INTERNET-DRAFT                                                 S. Stoner
HARTS Working Group                                             ArtsEdge
Category: Informational                                           J. Max
                                                           November 1996
                                                  Expires September 1997

      Humanities and Arts: Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

Status of this Memo

   This draft, file name draft-ietf-harts-guide-00.txt is
   intended to become and information FYI RFC.

   Distribution of this document is unlimited.  Please send information all input,
   information, and comments to

   This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
   months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
   at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   To learn to current status of any Internet-Draft, please check the
   "1id- abstracts.txt" listing contained in the Internet-Drafts Shadow
   Directories on (Africa), (Europe), (Pacific Rim), (US East Coast), or (US West Coast).

   This memo provides information for the Internet, Humanities, and
   Arts communities.  This memo does not specify an Internet standard of
   any kind.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.


   This document is designed primarily for individuals who have
   limited knowledge of of, or experience with with, the Internet.

   The purpose of this document is to provide members of the arts and
   humanities communities with an introduction to the Internet as a
   valuable tool, resource, and medium for the creation, presentation,
   and preservation of arts and humanities-based content.

   The intended audience is practicing artists, scholars, related
   professionals, and others who's knowledge, expertise and support is
   important to ensuring the arts and humanities are well-placed in the
   global information infrastructure.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

   For purposes of simplicity this document will use the word "Artist"
   to mean both Artist and Humanist: "all practitioners who work in the
   fields of the visual, performance, and literary arts, as well as
   museum curators, librarians, and others who are involved in the
   research, restoration, and presentation of that which comprises our
   cultural heritage."  (See Section 1.1 for further definitions of Arts
   and Humanitites.)

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

Table of Contents

   i.    Conventions for this Draft..................................  3

   1.    Introduction................................................  4
   1.1   Definition of Arts and Humanities...........................  4
   1.2   What is the Internet........................................  4
   1.3   What is the World Wide Web..................................  5

   2.    What does the Internet mean to the "Artist?"................  7
   2.1   Access to the Global Community:
         Museums, libraries, newspapers, periodicals, stores.........  8
   2.2   Discovering the work of others..............................  8
   2.3   Freely Available software, and other information............  9
   2.4   Sharing and Collaborating...................................  9
   2.5   Communicating about the arts................................ 10
   2.6   Sharing your work with others............................... 10

   3.    Electronic Forums...........................................    Forums...................................................... 11
   3.1   Message Based Communications................................ 11
   3.1.1 Electronic mail (email)..................................... 11
   3.1.2 Mailing list server (listserv).............................. 12
   3.1.3 Newsgroups.................................................. 12
   3.1.4 Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS) ..................... 13
   3.2   Real-Time Communications.................................... 13
   3.2.1 IRC - Internet Relay Chat................................... Chat (IRC)................................... 13
   3.2.2 MUD - Multi-User Dungeon.................................... Dungeon (MUD).................................... 14
   3.2.3 Audio/Video Conferencing.................................... 14
   3.2.4 Whiteboard Systems.......................................... 14
   3.3   Archived Forums.............................................   Archives.................................................... 14
   3.3.1 Indexing vs Searching....................................... Searching................................................... 15
   3.3.2 Compound Searches........................................... 16

   4.    Accessing the Internet...................................... 17
   4.1   Getting Started............................................. 18
   4.2   Internet Service Providers.................................. 20
   4.3   Computer Software and Hardware Tools........................ 21
   4.4   Scanners, recorders, encoders/decoders, multimedia.......... 22

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

   5.    Creating Content............................................ 23
   5.1   When you need assistance: Consultants, Web Page Designers,
         Providers, etc. ............................................   Getting Help................................................ 23
   5.2   Basic Design Issues: Understanding Formats.................. 24
   5.3   Text and Hypertext.......................................... 24
   5.4   Graphic and Moving Images................................... 24
   5.5   Music and Sound............................................. 24
   5.6   Content Design Issues....................................... 26
   5.7   Publicizing your Work....................................... 26

   6.    Issues and Challenges....................................... 26
   6.1   Security and Viruses........................................ Issues............................................. 27
   6.2   Copyright: Laws in Flux.....................................   Viruses..................................................... 27
   6.3   Marketing, Doing Business...................................   Rights...................................................... 27
   6.4   Conducting Business over the Internet....................... 28
   6.5   Netiquette.................................................. 28

   7.    Glossary - pointer to userglos, trainmat, etc...............

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet    Glossary.................................................... 28

   8.    Resources................................................... 28
   8.1   RFCs........................................................ 29
   8.1.1 Using RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU to retrieve RFCs..................... 29

   9.    References.................................................. 29
   10.   Security Considerations..................................... 30
   11.   Acknowledgements............................................   Acknowledgments............................................. 32
   12.   Authors' Address............................................ 32

   Appendix A.  Examples/Projects on the Internet of Interest to the
                Arts and Humanities Communities

   Appendix B.  Some other URL's of interest

   Appendix C.  Examples for using the RFC server RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU

i. Conventions and Notes in the November 1996 March 1997 Draft.

   We have agreed that testimonial sections are essential, so we need
   everyone to begin collecting quotes and experiences for each chapter. section.

   Also every section should have many pointers to more information.
   Any and all input, suggestions, and submissions graciously accepted.

   This draft includes the following notation: notation to aid completion:

   - At the sign of two asterisks(**) asterisks (**) are important notes and
   - At the sign of two plus signs(++) signs (++) information is needed.  Where
     known a contributor is mentioned by name, otherwise, please
   - At the sign of two question marks(??) we need to decide what
     goes there.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

1. Introduction

   This document has been structured to provide information about,
   and examples of, the wide range of functions and capabilities
   inherent to online services.  It will also show the potential of
   networking technologies for enhancing arts Arts and humanities Humanities content and

   The basic functions of the Internet are described, along with
   their application for building online communities of interest
   (including the arts Arts and humanities). Humanities).

   This is followed by discussion and examples of how arts Arts and
   Humanities content can be represented, stored, and retrieved on the

   Also provided are examples of hardware and software being used,
   and in development, to support the creation and presentation of new
   artistic and literary works.

   In addition to illustrating the great potential of the Internet,
   this document aspires to provide an introduction to the issues and
   challenges that affect the development and presentation of arts and
   humanities content online.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

   Finally, some tools and resources have been provided to assist
   both novice and experienced users in benefiting from, and
   contributing to the global online arts and humanities community.

1.1 Definitions of Arts and Humanities

   For purposes of this document the term "Arts" includes, but is not
   limited to, dance, design arts, folk arts, literary arts, media and
   film arts, music, theater, and visual arts.

   The term "Humanities" includes, but is not limited to, the study
   of the following: language, both modern and classical; linguistics;
   literature; history; jurisprudence philosophy; archaeology;
   comparative religion; ethics; the history, criticism and theory of
   the arts; those aspects of social sciences which have humanistic
   content and employ humanistic methods; and the study and application
   of the humanities to the human environment.

1.2 What is the Internet?

   As new users, the first question that probably comes to mind is:
   "What is the Internet?"  The answer is: "People, computers and
   information electronically linked around the world by a common
   Protocol for communicating with each other."

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

   The beginnings come from the US Department of Defense's desire to
   transport government and military information during the time of a
   "nuclear event".  Thus the Advanced Research Projects Agency was
   formed, which created ARPANET.  From this, over the next 26 years or
   so, grew the network known as "The Internet", now dubbed the
   "Information Superhighway".  There are several million computers
   connected and over 40 million users.

   The common language or "Communication Protocol" which these
   computers on the Internet speak, is the Internet Protocol, or IP.
   This is the underlying layer which allows transmission of diverse
   data, information, text, pictures, sound, etc. to be passed between
   otherwise incompatible machines.

   The Internet should not be confused with the World Wide Web, which
   is a subset of computer sites which support the HyperText Transfer
   Protocol (See 1.3), or America OnLine (AOL), Compuserve,
   CompuServe, Prodigy, and other Service Providers, type service providers, which may use
   their own own, often proprietary, protocols and are sites unto themselves
   but may have connections to the Internet.  The Internet should also
   not be confused with the World Wide Web which is the topic of the
   next section.

1.3 What is the World Wide Web?

++ Sheer volunteered to compose a few paragraphs:
++ WWW - What

   The World Wide Web, often called, "The Web" is the WWW (brief), approx # a vast multimedia
   document distributed among a large number of sites, content,
++ resources, w3 consortium, pointers to more info...
++ html/ Hypertext content,It is important that we define http, HTML
++ and URL here! see also: chapter 4 for URL definition.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage the computers on the Internet

2. What does
   internet.  This document is in a format called HyperText which allows
   information in the Internet mean web to be linked by words or pictures viewed on
   the Artist? computer.

