draft-ietf-hokey-rfc5296bis-07.txt   rfc6696.txt 
Network Working Group Z. Cao Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Z. Cao
Internet-Draft China Mobile Request for Comments: 6696 China Mobile
Obsoletes: 5296 (if approved) B. He Obsoletes: 5296 B. He
Intended status: Standards Track CATR Category: Standards Track CATR
Expires: November 18, 2012 Y. Shi ISSN: 2070-1721 Y. Shi
Q. Wu, Ed. Q. Wu, Ed.
Huawei Huawei
G. Zorn, Ed. G. Zorn, Ed.
Network Zen Network Zen
May 17, 2012 July 2012
EAP Extensions for EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP) EAP Extensions for the EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP)
draft-ietf-hokey-rfc5296bis-07
Abstract Abstract
The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a generic framework The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a generic framework
supporting multiple types of authentication methods. In systems supporting multiple types of authentication methods. In systems
where EAP is used for authentication, it is desirable to avoid where EAP is used for authentication, it is desirable to avoid
repeating the entire EAP exchange with another authenticator. This repeating the entire EAP exchange with another authenticator. This
document specifies extensions to EAP and the EAP keying hierarchy to document specifies extensions to EAP and the EAP keying hierarchy to
support an EAP method-independent protocol for efficient re- support an EAP method-independent protocol for efficient re-
authentication between the peer and an EAP re-authentication server authentication between the peer and an EAP re-authentication server
through any authenticator. The re-authentication server may be in through any authenticator. The re-authentication server may be in
the home network or in the local network to which the peer is the home network or in the local network to which the peer is
connecting. connecting.
This memo obsoletes RFC 5296. This memo obsoletes RFC 5296.
Status of this Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering This is an Internet Standards Track document.
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 18, 2012. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6696.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
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skipping to change at page 3, line 7 skipping to change at page 3, line 7
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction ....................................................4
1.1. Changes from RFC 5296 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Changes from RFC 5296 ......................................5
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology .....................................................5
3. ERP Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. ERP Description .................................................7
3.1. ERP With the Home ER Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1. ERP with the Home ER Server ...............................10
3.2. ERP With a Local ER Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2. ERP with a Local ER Server ................................11
4. ER Key Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. ER Key Hierarchy ...............................................13
4.1. rRK Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.1. rRK Derivation ............................................13
4.2. rRK Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2. rRK Properties ............................................14
4.3. rIK Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.3. rIK Derivation ............................................14
4.4. rIK Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.4. rIK Properties ............................................15
4.5. rIK Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.5. rIK Usage .................................................16
4.6. rMSK Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.6. rMSK Derivation ...........................................16
4.7. rMSK Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.7. rMSK Properties ...........................................17
5. Protocol Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5. Protocol Details ...............................................17
5.1. ERP Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5.1. ERP Bootstrapping .........................................17
5.2. Steps in ERP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.2. Steps in ERP ..............................................20
5.2.1. Multiple Simultaneous Runs of ERP . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.2.1. Multiple Simultaneous Runs of ERP ..................23
5.2.2. ERP Failure Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.2.2. ERP Failure Handling ...............................23
5.3. EAP Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.3. EAP Codes .................................................25
5.3.1. EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start Packet . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.3.1. EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start Packet ..................26
5.3.1.1. Authenticator Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.3.1.1. Authenticator Operation ...................27
5.3.1.2. Peer Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.3.1.2. Peer Operation ............................27
5.3.2. EAP-Initiate/Re-auth Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.3.2. EAP-Initiate/Re-auth Packet ........................28
5.3.3. EAP-Finish/Re-auth Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5.3.3. EAP-Finish/Re-auth Packet ..........................30
5.3.4. TV and TLV Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.3.4. TV and TLV Attributes ..............................32
5.4. Replay Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5.4. Replay Protection .........................................33
5.5. Channel Binding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5.5. Channel Binding ...........................................34
6. Lower-Layer Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 6. Lower-Layer Considerations .....................................35
7. AAA Transport of ERP Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7. AAA Transport of ERP Messages ..................................36
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8. Security Considerations ........................................36
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 9. IANA Considerations ............................................41
10. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 10. Contributors ..................................................41
11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 11. Acknowledgments ...............................................42
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 12. References ....................................................42
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 12.1. Normative References .....................................42
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 12.2. Informative References ...................................42
Appendix A. RFC 5296 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix A. RFC 5296 Acknowledgments ..............................45
Appendix B. Sample ERP Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix B. Sample ERP Exchange ...................................46
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is a an authentication The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) is an authentication
framework that supports multiple authentication methods. The primary framework that supports multiple authentication methods. The primary
purpose is network access authentication, and a key-generating method purpose is network access authentication, and a key-generating method
is used when the lower layer wants to enforce access control. The is used when the lower layer wants to enforce access control. The
EAP keying hierarchy defines two keys to be derived by all key- EAP keying hierarchy defines two keys to be derived by all
generating EAP methods: the Master Session Key (MSK) and the Extended key-generating EAP methods: the Master Session Key (MSK) and the
MSK (EMSK). In the most common deployment scenario, an EAP peer and Extended MSK (EMSK). In the most common deployment scenario, an EAP
an EAP server authenticate each other through a third party known as peer and an EAP server authenticate each other through a third party
the EAP authenticator. The EAP authenticator or an entity controlled known as the EAP authenticator. The EAP authenticator or an entity
by the EAP authenticator enforces access control. After successful controlled by the EAP authenticator enforces access control. After
authentication, the EAP server transports the MSK to the EAP successful authentication, the EAP server transports the MSK to the
authenticator; the EAP authenticator and the EAP peer establish EAP authenticator; the EAP authenticator and the EAP peer establish
transient session keys (TSKs) using the MSK as the authentication Transient Session Keys (TSKs) using the MSK as the authentication
key, key derivation key, or a key transport key, and use the TSK for key, key derivation key, or a key transport key, and use the TSK for
per-packet access enforcement. per-packet access enforcement.
When a peer moves from one authenticator to another, it is desirable When a peer moves from one authenticator to another, it is desirable
to avoid a full EAP authentication to support fast handovers. The to avoid a full EAP authentication to support fast handovers. The
full EAP exchange with another run of the EAP method can take several full EAP exchange with another run of the EAP method can take several
round trips and significant time to complete, causing increased round trips and significant time to complete, causing increased
handover times. Some EAP methods specify the use of state from the handover times. Some EAP methods specify the use of state from the
initial authentication to optimize re-authentications by reducing the initial authentication to optimize re-authentications by reducing the
computational overhead (e.g., EAP-AKA [RFC4187]), but method-specific computational overhead (e.g., EAP Authentication and Key Agreement
re-authentication takes at least 2 round trips with the original EAP (EAP-AKA) [RFC4187]), but method-specific re-authentication takes at
server in most cases. It is also important to note that several least 2 round trips with the original EAP server in most cases. It
methods do not offer support for re-authentication. is also important to note that several methods do not offer support
for re-authentication.
Key sharing across authenticators is sometimes used as a practical Key sharing across authenticators is sometimes used as a practical
solution to lower handover times. In that case, however, the solution to lower handover times. In that case, however, the
compromise of one authenticator results in the compromise of keying compromise of one authenticator results in the compromise of key
material established via other authenticators. Other solutions for material established via other authenticators. Other solutions for
fast re-authentication exist in the literature: for example, see fast re-authentication exist in the literature: for example, see
Lopez, et al. [MSKHierarchy]; Clancy, et al. have described the EAP Lopez, et al. [MSKHierarchy]; Clancy, et al. have described the EAP
re-authentication problem statement in detail [RFC5169]. re-authentication problem statement in detail [RFC5169].
In conclusion, to achieve low latency handovers, there is a need for In conclusion, to achieve low latency handovers, there is a need for
a method-independent re-authentication protocol that completes in a method-independent re-authentication protocol that completes in
less than 2 round trips, preferably with a local server. less than 2 round trips, preferably with a local server.
This document specifies EAP Re-authentication Extensions (ERXs) for This document specifies EAP Re-authentication Extensions (ERXs) for
skipping to change at page 5, line 10 skipping to change at page 5, line 13
Protocol (ERP). It supports EAP method-independent re-authentication Protocol (ERP). It supports EAP method-independent re-authentication
for a peer that has valid, unexpired key material from a previously for a peer that has valid, unexpired key material from a previously
performed EAP authentication. The protocol and the key hierarchy performed EAP authentication. The protocol and the key hierarchy
required for EAP re-authentication are described in this document. required for EAP re-authentication are described in this document.
Note that to support ERP, lower-layer specifications may need to be Note that to support ERP, lower-layer specifications may need to be
revised to allow carrying EAP messages that have a code value higher revised to allow carrying EAP messages that have a code value higher
than 4 and to accommodate the peer-initiated nature of ERP. than 4 and to accommodate the peer-initiated nature of ERP.
Specifically, the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol [RFC5996] must Specifically, the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol [RFC5996] must
be updated to carry ERP messages; work is in progress on this project be updated to carry ERP messages; work is in progress on this project
[I-D.nir-ipsecme-erx]. [IKE-EXT-for-ERP].
1.1. Changes from RFC 5296 1.1. Changes from RFC 5296
This document obsoletes RFC 5296 but is fully backward compatible This document obsoletes RFC 5296 but is fully backward compatible
with that document. The changes introduced in this document focus on with that document. The changes introduced in this document focus on
fixing issues that have surfaced since the publication of the fixing issues that have surfaced since the publication of the
original ERP specification [RFC5296]. An overview of some the major original ERP specification [RFC5296]. An overview of some of the
changes is given below. major changes is given below.
o Co-location of the home ER and EAP servers is no longer required o Co-location of the home EAP Re-authentication (ER) and EAP servers
(see the "ER Server entry in Section 2). is no longer required (see the "ER Server" entry in Section 2).
o The behavior of the authenticator and local ER server during the o The behavior of the authenticator and local ER server during the
bootstrapping process has been clarified (Section 5.1); in bootstrapping process has been clarified (Section 5.1); in
particular, the authenticator and/or local ER server is now particular, the authenticator and/or local ER server is now
required to check for current possesion of the root keys. required to check for current possession of the root keys.
o The authenticator is now recommended, rather than just allowed, to o The authenticator is now recommended, rather than just allowed, to
initiate the ERP conversation by means of the EAP-Initiate/ initiate the ERP conversation by means of the EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth-Start message (Section 5.3.1.1). Re-auth-Start message (Section 5.3.1.1).
In addition, many editorial changes have been made to improve the In addition, many editorial changes have been made to improve the
clarity of the document and to eliminate perceived abmbiguities. A clarity of the document and to eliminate perceived ambiguities. A
comprehensive list of changes is not given here for practical comprehensive list of changes is not given here for practical
reasons. reasons.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
This document uses the basic EAP terminology [RFC3748] and EMSK This document uses the basic EAP terminology [RFC3748] and EMSK
keying hierarchy terminology [RFC5295]. In addition, this document keying hierarchy terminology [RFC5295]. In addition, this document
uses the following terms: uses the following terms:
ER Peer - An EAP peer that supports the EAP Re-authentication ER Peer - An EAP peer that supports the EAP Re-authentication
Protocol. All references to "peer" in this document imply an ER Protocol. All references to "peer" in this document imply an ER
peer, unless specifically noted otherwise. peer, unless specifically noted otherwise.
ER Authenticator - An entity that supports the authenticator ER Authenticator - An entity that supports the authenticator
functionality for EAP re-authentication described in this functionality for EAP re-authentication described in this
document. All references to "authenticator" in this document document. All references to "authenticator" in this document
imply an ER authenticator, unless specifically noted otherwise. imply an ER authenticator, unless specifically noted otherwise.
ER Server - An entity that performs the server portion of ERP ER Server - An entity that performs the server portion of ERP
described here. This entity may or may not be an EAP server. All described here. This entity may or may not be an EAP server. All
references to "server" in this document imply an ER server, unless references to "server" in this document imply an ER server, unless
specifically noted otherwise. An ER server is a logical entity; specifically noted otherwise. An ER server is a logical entity;
it may not necessarily be co-located with, or physically part of, it may not necessarily be co-located with, or physically part of,
a full EAP server. a full EAP server.
ERX - EAP re-authentication extensions. ERX - EAP re-authentication extensions.
