Internet Engineering Task Force                                 J. Polk
Internet Draft                                            J. Schnizlein
Expiration: Nov 13th, Dec 16th, 2003                                   M. Linsner
File: draft-ietf-geopriv-dhcp-lci-option-00.txt draft-ietf-geopriv-dhcp-lci-option-01.txt           Cisco Systems

            Location Configuration Information for GEOPRIV

                            May 13th,

                           June 16th, 2003

Status of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

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Abstract

   This document specifies a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Option
   for the geographic location of the client. The Location
   Configuration Information (LCI) includes latitude, longitude, and
   altitude, with resolution indicators for each, as well as for the
   datum of the location.

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
       1.1  Conventions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
       1.2  Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
       1.3  Rationale  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
       1.4  Changes from version -00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Location Configuration Information (LCI) Elements . . . . . .  4
       2.1 Elements of the Location Configuration Information  . . .  5
   3.  Purpose of Resolution Value per La/Lo/Alt Element . . . . . .  7
   4.  Security Considerations   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   7.
   8.  Author Information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   Appendix Calculations of Imprecision possible with the DHC LCI  . 10
       A.1 LCI of "White House" (Example 1)  . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
       A.2 LCI of "Sears Tower" (Example 2)  . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   8.
   9. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.0

1.  Introduction

   This document specifies a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol [1]
   Option for the geographic location of the client, to be provided by
   the server.

   The DHCP server is assumed to have determined the location from the
   Circuit-ID Relay Agent Information Option (RAIO) defined (as SubOpt
   1) in [2]. In order to translate the circuit (switch port
   identifier) into a location, the DHCP server is assumed to have
   access to a service that maps from circuit-ID to the location at
   which the circuit connected to that port terminates in the building;
   for example, the location of the wall jack.

   The Location Configuration Information (LCI) format presented here
   could be considered a subset of the information which would be
   included in a GEOPRIV Location Object. This LCI is part of the
   generation of location by the GEOPRIV origin.

   An important feature of this document is it places location
   information completely under control of the end device rather than
   storing this Location Configuration Information in an outside
   service for retrieval by the end device. Storage outside the end
   device during times of emergency can cause unnecessary delay, or
   failure during communication.

   Another important feature of this LCI is its inclusion of a
   resolution parameter for each of the dimensions of location. The
   GEOPRIV working group has a stated requirement [3] to enable
   decreasing the precision of a location element. Because this
   resolution parameter need not apply to all dimensions equally, a
   resolution value is included for each of the 3 location elements.

   This resolution method provides a natural ability for the device to
   hide from the center point of the bounding area as this resolution
   method is determined via the inherent affects of binary mathematics,
   using the power of 2.

   The resulting location information using this resolution method is a
   small fixed length Configuration Information that can be easily
   carried in protocols, such as DHCP, which have limited packet size
   because this LCI is only 16 bytes long.

   Finally, in the appendix this document provides some arithmetic
   examples of just how the imprecision can be introduced in any or all
   of the La/Lo/Alt values without the IP device needing to be
   preprogrammed with bogus location information, and just how
   imprecise the La/Lo/Alt values can be.

   This document does not cover any policy regarding the use of this
   other than a few as potential suggestions to convey the meaning
   intended by the document.

1.1  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [4].

1.2 Motivation

   As applications such as IP Telephony are replacing conventional
   telephony, users are expecting the same (or greater) level of
   services with the new technology.  One service offered by
   conventional telephony that is missing, in any standardized fashion,
   within IP Telephony is for a user to be automatically located by
   emergency responders, in a timely fashion, when the user summons
   help (by dialing 911 in North America, for example). Unless strict
   administrative rules are followed, the mobility of a wired Ethernet
   device within a campus negates any opportunity for an emergency
   responder to locate the device with any degree of expediency.  Users
   do not want to give up the mobility IP Telephony offers.  Informing
   the host device of its geo-location at host configuration time will
   allow the device to utilize this geo-location information to inform
   others of it's current geo-location, if the user and/or application
   so desires.

   The goal of this option is to enable a wired Ethernet host to
   provide its location to an emergency responder, as one example.

   Wireless hosts can utilize this option to gain knowledge of the
   location of the radio access point used during host configuration,
   but will need some more exotic mechanisms, maybe GPS, or maybe a
   future DHCP option, which includes a list of geo-locations like that
   defined here, which has the locations of the radio access points
   that are close to the client.