   The invention and evolution (or more aptly, revolution) Web is broken up into a large set of the
   Internet exemplifies pages (Web Pages) of
   information connected by HyperText "Links" which let you click on a synergy between
   highlighted word or picture to call up a page of related information.
   This is what differentiates HyperText from "normal" text.  In
   "normal" text, each sentence or idea is connected in a single
   sequence or "train of thought", from beginning to end.  In HyperText
   however, the arts and sciences flow of ideas branches out, so that each idea may be a critical factor in preserving our global cultural heritage
   for future generations.

   Once an environment
   connected to many different "trains of technical thought" that jump from link
   to link.  This allows you to read HyperText documents, in a way more
   naturally resembling human thought.

   There is no central hierarchy that organizes the Web.  Instead, the
   information is distributed among many "Web Sites" created and databases used
   primarily by scientists and engineers, cyberspace has emerged as part
   the many people involved.  A Web Site is much like a "global village" magazine in that
   it has already demonstrated a profound impact
   on contemporary culture.

   A great many visual and performing arts institutions Front Page, called the Home Page, and
   organizations may have established sites many other
   pages of related information that can be connected in whatever way
   the author wishes.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the World Wide Internet

   For example, you could create a "Cool Music" Web Page and place it on
   significant number of online discussion groups focus Web Server, which can be any computer somewhere on the arts and
   humanities.  Consortiums of museums and libraries are now using
   networking technologies internet
   running software to support research and projects involving
   more effective ways provide access to collect, store, and disseminate objects of
   antiquity and other non-textual primary sources, as well as
   textual sources.

   Thousands of sites are also created by individuals and for
   institutions, organizations, and businesses that, the resident Web Pages.  Anyone
   on the whole,
   promise internet could then use a piece of software called a Web
   Browser to profoundly influence the way we perceive ourselves and ask the world Web Server to look at your Home Page.

   This Home Page could be a striking artwork featuring a list of your
   favorite albums and a few labeled buttons.  While your music plays
   from their speakers they choose to click on any album that catches
   their eye, or go to lists of information sorted by Artist, Label, or
   Genre.  Once they get to the page for any particular album, they
   would see the artwork, a song list, and many other links to follow.
   Clicking on a song could pull up the song lyrics, or perhaps even
   download parts of the song.  Or they could follow a link from your
   page to the HomePage of the artist's record company, or to magazines
   that have interviewed the band.  If the information is out there,
   your page could link to it.

   Web pages are written in a format called HTML, the HyperText Markup
   Language.  This is a protocol for putting special symbols into a text
   document that specify links to other pages, fonts to use, images to
   load, and many other things.  It is simple enough that most people
   can learn to use it, but rich enough in possibility that there will
   always be a thriving community of people making web pages for others.

   In order to download information from distant places in the internet,
   your computer will be using a protocol called HTTP, the HyperText
   Transfer Protocol.  HTTP was designed to allow web browser software
   to connect to web server software on another machine and request the
   transmission of a web page in the form of an HTML document and any
   associated images, audio, video, etc.

   Since any part of a page can link to any accessible data on the
   Internet, each link must include a reference to exactly where on the
   internet the information is.  This is the job of the Uniform Resource
   Locator, URL.  The URL is very much like your home address.  When you
   tell someone your "address", you give your postal code,
   country, state, town/city, street, building, and your name.

   A URL is a machine readable (and hence somewhat cryptic) text string
   which tells both people and machines where to find the information.
   It contains the name, directory, machine, host address, and the
   protocol for accessing that information.  URLs usually take the form
   "", where is the host site,
   and http: is the protocol used to access it.  The first page most
   sites want you to see is their main home page, so you don't always
   need to add the name information.  Also, since http is the primary
   protocol of the web, many browsers now assume it, and you will likely
   only need to know the protocol being used if its different from http.
   (See also Section 3 - Forums)

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

   You can start browsing by entering a URL into your web browser, and
   it will reach across the internet to download the appropriate web
   page.  If you then select a link, your browser will read the URL
   built into the page itself, and use it to find and access the
   appropriate information.

   At last check there were hundreds of thousands of web sites, home
   pages, and hosts on the Web.  The contents of those sites are almost
   as varied.  Some pages are personal pages containing photos of family
   members, lists of hobbies, or the sharing of collections such as song
   lyrics.  Some pages are strictly business, selling everything from
   abalone to zymoscopes.  (If you're interested in which doing business over
   the Web, please read Sections 6 and 10 on Security.)  Still other
   pages provide services such as information searches, and weather

2. What does the Internet mean to the Artist?

   The internet is exerting a profound influence on our society.  Human
   culture is based on communication, and the widespread availability of
   information and the thought-like constructions of HyperText are the
   most powerful new ideas in communication since the invention of
   writing.  A glance back at history will easily show how written
   language has shaped our societies.  These results are only a
   foreshadowing of the things to come.

   Even now in its infancy, the effects of the internet can be easily
   seen in popular media as well as in the way we do business.  But the
   most dramatic influences are in the children who are now growing up
   with the net.  Many parents are aware of the influence television has
   over their children.  Eventually the net may become a superset of all
   TV, but with added power to inform as well as entertain.  If we raise
   the internet right, it will return the favor by nurturing a
   generation that may well grow up wiser than ourselves.

   And so we have a great responsibility to make sure that the best
   parts of human culture are represented on the internet.  Because the
   net is still primarily created and run by Scientists and Engineers
   who are creatures of mind, it is the heart and soul of the internet
   that needs help.  Artists are the heart and soul of human culture,
   and must bring the fruits of their efforts to the net to give the net
   culture (and future generations) their essence of humanity.

   And if that doesn't convince you, we live, whether will also show that there are
   many ways in which artists may exploit the past, present, or future. net for their own personal
   gain.  As the online culture becomes a more balanced representation
   of humanity, the net will become an essential tool for collaboration,
   communication, and distribution of art.  The day is coming where
   those who are not on the net will be greatly handicapped in the
   expression and distribution of their art.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet visitor can expect to find

   A great many visual and performing arts institutions and
   organizations have now established sites that offer sensory
   appeal on the World Wide Web and stimulation via multi-media applications, a
   significant number of online discussion groups focus on the arts and
   humanities.  Consortiums of museums and libraries are now using
   networking technologies to support research and projects involving
   more effective ways to collect, store, and disseminate objects of
   antiquity and other non-textual primary sources, as well as
   interactive opportunities to share ideas textual

   Thousands of sites are also created by individuals and information with
   others.  The arts for
   institutions, organizations, and humanities are key stakeholders in this
   cultural transition.                     ^^^^^^^^^^^^

++ need more here - stakeholders: Why?  How? businesses for reasons ranging from
   commerce to simple self expression.  The net is the new frontier for
   the growth of humanity.  Can you afford not to be involved?

2.1 Access to the Global Community

   Access to art is no longer constrained by vicinity.  Hang out your
   electronic shingle and just imagine who might drop in.  The Internet
   connects hundreds of countries, thousands of cities, and countless
   groups and individuals around the globe.  People all around the world
   will be looking for what they want on the net, and if you have what
   they want, then through the magic of the net, you are their next door

   The Internet explorer will find that more and more sites are becoming
   multilingual.  The Internet provides a forum in which diverse
   cultures can merge, and allows the explorer to visit faraway places
   from the privacy and safety of their own computer.

2.2 Discovering the work of others

   Once you have the basic tools for using the Internet (See Chapter Section
   4) you will begin to understand how easy, helpful, informative, and
   exciting it can be.  With a few quick strokes you have accessed a
   great library, museum, or gallery, toured a faraway city, or looked
   up an old friend.  You might find an out of print book you have
   always wanted, then either read it on your computer screen, or print
   it out on your printer.  If you do not have a printer, simply save it
   to your floppy disk and bring that to a shop or friend with a
   printer.  Its really that easy.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet a
   printer.  Its really that easy.

   You could spend the afternoon at the Smithsonian, or the Louvre
   without ever leaving your chair.  Or, for  For a more athletic adventure, you
   could put your computer in front of your treadmill, and jog through
   the online Olympics site.