ERP - EAP Re-authentication Protocol that uses the re- ERP - EAP Re-authentication Protocol. Uses the re-authentication
authentication extensions. extensions.
rRK - re-authentication Root Key, derived from the EMSK or DSRK. rRK - re-authentication Root Key, derived from the EMSK or the
Domain-Specific Root Key (DSRK).
rIK - re-authentication Integrity Key, derived from the rRK. rIK - re-authentication Integrity Key, derived from the rRK.
rMSK - re-authentication MSK. This is a per-authenticator key, rMSK - re-authentication MSK. This is a per-authenticator key,
derived from the rRK. derived from the rRK.
keyName-NAI - ERP messages are integrity protected with the rIK or keyName-NAI - ERP messages are integrity protected with the rIK or
the DS-rIK. The use of rIK or DS-rIK for integrity protection of the DS-rIK. The use of rIK or DS-rIK for integrity protection of
ERP messages is indicated by the EMSKname [RFC5295]; the protocol, ERP messages is indicated by the EMSKname [RFC5295]; the protocol,
which is ERP; and the realm, which indicates the domain name of which is ERP; and the realm, which indicates the domain name of
the ER server. The EMSKname is copied into the username part of the ER server. The EMSKname is copied into the username part of
the NAI. the Network Access Identifier (NAI).
Domain - Refers to a "key management domain" as defined in Domain - Refers to a "key management domain" as defined in Salowey,
[RFC5295]. For simplicity, it is referred to as "domain" in this et al. [RFC5295]. For simplicity, it is referred to as "domain"
document. The terms "home domain" and "local domain" are used to in this document. The terms "home domain" and "local domain" are
differentiate between the originating key management domain that used to differentiate between the originating key management
performs the full EAP exchange with the peer and the local domain domain that performs the full EAP exchange with the peer and the
to which a peer may be attached at a given time. local domain to which a peer may be attached at a given time.
3. ERP Description 3. ERP Description
ERP allows a peer and server to mutually verify proof of possession ERP allows a peer and server to mutually verify proof of possession
of keying material from an earlier EAP method run and to establish a of key material from an earlier EAP method run and to establish a
security association between the peer and the authenticator. The security association between the peer and the authenticator. The
authenticator acts as a pass-through entity for the Re-authentication authenticator acts as a pass-through entity for the re-authentication
Protocol in a manner similar to that of an EAP authenticator protocol in a manner similar to that of an EAP authenticator as
described in RFC 3748 [RFC3748]. ERP is a single round-trip exchange described in Aboba, et al. [RFC3748]. ERP is a single round-trip
between the peer and the server; it is independent of the lower layer exchange between the peer and the server; it is independent of the
and the EAP method used during the full EAP exchange. The ER server lower layer and the EAP method used during the full EAP exchange.
may be in the home domain or in the same (visited) domain as the peer The ER server may be in the home domain or in the same (visited)
and the authenticator (i.e., the local domain). domain as the peer and the authenticator (i.e., the local domain).
Figure 2 shows the protocol exchange. The first time the peer Figure 1 shows the protocol exchange. The first time the peer
attaches to any network, it performs a full EAP exchange (shown in attaches to any network, it performs a full EAP exchange (shown in
Figure 1) with the EAP server; as a result, an MSK is distributed to Figure 2) with the EAP server; as a result, an MSK is distributed to
the EAP authenticator. The MSK is then used by the authenticator and the EAP authenticator. The MSK is then used by the authenticator and
the peer to establish TSKs as needed. At the time of the initial EAP the peer to establish TSKs as needed. At the time of the initial EAP
exchange, the peer and the server also derive an EMSK, which is used exchange, the peer and the server also derive an EMSK, which is used
to derive a re-authentication Root Key (rRK). More precisely, a re- to derive an rRK. More precisely, an rRK is derived from the EMSK or
authentication Root Key is derived from the EMSK or from a Domain- from a DSRK, which is itself derived from the EMSK. The rRK is only
Specific Root Key (DSRK), which is itself derived from the EMSK. The available to the peer and the ER server and is never handed out to
rRK is only available to the peer and the ER server and is never any other entity. Further, an rIK is derived from the rRK; the peer
handed out to any other entity. Further, a re-authentication and the ER server use the rIK to provide proof of possession while
Integrity Key (rIK) is derived from the rRK; the peer and the ER performing an ERP exchange. The rIK is also never handed out to any
server use the rIK to provide proof of possession while performing an entity and is only available to the peer and server.
ERP exchange. The rIK is also never handed out to any entity and is
only available to the peer and server.
EAP Peer EAP Authenticator EAP Server
======== ================= ==========
<--- EAP-Request/ ------
Identity
----- EAP Response/ --->
Identity ---AAA(EAP Response/Identity)-->
<--- EAP Method -------> <------ AAA(EAP Method -------->
exchange exchange)
<----AAA(MSK, EAP-Success)------
<---EAP-Success---------
Figure 1: EAP Authentication
Peer ER Authenticator ER Server Peer ER Authenticator ER Server
==== ============= ====== ==== ================ =========
<-- EAP-Initiate/ ----- <-- EAP-Initiate/ -----
Re-auth-Start Re-auth-Start
[<-- EAP-Request/ ------ [<-- EAP-Request/ ------
Identity] Identity]
---- EAP-Initiate/ ----> ----AAA(EAP-Initiate/ ----------> ---- EAP-Initiate/ ----> ----AAA(EAP-Initiate/ ---------->
Re-auth/ Re-auth/ Re-auth/ Re-auth/
[Bootstrap] [Bootstrap]) [Bootstrap] [Bootstrap])
<--- EAP-Finish/ ------> <---AAA(rMSK,EAP-Finish/--------- <--- EAP-Finish/ ------> <---AAA(rMSK,EAP-Finish/---------
Re-auth/ Re-auth/ Re-auth/ Re-auth/
[Bootstrap] [Bootstrap]) [Bootstrap] [Bootstrap])
Note: [] brackets indicate optionality. Note: [] brackets indicate optionality.
Figure 2: ERP Exchange Figure 1: ERP Exchange
Two EAP codes, EAP-Initiate and EAP-Finish, are specified in this EAP Peer EAP Authenticator EAP Server
======== ================= ==========
<--- EAP-Request/ ------
Identity
----- EAP Response/ --->
Identity ---AAA(EAP Response/Identity)-->
<--- EAP Method -------> <------ AAA(EAP Method -------->
exchange exchange)
<----AAA(MSK, EAP-Success)------
<---EAP-Success---------
Figure 2: EAP Authentication
Two EAP codes -- EAP-Initiate and EAP-Finish -- are specified in this
document for the purpose of EAP re-authentication. When the peer document for the purpose of EAP re-authentication. When the peer
identifies a target authenticator that supports EAP re- identifies a target authenticator that supports EAP
authentication, it performs an ERP exchange, as shown in Figure 2; re-authentication, it performs an ERP exchange, as shown in Figure 1;
the exchange itself may happen when the peer attaches to a new the exchange itself may happen when the peer attaches to a new
authenticator supporting EAP re-authentication, or prior to authenticator supporting EAP re-authentication, or prior to
attachment. The peer initiates ERP by itself; it may also do so in attachment. The peer initiates ERP by itself; it may also do so in
response to an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message from the new response to an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message from the new
authenticator. The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message allows the authenticator. The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message allows the
authenticator to trigger the ERP exchange. The EAP-Finish message authenticator to trigger the ERP exchange. The EAP-Finish message
also can be used by the authenticator to announce the local domain also can be used by the authenticator to announce the local domain
name. name.
It is plausible that the authenticator does not know whether the peer It is plausible that the authenticator does not know whether the peer
supports ERP and whether the peer has performed a full EAP supports ERP and whether the peer has performed a full EAP
authentication through another authenticator. The authenticator MAY authentication through another authenticator. The authenticator MAY
initiate the ERP exchange by sending the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start initiate the ERP exchange by sending the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start
message, and if there is no response, send the EAP-Request/Identity message and if there is no response MAY send the EAP-Request/Identity
message. Note that this avoids having two EAP messages in flight at message. Note that this avoids having two EAP messages in flight at
the same time [RFC3748]. The authenticator may send the EAP- the same time [RFC3748]. The authenticator may send the
Initiate/Re-auth-Start message and wait for a short, locally EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message and wait for a short, locally
configured amount of time. This message indicates to the peer that configured amount of time. This message indicates to the peer that
the authenticator supports ERP. In response to this trigger from the the authenticator supports ERP. In response to this trigger from the
authenticator, the peer can initiate the ERP exchange by sending an authenticator, the peer can initiate the ERP exchange by sending an
EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. If there is no response from the peer EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. If there is no response from the peer
after the necessary number of retransmissions (see Section 6), the after the necessary number of retransmissions (see Section 6), the
authenticator MUST initiate EAP by sending an EAP-Request message, authenticator MUST initiate EAP by sending an EAP-Request message,
typically the EAP-Request/Identity message. Note that the typically the EAP-Request/Identity message. Note that the
authenticator may receive an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message after it authenticator may receive an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message after it
has sent an EAP-Request/Identity message. If the authenticator has sent an EAP-Request/Identity message. If the authenticator
supports ERP, it MUST proceed with the ERP exchange. When the EAP- supports ERP, it MUST proceed with the ERP exchange. When the
Request/Identity times out, the authenticator MUST NOT close the EAP-Request/Identity times out, the authenticator MUST NOT close the
connection if an ERP exchange is in progress or has already succeeded connection if an ERP exchange is in progress or has already succeeded
in establishing a re-authentication MSK. in establishing a re-authentication MSK.
If the authenticator does not support ERP, it will silently discard If the authenticator does not support ERP, it will silently discard
EAP-Initiate/Re-auth messages (Section 5.3.2) since the EAP code of EAP-Initiate/Re-auth messages (Section 5.3.2), since the EAP code of
those packets is greater than 4 ([RFC3748], Section 4). An ERP- those packets is greater than 4 ([RFC3748], Section 4). An ERP-
capable peer will exhaust the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message capable peer will exhaust the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message
retransmissions and fall back to EAP authentication by responding to retransmissions and fall back to EAP authentication by responding to
EAP Request/Identity messages from the authenticator. If the peer EAP-Request/Identity messages from the authenticator. If the peer
does not support ERP or if it does not have unexpired key material does not support ERP or if it does not have unexpired key material
from a previous EAP authentication, it drops EAP-Initiate/ from a previous EAP authentication, it drops EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth-Start messages. If there is no response to the EAP-Initiate/ Re-auth-Start messages. If there is no response to the EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth-Start message, the authenticator SHALL send an EAP Request Re-auth-Start message, the authenticator SHALL send an EAP-Request
message (typically EAP Request/Identity) to start EAP authentication. message (typically EAP-Request/Identity) to start EAP authentication.
From this point onward, RFC 3748 rules apply. Note that this may From this point onward, RFC 3748 rules apply. Note that this may
introduce some delay in starting EAP. In some lower layers, the introduce some delay in starting EAP. In some lower layers, the
delay can be minimized or even avoided by the peer initiating EAP by delay can be minimized or even avoided by the peer initiating EAP by
sending messages such as EAPoL-Start [IEEE_802.1X]. sending messages such as EAPoL-Start [IEEE_802.1X].
The peer sends an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message that contains the The peer sends an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message that contains the
keyName-NAI to identify the ER server's domain and the rIK used to keyName-NAI to identify the ER server's domain and the rIK used to
protect the message, and a sequence number for replay protection. protect the message, and a sequence number for replay protection.
The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message is integrity protected with the rIK. The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message is integrity protected with the rIK.
The authenticator uses the realm in the keyName-NAI [RFC4282] field The authenticator uses the realm in the keyName-NAI field to send the
to send the message to the appropriate ER server. The server uses message to the appropriate ER server. The server uses the keyName to
the keyName to look up the rIK. The server, after verifying proof of look up the rIK. The server, after verifying proof of possession of
possession of the rIK, and freshness of the message, derives a re- the rIK and freshness of the message, derives an rMSK from the rRK
authentication MSK (rMSK) from the rRK using the sequence number as using the sequence number as an input to the key derivation. The
an input to the key derivation. The server then updates the expected server then updates the expected sequence number to the received
sequence number to the received sequence number plus one. sequence number plus one.
In response to the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, the server sends an In response to the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, the server sends an
EAP-Finish/Re-auth message; this message is integrity protected with EAP-Finish/Re-auth message; this message is integrity protected with
the rIK. The server transports the rMSK along with this message to the rIK. The server transports the rMSK along with this message to
the authenticator. The rMSK is transported in a manner similar to the authenticator. The rMSK is transported in a manner similar to
that of the MSK along with the EAP-Success message in a full EAP that of the MSK along with the EAP-Success message in a full EAP
exchange. Hoeper, et al. [RFC5749] discuss an additional key exchange. Hoeper, et al. [RFC5749] discuss an additional key
distribution protocol that can be used to transport the rRK from an distribution protocol that can be used to transport the rRK from an
EAP server to one of many different ER servers that share a trust EAP server to one of many different ER servers that share a trust
relationship with the EAP server. relationship with the EAP server.
The peer MAY request the rMSK lifetime from the server. If so, the The peer MAY request the rMSK lifetime from the server. If so, the
ER server sends the rMSK lifetime in the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. ER server sends the rMSK lifetime in the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message.