1.3 Rationale

   Within the LCI described here, Latitude and Longitude are
   represented in fixed-point 2s-complement binary degrees, for the
   economy of a smaller option size compared to the string encoding of
   digits in [5].  The integer parts of these fields are 9 bits long to
   accommodate +/- 180 degrees. The fractional part is 25 bits long,
   better than the precision of 7 decimal digits. Each parameter is 40
   bits total, in length.

   Altitude is represented in measurement units (MU) indicated by the
   MU field, which is 4 bits long. Two measurement units are defined
   here, meters (code=1) and floors (code=2), both of which are 2s-
   complement fixed-point with 8 bits of fraction. Additional
   measurement units MAY be assigned by IANA. The floor of a building
   is often the relevant location information, and not necessarily
   computable from meters of altitude.

   Each of these 3 variables is preceded by an accuracy sub-field of 6
   bits, indicating the number of bits of resolution. This resolution
   sub-field accommodates the GEOPRIV requirement [3] to easily adjust
   the precision of a reported location. Contents beyond the claimed
   resolution MAY be randomized to obscure greater precision that might
   be available.

2.0

1.4 Changes from version -00

   Here is a list of changes to version -01 from -00:

   - inadvertently left out the Acknowledgements section; corrected
     that error

   - added the NAD83 Datum to the list in section 2.1, and to the list
     put forth for IANA registration

2.  DHC Location Configuration Information Elements

   DHCP is a binary Protocol; GEOPRIV is text-based. Most coordinate
   systems translate fairly easily between binary-based and text-based
   location output (i.e. even emergency services within the US). The
   authors believe translation/conversion is a non-issue with DHCP's
   binary format.

   This binary format provides a fortunate benefit in a mechanism for
   making a true/correct location coordinate imprecise. It further
   provides the capability to have this binary representation be
   deterministically imprecise.

   The proposed LCI format is:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   Code TBD    |      16       |   LaRes   |     Latitude      +
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                Latitude (cont'd)              |    LoRes  |   +
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                             Longitude                         |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |   MU  |   AltRes  |                Altitude                   |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |  Alt (cont'd) |     Datum     |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

2.1 Elements of the Location Configuration Information

   Code TBD: The code for this DHCP option is TBD by IANA.

   16:       The length of this option is 16 bytes.

   LaRes:    Latitude resolution. 6 bits indicating the valid number
             of valid bits in the fixed-point value of Latitude.

   This value is the number of high-order Latitude bits that should be
   considered valid. Any bits entered to the right of this limit should
   not be considered valid and might be purposely false, or zeroed by
   the sending device (meaning the Geopriv target towards the
   requestor).

   The examples below in section 4.0, are to illustrate that a smaller
   value in the resolution field increases the area within which the
   device is located (without deception).

   Values of resolution above decimal 34 are Undefined and reserved
   because that is the largest number of bits in the Latitude field.

   Latitude: a 34 bit fixed point value consisting of 9 bits of integer
   and 25 bits of fraction. Latitude SHOULD be normalized to within +/-
   90 degrees. Geo-location formats provide for positive numbers to be
   north of the equator and negative numbers to be south of the
   equator.

   A value of 2 in the LaRes field indicates a precision of no greater
   than 1/6th that of the globe (detailed in the first example in
   section 4.0). A value of 34 in the LaRes field indicates a precision
   within 3.11 mm in Latitude.

   LoRes:    Longitude resolution. 6 bits indicating the number of
             valid bits in the fixed-point value of Longitude.

   This value is the number of high-order Longitude bits that should be
   considered valid. Any bits entered to the right of this limit should
   not be considered valid and might be purposely false, or zeroed by
   the sending device (meaning the GEOPRIV target towards the
   requestor).

             Values above decimal 34 are undefined and reserved.

   Longitude:   a 34 bit fixed point value consisting of 9 bits of
   integer and 25 bits of fraction. Longitude SHOULD be normalized to
   within +/- 180 degrees. Geo-location formats provide for positive
   numbers to be east of the prime meridian and negative (2s
   complement) numbers to be west of the prime meridian.

   Entering a value of 2 in the LoRes field will result in the
   precision of no greater than 1/6th that of the globe (see first
   example in section 4.0 for more here). A value of 34 in the LoRes
   field indicates a precision within 2.42 mm in longitude (at the
   equator). Because lines of longitude converge at the poles, the
   distance is smaller (resolution greater) for locations away from the
   equator.