   When you are ready, you can explore deeper.  Follow other links to
   smaller sites, lesser known writers, artists, poets, and thinkers,
   and discover the emerging world they are creating.  With the proper
   tools you can even view moving pictures, and listen to music and
   other audio.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

   With access to the Internet, the world is at your fingertips.  Even
   more than art, literature, and humour, humor, online is information.  Bring
   your questions on health, the environment, government, and religion,
   and look though volumes of documentation on your concerns, or discuss
   your questions with others electronically.  Once you get used to it,
   you will even be downloading more information and tools to assist you

   Examples of sites to explore, and good starting points can be found
   in Appendices A and B.

2.3 Access to Freely Available Software, and Other Information

   There is a world of useful software available to you via the
   Internet.  Known as Shareware, Public Domain, or Freely Copyable, you
   can find many software programs you may download and use on your own
   machine, often completely free, occasionally for a small and/or
   optional fee which helps the author to afford to create more software
   for general use. There are also libraries, stores, and news groups
   you can peruse in search of just the tool or information you want.

   As you explore the Internet, you will begin to find information that
   is beyond your reach without the right tools for viewing, listening,
   etc.  For example, someone may have put up a sound file using a
   format which cannot be recognized by the software you have installed.
   In these cases, that person will often have included a pointer to the
   exact tool necessary to recognize their format, or convert the
   format, and you can download, install, and use this tool right away.

   Using the basic tools acquired to access the Internet (See Chapter Section
   4), you can begin to add to your collection software tools, both for
   accessing the information already on the Internet, and for creating
   your own content (See Chapter Section 5).

2.4 Sharing and Collaborating

   There are many people both like, and unlike, yourself with whom you
   can meet, communicate, and share ideas.  Some like to just talk, you
   can listen if you like.  Others like to just listen, so you and
   others can talk.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

   There are also many forms that communication can take, from
   private electronic mail, to group video conferencing, to moderated
   newsgroups, to public bulletin boards.  See Chapter Section 3 for more
   information on Electronic Forums.

   Artists often want to share their work with other artists on the

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

   Internet so that they will receive comments and recognition for their
   work. It is a great place to explore new ideas with other artists as
   well.  Perhaps a painter has tried a new paint and has a review of
   it, or has developed a new way to mix colors, or a photographer wants
   to share how to get a difficult shot.  Perhaps you would like to
   locate a rare album, or debate one musicians merit over anothers.

   There are many types of content that artists can share.  Including:

      - text: stories, poetry, historic accounts, transcripts, etc.
      - images of their visual work: paintings, photographs, sculpture,
      - images of themselves: photographs, self-portraits, other people self-portraits
      - sound files of their audio works or voice presentations of
        their works: books on tape, speeches, tutorials, music
      - moving pictures: video arts, performance arts, etc.
      - a description of their art process and works of art
      - resume and/or biographical data
      - contact information in the form of electronic mail address,
        postal mail address, phone, etc.  Electronic mail is most
        popular because it allows people to respond spontaniously. spontaneously.

2.5 Communicating about the arts


   Perhaps you prefer to provide discuss and compare the opportunity works of others with
   producers, collectors, gallery owners or other professionals in your
   field, or related fields.  You might want to find out who's hot and
   why.  You could also find out where, and when shows, showings,
   benefits, conferences, releases, signings, and performances are
   taking place, or announce your own showing.

   They say that for professional discourse about...
++ criticism, aesthetics, etc. every artist, there is a critic, and you could meet
   one, or be one, on the Internet.

2.6 Sharing your work with others

++  The Internet is a

   After you've met some of the global marketplace for your work.
++  Artists can often find buyers critics, and sponsers compared your work
   with others, you may feel so bold as to share your work with others.
   Perhaps emailing a manuscript to a publisher, or putting up scans of their
   your art will entice a buyer.  Perhaps it will entice a critic to say
   wonderful things about you to a buyer.

   Perhaps putting your work by
++  showing on the Internet will bring fortune and
   fame, or perhaps it will encourage others to put their work up.
   Increasing the cultural content of the Internet will have profound
   results in all areas of the Arts.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet.   See 5.3 Publicizing your Work. Internet

3. Forums

   Websters defines a forum as "A public meeting place for open
   discussion."  In the world that could be a park or an auditorium.  In
   the Internet, a forum will be electronic, but it may still feel like
   a roomful of people.

   Many forums exist on the Internet.  There are interactive forums
   where you can share information in real-time and carry on discussions
   with others.  There are message-based forums where you send or
   receive a message and others involved in that forum wait
   for responses, can respond
   later, and there are archived forums where information is stored, and
   may be retrieved by anyone but modified only by its owner.

++ we need to describe email addresses before

   While we show them
++ just using "" may be intimidating have attempted to a novice.

++ be aware that there are always new things being created.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on list and describe a few of the Internet more
   popular forums, we have not created an exhaustive, complete, or
   up-to-the-minute list here.  You can find information on forums,
   lists and sites in many magazines and books today.  (See Section 4.1
   - Getting Started)

3.1 Message-based Communications

   In Message-based communication, a message is sent by one user, and
   received by one or many.  For example, you might send a dinner
   invitation to an individual, a couple, or a group.  In the same way,
   you send electronic messages to individuals or groups.  Just like
   your Postal Service for physical mail, there are electronic mail
   servers for electronic mail.  Just like you have a physical address
   to which your physical mail is sent, there is an electronic mail
   address to which your electronic mail is sent.

   Message-based Communications include includes electronic mail, listservs,
   newsgroups, and bulletin boards.

3.1.1 E-mail

   Electronic mail (email) is a system whereby a computer user can
   exchange messages with other computer users (or groups of users) via
   a communications network.

   Typical use of email consists of downloading messages as received
   from a mailbox or mail server, then reading and replying to them
   solely electronically using a mail program which behaves much like a
   word processor for the most part.  The user can send mail to, or
   receive mail from, any other user with Internet access.  Electronic
   mail is much like paper mail, in that it is sent, delivered, and
   contains information.  That information can be textual, graphic, or
   even sound.  See Chapter  (See Section 4 (Accessing - Accessing the
   Internet) Internet, and Section 5 (Creating Content) -
   Creating Content, for more information on non-textonly email messages.

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

   You will get an Electronic mail, or Email address usually from
   your Internet Service Provider (See Chapter Section 4).  Your email address
   contains your name, and the address of the machine on which you
   receive your mail.  The name of the machine will be in two parts,
   (separated by a dot or period symbol ".") the name of the machine
   itself, and the "domain" it is in.  (See the documents reference in
   Section 8 - Resources, for more information on domain names).

   The possible extensions for a domain name will be one of: .edu, for
   educational institutions; .gov, for government sites; .com, for
   commercial companies; .org, for other organizations; or it might be a
   locational domain name which would contain the city, state, region,
   and country, as would be Los Angeles, California, United

   An email address takes the form "yourname"@"yoursite"."yourdomain"
   For example, if your name is Jo Cool and you get your Internet
   service from Dirigible Online, your email address might be

INTERNET-DRAFT                      Sharing Center Stage on the Internet

3.1.2 Listserv (mailing list server)

   A Listserv is an automated program that accepts email messages from
   users and performs basic operations on mailing lists for those users.
   In the Internet, listservs are usually accessed as either
   "list-request@host.domain" or "listserv@host.domain"; for example,
   the list server for the hypothetical list ""
   would be "".

   Sending email to "" causes the message to be sent
   to all the list subscribers, which is inappropriate for "Subscribe"
   and "Unsubscribe" requests, while sending a message to
   "" sends the message only to the list server.  Using
   "" you would put the listname in the subject field
   with "Subscribe me@my.domain" as the body of the message.  Not all
   mailing lists use list servers to handle list administration duties.

3.1.3 Newsgroups

   A Newsgroup is an electronic bulletin board system created originally
   by the Unix community and which is accessible via the Internet.
   Usenet News forms a discussion forum accessible by millions of users
   in almost every country in the world.  Usenet News consists of
   thousands of topics arranged in a hierarchical form.  Major topics
   include "comp" for computer topics, "rec" for recreational topics,
   "soc" for social topics, "sci" for science topics, and there are many
   others we will not list here.  Within the major topics are subtopics,
   such as "" for general music content, and
   "" for classical music, or "" for
   discussions relating to the physics of medical science.

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   There are also many General, Regional, and even Local site groups.  For example, if you wanted to find something for sale in
   your area, rather than peruse "" you might rather try
   "" if you were in the New England region of the U.S. or
   "" if you were in the Bay Area of California.  States
   are also considered regions, and you can often find groups that
   meet in person, in such places as ???

++ more here

3.1.4    Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS)

   A Bulletin Board System consists of a computer, and associated
   software, typically providing electronic messaging services, archives
   of files, and any other services or activities of interest to the
   bulletin board systems' operator.