In an ERP bootstrap exchange, the peer MAY ask the server for the rRK In an ERP bootstrap exchange, the peer MAY ask the server for the rRK
lifetime. If so, the ER server sends the rRK lifetime in the EAP- lifetime. If so, the ER server sends the rRK lifetime in the
Finish/Re-auth message. EAP-Finish/Re-auth message.
The peer verifies the sequence number and the integrity of the The peer verifies the sequence number and the integrity of the
message. It then uses the sequence number in the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. It then uses the sequence number in the EAP-Finish/Re-auth
message to compute the rMSK. The lower-layer security association message to compute the rMSK. The lower-layer security association
protocol is ready to be triggered after this point. protocol is ready to be triggered after this point.
The ER server is located either in the home domain or in the visited The ER server is located either in the home domain or in the visited
domain. When the ER server is in the home domain and there is no domain. When the ER server is in the home domain and there is no
local ER server in the visited domain, the peer and the server use local ER server in the visited domain, the peer and the server use
the rIK and rRK derived from the EMSK; and when the ER server is in the rIK and rRK derived from the EMSK; and when the ER server is in
the local domain, they use the DS-rIK and DS-rRK corresponding to the the local domain, they use the DS-rIK and DS-rRK corresponding to the
local domain. The domain of the ER server is identified by the realm local domain. The domain of the ER server is identified by the realm
portion of the keyname-NAI in ERP messages. portion of the keyName-NAI in ERP messages.
3.1. ERP With the Home ER Server 3.1. ERP with the Home ER Server
If the peer is in the home domain or there is no local server in the If the peer is in the home domain or there is no local server in the
same domain as the peer, it SHOULD initiate an ERP bootstrap exchange same domain as the peer, it SHOULD initiate an ERP bootstrap exchange
with the home ER server to obtain the domain name. with the home ER server to obtain the domain name.
The defined ER extensions allow executing the ERP with an ER server The defined ER extensions allow executing ERP with an ER server in
in the home domain. The home ER server may be co-located with a home the home domain. The home ER server may be co-located with a home
AAA server. ERP with the Home ER Server is similar to the ERP Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) server. ERP with
exchange described in Figure 2. the home ER server is similar to the ERP exchange described in
Figure 1.
Peer ER Authenticator Home ER Server Peer ER Authenticator Home ER Server
==== ============= ====== ==== ================ ==============
<-- EAP-Initiate/ ----- <-- EAP-Initiate/ -----
Re-auth-Start Re-auth-Start
[<-- EAP-Request/ ------ [<-- EAP-Request/ ------
Identity] Identity]
---- EAP-Initiate/ ----> ----AAA(EAP-Initiate/ ----------> ---- EAP-Initiate/ ----> ----AAA(EAP-Initiate/ ---------->
Re-auth/ Re-auth/ Re-auth/ Re-auth/
Bootstrap Bootstrap) Bootstrap Bootstrap)
<--- EAP-Finish/ ------> <---AAA(rMSK,EAP-Finish/--------- <--- EAP-Finish/ ------> <---AAA(rMSK,EAP-Finish/---------
Re-auth/ Re-auth/ Re-auth/ Re-auth/
Bootstrap Bootstrap) Bootstrap Bootstrap)
Figure 3: ER Explicit Bootstrapping Exchange/ERP with the Home ER Figure 3: ER Explicit Bootstrapping Exchange/ERP
Sever with the Home ER Server
3.2. ERP With a Local ER Server 3.2. ERP with a Local ER Server
The defined ER extensions allow the execution of ERP with an ER The defined ER extensions allow the execution of ERP with an ER
server in the local domain (access network) if the peer moves out of server in the local domain (access network) if the peer moves out of
the home domain and a local ER server is present in the visited the home domain and a local ER server is present in the visited
domain. The local ER server may be co-located with a local AAA domain. The local ER server may be co-located with a local AAA
server. The peer may learn about the presence of a local ER server server. The peer may learn about the presence of a local ER server
in the network and the local domain name (or ER server name) either in the network and the local domain name (or ER server name) either
via a lower layer advertisement or by means of an ERP exchange. The via a lower-layer advertisement or by means of an ERP exchange. The
peer uses the domain name and the EMSK to compute the DSRK and from peer uses the domain name and the EMSK to compute the DSRK and, from
that key, the DS-rRK; the peer also uses the domain name in the realm that key, the DS-rRK; the peer also uses the domain name in the realm
portion of the keyName-NAI for using ERP in the local domain. portion of the keyName-NAI for using ERP in the local domain.
Figure 4 shows the ER Implicit bootstrapping exchange through local Figure 4 shows the ER implicit bootstrapping exchange through a local
ER Server;Figure 5shows ERP with a local ER server. ER server; Figure 5 shows ERP with a local ER server.
Peer EAP Authenticator Local AAA Agent Home EAP Server EAP Authenticator Local AAA Agent
/ER Authenticator /Local ER Server Peer /ER Authenticator /Local ER Server Home EAP Server
==== ================= =============== =============== ==== ================== ================ ===============
<-- EAP-Request/ -- <-- EAP-Request/ --
Identity Identity
-- EAP Response/--> -- EAP Response/-->
Identity --AAA(EAP Response/--> Identity --AAA(EAP Response/-->
Identity, --AAA(EAP Response/ --> Identity, --AAA(EAP Response/ -->
[domain name]) Identity, [domain name]) Identity,
[DSRK Request, [DSRK Request,
domain name]) domain name])
<------------------------ EAP Method exchange------------------> <------------------------ EAP Method exchange------------------>
<---AAA(MSK, DSRK, ---- <---AAA(MSK, DSRK, ----
EMSKname, EMSKname,
EAP-Success) EAP-Success)
<--- AAA(MSK, ----- <--- AAA(MSK, -----
EAP-Success) EAP-Success)
<---EAP-Success----- <---EAP-Success-----
Figure 4: Implicit Bootstrapping ERP Exchange, Initial EAP Exchange Figure 4: Implicit Bootstrapping ERP Exchange, Initial EAP Exchange
Peer ER Authenticator Local ER Server Peer ER Authenticator Local ER Server
==== ================ =============== ==== ================ ===============
<-- EAP-Initiate/ -------- <-- EAP-Initiate/ --------
Re-auth-Start Re-auth-Start
[<-- EAP-Request/ --------- [<-- EAP-Request/ ---------
Identity] Identity]
skipping to change at page 13, line 4 skipping to change at page 12, line 18
<-- EAP-Initiate/ -------- <-- EAP-Initiate/ --------
Re-auth-Start Re-auth-Start
[<-- EAP-Request/ --------- [<-- EAP-Request/ ---------
Identity] Identity]
---- EAP-Initiate/ -------> ----AAA(EAP-Initiate/ --------> ---- EAP-Initiate/ -------> ----AAA(EAP-Initiate/ -------->
Re-auth Re-auth) Re-auth Re-auth)
<--- EAP-Finish/ ---------- <---AAA(rMSK,EAP-Finish/------- <--- EAP-Finish/ ---------- <---AAA(rMSK,EAP-Finish/-------
Re-auth Re-auth) Re-auth Re-auth)
Figure 5: Local ERP Exchange Figure 5: Local ERP Exchange
As shown in Figure 4, the local ER server may be present in the path As shown in Figure 4, the local ER server may be present in the path
of the full EAP exchange (e.g., this may be one of the AAA entities, of the full EAP exchange (e.g., this may be one of the AAA entities,
such as AAA proxies, in the path between the EAP authenticator and such as AAA proxies, in the path between the EAP authenticator and
the home EAP server of the peer). In that case, the local ER server the home EAP server of the peer). In that case, the local ER server
requests the DSRK by sending the domain name to the home EAP server requests the DSRK by sending the domain name to the home EAP server
by means of an AAA message. In response, the home EAP server by means of a AAA message. In response, the home EAP server computes
computes the DSRK by following the procedure specified in [RFC5295] the DSRK by following the procedure specified in RFC 5295 and sends
and sends the DSRK and the key name, EMSKname, to the ER server in the DSRK and the key name, EMSKname, to the ER server in the claimed
the claimed domain (i.e., the local ER Server). The local domain is domain (i.e., the local ER server). The local domain is responsible
responsible for announcing that same domain name to the peer via a for announcing that same domain name to the peer via a lower layer
lower layer (for example, through DHCP-based local domain name (for example, through DHCP-based local domain name discovery
discovery [RFC6440], or through the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start [RFC6440] or through the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message with the
message with the local ER server. local ER server).
After receiving the DSRK and the EMSKname, the local ER server After receiving the DSRK and the EMSKname, the local ER server
computes the DS-rRK and the DS-rIK from the DSRK as defined in computes the DS-rRK and the DS-rIK from the DSRK as defined in
Sections 4.1 and 4.3 below. After receiving the domain name, the Sections 4.1 and 4.3 below. After receiving the domain name, the
peer also derives the DSRK, the DS-rRK, and the DS-rIK. These keys peer also derives the DSRK, the DS-rRK, and the DS-rIK. These keys
are referred to by a keyName-NAI formed as follows: the username part are referred to by a keyName-NAI formed as follows: the username part
of the NAI is the EMSKname, the realm portion of the NAI is the of the NAI is the EMSKname, and the realm portion of the NAI is the
domain name. Both parties also maintain a sequence number domain name. Both parties also maintain a sequence number
(initialized to zero) corresponding to the specific keyName-NAI. (initialized to zero) corresponding to the specific keyName-NAI.
If the peer subsequently attaches to an authenticator within the If the peer subsequently attaches to an authenticator within the
local domain, it may perform an ERP exchange with the local ER server local domain, it may perform an ERP exchange with the local ER server
to obtain a rMSK for the new authenticator. The ERP with the local to obtain an rMSK for the new authenticator. ERP with the local ER
ER Server is similar to the ERP exchange illustrated in Figure 2. server is similar to the ERP exchange illustrated in Figure 1.
4. ER Key Hierarchy 4. ER Key Hierarchy
Each time the peer re-authenticates to the network, the peer and the Each time the peer re-authenticates to the network, the peer and the
authenticator establish an rMSK. The rMSK serves the same purposes authenticator establish an rMSK. The rMSK serves the same purposes
that an MSK, which is the result of full EAP authentication, serves. that an MSK, which is the result of full EAP authentication, serves.
To prove possession of the rRK, we specify the derivation of another To prove possession of the rRK, we specify the derivation of another
key, the rIK. These keys are derived from the rRK. Together they key, the rIK. These keys are derived from the rRK. Together they
constitute the ER key hierarchy. constitute the ER key hierarchy.
The rRK is derived from either the EMSK or a DSRK as specified in The rRK is derived from either the EMSK or a DSRK as specified in
Section 4.1. For the purpose of rRK derivation, this document Section 4.1. For the purpose of rRK derivation, this document
specifies derivation of a Usage-Specific Root Key (USRK) or a Domain- specifies derivation of a Usage-Specific Root Key (USRK) or a Domain-
Specific USRK (DSUSRK) [RFC5295] for re-authentication. The USRK Specific USRK (DSUSRK) [RFC5295] for re-authentication. The USRK
designated for re-authentication is the re-authentication root key designated for re-authentication is the rRK. A DSUSRK designated for
(rRK). A DSUSRK designated for re-authentication is the DS-rRK re-authentication is the DS-rRK available to a local ER server in a
available to a local ER server in a particular domain. For particular domain. For simplicity, the keys are referred to without
simplicity, the keys are referred to without the DS label in the rest the DS label in the rest of the document. However, the scope of the
of the document. However, the scope of the various keys is limited various keys is limited to just the respective domains for which they
to just the respective domains for which they are derived, in the are derived, in the case of the domain-specific keys. Based on the
case of the domain specific keys. Based on the ER server with which ER server with which the peer performs the ERP exchange, it knows the
the peer performs the ERP exchange, it knows the corresponding keys corresponding keys that must be used.
that must be used.
The rRK is used to derive an rIK, and rMSKs for one or more The rRK is used to derive an rIK and rMSKs for one or more
authenticators. The figure below shows the key hierarchy with the authenticators. The figure below shows the key hierarchy with the
rRK, rIK, and rMSKs. rRK, rIK, and rMSKs.
rRK rRK
| |
+--------+--------+ +--------+--------+
| | | | | |
rIK rMSK1 ...rMSKn rIK rMSK1 ...rMSKn
Figure 6: Re-authentication Key Hierarchy Figure 6: Re-authentication Key Hierarchy
skipping to change at page 14, line 42 skipping to change at page 14, line 15
rRK = KDF (K, S), where rRK = KDF (K, S), where
K = EMSK or K = DSRK and K = EMSK or K = DSRK and
S = rRK Label | "\0" | length S = rRK Label | "\0" | length
The rRK Label is an IANA-assigned 8-bit ASCII string: The rRK Label is an IANA-assigned 8-bit ASCII string:
EAP Re-authentication Root Key@ietf.org EAP Re-authentication Root Key@ietf.org
assigned from the "USRK key labels" name space in accordance with the assigned from the "USRK Key Labels" name space in accordance with the
policy stated in RFC 5295. policy stated in RFC 5295.