   AltRes:   Altitude resolution. 6 bits indicating the number of valid
             bits in the altitude. Values above 30 (decimal) are
             undefined and reserved.

   MU:       Measurement unit for altitude. Codes defined are:

     1: Meters - in 2s-complement fixed-point 22-bit integer part with
                 8-bit fraction

   If MU = 1, an AltRes value 0 would indicate unknown altitude. The
   most precise Altitude would have an AltRes value of 30.

     2: Floors - in 2s-complement fixed-point 22-bit integer part with
                 8-bit fraction

   MU = 2 for Floors enables representing altitude in a form more
   relevant in buildings which have different floor-to-floor
   dimensions. An altitude coded as MU=2, AltRes = 30, and Altitude =
   0, represents the ground level outside as well as the ground floor
   within a building). This encoding is useful where the precise
   altitude is less important than the location at ground level.

   Any additional Geopriv Measurement Unit(s) to be defined for use via
   this DHC Option MUST be done through a Standards Track RFC.

   Datum: The Map Datum used for the coordinates given in this Option

   The Datum byte has 255 possibilities, of which 3 4 are to be
   registered with IANA by this document (all derived from
   specification in [8]):

      1: WGS 84 (Geographical 3D) - World Geodesic System 1984, CRS
                Code 4327, Prime Meridian Name: Greenwich

      2: ED50 - European Datum 1950(77), CRS Code 4154, Prime Meridian
                Name: Greenwich

      3: ED87 - European Datum 1987, CRS Code 4231, Prime Meridian
                Name: Greenwich

      4: NAD83 - North American Datum 1983, CRS Code 4269, Prime
                 Meridian Name: Greenwich

   Any additional Geopriv datum(s) to be defined for use via this DHC
   Option MUST be done through a Standards Track RFC.

3.0

3.  Purpose of Resolution Value per La/Lo/Alt Element

   GEOPRIV specified [3] the requirement that any location expressed
   from or proxied on behalf of a device through the GEOPRIV Protocol
   can have the accuracy or precision of that device's location
   limited. The owner of the device, or the domain of the device
   determines the policy for divulging how precise the location is for
   any/all given requesters of that device's location.

   One aspect within the GEOPRIV WG is the precision of a device's
   ability to present its location coordinates might have a domain
   policy override the individual policy in the sense of maximum
   resolution possible. In other words, a user of a device might not
   mind providing a quite precise location return to a location
   request, but the local domain might not want that level of precision
   by its policy. In this case, the resolution value provided in the
   DHCP Reply can set this maximum precision value, perhaps allowing
   the user of the Target device to make the values more imprecise
   based on who is requesting their location. The document does not go
   further down this thought for good reason.

4.0

4.  Security Considerations

   Where critical decisions might be based on the value of this
   GeoLoc option, DHCP authentication in [7] SHOULD be used to
   protect the integrity of the DHCP options.

5.0

5.  IANA Considerations

   The DHCP option code for the GeoLoc option is TBD.

   This document calls for the IANA registration of the following:

   MU = 1 is meters of Altitude from mean low tide. Semantics are
        included in this document (section 2.1)

   MU = 2 is building Floors of Altitude. Semantics are included in
        this document (section 2.1)

   Datum = 1 is denoting WGS 84 (Geographical 3D) as defined by the
           EPSG as their CRS Code 4327

   Datum = 2 is denoting ED50(77) as defined by the EPSG as their CRS
           Code 4154

   Datum = 3 is denoting ED87 as defined by the EPSG as their CRS Code
           4231

6.0

   Datum = 4 is denoting NAD83 as defined by the EPSG as their CRS Code
           4269

6.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Patrik Falstrom, Ralph Droms, Ted
   Hardie and Nadine Abbott for their inputs and constructive comments
   regarding this document, as well as the patience of the WG chairs.

7.  References

 [1] Droms R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC 2131,
     March 1997

 [2] Patrick M., "DHCP Relay Agent Information Option", RFC 3046,
     January 2001

 [3] Cuellar J., Morris J., Mulligan D., "GEOPRIV Requirements",
 [4] Bradner S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
     Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997
 [5] Farrell C., Schulze M., Pleitner S. and Baldoni D., "DNS
     Encoding of Geographical Location", RFC 1712, November 1994.