   Typical use of a BBS has the user dial into the BBS via their modem
   and telephone line and select from a hierarchy of lists, files,
   subdirectories, or other data maintained by the operator.  Once
   connected, the user can often send messages to other BBS users within
   the system.

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   Although BBSs have traditionally been the domain of hobbyists, an
   increasing number of BBSs are connected directly to the Internet, and
   many BBSs are currently operated by government, educational,
   research, and commercial institutions.

3.2.  Real-Time Communications

   Real-Time Communications describes the process of communicating with
   others via the Internet virtually simultaneously.  Generally in a
   forum where you type something, which another user sees on their
   screen, and types something, which you see a moment later.  The
   moment between when they begin typing, and you begin seeing their
   words, is known as "net-lag".

   Forums which communicate in real-time are the Internet Relay Chat
   (IRC), the Multi-User Dungeon (MUD), Audio/Video Conferencing (AVC),
   and White Board Systems (WBS).

3.2.1  IRC - Internet Relay Chat, WebChat

   Internet Relay Chat, or IRC, provides a text-based mechanism for
   communication with multiple participants.  IRC is an interactive
   forum set up in virtual rooms that you can move between, and where
   others can virtually "hang out" in.  In IRC parlance, you "join" out".  Chat rooms can be used to discuss
   common ideas or topics, or as part of a ??? collaborative process.

++ needs more

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3.2.2  MUD - Multi-User Dungeon

   An interactive game environment where both real other players and
   virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to
   share ideas or solve puzzles, etc.

++ needs more

++ add MOO's Moo's - object oriented mud
** (
++ vrml, avitar, avatar, digital editing systems, proprietary
**  (palace, urban
++ desires)
++ Expand on the concept of "shared construction" -- that this
++ enables information and ideas to accrue over time.

3.2.3  Audio/Video Conferencing

++  CUSEEME - video conferencing
++  multicasting
++  Expand on uses

3.2.4  Whiteboard Systems

   A Whiteboard is analogous to the blackboard, and is physically quite
   similar.  A Whiteboard System allows people on the Internet to share
   text, drawings, and other graphic information which is being written
   in real-time on an electronically enhanced whiteboard.

   Software exists which allows connections between two sites, or
   hundreds, over the Internet, the Web, or your telephone.

++ Jonathan Kean: commercial, non-commercial, internet, non-internet.

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++ PictureTel, SmartBoard,
++ wwwphone is freely available. Send mail to:

3.3  Archived Forums  Archives

   Archive is defined in Webster's New World Dictionary as:
    n. 1 a) a place where public records, documents, etc. are kept
    b) a place where material having documentary interest, as private
    papers, institutional records, memorabilia, records,memorabilia, or photographs, is kept.

   Archives on the Internet are defined in almost exactly pretty much the exact same
   way. thing.  The
   motive and much of the content is the same, but the media changes
   (from paper files, to electronic files), and as such allows for a
   much greater diversity of content.

   Archives on the Internet also allow many people access to their
   files simultaniously, simultaneously, and from all over the world.

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   Any and all information that people want to make available on the
   Internet can be.  This means there is alot of a truly vast amount of
   information out there, with more being added every day.  In fact
   there is so much information out
   there, that it is sometimes difficult and necessitates powerful tools
   confusing to sort through it all.

   Imagine that find the information you have traveled back in time to want.  This is the famed Library topic of Alexandria, where all the diverse knowledge our
   next section.

3.3. Searching

   One of the ancient
   world was collected for study.  And imagine trying great challenges facing the internet is how to find
   Plato's writings without benefit organize
   the vast amounts of a card catalog..."Oh, try
   looking information in ways that urn over there, allow most people to
   find what they want.  In theory, there may be a "perfect"
   organization, but in practice, we will never achieve it.  This means
   that finding the second nook back."

   Once information you are want on the Internet it quickly becomes clear that a great
   deal of information is "out there", net may require some
   skill on your part.  Fortunately there are many tools and strategies
   that finding and sorting
   through may be helpful.

   One of the all time great ideas for finding the possible sources of data information you want
   is a thing called a search engine.  A search engine is a daunting task.
   Indexing computer
   program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time
   downloading information from other computers and searching tools are two building an index of the most popular and useful
   services available today on the Internet.
   what lives where.  This section describes
   useful features, and shows how they might best be used.

3.3.1 Indexing vs. Searching

   The difference between indexing and searching is comparable to
   collecting and sorting card catalog cards at a library, versus
   browsing through someone elses cards or the shelves themselves.

   In behavior has given them the former, nickname of Web
   Crawlers.  What this means to you, is that you are creating definite categories, and can then
   "zoom in" on call up the topic and subtopics of interest. Search engines, on
   the other hand, allow the user to
   Engine's home page, and enter in a subject, name, title, or
   random string pattern, which is then cross checked against a large
   collection of WWW pages or USENET news articles. random
   string pattern, which is then used to search the engines index
   for stuff out on the net that seems related.  This can lead to both a
   large volume of information, and some rather startling discoveries of
   information from unsuspected sources.

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   Some of the available Searchers and Indices on the Internet include:

   Yahoo      - Index of WWW sites, with search capabilities
   DejaNews   - USENET (news groups) search engine
   WebCrawler -
   Lycos      -
   AltaVista  - WWW and USENET search engine
   Magellan   - Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites, with
                search capabilities

   Yahoo, for example, has a high-level category called "Arts", which
   has a multitude of subcategories below it, most of which have further
   subdivision, each of which can contain lists of lists.  For example,
   to find information on Modern Dance, one can follow the links to

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   or simply type "Modern Dance" into the search field and choose from a
   list of selections returned.

   On a typical attempt on March 25, 1997, Yahoo returned 4 major
   categories of Modern Dance, and offered 82 other links to related
   pages around the web.

++ info on WAIS

3.3.2 Compound Searches

   After experimenting with the available search engines, it quickly
   becomes clear that searching on a broad category can result in too
   much information.  For example, a recent search at AltaVista for the
   subject "Rembrandt" matched over 8500 individual items, including
   information on the famous artist (Rembrandt von Rijn (1606-1669)),

   URL: and His

   URL: a
   hotel in Thailand (Rembrandt Hotel and Plaza, Bangkok),

   URL: and a pizza
   restaurant in California


   To be more particular in what you find, all of the available
   search engines allow you to do compound searches, in which multiple
   keywords are used, possibly in combination with Boolean logic
   operators such as AND, OR, and NOT. For example, to focus in on
   Rembrandt the artist, at the exclusion of pizza cafes, try the
   following advanced search in Magellan:

   Rembrandt +artist -pizza

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   Note that the method of entering search items differs slightly
   from service to service.  When trying a new service, check the
   available help topic before searching.  And as with any new skill,
   practice, practice, practice!

++ Joe:;

   Test of search scope:
     Lycos:     rembrandt.                       1837 relevant documents
     Lycos:     rembrandt and artist and portrait   6 relevant documents
     Yahoo:     rembrandt                 2 Catagory and 39 site matches
     Yahoo:     rembrandt and artist      2 Catagory and 11 site matches
     Magellan:  rembrandt                                    666 results
     Magellan:  rembrandt and artist and portrait          39379 results

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     AltaVista: rembrandt                        about "10000" documents
     AltaVista: rembrandt +artist +museum          about "100" documents
     WebCrawler: rembrandt.                     347 matching "rembrandt"
     WebCrawler: rembrandt and artist and portrait 21 matching documents

++ Let them know that searching is an iterative process, keep going,
++ from one search key and continue, multiple levels... part of the joy
++ of the net, exploring the net.

   Test of search scope:
     Lycos:     <unavailable>
     Yahoo:     rembrandt                     11 matches
     Magellan:  rembrandt +artist +portrait   1309 links
     AltaVista: rembrandt +artist +portrait   "about 10000" links
     WebCrawler: rembrand artist portrait     17299

4.  Accessing the Internet

   Accessing the Internet in terms of simply receiving, downloading,
   and viewing files files, uses most of the same networking tools (software and
   hardware) needed to create files and make them available on the
   Internet.  This Chapter section, and the next next, overlap in the areas of basic
   hardware and networking software.

   The Internet can be accessed in many comfortable ways: at school,
   at home, at work, and even at trendy CyberCoffeeHouses.  Accessing
   the Internet is not synonymous with publishing and displaying on the
   Internet, however.  You will may need different equipment for creating
   vs. and
   retrieving content.  This chapter section describes how to do both, but first
   you will need to get your feet wet with Internet terminology.