The KDF and algorithm agility for the KDF are as defined in RFC 5295. The Key Derivation Function (KDF) and algorithm agility for the KDF
are as defined in RFC 5295.
An rRK derived from the DSRK is referred to as a DS-rRK in the rest An rRK derived from the DSRK is referred to as a DS-rRK in the rest
of the document. All the key derivation and properties specified in of the document. All of the key derivation and properties specified
this section remain the same. in this section remain the same.
4.2. rRK Properties 4.2. rRK Properties
The rRK has the following properties. These properties apply to the The rRK has the following properties. These properties apply to the
rRK regardless of the parent key used to derive it. rRK regardless of the parent key used to derive it.
o The length of the rRK MUST be equal to the length of the parent o The length of the rRK MUST be equal to the length of the parent
key used to derive it. key used to derive it.
o The rRK is to be used only as a root key for re-authentication and o The rRK is to be used only as a root key for re-authentication and
skipping to change at page 15, line 28 skipping to change at page 14, line 48
o The rRK MUST remain on the peer and the server that derived it and o The rRK MUST remain on the peer and the server that derived it and
MUST NOT be transported to any other entity. MUST NOT be transported to any other entity.
o The lifetime of the rRK is never greater than that of its parent o The lifetime of the rRK is never greater than that of its parent
key. The rRK is expired when the parent key expires and MUST be key. The rRK is expired when the parent key expires and MUST be
removed from use at that time. removed from use at that time.
4.3. rIK Derivation 4.3. rIK Derivation
The re-authentication Integrity Key (rIK) is used for integrity The rIK is used for integrity protecting the ERP exchange. This
protecting the ERP exchange. This serves as the proof of possession serves as the proof of possession of valid key material from a
of valid keying material from a previous full EAP exchange by the previous full EAP exchange by the peer to the server.
peer to the server.
The rIK is derived as follows. The rIK is derived as follows:
rIK = KDF (K, S), where rIK = KDF (K, S), where
K = rRK and K = rRK and
S = rIK Label | "\0" | cryptosuite | length S = rIK Label | "\0" | cryptosuite | length
The rIK Label is the 8-bit ASCII string: The rIK Label is the 8-bit ASCII string:
Re-authentication Integrity Key@ietf.org Re-authentication Integrity Key@ietf.org
The length field refers to the length of the rIK in octets encoded as The length field refers to the length of the rIK in octets and is
specified in RFC 5295. encoded as specified in RFC 5295.
The cryptosuite and length of the rIK are part of the input to the The cryptosuite and length of the rIK are part of the input to the
key derivation function to ensure cryptographic separation of keys if KDF to ensure cryptographic separation of keys if different rIKs of
different rIKs of different lengths (for example, for use with different lengths (for example, for use with different Message
different Message Authentication Code (MAC) algorithms) are derived Authentication Code (MAC) algorithms) are derived from the same rRK.
from the same rRK. The cryptosuite is encoded as an 8-bit number; The cryptosuite is encoded as an 8-bit number; see Section 5.3.2 for
see Section 5.3.2 for the cryptosuite specification. the cryptosuite specification.
The rIK is referred to by the EMSKname-NAI within the context of ERP The rIK is referred to by the EMSKname-NAI within the context of ERP
messages. The username part of EMSKname-NAI is the EMSKname; the messages. The username part of the EMSKname-NAI is the EMSKname; the
realm is the domain name of the ER server. In case of ERP with the realm is the domain name of the ER server. In the case of ERP with
home ER server, the peer uses the realm from its original NAI; in the home ER server, the peer uses the realm from its original NAI; in
case of a local ER server, the peer uses the domain name received at the case of a local ER server, the peer uses the domain name received
the lower layer or through an ERP bootstrapping exchange. at the lower layer or through an ERP bootstrapping exchange.
A rIK derived from a DS-rRK is referred to as a DS-rIK in the rest of An rIK derived from a DS-rRK is referred to as a DS-rIK in the rest
the document. All of the key derivation and properties specified in of the document. All of the key derivation and properties specified
this section remain the same. in this section remain the same.
4.4. rIK Properties 4.4. rIK Properties
The rIK has the following properties. The rIK has the following properties:
o The length of the rIK MUST be equal to the length of the rRK. o The length of the rIK MUST be equal to the length of the rRK.
o The rIK is only used for authentication of the ERP exchange as o The rIK is only used for authentication of the ERP exchange as
specified in this document. specified in this document.
o The rIK MUST NOT be used to derive any other keys. o The rIK MUST NOT be used to derive any other keys.
o The rIK must remain on the peer and the server and MUST NOT be o The rIK must remain on the peer and the server and MUST NOT be
transported to any other entity. transported to any other entity.
skipping to change at page 17, line 9 skipping to change at page 16, line 31
peer and the server store the algorithm information after the first peer and the server store the algorithm information after the first
use, and they employ the same algorithm for all subsequent uses of use, and they employ the same algorithm for all subsequent uses of
that rIK. that rIK.
If the server's policy does not allow the use of the cryptosuite If the server's policy does not allow the use of the cryptosuite
selected by the peer, the server SHALL reject the EAP-Initiate/ selected by the peer, the server SHALL reject the EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth message and SHOULD send a list of acceptable cryptosuites in Re-auth message and SHOULD send a list of acceptable cryptosuites in
the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message.
The rIK length may be different from the key length required by an The rIK length may be different from the key length required by an
integrity algorithm. In case of hash-based MAC algorithms, the key integrity algorithm. In the case of hash-based MAC algorithms, the
is first hashed to the required key length using the HMAC algorithm key is first hashed to the required key length using the HMAC
[RFC2104]. In the case of cipher-based MAC algorithms, if the algorithm [RFC2104]. In the case of cipher-based MAC algorithms, if
required key length is less than 32 octets, the rIK is hashed using the required key length is less than 32 octets, the rIK is hashed
HMAC-SHA256 and the first k octets of the output are used, where k is using HMAC-SHA256 and the first k octets of the output are used,
the key length required by the algorithm. If the required key length where k is the key length required by the algorithm. If the required
is more than 32 octets, the first k octets of the rIK are used by the key length is more than 32 octets, the first k octets of the rIK are
cipher-based MAC algorithm. used by the cipher-based MAC algorithm.
4.6. rMSK Derivation 4.6. rMSK Derivation
The rMSK is derived at the peer and server and delivered to the The rMSK is derived at the peer and server and delivered to the
authenticator. The rMSK is derived following an EAP Re-auth Protocol authenticator. The rMSK is derived following an ERP exchange.
exchange.
The rMSK is derived as follows. The rMSK is derived as follows:
rMSK = KDF (K, S), where rMSK = KDF (K, S), where
K = rRK and K = rRK and
S = rMSK label | "\0" | SEQ | length S = rMSK Label | "\0" | SEQ | length
The rMSK label is the 8-bit ASCII string: The rMSK Label is the 8-bit ASCII string:
Re-authentication Master Session Key@ietf.org Re-authentication Master Session Key@ietf.org
The length field refers to the length of the rMSK in octets. The The length field refers to the length of the rMSK in octets and is
length field is encoded as specified in RFC 5295. encoded as specified in RFC 5295.
SEQ is the sequence number sent by the peer in the EAP-Initiate/ SEQ is the sequence number sent by the peer in the EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth message. This field is encoded as a 16-bit number in network Re-auth message. This field is encoded as a 16-bit number in network
byte order (see Section 5.3.2). byte order (see Section 5.3.2).
An rMSK derived from a DS-rRK is referred to as a DS-rIK in the rest An rMSK derived from a DS-rRK is referred to as a DS-rIK in the rest
of the document. The key derivation and properties specified in this of the document. The key derivation and properties specified in this
section remain the same. section remain the same.
4.7. rMSK Properties 4.7. rMSK Properties
The rMSK has the following properties: The rMSK has the following properties:
o The length of the rMSK MUST be equal to the length of the rRK. o The length of the rMSK MUST be equal to the length of the rRK.
o The rMSK is delivered to the authenticator and is used for the o The rMSK is delivered to the authenticator and is used for the
same purposes that an MSK is used at an authenticator. same purposes that an MSK serves when the MSK is used at an
authenticator.
o The rMSK is cryptographically separate from any other keys derived o The rMSK is cryptographically separate from any other keys derived
from the rRK. from the rRK.
o The lifetime of the rMSK is less than or equal to that of the rRK. o The lifetime of the rMSK is less than or equal to that of the rRK.
It MUST NOT be greater than the lifetime of the rRK. It MUST NOT be greater than the lifetime of the rRK.
o If a new rRK is derived, subsequent rMSKs MUST be derived from the o If a new rRK is derived, subsequent rMSKs MUST be derived from the
new rRK. Previously delivered rMSKs MAY still be used until the new rRK. Previously delivered rMSKs MAY still be used until the
expiry of the lifetime. expiry of the lifetime.
o A given rMSK MUST NOT be shared by multiple authenticators. o A given rMSK MUST NOT be shared by multiple authenticators.
5. Protocol Details 5. Protocol Details
5.1. ERP Bootstrapping 5.1. ERP Bootstrapping
We identify two types of bootstrapping for ERP: explicit and We identify two types of bootstrapping for ERP: explicit and
implicit. In implicit bootstrapping, the ER-capable authenticator or implicit. In implicit bootstrapping, the ER-capable authenticator or
local ER server MUST verify whether it has a valid rMSK or rRK local ER server MUST verify whether it has a valid rMSK or rRK
corresponding to the peer. If the ER capable authenticator or the corresponding to the peer. If the ER-capable authenticator or the
local ER server has the key materials corresponding to the peer, it local ER server has the key material corresponding to the peer, it
MUST be able to respond directly in the same way as the home AAA MUST be able to respond directly in the same way as the home AAA
server does without forwarding the DSRK request to the home domain; server does without forwarding the DSRK Request to the home domain;
if not, the ER-capable authenticator or local ER server SHOULD if not, the ER-capable authenticator or local ER server SHOULD
include its domain name in the AAA message encapsulating the first include its domain name in the AAA message encapsulating the first
EAP Response message sent by the peer and request the DSRK from the EAP Response message sent by the peer and request the DSRK from the
home EAP server during the initial EAP exchange. If such EAP home EAP server during the initial EAP exchange. If such an EAP
exchange is successful, the home EAP server sends the DSRK for the exchange is successful, the home EAP server sends the DSRK for the
specified local AAA client or agent (derived using the EMSK and the specified local AAA client or agent (derived using the EMSK and the
domain name as specified in RFC 5295), EMSKname, and DSRK lifetime domain name as specified in RFC 5295), EMSKname, and DSRK lifetime
along with the EAP-Success message. The local AAA client or agent along with the EAP-Success message. The local AAA client or agent
MUST extract the DSRK, EMSKname, and DSRK lifetime (if present) MUST extract the DSRK, EMSKname, and DSRK lifetime (if present)
before forwarding the EAP-Success message to the peer. Note that the before forwarding the EAP-Success message to the peer. Note that the
MSK (also present with the EAP Success message) is extracted by the MSK (also present with the EAP-Success message) is extracted by the
EAP authenticator as usual. The peer learns the domain name through EAP authenticator as usual. The peer learns the domain name through
the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message or by means of lower-layer the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message or by means of a lower-layer
announcement (for example, DHCP [RFC6440]). When the domain name is announcement (for example, DHCP [RFC6440]). When the domain name is
available to the peer during or after the full EAP authentication, it available to the peer during or after the full EAP authentication, it
attempts to use ERP when it associates with a new authenticator. attempts to use ERP when it associates with a new authenticator.
If the peer knows there is no local ER server presented in the If the peer knows there is no local ER server present in the visited
visited domain, it SHOULD initiate Explicit ERP bootstrapping (ERP domain, it SHOULD initiate ERP explicit bootstrapping (ERP exchange
exchange with the bootstrap flag turned on) with the home ER server with the bootstrap flag turned on) with the home ER server to obtain
to obtain the rRK. The peer MAY also initiate bootstrapping to fetch the rRK. The peer MAY also initiate bootstrapping to fetch
information such as the rRK lifetime from the AAA server. information such as the rRK lifetime from the AAA server.