 [6] National Emergency Number Association (NENA) www.nena.org
     NENA Technical Information Document on Model Legislation
     Enhanced 911 for Multi-Line Telephone Systems
     (http://www.nena.org/9%2D1%2D1techstandards/TechInfoDocs/
           MLTS_ModLeg_Nov200.PDF)

 [7] Droms R., "Authentication for DHCP Messages", RFC 3118, June
     2001

 [8] European Petroleum Survey Group, http://www.epsg.org/ and
     http://www.ihsenergy.com/epsg/geodetic2.html

7.0

8.  Author Information

   James M. Polk
   Cisco Systems
   2200 East President George Bush Turnpike
   Richardson, Texas 75082 USA

   jmpolk@cisco.com

   John Schnizlein
   Cisco Systems
   9123 Loughran Road
   Fort Washington, MD 20744 USA

   john.schnizlein@cisco.com

   Marc Linsner
   Cisco Systems
   Marco Island, FL 34145 USA

   marc.linsner@cisco.com

Appendix: Calculations of Imprecision possible with the DHC LCI

   The following examples for two different locations demonstrate
   how the Resolution values for Latitude, Longitude and Altitude
   can be used. In both examples the geo-location values were derived
   from maps using the WGS84 map datum, therefore in these examples,
   the datum field would have a value = 1 (00000001, or 0x01).

A.1 Location Configuration Information of "White House" (Example 1)

   The address was NOT picked for any political reason and can
   easily be found on the Internet or mapping software, but was
   picked as an easily identifiable location on our planet.

   Postal Address:
     White House
     1600 Pennsylvania Ave. NW
     Washington, DC 20006

   Standing on the sidewalk, north side of White House, between
   driveways.

   Latitude 38.89868 degrees North (or +38.89868 degrees)
      Using 2s complement, 34 bit fixed point, 25 bit fraction
      Latitude = 0x04dcc1fc8,
      Latitude = 0001001101110011000001111111001000

   Longitude 77.03723 degrees West (or -77.03723 degrees)
      Using 2s complement, 34 bit fixed point, 25 bit fraction
      Longitude = 0xf65ecf031,
      Longitude = 1101100101111011001111000000110001

   Altitude 15

   In this example we are not inside a structure, therefore we will
   assume an altitude value of 15 meters, interpolated from the US
   Geological survey map, Washington West quadrangle.

     AltRes = 30, 0x1e, 011110
     MU = 1, 0x01, 000001
     Altitude = 15, 0x0F00, 00000000000000000000000001111100000000

   If: LaRes is expressed as value 2 (0x02 or 000010) and LoRes is
       expressed as value 2 (0x02 or 000010), then it would describe a
       geo-location region that is north of the equator and extends
       from -1 degree (west of the meridian) to -128 degrees.  This
       would include the area from approximately 600km south of
       Saltpond, Ghana, due north to the North Pole and approximately
       4400km south-southwest of Los Angeles, CA due north to the North
       Pole. This would cover an area of about one-sixth of the globe,
       approximately 20 million square nautical miles (nm).

   If: LaRes is expressed as value 3 (0x03 or 000011) and LoRes is
       expressed as value 3, (0x03 or 000011) then it would describe a
       geo-location area that is north from the equator to 63 degrees
       north, and -65 degrees to -128 degrees longitude.  This area
       includes south of a line from Anchorage, AL to eastern Nunavut,
       CN. and from the Amazons of northern Brazil to approximately
       4400km south-southwest of Los Angeles, CA.  This area would
       include North America, Central America, and parts of Venezuela
       and Columbia, except portions of Alaska and northern and eastern
       Canada, approximately 10 million square nm.

   If: LaRes is expressed as value 5 (0x05 or 000101) and LoRes is
       expressed as value 5 (0x05 or 000101), then it would describe a
       geo-location area that is latitude 32 north of the equator to
       latitude 48 and extends from -64 degrees to -80 degrees
       longitude. This is approximately an east-west boundary of a time
       zone, an area of approximately 700,000 square nm.

   If: LaRes is expressed as value 9 (0x09 or 001001) and LoRes is
       expressed as value 9 (0x09 or 001001), which includes all the
       integer bits, then it would describe a geo-location area that is
       latitude 38 north of the equator to latitude 39 and extends from
       -77 degrees to -78 degrees longitude.  This is an area of
       approximately 9600 square km (111.3km x 86.5km).