   A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a type of Internet 'address'
   which identifies where a file (text, graphic, audio, video, etc) etc.)
   resides.  The URL may look like
   ''  Just like
   humans who live in different types of residences: condominiums,
   houses, mobile homes, igloos, etc., files reside in different types
   of computer servers.  (Computers that are connected to a network
   (such as the Internet) and distribute information are generally
   called servers.)  Unlike a human address, the document's type of
   residence must be identified in its URL.  For example, if the
   document lives on a World-Wide Web server, its URL will start with
   http:// (which stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol).  If the file
   calls a File Tranfer Transfer Protocol server home, its address will start
   with ftp:// (for File Tranfer Transfer Protocol).  Other common residences
   include gopher:// and telnet://.

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   After the type of residence is identified, the document's URL
   describes the exact computer that houses the document.  The name of
   the computer contains letters or numbers unique to that computer.
   This name is called an Internet Protocol (IP) address and describes
   the type of neighborhood the computer resides in.  For example, all
   the servers that belong to a specific organization will contain
   similar numbers (but each individual server will still contain a

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   unique indentifier). identifier).  This means that all the computers that are
   associated with the US government will belong to the neighborhood
   '.gov'. Computers in Canada belong to the '.ca' neighborhood.
   Numerous neighborhoods around the world are given '.'distinctions.

   Neighborhoods can be further divided into sections. For example,
   all the servers at the White House in the US may have
   ''.  To distinguish between all the servers at the
   white House, another set of letters (or numbers) is needed:
   ''. Thus, a WWW server at the White House may
   have the URL: '' '' .

   But, this address just identifies the document's neighborhood; to
   find its house, the URL must include more specific information. A
   neighborhood is generally divided into streets. Likewise, a computer
   server is divided into directories or folders. Steering through a
   server to find a document may require many directories. For example,
   a graphic may reside in a directory called 'icons'. (The names of
   directories differ on all computers.) computers, but some standards prevail.)
   If the graphic is called help.gif, its URL may be
   ''. '.gif' is a
   document extension that describes its format.  Gif is short for
   Graphic Image Format.  Document formats include .html,.txt .html, .txt (for
   text documents) .gif, .jpg (for graphics), .ram, .wav (for audio),
   and others.

4.1 Getting Started

++ Non-electronic media (magazines, etc.) containing pointers
++ Organizations, pointers to cyber-coffee houses, cyber-cafes, educational
++ institutions or
++ programs, etc.
++ introduce viruses prior to 4.2

   Creating online content involves moving your art into an
   electronic format and then, perhpas, perhaps, re-formatting it for the
   Internet.  For some art forms, the intitial initial electronic step is fairly
   painless: translating a short story, poem, novel (or any type of
   creative writing that doesn't have much desktop publishing
   formatting, for example) into HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is
   fairly straight forward.  Likewise, moving a computer graphic to the
   Internet requires a convertor converter program to make the graphic follow the
   format (please see the Web Provider section below). format.  Performing arts, sculpture, and other pieces that are
   hard to capture on a computer disk, require more work and creative

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   Much of the information needed to help you think creatively about
   publicizing your work online is available in classes, books, local
   Internet cafes, and on the Internet itself.  Many INternet Internet magazines
   are available for subscriptions or individual issues can help get you

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   started.  Most new bookstores and, to some extent, used bookstores
   provide numerous volumes of Internet information.  However, even the
   most recently published books may contain outdated information.  For
   the latest 'standards' contact the IETF.

   If you learn better by doing, rather than reading, you may be
   interested in taking a HTML or Internet Introduction course at a
   local college.  Most larger metropolitan area schools provide classes
   for the basics, which can also expose you to other artists.  Make
   sure you read the course description; some courses may only cover
   accessing the Internet while you may want to actually be creating
   documents.  If not colleges in your area offer classes, contact the
   computer science department or the continuing education office and
   suggest a topic.  If the school can attain enough support, they may
   offer a class in the following semester.

   Many Internet Service Providers (see below) (See Section 4.2) will offer free
   classes to get you started accessing and sometimes creating on the Intnernet.
   Internet.  With the competition of Internet providers, you should be
   able to find one or two that offer the classes you need.

   Artists in smaller communities may need to rely more heavily upon
   online sources of information.  To learn about using the Internet,
   you may want to use point a WWW browser to ???


   For more information creating your own content, the following
   sites should be helpful: ???


   If your hometown college does not offer classes about the Internet,
   you may still be able to find a helpful outlet.  When several
   students from large universities returned home to Taos, NM, a couple
   summers ago, they left behind their Interent Internet connections.  Fearing
   that they would have withdrawal symtoms, symptoms, they approached the owner
   of a local bakery and suggested he start an Internet room where he
   could charge surfers by the hour to use the Internet.  The entrepenurial
   entrepreneurial baker applied for a governmental grant and received a
   couple computers with high speed modems.

   You may be able to find CyberCafes (rather than building one) by
   talking with local people or reading the 'Computer Science' magazine.
   Unfortunately, this local newsletter is generally only available in
   large Metropolitan areas in the United States (North America?) You
   may need to surf the Internet to locate the cafes.  One searchable
   index of cafes is available via the Yahoo web page at:

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   Another list of Internet Cafes is available at

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   You may want to use a web crawler, or web search engine, to find a
   cafe.  Yahoo is a common search engine (  In
   the search field type the name of the city/state/country and
   'Internet Cafe' or 'CyberCafe'.  The newsgroup alt.cybercafes should
   also provide some helpful information.  The cafes, some of which
   offer a local bulletin board (either online or on the wall), provide
   a great atmosphere for discussing Internet issues.

4.2  Internet service providers

   Being an Internet Service Provider (ISP) these days is pretty easy
   and can be financially worthwhile, so there are alot of them, and
   they are starting and failing every day.  In addition to the
   information and pointers you will find in this document, many
   organizations exist to help you locate, and choose a service
   provider.  In any case, be sure to get references, not only for the
   ISP but also for the organizations who recommend them.  Some
   organizations exist solely to recommend those who pay them.

++ Include pointers to providers lists
++ include a discussion about Free-Nets and public access sites
++ Michael will try to track Free-Nets down for Canada
++ libraries, community centers, etc.
++ provide basic information about the process for locating ISP's
++ Include International
++ research lists to lists of isp's.

   The following is sent out by the IANA in response to a request for
   an IP network number assignment.

   You should get your IP address (a 32bit number) from your network
   service provider.

   Your network service provider works with a regional registry to
   manage these addresses.  The regional registry for the US is the
   Internic, for Europe is RIPE, for the Asia and Pacific region is the
   AP-NIC, and parts of the world not otherwise covered are managed by
   the Internic.

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   If for some reason your network service provider does not provide you
   with an IP address, you can contact the your regional registry at one
   of the folling following addresses:

              Internic     <>
              RIPE         <>
              AP-NIC       <>

   Please do contact your network service provider first, though.
   The regional registry will want to know all the gory details about
   why that didn't work out before they allocate you an address

++ newspapers, consultants, get references, ipnic, telephone companies
++ electronic arts organizations - Jonathan Kean "will look at it"

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4.3   Computer Software and Hardware Tools

   A basic computer system consists of a box containing a Central
   Processor Unit (CPU), MotherBoard, and Floppy Drive.  It will also
   come with a keyboard, and you will need a Hard Drive, Memory, and a
   Video Monitor.  How much memory, how large a hard drive, and how
   fabulous a monitor, will vary with your needs and experience.

   To connect to an ISP you will also need a modem and a phone line.
   Your normal telephone line will do, but if you have call-waiting you
   may want to disable it for the duration of your networking session so
   that you do not lose data to a lost connection.

   There are many types of computers available including PC's, Macs, and
   other Workstations.  The most affordable systems are generally PCs
   and Macs.  You may also need to choose an Operating System (OS) for
   the machine you choose.

   Personal Computers (PCs) can run a version of DOS, anything from
   Microsoft(R), or a version of Unix (BSDI, FreeBSD, Linux, etc.) Apple
   MacIntosh computers can run the common Mac Windows, or Apples version
   of Unix.  Workstations generally run a Unix derived OS.

   With any system system, you should ensure that it contains the software and
   hardware necessary to maintain both itself as well as and your data.
   Make sure  While
   computer data is not particularly fragile, it is still sometimes lost
   due to hardware/software problems or simple human error.  For this
   reason it is considered important to "backup" your system by making
   extra copies of important data.  While simply copying data onto
   floppy disks could work, the small storage size of the disks makes it
   too much work and too prone to human error for this important job.
   Many large capacity disk or tape drives are available with special
   software specifically for doing backups.  It is highly recommended
   that you get purchase a backup media, solution along with your computer.