The following steps describe the ERP Explicit Bootstrapping process: The following steps describe the ERP explicit bootstrapping process:
o The peer sends the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message with the o The peer sends the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message with the
bootstrapping flag set (1). The bootstrap message is always sent bootstrapping flag set (1). The bootstrap message is always sent
to the home ER server, and the keyname-NAI attribute in the to the home ER server, and the keyName-NAI attribute in the
bootstrap message is constructed as follows: the username portion bootstrap message is constructed as follows: the username portion
of the NAI contains the EMSKname, and the realm portion contains of the NAI contains the EMSKname, and the realm portion contains
the home domain name. the home domain name.
o In addition, the message MUST contain a sequence number for replay o In addition, the message MUST contain a sequence number for replay
protection, a cryptosuite, and an integrity checksum. The protection, a cryptosuite, and an integrity checksum. The
cryptosuite indicates the authentication algorithm. The integrity cryptosuite indicates the authentication algorithm. The integrity
checksum indicates that the message originated at the claimed checksum indicates that the message originated at the claimed
entity, the peer indicated by the Peer-ID, or the rIKname. entity, the peer indicated by the Peer-ID, or the rIKname.
o The peer MAY additionally set the lifetime flag to request the key o The peer MAY additionally set the lifetime flag to request the key
lifetimes. lifetimes.
o Upon receipt of the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message from a peer, the o Upon receipt of the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message from a peer, the
ERP-capable authenticator verifies whether it has the local domain ERP-capable authenticator verifies whether it has the local domain
name and valid key materials corresponding to the peer. If it name and valid key material corresponding to the peer. If it
knows the local domain name and has valid key material knows the local domain name and has valid key material
corresponding to the peer, it MUST be able to respond directly in corresponding to the peer, it MUST be able to respond directly in
the same way as the home ER does with local domain name included. the same way as the home ER does, with the local domain name
If not, it copies the contents of the keyName-NAI into the included. If not, it copies the contents of the keyName-NAI into
appropriate AAA attribute and may include its domain name in the the appropriate AAA attribute and may include its domain name in
AAA message encapsulating the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message sent by the AAA message encapsulating the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message
the peer. sent by the peer.
o Upon receipt of an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, the home ER o Upon receipt of an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, the home ER
server verifies whether the message is fresh or is a replay by server verifies whether the message is fresh or is a replay by
evaluating whether the received sequence number is equal to or evaluating whether the received sequence number is equal to or
greater than the expected sequence number for that rIK. The home greater than the expected sequence number for that rIK. The home
ER server then verifies that the cryptosuite used by the peer is ER server then verifies that the cryptosuite used by the peer is
acceptable. Next, it verifies the integrity of the message by acceptable. Next, it verifies the integrity of the message by
looking up the rIK and checking integrity checksum contained in looking up the rIK and checking the integrity checksum contained
the Authentication Tag field. If any of the checks fail, the home in the Authentication Tag field. If any of the checks fail, the
ER server sends an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with the Result flag home ER server sends an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with the Result
set to '1'. Please refer to Section 5.2.2 for details on failure flag set to '1'. Please refer to Section 5.2.2 for details on
handling. This error MUST NOT have any correlation to any EAP- failure handling. This error MUST NOT have any correlation to any
Success message that may have been received by the EAP EAP-Success message that may have been received by the EAP
authenticator and the peer earlier. If the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth authenticator and the peer earlier. If the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth
message is well-formed and valid, the server prepares the EAP- message is well formed and valid, the server prepares the
Finish/Re-auth message. The bootstrap flag MUST be set to EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. The bootstrap flag MUST be set to
indicate that this is a bootstrapping exchange. The message indicate that this is a bootstrapping exchange. The message
contains the following fields: contains the following fields:
* A sequence number for replay protection. * A sequence number for replay protection.
* The same keyName-NAI as in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. * The same keyName-NAI as in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message.
* If the lifetime flag was set in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth * If the lifetime flag was set in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth
message, the ER server SHOULD include the rRK lifetime and the message, the ER server SHOULD include the rRK lifetime and the
rMSK lifetime in the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. The server rMSK lifetime in the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. The server
may have a local policy for the network to maintain and enforce may have a local policy for the network to maintain and enforce
lifetime unilaterally. In such cases, the server need not lifetime unilaterally. In such cases, the server need not
respond to the peer's request for the lifetime. respond to the peer's request for the lifetime.
* If the bootstrap flag is set, the ER server MUST include the * If the bootstrap flag is set, the ER server MUST include the
domain name to which the DSRK is being sent along with the EAP- domain name to which the DSRK is being sent along with the
Finish/Re-auth message. EAP-Finish/Re-auth message.
* If the ER server verifies the authorization of a local ER * If the ER server verifies the authorization of a local ER
server, it MAY include the Authorization Indication TLV to server, it MAY include the Authorization Indication TLV to
indicate to the peer that the server that received the DSRK and indicate to the peer that the server that received the DSRK and
that is advertising the domain included in the domain name TLV that is advertising the domain included in the Domain name TLV
is authorized. is authorized.
* An authentication tag MUST be included to prove that the EAP- * An authentication tag MUST be included to prove that the
Finish/Re-auth message originates at a server that possesses EAP-Finish/Re-auth message originates at a server that
the rIK corresponding to the EMSKname-NAI. possesses the rIK corresponding to the EMSKname-NAI.
o If the home ER server is involved in the ERP exchange and the ERP o If the home ER server is involved in the ERP exchange and the ERP
exchange is successful, the home ER server SHOULD request the DSRK exchange is successful, the home ER server SHOULD request the DSRK
from the home EAP server; the home EAP server MUST provide the from the home EAP server; the home EAP server MUST provide the
DSRK for the home ER server (derived using the EMSK and the domain DSRK for the home ER server (derived using the EMSK and the domain
name as specified in RFC 5295), EMSKname, and DSRK lifetime for name as specified in RFC 5295), EMSKname, and DSRK lifetime for
inclusion in the AAA message. The home ER server SHOULD obtain inclusion in the AAA message. The home ER server SHOULD obtain
them before sending the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. them before sending the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message.
o In addition, the rMSK is sent along with the EAP-Finish/Re-auth o In addition, the rMSK is sent along with the EAP-Finish/Re-auth
message in a AAA attribute (for an example, see Bournelle, et message in a AAA attribute (for an example, see Bournelle,
al. [I-D.ietf-dime-erp]. et al. [DIAMETER-ERP]).
o The authenticator receives the rMSK. o The authenticator receives the rMSK.
o When the peer receives an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with the o When the peer receives an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with the
bootstrap flag set, if a local domain name is present, it MUST use bootstrap flag set, if a local domain name is present, it MUST use
that to derive the appropriate DSRK, DS-rRK, DS-rIK, and keyName- that name to derive the appropriate DSRK, DS-rRK, DS-rIK, and
NAI, and initialize the replay counter for the DS-rIK. If not, keyName-NAI, and initialize the replay counter for the DS-rIK. If
the peer SHOULD derive the domain-specific keys using the domain not, the peer SHOULD derive the domain-specific keys using the
name it learned via the lower layer or from the EAP-Initiate/ domain name it learned via the lower layer or from the
Re-auth-Start message. If the peer does not know the domain name, EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message. If the peer does not know the
it must assume that there is no local ER server available. domain name, it must assume that there is no local ER server
available.
o The peer MAY also verify the Authorization Indication TLV. o The peer MAY also verify the Authorization Indication TLV.
o The procedures for encapsulating ERP and obtaining relevant keys o The procedures for encapsulating ERP and obtaining relevant keys
using Diameter are specified in [I-D.ietf-dime-erp]. using Diameter are specified in Bournelle, et al. [DIAMETER-ERP].
Since the ER bootstrapping exchange is typically done immediately Since the ER bootstrapping exchange is typically done immediately
following the full EAP exchange, it is feasible that the process is following the full EAP exchange, it is feasible that the process is
completed through the same entity that served as the EAP completed through the same entity that served as the EAP
authenticator for the full EAP exchange. In this case, the lower authenticator for the full EAP exchange. In this case, the lower
layer may already have established TSKs based on the MSK received layer may already have established TSKs based on the MSK received
earlier. The lower layer may then choose to ignore the rMSK that was earlier. The lower layer may then choose to ignore the rMSK that was
received with the ER bootstrapping exchange. Alternatively, the received with the ER bootstrapping exchange. Alternatively, the
lower layer may choose to establish a new TSK using the rMSK. In lower layer may choose to establish a new TSK using the rMSK. In
either case, the authenticator and the peer know which key is used either case, the authenticator and the peer know which key is used
based on whether or not a TSK establishment exchange is initiated. based on whether or not a TSK establishment exchange is initiated.
The bootstrapping exchange may also be carried out via a new The bootstrapping exchange may also be carried out via a new
authenticator, in which case, the rMSK received SHOULD trigger a authenticator, in which case, the rMSK received SHOULD trigger a
lower layer TSK establishment exchange. lower-layer TSK establishment exchange.
5.2. Steps in ERP 5.2. Steps in ERP
When a peer that has an active rRK and rIK associates with a new When a peer that has an active rRK and rIK associates with a new
authenticator that supports ERP, it may perform an ERP exchange with authenticator that supports ERP, it may perform an ERP exchange with
that authenticator. ERP is typically a peer-initiated exchange, that authenticator. ERP is typically a peer-initiated exchange,
consisting of an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth and an EAP-Finish/Re-auth consisting of an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth and an EAP-Finish/Re-auth
message. The ERP exchange may be performed with a local ER server message. The ERP exchange may be performed with a local ER server
(when one is present) or with the original EAP server. (when one is present) or with the original EAP server.
It is plausible for the network to trigger the EAP re-authentication It is plausible for the network to trigger the EAP re-authentication
process, however. An ERP-capable authenticator SHOULD send an EAP- process, however. An ERP-capable authenticator SHOULD send an
Initiate/Re-auth-Start message to indicate support for ERP. The peer EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message to indicate support for ERP. The
may or may not wait for these messages to arrive to initiate the EAP- peer may or may not wait for these messages to arrive to initiate the
Initiate/Re-auth message. EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message.
The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message SHOULD be sent by an ERP- The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message SHOULD be sent by an ERP-
capable authenticator. The authenticator may retransmit it a few capable authenticator. The authenticator may retransmit it a few
times until it receives an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message in response times until it receives an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message in response
from the peer. The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message from the peer may from the peer. The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message from the peer may
have originated before the peer receives either an EAP-Request/ have originated before the peer receives either an EAP-Request/
Identity or an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message from the Identity or an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message from the
authenticator. Hence, the Identifier value in the EAP-Initiate/ authenticator. Hence, the Identifier value in the EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth message is independent of the Identifier value in the EAP- Re-auth message is independent of the Identifier value in the
Initiate/Re-auth-Start or the EAP-Request/Identity messages. EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start or EAP-Request/Identity messages.
Operational Considerations at the Peer: Operational Considerations at the Peer:
ERP requires that the peer maintain retransmission timers for ERP requires that the peer maintain retransmission timers for
reliable transport of EAP re-authentication messages. The reliable transport of EAP re-authentication messages. The
reliability considerations of Section 4.3 of RFC 3748 apply with the reliability considerations of Section 4.3 of RFC 3748 apply with the
peer as the retransmitting entity. peer as the retransmitting entity.
The EAP Re-auth Protocol has the following steps: ERP has the following steps:
The ERP-capable authenticator sends the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start o The ERP-capable authenticator sends the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start
message to trigger the ERP exchange. message to trigger the ERP exchange.
The peer sends an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. At a minimum, the o The peer sends an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. At a minimum, the
message SHALL include the following fields: message SHALL include the following fields:
a 16-bit sequence number for replay protection * a 16-bit sequence number for replay protection.
keyName-NAI as a TLV attribute to identify the rIK used to * keyName-NAI as a TLV attribute to identify the rIK used to
integrity protect the message. integrity protect the message.
cryptosuite to indicate the authentication algorithm used to * cryptosuite to indicate the authentication algorithm used to
compute the integrity checksum. compute the integrity checksum.
Authentication Tag computed over the message. * authentication tag computed over the message.
When the peer is performing ERP with a local ER server, it MUST o When the peer is performing ERP with a local ER server, it MUST
use the corresponding DS-rIK it shares with the local ER server. use the corresponding DS-rIK it shares with the local ER server.
The peer SHOULD set the lifetime flag to request the key lifetimes The peer SHOULD set the lifetime flag to request the key lifetimes
from the server. The peer can use the rRK lifetime to know when from the server. The peer can use the rRK lifetime to know when
to trigger an EAP method exchange and the rMSK lifetime to know to trigger an EAP method exchange and the rMSK lifetime to know
when to trigger another ERP exchange. when to trigger another ERP exchange.
The authenticator copies the contents of the value field of the o The authenticator copies the contents of the value field of the
keyName-NAI TLV into an appropriate attribute (e.g, User-Name keyName-NAI TLV into an appropriate attribute (e.g., User-Name
[RFC2865]) in the AAA message to the ER server. [RFC2865]) in the AAA message to the ER server.
