProtocolVersion SYNTAX ForcesProtocolVersion
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"The current ForCES protocol version used in this "The current ForCES protocol version used in this
association. association.
The current protocol version is 1." The current protocol version is 1."
::= { forcesAssociationEntry 3 } ::= { forcesAssociationEntry 4 }
forcesAssociationTimeUp OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationTimeUp OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX TimeStamp SYNTAX TimeStamp
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"The value of sysUpTime at the time this "The value of sysUpTime at the time this
association entered the UP state. association entered the UP state.
If this association started prior to the last If this association started prior to the last
initialization of the network subsystem, then initialization of the network subsystem, then
this object contains a zero value." this object contains a zero value."
::= { forcesAssociationEntry 4 } ::= { forcesAssociationEntry 5 }
forcesAssociationTimeDown OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationTimeDown OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX TimeStamp SYNTAX TimeStamp
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"The value of sysUpTime at the time this "The value of sysUpTime at the time this
association left the UP state." association left the UP state."
::= { forcesAssociationEntry 5 } ::= { forcesAssociationEntry 6 }
forcesAssociationHBMsgSent OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationHBMsgSent OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX Counter32 SYNTAX Counter32
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"A counter of how many heartbeat messages have "A counter of how many heartbeat messages have
have been sent by the CE on this association have been sent by the CE on this association
since it is up. since it is up.
If this association started prior to the last If this association started prior to the last
initialization of the network subsystem, then initialization of the network subsystem, then
this object contains the value since the this object contains the value since the
initialization." initialization."
::= { forcesAssociationEntry 6} ::= { forcesAssociationEntry 7}
forcesAssociationHBMsgReceived OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationHBMsgReceived OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX Counter32 SYNTAX Counter32
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"A counter of how many heartbeat messages "A counter of how many heartbeat messages
have been received by the CE on this association have been received by the CE on this association
since it is up. since it is up.
If this association started prior to the last If this association started prior to the last
initialization of the network subsystem, then initialization of the network subsystem, then
this object contains the value since the this object contains the value since the
initialization." initialization."
::= { forcesAssociationEntry 7} ::= { forcesAssociationEntry 8}
forcesAssociationOtherMsgSent OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationOtherMsgSent OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX Counter32 SYNTAX Counter32
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"A counter of how many messages other than "A counter of how many messages other than
heartbeat (i.e., config and query) heartbeat (i.e., config and query)
have been sent by the CE on this association have been sent by the CE on this association
since it is up. since it is up.
If this association started prior to the last If this association started prior to the last
initialization of the network subsystem, then initialization of the network subsystem, then
this object contains the value since the this object contains the value since the
initialization." initialization."
::= { forcesAssociationEntry 8} ::= { forcesAssociationEntry 9}
forcesAssociationOtherMsgReceived OBJECT-TYPE forcesAssociationOtherMsgReceived OBJECT-TYPE
SYNTAX Counter32 SYNTAX Counter32
MAX-ACCESS read-only MAX-ACCESS read-only
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"A counter of how many messages other than "A counter of how many messages other than
heartbeat (i.e., config response, query response, heartbeat (i.e., config response, query response,
event notification, and packet redirect) event notification, and packet redirect)
have been received by the CE on this association have been received by the CE on this association
since it is up. since it is up.
If this association started prior to the last If this association started prior to the last
initialization of the network subsystem, then initialization of the network subsystem, then
this object contains the value since the this object contains the value since the
initialization." initialization."
::= { forcesAssociationEntry 9} ::= { forcesAssociationEntry 10}
forcesAssociationEntryUp NOTIFICATION-TYPE -- Conformance
OBJECTS {
forcesAssociationCEID, forcesMibCompliances OBJECT IDENTIFIER
forcesAssociationFEID ::= { forcesMibConformance 1 }
forcesMibGroups OBJECT IDENTIFIER
::= { forcesMibConformance 2 }
-- Compliance statements
forcesMibCompliance MODULE-COMPLIANCE
STATUS current
DESCRIPTION
"The compliance statement for routers running ForCES and
implementing the ForCES MIB."
MODULE -- this module
MANDATORY-GROUPS { forcesMibGroup, forcesNotificationGroup}
::= { forcesMibCompliances 1 }
-- Units of conformance
forcesNotificationGroup NOTIFICATION-GROUP
NOTIFICATIONS { forcesAssociationEntryUp,
forcesAssociationEntryDown
} }
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"This notification is generated when a
forcesAssociationEntry object is created."
::= { forcesAssociations 2 }
forcesAssociationEntryDown NOTIFICATION-TYPE "A collection of notifications for signaling important
OBJECTS { ForCES events."
forcesAssociationCEID, ::= { forcesMibGroups 1 }
forcesAssociationFEID,
forcesAssociationRunningProtocolVersion, forcesMibGroup OBJECT-GROUP
forcesAssociationTimeUp, OBJECTS { forcesAssociationRunningProtocolVersion }
STATUS current
DESCRIPTION
"A collection of objects to support management of ForCES
routers."