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   It is also important to protect your data from being damaged by
   computer viruses.  When you connect to the net and backup move data back and
   forth, it is possible that there can be a small piece of software
   (called a virus) that could hide in some of the data and "infect"
   your system, possibly then using your system to infect other machines
   that you connect to.  These viruses are often created by misguided
   youths as a sort of computer prank, and can accidentally or
   maliciously damage your data.  Fortunately it is possible to buy
   virus checking software with any operating system. that can regularly scan your system to see if
   it has been infected.  This software is important if you are going to
   be downloading information from the net.

   Determining your ideal hardware and software configuration will
   take some time and patience.  You need an understanding of what you
   can, and wish to, create, and how.

   You'll also want to know the limitations and expandability potential
   of the system, so you can determine if it will have a useful
   lifespan.  If the machine cannot grow for the forseeable foreseeable few years,
   it will become obsolete before its given you its fullest value.

   Depending upon your needs, you may require special hardware installed
   in the machine, or attached externally by cables.  These additional
   pieces of hardware are known as peripherals.

   The peripherals needed for accessing information on the Internet
   might include the following:

   - a sound card and speakers (to hear sounds, music, speech, etc.)
   - a cdrom CD-ROM player (to read stored images of artwork)
   - midi equipment for audio artists
   - video equipment for participating in video forums
   - Other equipment for creating content See Chapter Section 5

   Most of these peripherals will require specialized software.  If you
   plan to purchase all the hardware and software at once, find a vendor
   who will connect and test all the hardware, software, and peripherals
   for you.  Due to the complexity of these systems, they can be
   difficult to configure for the inexperienced user.

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4.4   Scanners, recorders, encoders/decoders, multimedia.........

++ need info.

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5.  Creating Content


   As the hardware and software of the net becomes cheaper and better
   understood, the technology itself will become less important than the
   content which lives on the net.  Many of the rewards of the internet
   will go to a computer, or someone with a computer is necessary in
   order the people who create such content.

   There are two different ways to add content to the Internet.  Artists can put their work internet.  One may
   start with pre-existing content (such as paintings or stories), and
   find a place for it, or one may create content specifically for the
   net (such as a web page).

   Let us for the moment assume that you have already created something
   which you would like to make available on the Internet through agencies, consultants, other artists, and
   friends, net.  There are many
   ways in which you could do this.  You could deal with agencies who
   provide this service professionally, find friends or by either buying, renting, leasing others willing
   to do it for free, or borrowing
   equipment.  Artists using their own machines get yourself on the net in some fashion and
   create a place for it yourself.

   If you chose to do it yourself, you will still need
   Internet Access, in the your own computer and
   some form of an "Internet account" via an
   organization, job, school, or internet access from an Internet Service Provider (ISP)
   where they may also have their Web Page.  In addition to an ISP,
   one can also get web space from a dedicated
   or Web Space Provider (WSP).

   For the World Wide Web,

   Once you have a place to put your content, you will need to put it in
   the computer is used right format.  Images may have to create html
   formatting and be digitized, audio may have to
   be recorded into computer files, etc.  (Section 5.2 discusses the
   various types information formats in more detail.)  While hardware, such as
   image scanners, are readily available, there are also many other
   options available.  For example, most printing shops today can do
   high quality image scans and some WSPs may provide this as one of files used to share art
   (ie. image, sound, motion files, etc.).  Once an artist gets
   their work digitized and stored services.

   If you are placing your content on cdrom or disk, they will need the computer to edit Web, a web page must be
   created for it in the form of an HTML document that references the files and incorporate them
   content in the html

++  Alone or with Assistance overview appropriate file format.  While this is easy enough to
   do yourself, many WSPs also offer this service, and there are also
   independent web page designers who may be able to do a better job.

++ What you do will indicate the equipment needed and the format you'll
++ you'll want to create.  Intro to Software needed for use with speakers,
++ speakers, scanners, multimedia, etc.

5.1  When you need assistance:  Getting Help: Consultants, Web Page Designers, Providers, etc.

++  Trusted judges of good consultants, web page designers, etc.
++  discuss with other artists
++  collectives

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++  decide what you want
++  How to find them and choose them.
++  get references

5.2 Basic design issues: Understanding Formats
    (Sound, Image, Text, Hypertext)

++ first list, List, define, and describe, formats and extensions...
++ Sound, Image, Text, Hypertext

   Some artists are actually using html as a medium in itself and are
   helping to push the boundaries of this medium creating perhaps a new
   bleeding edge in this technology.

++ What content exists now?  What is a thumbnail?
++ Mention scanners, tablets, speakers, recorders,
++ encoders/decoders, slide reader video equipment, software needed,
++ wav, mpeg, jpeg, gif, jpg, Compression: jpg vs vs. gif
++ soundtracker mods aka .mod, J. "Sheer" Pullen

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**   Save in-depth for the appropriate subsection.

++ Don't forget Examples: How people are creating content ...

5.3  Text and Hypertext


5.4  Graphic and Moving images


5.5  Music and Sound

   The World Wide Web supports audio data as well as visual data.  The
   most obvious way to send audio across the net would be to use digital
   audio like that used for the Compact Disc or "CD".  However, CD
   format digital audio requires 44,100 16 bit words per second for a
   mono signal, and twice that for a stereo signal.  While there are
   many places where one can find digital audio in Windows ".wav", or
   the Macintosh MacIntosh ".au" format, these files typically take a very long
   time to download even a few seconds of audio.  The size of these
   formats makes them too inefficient for widespread use on the net

   It is however possible to do "useful" audio over the net. The
   emerging "de facto" standard seems to be _RealAudio_, based on the
   freely distributable server/player application, _RealAudio_ version
   2.0, developed by the Seattle based company Progressive Networks.
   First released in 1995, RealAudio allows useable digital audio in
   realtime over a 28.8 kB line, and has already been put into service

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   on the home pages of most major record companies as well as in many
   niche applications.  In addition, RealAudio provides a "Voice mode"
   optimized for understandable speech transmission over a 14.4kB line.

   Unfortunately the quality of _RealAudio_ leaves much to be
   desired.  In particular, the sample rate in Music Mode is only 8Khz
   (as compared to CD quality 44.1 Khz), meaning that all high
   frequencies above 4khz are simply missing.  The resulting audio is
   still pleasing to listen to, but sounds very dull and dark.

   More information about RealAudio can be found at

   Clearly Digital Audio is the way of the future, but until more
   bandwidth is available to the average person, it may not be the way
   of the present.  Fortunatly,  Fortunately, at least in the area of music, there is
   an interesting alternative.

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   MIDI (the Musical Instrument Digital Interface), as developed for
   electronic musical instruments (keyboards, samplers, drum machines,
   etc.) works well for certain kinds of music over the net.  It
   involves sending no sound sources at all, just the description of the
   music -- kind of like the score, without the instruments.  If the
   receiver has the right instruments on their computer (such as the
   sounds defined in the General Midi soundset found on many
   soundcards), they can play back the musical score.

   The big disadvantage to using MIDI is that other than the limited
   selection of sounds in the General Midi set, it is extremely
   difficult to make sure the music sounds more than approximately like
   the original.  And there is no way to handle non-MIDI instruments
   such as guitar or voice, so it is useless to hear the new song by
   your favorite rock and roll band.

   The big advantage to MIDI is how fast it works over slow net
   connections.  For example, five minutes of music, fits in a mere 30k
   file, and usually will not take more than a few seconds even on the
   slowest of dialup connections!  This makes it ideal for applications
   such as networked games, or music to go along with a web page.

   There are many ways of embedding MIDI files into HTML documents,
   for WWW distribution.

   Anyone who wants to add MIDI to a page can choose to use existing
   public access MIDI file banks, of which there are many, or to produce
   new MIDI themselves.

   Crescendo is one package available for embedding MIDI files in
   HTML Crescendo works for both Macintosh MacIntosh and

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   Helpful Links: Publicly Available Audio and Music Applications

   Music of J.S. Bach for keyboard

   RISM (repertoire of manuscript sources), plus other access to
   online scholarly music resoruces. resources.

   Crescendo is used in the web pages at
   along with a growing number of others.  One very interesting use of
   Crescendo occurs on the Music Theory Online publication, a serious
   scholarly site for publishing and debating musicology and music
   theory.  Articles there now routinely include short musical examples,
   a great sign of the future of scholarly publishing in the age of
   dynamic, interactive content.