The ER server uses the keyName-NAI to look up the rIK. It MUST o The ER server uses the keyName-NAI to look up the rIK. It MUST
first verify whether the sequence number is equal to or greater first verify whether the sequence number is equal to or greater
than the expected sequence number. If the ER server supports a than the expected sequence number. If the ER server supports a
sequence number window size greater than 1, it MUST verify whether sequence number window size greater than 1, it MUST verify whether
the sequence number falls within the window and has not been the sequence number falls within the window and has not been
received before. The ER server MUST then verify that the received before. The ER server MUST then verify that the
cryptosuite used by the peer is acceptable. The ER server then cryptosuite used by the peer is acceptable. The ER server then
proceeds to verify the integrity of the message using the rIK, proceeds to verify the integrity of the message using the rIK,
thereby verifying proof of possession of that key by the peer. If thereby verifying proof of possession of that key by the peer. If
any of these verifications fail, the ER server MUST send an EAP- any of these verifications fail, the ER server MUST send an
Finish/Re-auth message with the Result flag set to '1' (Failure). EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with the Result flag set to '1'
Please refer to Section 5.2.2 for details on failure handling. (Failure). Please refer to Section 5.2.2 for details on failure
Otherwise, it MUST compute an rMSK from the rRK using the sequence handling. Otherwise, it MUST compute an rMSK from the rRK using
number as the additional input to the key derivation. the sequence number as the additional input to the key derivation.
In response to a well-formed EAP Re-auth/Initiate message, the ER o In response to a well-formed EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, the ER
server MUST send an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with the following server MUST send an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with the following
contents: contents:
a 16-bit sequence number for replay protection, which MUST be * a 16-bit sequence number for replay protection, which MUST be
the same as the received sequence number. The local copy of the same as the received sequence number. The local copy of
the sequence number MUST be incremented by 1. If the ER server the sequence number MUST be incremented by 1. If the ER server
supports multiple simultaneous ERP exchanges, it MUST instead supports multiple simultaneous ERP exchanges, it MUST instead
update the sequence number window. update the sequence number window.
keyName-NAI as a TLV attribute to identify the rIK used to * keyName-NAI as a TLV attribute to identify the rIK used to
integrity protect the message. integrity protect the message.
cryptosuite to indicate the authentication algorithm used to * cryptosuite to indicate the authentication algorithm used to
compute the integrity checksum. compute the integrity checksum.
Authentication Tag over the message. * authentication tag computed over the message.
If the lifetime flag was set in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth * If the lifetime flag was set in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth
message, the ER server SHOULD include the rRK lifetime and the message, the ER server SHOULD include the rRK lifetime and the
rMSK lifetime. rMSK lifetime.
The ER server causes the rMSK along with this message to to be o The ER server causes the rMSK along with this message to be
transported to the authenticator. The rMSK is transported in a transported to the authenticator. The rMSK is transported in a
manner similar to the MSK and the EAP-Success message in a regular manner similar to the MSK and the EAP-Success message in a regular
EAP exchange. EAP exchange.
The peer looks up the sequence number to verify whether it is o The peer looks up the sequence number to verify whether it is
expecting an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with that sequence number expecting an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with that sequence number
protected by the keyName-NAI. It then verifies the integrity of protected by the keyName-NAI. It then verifies the integrity of
the message. If the verifications fail, the peer logs an error the message. If the verifications fail, the peer logs an error
and stops the process; otherwise, it proceeds to the next step. and stops the process; otherwise, it proceeds to the next step.
The peer uses the sequence number to compute the rMSK. o The peer uses the sequence number to compute the rMSK.
The lower-layer security association protocol can be triggered at o The lower-layer security association protocol can be triggered at
this point. this point.
5.2.1. Multiple Simultaneous Runs of ERP 5.2.1. Multiple Simultaneous Runs of ERP
When a peer is within the range of multiple authenticators, it may When a peer is within the range of multiple authenticators, it may
choose to run ERP via all of them simultaneously to the same ER choose to run ERP via all of them simultaneously to the same ER
server. In that case, it is plausible that the ERP messages may server. In that case, it is plausible that the ERP messages may
arrive out of order, resulting in the ER server rejecting legitimate arrive out of order, resulting in the ER server rejecting legitimate
EAP-Initiate/Re-auth messages. EAP-Initiate/Re-auth messages.
To facilitate such operation, an ER server MAY allow multiple To facilitate such operation, an ER server MAY allow multiple
simultaneous ERP exchanges by accepting all EAP-Initiate/Re-auth simultaneous ERP exchanges by accepting all EAP-Initiate/Re-auth
messages with SEQ number values within a window of allowed values. messages with sequence number values within a window of allowed
Recall that the SEQ number allows replay protection. Replay window values. Recall that the sequence number allows replay protection.
maintenance mechanisms are a local matter. Replay window maintenance mechanisms are a local matter.
5.2.2. ERP Failure Handling 5.2.2. ERP Failure Handling
If the processing of the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message results in a If the processing of the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message results in a
failure, the ER server MUST send an EAP-Finish Re-auth message with failure, the ER server MUST send an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with
the Result flag set to '1'. If the server has a valid rIK for the the Result flag set to '1'. If the server has a valid rIK for the
peer, it MUST integrity protect the EAP-Finish/Re-auth failure peer, it MUST integrity protect the EAP-Finish/Re-auth failure
message. If the failure is due to an unacceptable cryptosuite, the message. If the failure is due to an unacceptable cryptosuite, the
server SHOULD send a list of acceptable cryptosuites (in a TLV of server SHOULD send a list of acceptable cryptosuites (in a TLV of
Type 5) along with the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. In this case, the Type 5) along with the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. In this case, the
server MUST indicate the cryptosuite used to protect the EAP-Finish/ server MUST indicate the cryptosuite used to protect the EAP-Finish/
Re-auth message in the cryptosuite. The rIK used with the EAP- Re-auth message in the Cryptosuite field of that message. The rIK
Finish/Re-auth message in this case MUST be computed as specified in used with the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message in this case MUST be
Section 4.3 using the new cryptosuite. If the server does not have a computed as specified in Section 4.3 using the new cryptosuite. If
valid rIK for the peer, the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message indicating a the server does not have a valid rIK for the peer, the EAP-Finish/
failure will be unauthenticated; the server MAY include a list of Re-auth message indicating a failure will be unauthenticated; the
acceptable cryptosuites in the message. server MAY include a list of acceptable cryptosuites in the message.
The peer, upon receiving an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with the The peer, upon receiving an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message with the
Result flag set to '1', MUST verify the sequence number and, if Result flag set to '1', MUST verify the sequence number and, if
possible, the Authentication Tag to determine the validity of the possible, the authentication tag to determine the validity of the
message. If the peer supports the cryptosuite, it MUST verify the message. If the peer supports the cryptosuite, it MUST verify the
integrity of the received EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. If the EAP- integrity of the received EAP-Finish/Re-auth message. If the
Finish message contains a TLV of Type 5, the peer SHOULD retry the EAP-Finish message contains a TLV of Type 5, the peer SHOULD retry
ERP exchange with a cryptosuite picked from the list included by the the ERP exchange with a cryptosuite picked from the list included by
server. The peer MUST use the appropriate rIK for the subsequent ERP the server. The peer MUST use the appropriate rIK for the subsequent
exchange, by computing it with the corresponding cryptosuite, as ERP exchange by computing it with the corresponding cryptosuite, as
specified in Section 4.3. If the PRF in the chosen cryptosuite is specified in Section 4.3. If the Pseudo-Random Function (PRF) in the
different from the PRF originally used by the peer, it MUST derive a chosen cryptosuite is different from the PRF originally used by the
new DSRK (if required), rRK, and rIK before proceeding with the peer, it MUST derive a new DSRK (if required), rRK, and rIK before
subsequent ERP exchange. proceeding with the subsequent ERP exchange.
If the peer cannot verify the integrity of the received message, it If the peer cannot verify the integrity of the received message, it
MAY choose to retry the ERP exchange with one of the cryptosuites in MAY choose to retry the ERP exchange with one of the cryptosuites in
the List of cryptosuites TLV, after a failure has been clearly the list of acceptable cryptosuites (in a TLV of Type 5), after a
determined following the procedure in the next paragraph. failure has been clearly determined following the procedure in the
next paragraph.
If the replay or integrity checks fail, the failure message may have If the replay or integrity checks fail, the failure message may have
been sent by an attacker. It may also mean that the server and peer been sent by an attacker. It may also mean that the server and peer
do not support the same cryptosuites; however, the peer cannot do not support the same cryptosuites; however, the peer cannot
determine if that is the case. Hence, the peer SHOULD continue the determine if that is the case. Hence, the peer SHOULD continue the
ERP exchange per the retransmission timers before declaring a ERP exchange per the retransmission timers before declaring a
failure. failure.
When the peer runs explicit bootstrapping (ERP with the bootstrapping When the peer runs explicit bootstrapping (ERP with the bootstrapping
flag on), there may not be a local ER server available to send a DSRK flag on), there may not be a local ER server available to send a DSRK
Request and the domain name. In that case, the server cannot send Request and the domain name. In that case, the server cannot send
the DSRK and MUST NOT include the domain name TLV. When the peer the DSRK and MUST NOT include the Domain name TLV. When the peer
receives a response in the bootstrapping exchange without a domain receives a response in the bootstrapping exchange without a Domain
name TLV, it assumes that there is no local ER server. The home ER name TLV, it assumes that there is no local ER server. The home ER
server sends an rMSK to the ER authenticator, however, and the peer server sends an rMSK to the ER authenticator, however, and the peer
SHALL run the TSK establishment protocol as usual. SHALL run the TSK establishment protocol as usual.
5.3. EAP Codes 5.3. EAP Codes
Two EAP Codes are defined for the purpose of ERP: EAP-Initiate and Two EAP codes are defined for the purpose of ERP: EAP-Initiate and
EAP-Finish. The packet format for these messages follows the EAP EAP-Finish. The packet format for these messages follows the EAP
packet format defined in Aboba, et al. [RFC3748]. packet format defined in Aboba, et al. [RFC3748].
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Code | Identifier | Length | | Code | Identifier | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Type-Data ... | Type | Type-Data ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
skipping to change at page 25, line 40 skipping to change at page 25, line 33
Two code values are defined for the purpose of ERP: Two code values are defined for the purpose of ERP:
5 Initiate 5 Initiate
6 Finish 6 Finish
Identifier Identifier
The Identifier field is one octet. The Identifier field MUST The Identifier field is one octet. The Identifier field MUST
be the same if an EAP-Initiate packet is retransmitted due to a be the same if an EAP-Initiate packet is retransmitted due to a
timeout while waiting for a EAP-Finish message. Any new (non- timeout while waiting for an EAP-Finish message. Any new
retransmission) EAP-Initiate message MUST use a new Identifier (non-retransmission) EAP-Initiate message MUST use a new
field. Identifier field.
The Identifier field of the EAP-Finish message MUST match that The Identifier field of the EAP-Finish message MUST match that
of the currently outstanding EAP-Initiate message. A peer or of the currently outstanding EAP-Initiate message. A peer or
authenticator receiving a EAP-Finish message whose Identifier authenticator receiving an EAP-Finish message whose Identifier
value does not match that of the currently outstanding EAP- value does not match that of the currently outstanding
Initiate message MUST silently discard the packet. EAP-Initiate message MUST silently discard the packet.
In order to avoid confusion between new EAP-Initiate messages In order to avoid confusion between new EAP-Initiate messages
and retransmissions, the peer must choose an Identifier value and retransmissions, the peer must choose an Identifier value
that is different from the previous EAP-Initiate message, that is different from the previous EAP-Initiate message,
especially if that exchange has not finished. It is especially if that exchange has not finished. It is
RECOMMENDED that the authenticator clear EAP Re-auth state RECOMMENDED that the authenticator clear EAP Re-auth state
after 300 seconds. after 300 seconds.
Type Type
This field indicates that this is an ERP exchange. Two type This field indicates that this is an ERP exchange. Two type
values are defined in this document for this purpose -- Re- values are defined in this document for this purpose --
auth-Start (Type 1) and Re-auth (Type 2). Re-auth-Start (Type 1) and Re-auth (Type 2).
Type-Data Type-Data
The Type-Data field varies with the Type of re-authentication The Type-Data field varies according to the value of the Type
packet. field in the re-authentication packet.
5.3.1. EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start Packet 5.3.1. EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start Packet
The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start packet contains the fields shown in The EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start packet contains the fields shown in
Figure 8. Figure 8.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Code | Identifier | Length | | Code | Identifier | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Reserved | 1 or more TVs or TLVs ~ | Type | Reserved | 1 or more TVs or TLVs ~
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 8: EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start Packet Figure 8: EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start Packet
Type = 1. Type = 1.
Reserved, MUST be zero. Set to zero on transmission and ignored Reserved: MUST be zero. Set to zero on transmission and ignored
on reception. on reception.