::= { forcesMibGroups 2 }
forcesStatsGroup OBJECT-GROUP
OBJECTS { forcesAssociationTimeUp,
forcesAssociationTimeDown, forcesAssociationTimeDown,
forcesAssociationHBMsgSent, forcesAssociationHBMsgSent,
forcesAssociationHBMsgReceived, forcesAssociationHBMsgReceived,
forcesAssociationOtherMsgSent, forcesAssociationOtherMsgSent,
forcesAssociationOtherMsgReceived } forcesAssociationOtherMsgReceived
}
STATUS current STATUS current
DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
"This notification is generated when a "A collection of optional objects to provide extra
forcesAssociationEntry object is destroyed." information about the associations. There is no protocol
::= { forcesAssociations 3 } reason to keep such information, but these objects can
be very useful in debugging connectivity problems."
::= { forcesMibGroups 3 }
END END
6. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
Some of the readable objects in this MIB module may be considered Some of the readable objects in this MIB module may be considered
sensitive or vulnerable in some network environment. sensitive or vulnerable in some network environment.
SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 did not include adequate security. SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 did not include adequate security.
Even if the network itself is secure (for example by using IPSec), Even if the network itself is secure (for example by using IPSec),
even then, there is no control as to who on the secure network is even then, there is no control as to who on the secure network is
allowed to access and GET/SET (read/change/create/delete) the objects allowed to access and GET/SET (read/change/create/delete) the objects
in this MIB module. in this MIB module.
It is RECOMMENDED that implementers consider the security features as It is RECOMMENDED that implementers consider the security features as
provided by the SNMPv3 framework (see [RFC3410], section 8), provided by the SNMPv3 framework (see [RFC3410], section 8),
including full support for the SNMPv3 cryptographic mechanisms (for including full support for the SNMPv3 cryptographic mechanisms (for
authentication and privacy). authentication and privacy).
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instance of this MIB module is properly configured to give access to instance of this MIB module is properly configured to give access to
the objects only to those principals (users) that have legitimate the objects only to those principals (users) that have legitimate
rights to indeed GET or SET (change/create/delete) them. rights to indeed GET or SET (change/create/delete) them.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
IANA will need to assign a number to this MIB. IANA will need to assign a number to this MIB.
8. Changes from Previous Draft Revisions 8. Changes from Previous Draft Revisions
Changes from draft-ietf-forces-mib-02. They are refinements of the
MIB:
o Changed forcesAssociationCEID and forcesAssociationFEID from read-
only to not-accessible to conform with Section 7.7 in [RFC2578].
o Removed forcesAssociationCEID and forcesAssociationFEID from the
notifications. This information is conveyed in the OID anyway.
o Added MIB conformance information.
Changes from draft-ietf-forces-mib-01. The changes are in response Changes from draft-ietf-forces-mib-01. The changes are in response
to the Working Group Last Call: to the Working Group Last Call:
o Addition of two traps/notifications to signal the associations o Addition of two traps/notifications to signal the associations
that enter or leave the UP state. that enter or leave the UP state.
o Suppression of the DOWN and ESTABLISHING states. Only o Suppression of the DOWN and ESTABLISHING states. Only
associations in the UP state are kept in the table. associations in the UP state are kept in the table.
o Split of the Message counters into Heartbeat and other messages. o Split of the Message counters into Heartbeat and other messages.
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o Addition of the latest version of the ForCES protocol supported by o Addition of the latest version of the ForCES protocol supported by
the CE. the CE.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2578] McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.
[RFC3410] Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart, [RFC3410] Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart,
"Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet- "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-
Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002. Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.
[RFC3654] Khosravi, H. and T. Anderson, "Requirements for Separation [RFC3654] Khosravi, H. and T. Anderson, "Requirements for Separation
of IP Control and Forwarding", RFC 3654, November 2003. of IP Control and Forwarding", RFC 3654, November 2003.
[RFC3746] Yang, L., Dantu, R., Anderson, T., and R. Gopal, [RFC3746] Yang, L., Dantu, R., Anderson, T., and R. Gopal,
"Forwarding and Control Element Separation (ForCES) "Forwarding and Control Element Separation (ForCES)
Framework", RFC 3746, April 2004. Framework", RFC 3746, April 2004.
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9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[forces-applicability-draft] [forces-applicability-draft]
Crouch, A., Khosravi, H., Handley, M., and A. Doria, Crouch, A., Khosravi, H., Handley, M., and A. Doria,
"ForCES Applicability Statement", ID Document: "ForCES Applicability Statement", ID Document:
draft-ietf-forces-applicability-04.txt, February 2006. draft-ietf-forces-applicability-04.txt, February 2006.
Appendix A. Acknowledgments Appendix A. Acknowledgments
The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions of: Jinrong The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions of: Jinrong
Fenggen, Xiaoyi Guo, and Jamal Hadi Salim. Fenggen, Xiaoyi Guo, Joel Halpern, Tom Petch, and Jamal Hadi Salim.
Author's Address Author's Address
Robert Haas Robert Haas
IBM IBM
Saeumerstrasse 4 Saeumerstrasse 4
Rueschlikon 8803 Rueschlikon 8803
CH CH
Email: rha@zurich.ibm.com Email: rha@zurich.ibm.com
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