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   Formerly, debate on musical form and structure occured occurred in the
   pages of journals, referring usually to music examples in terms of
   its visual notation.  This notation requires a certain degree of
   training to decode, effectively restricting the potential readership
   to those with this professional training.  With sound examples
   embedded directly in the text, at least the aural effect of the music
   comes across, even to those unable to read the notation accurately.
   This shift shift is appropriate to the newer trends in music scholarship,
   which talk about music in terms of its social and cultural context,
   instead of only in formal terms.

5.6  Content Design Issues


5.7  Publicizing your work


6.  Issues and Challenges

   The Internet has many issues and challenges, among which are
   security, privacy, property rights, copyrights and freedom of speech.
   Security issues involve both the security of your data, as well as
   your image.  Viruses can be transmitted easily over the net, and
   precautions should always be taken.  If you choose to keep your own
   information available on the net it can be the subject of vandalism
   and theft.  You may also find yourself being persecuted for the
   information you provide as more and more people join the Internet
   community and feel the need to impose their morality upon it.

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   This is no different from any society.  We must draw our own lines,
   and our own conclusions.  This section is appropriate to the newer
   trends in music scholarship, which talk about music in terms of
   its social and cultural context, instead of only in formal terms.

5.6  Content Design Issues


5.7  Publicizing your work


6.  Issues terribly brief, and Challenges

**   Reminder that this is BRIEF!  Summary
   entirely summary in nature, and is in no way
** intended to be considered binding, etc. etc...
++   Censorship issues, need *your* help.
   comprehensive.  It is intended to warn you and advise you.  If you
   have real concerns about your property rights, copyrights, and/or
   personal rights, please do your own research.  Internet laws are in
   such a state of flux that they are changing as I write this, and they
   will be changing as you read it.

   At last check, however, freedom of speech was prevailing in the
   United States, and so far the government has not upheld any laws
   prohibiting the exhibition of anything on the Internet.  Support your
   local constitutional rights.

6.1 Security Issues see

 ++See Section 10.


6.2 Viruses see also Security Section 10.

++ jkrey has

   A "virus" is a very specific general information rfc on viruses...

++ What they program that modifies other programs by placing a copy
   of itself inside them.  It cannot run independently.  It requires
   that its host program be run to activate it.

   The damage caused by a virus may consist of the deletion of data or
   programs, maybe even reformatting of the hard disk, but more subtle
   damage is also possible.  Some viruses may modify data or introduce
   typing errors into text.  Other viruses may have no intentional
   effects other than replicating itself.

   Viruses can do, where be transmitted over the Internet inside other programs,
   but usually they come from, how are transmitted by floppy disk.  Your best bet is to
   purchase a really versatile and up-to-date virus checking program
   from your local software retailer, and run it over every floppy you
   plan to read, and every program you plan to run, as well as
   periodically over the entire machine.

   Computer viruses are enough like organic viruses that many of the
   same precautions apply.  Early detection is key.  Diligence will
++ damages, "yes they can get you!" potential damage, but frequent incremental backups are your
   best strategy for recovery.

6.3 Rights

++ Intro to protecting your copyright on the Internet.

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++ References: Copyright law, cases, etc.
** Remember Laws on Intellectual property are constantly changing!
++ examples of: copyright, trademark, disclaimers, international
++ concerns big issue re: other countries who do not recognize U.S US law
++ goes both ways... respecting others copyrights

++ dan to send pointers to eff and blue ribbon

++  The implications of the Telecom Reform Bill with regard to
++  Freedom of Speech.
++ Censorship issues, need *your* help.

++ INTERNATIONALIZE: ie: Canada will not allow the import of anything
++ that is "degrading" to women.  Etc.

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6.4 Conducting Business over the Internet

++ Secure transaction are possible, pointers to pgp, etc.

6.5 Netiquette

++ The Responsible Use of the Network document outline, and pointers.

   FYI 28 "Netiquette Guidelines", (Also RFC 1855), October 1995.

** This was produced by the RUN WG, and they will be meeting at
** San Jose to work on extensions and updates to the above document.

++ It never hurts to keep silent til until you know your audience better.
++ Not being offended by others, ie: don't take it personally
++ keeping in mind international cultural differences, etc.

7.  Glossary

++ point to userglos, trainmat, and useful stuff that needs to be on
++ the same doc. for ease of use

   FYI 29 "Catalogue of Network Training Materials", (Also RFC 2007),
   October 1996.

   FYI 22 "Frequently Asked Questions for Schools", (Also RFC 1941),
   May 1996.

   FYI 18  "Internet Users' Glossary", (Also RFC 1983), August 1996.

** words contained within this document which need to be defined for
** the audience: boolean, Boolean,

8.  Resources

++ Places to find more information of use and interest.
++ specific arts and humanities studies, projects, programs, getty

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   Much of the information provided by this document was gathered
   from other documents.  Wherever important to the discussion, a
   pointer to the document was given, however, many more documents are
   available on many other topics.

8.1 Request for Comment

   One of the most important collections of informational documents
   about the Internet are written as Requests for Comment by the
   Internet Engineering Task Force.  The name Request for Comment is
   historical, as these documents are submitted by their authors' for
   the approval of the Internet community as Internet Standards, and
   valid Informational RFCs called FYIs, of which this document is one.
   Basically, if the IETF collective uses a tool or resource, they
   document its use in an RFC so that there is no mystery to its
   functionality, uses, designations, specifications, or purposes.

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   More information on RFCs, FYIs, the IETF, and its organizations,
   documents, policies and purposes can be found in the RFCs themselves,
   by a number of means.

8.1.1  The ISI RFC-INFO service

   There are many way to get copies of RFCs over the Internet (see
   ConneqXions, Vol.6,No.1, January 1992).  Most of these simply access
   a directory of files where each RFC is in a file.  The searching
   capability (if any) is limited to the filename recognition features
   of that system.

   The ISI RFC-INFO server is a system you can search for an RFC by
   author, date, or keyword (all title words are automatically

   RFC-INFO is an e-mail based service to help in locating and retrival
   retrieval of RFCs and FYIs.  Users can ask for "lists" of all RFCs
   and FYIs having certain attributes ("filters") such as their ID,
   keywords, title, author, issuing organization, and date.  Once an RFC
   is uniquely identified (e.g., by its RFC number) it may also be

   To use the service send e-mail to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU with your requests
   in the body of the message.  Feel free to put anything in the
   SUBJECT, the system ignores it.  (All is case independent,

   Examples of messages to send to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU can be found in independent.)

   See Appendix C. of this document.  Examples for using the RFC server RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU

9. References

++ should we create [#] footnotes?? ie: i.e.: ISN doc, etc.

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++ reference the publications and/or sites of key
++ arts and humanities organizations (e.g. Getty, NINCH)

10. Security Considerations

** jkrey points to site sec. handbook:
** "The "current" Work in Progress for the Site Security Handbook WG
** is the I-D - draft-ietf-ssh-handbook-03.txt.  This group is also
** working on a companion document for the "user".  Stay tuned for
** the I-D.  They should have that out before San Jose."

   There are a wide variety of ways in which systems can be violated,
   some intentional, some accidental.  Of the intentional attacks, a
   portion may be exploratory, others simply abusive of your resources
   (using up your CPU time) but many are actively malicious.  No system
   is 100% safe, but there are steps you can take to protect against
   misconfigured devices spraying packets, casual intruders, and a
   variety of focused assaults.

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   Your best defense is to educate yourself on the subject of
   security.  There are places on the net devoted to teaching users
   about security - most prominently, the CERT Coordination Center
   located at the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon
   university.  You can point your web browser (or direct your ftp
   connection) to to start.  This is a
   frequently asked questions guide and general overview on CERT.  It
   includes a bibliography of suggested reading and a variety of sources
   to find more information.

   Next, you should probably read

   which contains a (primarily based on the UNIX operating system)
   checklist to help you determine whether you're site has suffered a
   security breach.  You can use it to guide you through handling a
   specific incident if you think your system has been compromised or
   you can use it as a list of common vulnerabilities.  CERT also
   maintains a wide variety of bulletins, software patches, and tools to
   help you keep up to date and secure.

   Before you are even online, you should consider some basic steps:

10.1 Formulate a security policy.

   It should include policies regarding physical access procedures,
   security incident response, online privileges and back-up media.  Put
   a message at the login to establish your policy clearly.

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   An example:

   "This system is for the use of authorized users only.  It may be
   monitored in the course of routine operation to detect unauthorized
   use.  Evidence of unauthorized use or criminal activity may result in
   legal prosecution."