One or more TVs or TLVs are used to convey information to the One or more Type/Values (TVs) or TLVs are used to convey
peer; for instance, the authenticator may send the domain name to information to the peer; for instance, the authenticator may send
the peer. the domain name to the peer.
TVs or TLVs: In the TV payloads, there is a 1-octet type payload TVs or TLVs: In the TV payloads, there is a 1-octet type payload
and a value with type-specific length. In the TLV payloads, there and a value with type-specific length. In the TLV payloads,
is a 1-octet type payload and a 1-octet length payload. The there is a 1-octet type payload and a 1-octet length payload.
length field indicates the length of the value expressed in number The length field indicates the length of the value expressed in
of octets. number of octets.
Domain-Name: This is a TLV payload. The Type is 4. The domain Domain name: This is a TLV payload. The Type is 4. The
name is to be used as the realm in an NAI [RFC4282]. The domain name is to be used as the realm in an NAI [RFC4282].
Domain-Name TLV SHOULD be present in an EAP-Initiate/ The Domain name TLV SHOULD be present in an EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth-Start message. Re-auth-Start message.
In addition, channel binding information MAY be included; see In addition, channel binding information MAY be included; see
Section 5.5 for discussion. See Figure 12 for parameter Section 5.5 for discussion. See Figure 12 for parameter
specification. specification.
5.3.1.1. Authenticator Operation 5.3.1.1. Authenticator Operation
In order to minimize ERP failure times, the authenticator SHOULD send In order to minimize ERP failure times, the authenticator SHOULD send
the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message to indicate support for ERP to the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message to indicate support for ERP to
the peer and to initiate ERP if the peer has already performed full the peer and to initiate ERP if the peer has already performed full
EAP authentication and has unexpired key material. The authenticator EAP authentication and has unexpired key material. The authenticator
SHOULD include the Domain-Name TLV to allow the peer to learn it SHOULD include the Domain name TLV to allow the peer to learn it
without requiring either lower-layer support or the ERP bootstrapping without requiring either lower-layer support or the ERP bootstrapping
exchange. exchange.
The authenticator MAY include channel binding information so so that The authenticator MAY include channel binding information so that the
the server can verify whether the authenticator is claiming the same server can verify whether the authenticator is claiming the same
identity to both parties. identity to both parties.
The authenticator MAY re-transmit the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start The authenticator MAY retransmit the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start
message a few times for reliable transport. message a few times for reliable transport.
5.3.1.2. Peer Operation 5.3.1.2. Peer Operation
The peer SHOULD send the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message in response to The peer SHOULD send the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message in response to
the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message from the authenticator. If the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message from the authenticator. If
the peer does not recognize the EAP-Initiate code value or if the the peer does not recognize the EAP-Initiate code value or if the
peer has already sent the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message to begin the peer has already sent the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message to begin the
ERP exchange, it MUST silently discard the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start ERP exchange, it MUST silently discard the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start
message. message.
skipping to change at page 28, line 14 skipping to change at page 28, line 19
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Code | Identifier | Length | | Code | Identifier | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type |R|B|L| Reserved| SEQ | | Type |R|B|L| Reserved| SEQ |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 1 or more TVs or TLVs ~ | 1 or more TVs or TLVs ~
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| cryptosuite | Authentication Tag ~ | Cryptosuite | Authentication Tag ~
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 9: EAP-Initiate/Re-auth Packet Figure 9: EAP-Initiate/Re-auth Packet
Type = 2. Type = 2.
Flags Flags
'R' - The R flag is set to 0 and ignored upon reception. 'R' - The R flag is set to 0 and ignored upon reception.
'B' - The B flag is used as the bootstrapping flag. If the 'B' - The B flag is used as the bootstrapping flag. If the
flag is turned on, the message is a bootstrap message. flag is turned on, the message is a bootstrap message.
'L' - The L flag is used to request the key lifetimes from the 'L' - The L flag is used to request the key lifetimes from the
server. server.
The remaining 5 bits are set to 0 on transmission and ignored The remaining 5 bits are set to 0 on transmission and ignored
on reception. on reception.
SEQ: An unsigned 16-bit sequence number is used for replay SEQ: An unsigned 16-bit sequence number is used for replay
protection. The SEQ number field is initialized to 0 every time a protection. The SEQ field is initialized to 0 every time a new
new rRK is derived. The field is encoded in network byte order. rRK is derived. The field is encoded in network byte order.
TVs or TLVs: In the TV payloads, there is a 1-octet type payload
and a value with type-specific length. In the TLV payloads, there
is a 1-octet type payload and a 1-octet length payload. The
length field indicates the length of the value expressed in number
of octets.
keyName-NAI: This is carried in a TLV payload. The Type is 1. TVs or TLVs: In the TV payloads, there is a 1-octet type payload
The NAI is variable in length, not exceeding 253 octets. The and a value with type-specific length. In the TLV payloads,
EMSKname is in the username part of the NAI and is encoded in there is a 1-octet type payload and a 1-octet length payload.
hexadecimal values. The EMSKname is 64 bits in length and so The length field indicates the length of the value expressed in
the username portion takes up 16 octets. If the rIK is derived number of octets.
from the EMSK, the realm part of the NAI is the home domain
name, and if the rIK is derived from a DSRK, the realm part of
the NAI is the domain name used in the derivation of the DSRK.
The NAI syntax is specified in Aboba, et al. [RFC4282].
Exactly one keyName-NAI attribute SHALL be present in an EAP- keyName-NAI: This is carried in a TLV payload. The Type is 1.
Initiate/Re-auth packet. The NAI is variable in length, not exceeding 253 octets.
The EMSKname is in the username part of the NAI and is
encoded in hexadecimal values. The EMSKname is 64 bits in
length, and so the username portion takes up 16 octets. If
the rIK is derived from the EMSK, the realm part of the NAI
is the home domain name, and if the rIK is derived from a
DSRK, the realm part of the NAI is the domain name used in
the derivation of the DSRK. The NAI syntax is specified in
Aboba, et al. [RFC4282]. Exactly one keyName-NAI attribute
SHALL be present in an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth packet.
In addition, channel binding information MAY be included; see In addition, channel binding information MAY be included; see
Section 5.5 for discussion. See Figure 12 for parameter Section 5.5 for discussion. See Figure 12 for parameter
specification. specification.
Cryptosuite: This field indicates the integrity algorithm used for Cryptosuite: This field indicates the integrity algorithm used
ERP. Key lengths and output lengths are either indicated or are for ERP. Key lengths and output lengths are either indicated
obvious from the cryptosuite name. We specify some cryptosuites or are obvious from the cryptosuite name. We specify some
below: cryptosuites below:
* 0 RESERVED * 0 RESERVED
* 1 HMAC-SHA256-64 * 1 HMAC-SHA256-64
* 2 HMAC-SHA256-128 * 2 HMAC-SHA256-128
* 3 HMAC-SHA256-256 * 3 HMAC-SHA256-256
HMAC-SHA256-128 is mandatory to implement and SHOULD be enabled in HMAC-SHA256-128 is mandatory to implement and SHOULD be enabled in
the default configuration. the default configuration.
Authentication Tag: This field contains the integrity checksum Authentication Tag: This field contains the integrity checksum
over the ERP packet, excluding the authentication tag field over the ERP packet, excluding the Authentication Tag field
itself. The length of the field is indicated by the Cryptosuite. itself. The length of the field is indicated by the
cryptosuite.
5.3.3. EAP-Finish/Re-auth Packet 5.3.3. EAP-Finish/Re-auth Packet
The EAP-Finish/Re-auth packet contains the parameters shown in The EAP-Finish/Re-auth packet contains the parameters shown in
Figure 10. Figure 10.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Code | Identifier | Length | | Code | Identifier | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type |R|B|L| Reserved | SEQ ~ | Type |R|B|L| Reserved | SEQ ~
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| 1 or more TVs or TLVs ~ | 1 or more TVs or TLVs ~
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Cryptosuite | Authentication Tag ~ | Cryptosuite | Authentication Tag ~
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 10: EAP-Finish/Re-auth Packet Figure 10: EAP-Finish/Re-auth Packet
Type = 2. Type = 2.
Flags Flags
'R' - The R flag is used as the Result flag. When set to 0, it 'R' - The R flag is used as the Result flag. When set to 0,
indicates success, and when set to '1', it indicates a failure. it indicates success, and when set to '1', it indicates
a failure.
'B' - The B flag is used as the bootstrapping flag. If the 'B' - The B flag is used as the bootstrapping flag. If the
flag is turned on, the message is a bootstrap message. flag is turned on, the message is a bootstrap message.
'L' - The L flag is used to indicate the presence of the rRK 'L' - The L flag is used to indicate the presence of the rRK
lifetime TLV. lifetime TLV.
The remaining 5 bits are set to 0 on transmission and ignored The remaining 5 bits are set to 0 on transmission and ignored
on reception. on reception.
SEQ: An unsigned 16-bit sequence number is used for replay SEQ: An unsigned 16-bit sequence number is used for replay
protection. The SEQ number field is initialized to 0 every time a protection. The SEQ field is initialized to 0 every time a new
new rRK is derived. The field is encoded in network byte order. rRK is derived. The field is encoded in network byte order.
TVs or TLVs: In the TV payloads, there is a 1-octet type payload TVs or TLVs: In the TV payloads, there is a 1-octet type payload
and a value with type-specific length. In the TLV payloads, there and a value with type-specific length. In the TLV payloads,
is a 1-octet type payload and a 1-octet length payload. The there is a 1-octet type payload and a 1-octet length payload.
length field indicates the length of the value expressed in number The length field indicates the length of the value expressed in
of octets. number of octets.
keyName-NAI: This is carried in a TLV payload. The Type is 1. keyName-NAI: This is carried in a TLV payload. The Type is 1.
The NAI is variable in length, not exceeding 253 octets. The NAI is variable in length, not exceeding 253 octets.
EMSKname is in the username part of the NAI and is encoded in EMSKname is in the username part of the NAI and is encoded
hexadecimal values. The EMSKname is 64 bits in length and so in hexadecimal values. The EMSKname is 64 bits in length,
the username portion takes up 16 octets. If the rIK is derived and so the username portion takes up 16 octets. If the rIK
from the EMSK, the realm part of the NAI is the home domain is derived from the EMSK, the realm part of the NAI is the
name, and if the rIK is derived from a DSRK, the realm part of home domain name, and if the rIK is derived from a DSRK, the
the NAI is the domain name used in the derivation of the DSRK. realm part of the NAI is the domain name used in the
The NAI syntax follows [RFC4282]. Exactly one instance of the derivation of the DSRK. The NAI syntax is specified in
keyName-NAI attribute SHALL be present in an EAP-Finish/Re-auth [RFC4282]. Exactly one instance of the keyName-NAI
message. attribute SHALL be present in an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message.
rRK Lifetime: This is a TV payload. The Type is 2. The value rRK Lifetime: This is a TV payload. The Type is 2. The value
field contains an unsigned 32-bit integer in network byte order field contains an unsigned 32-bit integer in network byte
representing the lifetime of the rRK in seconds. If the 'L' order representing the lifetime of the rRK in seconds. If
flag is set, the rRK Lifetime attribute SHOULD be present. the 'L' flag is set, the rRK Lifetime attribute SHOULD be
present.
rMSK Lifetime: This is a TV payload. The Type is 3. The value rMSK Lifetime: This is a TV payload. The Type is 3. The
field contains an unsigned 32-bit integer in network byte order value field contains an unsigned 32-bit integer in network
representing the lifetime of the rMSK in seconds. If the 'L' byte order representing the lifetime of the rMSK in seconds.
flag is set, the rMSK Lifetime attribute SHOULD be present. If the 'L' flag is set, the rMSK Lifetime attribute SHOULD
be present.
Domain-Name: This is a TLV payload. The Type is 4. The domain Domain name: This is a TLV payload. The Type is 4. The
name is to be used as the realm in an NAI [RFC4282]. Domain- domain name is to be used as the realm in an NAI [RFC4282].
Name attribute MUST be present in an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message The Domain name attribute MUST be present in an EAP-Finish/
if the bootstrapping flag is set and if the local ER server Re-auth message if the bootstrapping flag is set and if the
sent a DSRK request. local ER server sent a DSRK Request.
List of cryptosuites: This is a TLV payload. The Type is 5. List of cryptosuites: This is a TLV payload. The Type is 5.
The value field contains a list of cryptosuites, each of size 1 The value field contains a list of cryptosuites, each of
octet. The cryptosuite values are as specified in Figure 9. size 1 octet. The cryptosuite values are as specified in
The server SHOULD include this attribute if the cryptosuite Figure 9. The server SHOULD include this attribute if the
used in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message was not acceptable and cryptosuite used in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message was not
the message is being rejected. The server MAY include this acceptable and the message is being rejected. The server
attribute in other cases. The server MAY use this attribute to MAY include this attribute in other cases. The server MAY
signal to the peer about its cryptographic algorithm use this attribute to signal its cryptographic algorithm
capabilities. capabilities to the peer.