   If: LaRes is expressed as value 18 (0x12 or 010010) and LoRes is
       expressed as value 18 (0x12 or 010010), then it would describe a
       geo-location area that is latitude 38.8984375 north to latitude
       38.9003906 and extends from -77.0390625 degrees to -77.0371094
       degrees longitude.  This is an area of approximately 36,600
       square meters (169m x 217m).

   If: LaRes is expressed as value 22 (0x16 or 010110) and LoRes is
       expressed as value 22 (0x16 or 010110), then it would describe a
       geo-location area that is latitude 38.896816 north to latitude
       38.8985596 and extends from -77.0372314 degrees to -77.0371094
       degrees longitude.  This is an area of approximately 143 square
       meters (10.5m x 13.6m).

   If: LaRes is expressed as value 28 (0x1c or 011100) and LoRes is
       expressed as value 28 (0x1c or 011100), then it would describe a
       geo-location area that is latitude 38.8986797 north to latitude
       38.8986816 and extends from -77.0372314 degrees to -77.0372296
       degrees longitude.  This is an area of approximately 339 square
       centimeters (20.9cm x 16.23cm).

   If: LaRes is expressed as value 30 (0x1e or 011110) and LoRes is
       expressed as value 30 (0x1e or 011110), then it would describe a
       geo-location area that is latitude 38.8986797 north to latitude
       38.8986802 and extends from -77.0372300 degrees to -77.0372296
       degrees longitude.  This is an area of approximately 19.5 square
       centimeters (50mm x 39mm).

   If: LaRes is expressed as value 34 (0x22 or 100010) and LoRes is
       expressed as value 34 (0x22 or 100010), then it would describe a
       geo-location area that is latitude 38.8986800 north to latitude
       38.8986802 and extends from -77.0372300 degrees to -77.0372296
       degrees longitude.  This is an area of approximately 7.5 square
       millimeters (3.11mm x 2.42mm).

   In the (White House) example, the requirement of emergency
   responders in North America via their NENA Model Legislation [6],
   could be met by a LaRes value of 21 and a LoRes value of 20.
   This would yield a geo-location that is latitude 38.8984375 north
   to latitude 38.8988616 north and longitude -77.0371094 to
   longitude -77.0375977.  This is an area of approximately 89 feet
   by 75 feet or 6669 square feet, which is very close to the 7000
   square feet asked for by NENA.  In this example a service
   provider could enforce that a device send a Location
   Configuration Information with this minimum amount of resolution
   for this particular location when calling emergency services.

A.2 Location Configuration Information of "Sears Tower" (Example 2)

   Postal Address:
   Sears Tower
   103th
   103rd Floor
   233 S. Wacker Dr.
   Chicago, IL  60606

   Viewing the Chicago area from the Observation Deck of the Sears
   Tower.

   Latitude 41.87884 degrees North (or +41.87884 degrees)
   Using 2s complement, 34 bit fixed point, 25 bit fraction
   Latitude = 0x053c1f751,
   Latitude = 0001010011110000011111011101010001

   Longitude 87.63602 degrees West (or -87.63602 degrees)
   Using 2s complement, 34 bit fixed point, 25 bit fraction
   Longitude = 0xf50ba5b97,
   Longitude = 1101010000101110100101101110010111

   Altitude 103

   In this example we are inside a structure, therefore we will
   assume an altitude value of 103 to indicate the floor we are on.
   The measurement unit value is 2 indicating floors.  The AltRes
   field would indicate that all bits in the Altitude field are
   true, as we want to accurately represent the floor of the
   structure where we are located.

   AltRes = 30, 0x1e, 011110
   MU = 2, 0x02, 000010
   Altitude = 103, 0x00006700, 000000000000000110011100000000

   For the accuracy of the latitude and longitude, the best
   information available to us was supplied by a generic mapping
   service that shows a single geo-loc for all of the Sears Tower.
   Therefore we are going to show LaRes as value 18 (0x12 or 010010)
   and LoRes as value 18 (0x12 or 010010).  This would be describing
   a geo-location area that is latitude 41.8769531 to latitude
   41.8789062 and extends from -87.6367188 degrees to -87.6347657
   degrees longitude.  This is an area of approximately 373412
   square feet (713.3 ft. x 523.5 ft.).

8.

9.  Full Copyright Statement

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   The Expiration date for this Internet Draft is:

   Nov 13th,

   Dec 16th, 2003