10.1.1. Talk to your Internet Service Provider.

   Depending upon your provider and router management situation, there
   are a number of things your ISP should be able to do for you to make
   your site more secure.  Foremost, packet filtering on the router that
   connects you to the internet.  You will want to consider IP filters
   to allow specific types of traffic (web, ftp, mail, etc.) to certain
   machines (the mailhost, the web server, etc.) and no others.  Other
   filters can block certain types of IP spoofing where the intruder
   masks his or her identity using an IP address from inside your
   network to defeat your filters.  Discuss your concerns and questions
   with your provider - the company may have standards or tools they can

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10.1.2. Make sure your systems are up to date.

   A significant number of incidents happen because older versions of
   software have well-known weaknesses that can be exploited from almost
   anywhere on the internet.  CERT provides a depository for software
   patches designed by concerned net.citizens, CERT's engineers and by
   the vendors themselves.

10.1.3. Use the tools available.

   Consider recording MD5 checksums on read-only media (the MD5
   message-digest MD5-digest
   algorithm determines an electronic "fingerprint" for files to
   indicate their uniqueness -comparing more recent checksums to older
   ones can alert you to changes in important system files), installing
   tripwire on your systems (notes size and MD5 checksum changes, among
   other sanity checks), and periodically testing the integrity of your
   machines with programs an intruder might use, like SATAN and crack.
   [Details on MD5 are contained in RFC 1321.]

   Most files and fixes go through the basics before leaving you to
   figure things out on your own, but security can be a complicated
   issue, both technically and morally.  When good security is
   implemented, no one really notices.  Unfortunately, no one notices
   when it's not taken care of either.  That is until the system
   crashes, your data gets corrupted, or you get a phone call from an
   irate company whose site was cracked from your machines.  It doesn't
   matter if you carry only public information.  It doesn't matter if

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   you think you're too small or unimportant to be noticed.  No one is
   too small or too big, no site is immune.  Take precautions and be

11. Acknowledgements Acknowledgments

   Joseph Aiuto
   Michael Century
   Kelly Cooper
   Lile Elam
   Dan Harrington
   Julie Jensen
   Walter Stickle

12. Authors' Address

   Janet Max

   Scott Stoner

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Appendix A.

++humanities computing projects, research projects,
++text encoding project (michael century) need to maintain perspective
++of the historic art archives and the "current" art in culture
++AHIB?  Marty Harris, Susan Sigfried NIDGE?

   Examples of Projects on the Internet of Interest to the Arts and
   Humanities Communities

   The commonplace insight about the web as a new distribution
   channel for cultural products is that it effaces the traditional
   border between producer and consumer.  Publishers exploit two-way
   interactivity by re-designing the editorial mix to include reader
   response.  Here follows some examples of the way creative artists
   attempt to design structures flexible enough for significant viewer

   RENGA ( - An inspired transposition of a
   traditional collaborative writing practice into the realm of digital
   media supported by the NTT InterCommunication Centre in Tokyo.  Renga
   means linked-image or linked-poem, and draws on the Japanese
   tradition of collaboration which effaces the unique notion of
   original author.

   PING ( - by Art+Com, a Berlin
   based media centre and thinktank.  Art+Com is a leader in producing

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   high-end net visualization projects.  Ping lets the browser add a
   link, which then becomes a part of the ongoing visual structure.  It
   is similar, in this sense, to the Toronto Centre for Landscape
   Architecture's OASIS site.

   Art+Com's T-Vision project (
   which uses satellites and networked VR computers to permit an
   astonishing fly-in to earth from space: acclaimed as one of the most
   imaginative realizations of the potential of networked computing.

   OASIS (

   OASIS(Image)INTERNET-DRAFT Toronto Centre for Landscape
   Architecture's OASIS site requires a specialized browser, but from a
   standard Netscape connection, you can view stills that give a sense
   of the beautiful images produced by the collaborative "design
   process".  It is introduced by its designers as follows:

   Oasis is a shared 3-Dimensional navigational environment for the
   world wide web.  This virtual landscape allows one to bury their own
   information links throughout the terrain or to discover and connect
   to new information left by others.

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   TechnoSphere ( Is
   TechnoSphere a Game?

   Yes and no. It's an experiment on a global scale, a chance to
   develop complex artificial life on digital networks.  TechnoSphere is
   interactive like a game, but transgresses the linear boundaries of
   branching and hierarchical games narrative to enable freer movement.
   TechnoSphere is designed to encourage a non-linear
   experiental experiential

   Body Missing (

   Toronto artist Vera Frenkel created this richly evocative site on
   the disappearance of art and memory as an extension of her Transit
   Bar installation.  It is conceived as a site open to new
   'reconstructions' of the artworks confiscated during the Third Reich.
   First opened to the public as part of the ISEA95 exhibition in
   Montreal, it has since earned widespread critical comment and praise.

   Molecular Clinic 1.0

   Molecular Clinic 1.0 ' is an art project realized through a
   collaboration between ARTLAB and Seiko Mikami, and is one of the most
   elaborate custom designed art projets projects yet created for the Web.
   During their initial visit users should download the MOLECULAR ENGINE
   VIEWER, which is a type of molecular laboratory for their computer.
   What they will see on the web site after this initial download is a

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   virtual space containing a three dimensional computer generated
   Spider and Monolith object.  The user will be able to navigate
   through and into this virtual space and can zoom into the spider all
   the way to the molecular level.

   File Room ( -
   Cumulative database info on Censorship, hosted in Chicago but
   conceived by Spanish artist Antoni Muntadas.

   Idea Futures  ( -

   Winner of the grand prize at the 1995 Ars Electronica competition
   for Web Sites, Idea Futures is a stock market of ideas, based on the
   theories of mathematical economist Robin Hanson.  The 'truth' of any
   claim is assigned a weight calculated by the amount of virtual cash
   which members of the exchange are willing to bet.  The scheme leads
   might lead toward a radical democratization of academic discourse,
   but just as easily, toward the trivialization of thought.  See the
   following for a philosophical critique of the system.

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   Firefly ( also a prize winner at Ars
   Electronica in 1995, Firefly is an prototypical example of what
   enthusiasts call a "personal music recommendation agent", which makes
   suggestions for what you might like to listen to, based on a stored
   profile of your own likes and dislikes, and the evolving ratings
   submitted to the system by other members.  Worth visiting, if only to
   understand what all the fashionable hype about 'intelligent agents'
   is all about; skeptics should know that even the promoters of these
   services admit the circularity of their systems: they're capable of
   reinforcing existing taste, but little else.

Appendix B:  Some other URL's of interest

   Arts on the Net
   Artist Memorials(?) Memorials
   Personal Journals
   Musical Groups (Grateful Dead) (Phish)

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Appendix C:

   To get started you may send a message to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU with
   requests such as in the following examples (without the explanation
   between []):

        Help: Help              [to get this information]

        List: FYI               [list the FYI notes]
        List: RFC               [list RFCs with window as keyword or
                                 in title]
         keywords: window
        List: FYI               [list FYIs about windows]
         Keywords: window
        List: *                 [list both RFCs and FYIs about windows]
         Keywords: window
        List: RFC               [list RFCs about ARPANET, ARPA
                                 NETWORK, etc.]
         title: ARPA*NET
         List: RFC              [list RFCs issued by MITRE, dated
          Organization: MITRE
          Dated-after:  Jan-01-1989
          Dated-before: Dec-31-1991
        List: RFC               [list RFCs obsoleting a given RFC]
          Obsoletes: RFC0010
        List: RFC               [list RFCs by authors starting with
         Author: Bracken*       [* is a wild card matches everything]
        List: RFC               [list RFCs by both Postel and Gillman]
          Authors: J. Postel    [note, the "filters" are ANDed]
          Authors: R. Gillman
        List: RFC               [list RFCs by any Crocker]
          Authors: Crocker
        List: RFC               [list only RFCs by S.D. Crocker]
          Authors: S.D. Crocker
        List: RFC               [list only RFCs by D. Crocker]
          Authors: D. Crocker

        Retrieve: RFC           [retrieve RFC-822]
          Doc-ID: RFC0822       [note, always 4 digits in RFC number]

        Help: Ways_To_Get_RFCs  [to get the list of RFC library hosts]
        Help: Manual            [to retrieve the long user manual]
        Help: List              [how to use the LIST request]
        Help: Retrieve          [how to use the RETRIEVE request]
        Help: Topics            [list topics for which help is
        Help: Dates             ["Dates" is such a topic]
        List: keywords          [list the keywords in use]
        List: organizations     [list the organizations known to the
   Please try using this service.  Report problems to