Authorization Indication: This is a TLV payload. The Type is Authorization Indication: This is a TLV payload. The Type
6. This attribute MAY be included in the EAP-Finish/Re-auth is 6. This attribute MAY be included in the EAP-Finish/
message when a DSRK is delivered to a local ER server and if Re-auth message when a DSRK is delivered to a local ER
the home EAP server can verify the authorization of the local server and if the home EAP server can verify the
ER server to advertise the domain name included in the domain authorization of the local ER server to advertise the domain
TLV in the same message. The value field in the TLV contains name included in the domain TLV in the same message. The
an authentication tag computed over the entire packet, starting value field in the TLV contains an authentication tag
from the first bit of the code field to the last bit of the computed over the entire packet, starting from the first bit
cryptosuite field, with the value field of the Authorization of the code field to the last bit of the Cryptosuite field,
Indication TLV filled with all 0s for the computation. The key with the value field of the Authorization Indication TLV
used for the computation MUST be derived from the EMSK with key filled with all 0s for the computation. The key used for
label "DSRK Delivery Authorized Key@ietf.org" and optional data the computation MUST be derived from the EMSK with key label
containing an ASCII string representing the key management "DSRK Delivery Authorized Key@ietf.org" and optional data
domain that the DSRK is being derived for. containing an ASCII string representing the key management
domain for which the DSRK is being derived.
In addition, channel binding information MAY be included: see In addition, channel binding information MAY be included: see
Section 5.5 for discussion. See Figure 12 for parameter Section 5.5 for discussion. See Figure 12 for parameter
specification. The server sends this information so that the specification. The server sends this information so that the
peer can verify the information seen at the lower layer, if peer can verify the information seen at the lower layer, if
channel binding is to be supported. channel binding is to be supported.
Cryptosuite: This field indicates the integrity algorithm and the Cryptosuite: This field indicates the integrity algorithm and the
PRF used for ERP. Key lengths and output lengths are either PRF used for ERP. Key lengths and output lengths are either
indicated or are obvious from the cryptosuite name. indicated or are obvious from the cryptosuite name.
Authentication Tag: This field contains the integrity checksum Authentication Tag: This field contains the integrity checksum
over the ERP packet, excluding the authentication tag field over the ERP packet, excluding the Authentication Tag field
itself. The length of the field is indicated by the Cryptosuite. itself. The length of the field is indicated by the
cryptosuite.
5.3.4. TV and TLV Attributes 5.3.4. TV and TLV Attributes
The TV attributes that may be present in the EAP-Initiate or EAP- The TV attributes that may be present in the EAP-Initiate or
Finish messages are of the following format: EAP-Finish messages are of the following format:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Value ... | Type | Value ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 11: TV Attribute Format Figure 11: TV Attribute Format
The TLV attributes that may be present in the EAP-Initiate or EAP- The TLV attributes that may be present in the EAP-Initiate or
Finish messages are of the following format: EAP-Finish messages are of the following format:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | Value ... | Type | Length | Value ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 12: TLV Attribute Format Figure 12: TLV Attribute Format
The following Types are defined in this document: The following Types are defined in this document:
'1' - keyName-NAI: This is a TLV payload. '1' - keyName-NAI: This is a TLV payload.
'2' - rRK Lifetime: This is a TV payload. '2' - rRK Lifetime: This is a TV payload.
'3' - rMSK Lifetime: This is a TV payload. '3' - rMSK Lifetime: This is a TV payload.
'4' - domain name: This is a TLV payload. '4' - Domain name: This is a TLV payload.
'5' - cryptosuite list: This is a TLV payload. '5' - Cryptosuite list: This is a TLV payload.
'6' - Authorization Indication: This is a TLV payload. '6' - Authorization Indication: This is a TLV payload.
The TLV type range of 128-191 is reserved to carry channel binding The TLV type range of 128-191 is reserved to carry channel binding
information in the EAP-Initiate and Finish/Re-auth messages. information in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth and EAP-Finish/Re-auth
Below are the current assignments (all of them are TLVs): messages. Below are the current assignments (all of them are
TLVs):
'128' - Called-Station-Id [RFC2865] '128' - Called-Station-Id [RFC2865]
'129' - Calling-Station-Id [RFC2865] '129' - Calling-Station-Id [RFC2865]
'130' - NAS-Identifier [RFC2865] '130' - NAS-Identifier [RFC2865]
'131' - NAS-IP-Address [RFC2865] '131' - NAS-IP-Address [RFC2865]
'132' - NAS-IPv6-Address [RFC3162] '132' - NAS-IPv6-Address [RFC3162]
The length field indicates the length of the value part of the The length field indicates the length of the value part of the
attribute in octets. attribute in octets.
5.4. Replay Protection 5.4. Replay Protection
skipping to change at page 33, line 18 skipping to change at page 34, line 4
'132' - NAS-IPv6-Address [RFC3162] '132' - NAS-IPv6-Address [RFC3162]
The length field indicates the length of the value part of the The length field indicates the length of the value part of the
attribute in octets. attribute in octets.
5.4. Replay Protection 5.4. Replay Protection
For replay protection, ERP uses sequence numbers. The sequence For replay protection, ERP uses sequence numbers. The sequence
number is maintained on a per rIK basis and is initialized to zero in number is maintained on a per rIK basis and is initialized to zero in
both directions. In the first EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, the peer both directions. In the first EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, the peer
uses a sequence number value of zero or higher. Note that the when uses a sequence number value of zero or higher. Note that when the
the sequence number wraps back to zero, the rIK MUST be changed by sequence number wraps back to zero, the rIK MUST be changed by
running a full EAP authentication. The server expects a sequence running a full EAP authentication. The server expects a sequence
number of zero or higher. When the server receives an EAP-Initiate/ number of zero or higher. When the server receives an EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth message, it uses the same sequence number in the EAP-Finish/ Re-auth message, it uses the same sequence number in the EAP-Finish/
Re-auth message. The server then sets the expected sequence number Re-auth message. The server then sets the expected sequence number
to the received sequence number plus 1. The server MUST accept to the received sequence number plus 1. The server MUST accept
sequence numbers greater than or equal to the expected sequence sequence numbers greater than or equal to the expected sequence
number. number.
If the peer sends an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, but does not If the peer sends an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message but does not
receive a response, it retransmits the request (with no changes to receive a response, it retransmits the request (with no changes to
the message itself) a pre-configured number of times before giving the message itself) a preconfigured number of times before giving up.
up. However, it is plausible that the server itself may have However, it is plausible that the server itself may have responded to
responded to the message and the response was lost in transit. Thus, the message and the response was lost in transit. Thus, the peer
the peer MUST increment the sequence number and use the new sequence MUST increment the sequence number and use the new sequence number to
number to send subsequent EAP re-authentication messages. The peer send subsequent EAP re-authentication messages. The peer SHOULD
SHOULD increment the sequence number by 1; however, it may choose to increment the sequence number by 1; however, it may choose to
increment by a larger number. If the sequence number wraps back to increment by a larger number. If the sequence number wraps back to
zero, the peer MUST run full EAP authentication. zero, the peer MUST run full EAP authentication.
5.5. Channel Binding 5.5. Channel Binding
ERP provides a protected facility to carry channel binding (CB) ERP provides a protected facility to carry channel binding (CB)
information, according to the guidelines provided by Aboba, et information, according to the guidelines provided by Aboba,
al. (see Section 7.15 of [RFC3748]). The TLV type range of 128-191 et al. (see Section 7.15 of [RFC3748]). The TLV type range of
is reserved to carry CB information in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth and 128-191 is reserved to carry CB information in the EAP-Initiate/
EAP-Finish/Re-auth messages. Called-Station-Id, Calling-Station-Id, Re-auth and EAP-Finish/Re-auth messages. Called-Station-Id,
NAS-Identifier, NAS-IP-Address, and NAS-IPv6-Address are some Calling-Station-Id, NAS-Identifier, NAS-IP-Address, and
examples of channel binding information listed in RFC 3748, and they NAS-IPv6-Address are some examples of channel binding information
are assigned values 128-132. Additional values are IANA managed listed in RFC 3748, and they are assigned values 128-132. Additional
based on IETF Consensus [RFC5226]. values are managed by IANA, based on IETF Review (formerly called
"IETF Consensus") [RFC5226].
The authenticator MAY provide CB information to the peer via the EAP- The authenticator MAY provide CB information to the peer via the
Initiate/Re-auth-Start message. The peer sends the information to EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start message. The peer sends the information
the server in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message; the server verifies to the server in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message; the server
whether the authenticator identity available via AAA attributes is verifies whether the authenticator identity available via AAA
the same as the identity provided to the peer. attributes is the same as the identity provided to the peer.
If the peer does not include the CB information in the EAP-Initiate/ If the peer does not include the CB information in the EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth message, and if the local ER server's policy requires channel Re-auth message, and if the local ER server's policy requires channel
binding support, it SHALL send the CB attributes for the peer's binding support, it SHALL send the CB attributes for the peer's
verification. The peer attempts to verify the CB information if the verification. The peer attempts to verify the CB information if the
authenticator has sent the CB parameters, and it proceeds with the authenticator has sent the CB parameters, and it proceeds with the
lower-layer security association establishment if the attributes lower-layer security association establishment if the attributes
match. Otherwise, the peer SHALL NOT proceed with the lower-layer match. Otherwise, the peer SHALL NOT proceed with the lower-layer
security association establishment. security association establishment.
6. Lower-Layer Considerations 6. Lower-Layer Considerations
The authenticator is responsible for retransmission of EAP-Initiate/ The authenticator is responsible for retransmission of EAP-Initiate/
Re-auth-Start messages. The authenticator MAY retransmit the message Re-auth-Start messages. The authenticator MAY retransmit the message
a few times or until it receives an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message from a few times or until it receives an EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message from
the peer. The authenticator might not know if the peer supports ERP; the peer. The authenticator might not know if the peer supports ERP;
in those cases, the peer could be silently discarding the EAP- in those cases, the peer could be silently discarding the
Initiate/Re-auth-Start packets. Thus, retransmission of these EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start packets. Thus, retransmission of these
packets should be kept to a minimum. The exact number is up to each packets should be kept to a minimum. The exact number is up to each
lower layer. lower layer.
The Identifier value in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth packet is The Identifier value in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth packet is
independent of the Identifier value in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start independent of the Identifier value in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start
packet. packet.
The peer is responsible for retransmission of EAP-Initiate/Re-auth The peer is responsible for retransmission of EAP-Initiate/Re-auth
messages. messages.
Retransmitted packets MUST be sent with the same Identifier value in Retransmitted packets MUST be sent with the same Identifier value in
order to distinguish them from new packets. By default, where the order to distinguish them from new packets. By default, where the
EAP-Initiate message is sent over an unreliable lower layer, the EAP-Initiate message is sent over an unreliable lower layer, the
retransmission timer SHOULD be dynamically estimated. A maximum of retransmission timer SHOULD be dynamically estimated. A maximum of
3-5 retransmissions is suggested [RFC3748]. Where the EAP-Initiate 3-5 retransmissions is suggested [RFC3748]. Where the EAP-Initiate
message is sent over a reliable lower layer, the retransmission timer message is sent over a reliable lower layer, the retransmission timer
SHOULD be set to an infinite value, so that retransmissions do not SHOULD be set to an infinite value so that retransmissions do not
occur at the EAP layer. Please refer to RFC 3748 for additional occur at the EAP layer. Please refer to RFC 3748 for additional
guidance on setting timers. guidance on setting timers.
The Identifier value in the EAP-Finish/Re-auth packet is the same as The Identifier value in the EAP-Finish/Re-auth packet is the same as
the Identifier value in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth packet. the Identifier value in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth packet.
If an authenticator receives a valid duplicate EAP-Initiate/Re-auth If an authenticator receives a valid duplicate EAP-Initiate/Re-auth
message for which it has already sent an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message, message for which it has already sent an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message,
it MUST resend the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message without reprocessing it MUST resend the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message without reprocessing
the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. To facilitate this, the the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. To facilitate this, the
authenticator SHALL store a copy of the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message authenticator SHALL store a copy of the EAP-Finish/Re-auth message
for a finite amount of time. The actual value of time is a local for a finite amount of time. The actual value of time is a local
matter; this specification recommends a value of 100 milliseconds. matter; this specification recommends a value of 100 milliseconds.
The lower layer may provide facilities for exchanging information The lower layer may provide facilities for exchanging information
between the peer and the authenticator about support for ERP, for the between the peer and the authenticator about support for ERP, for the
authenticator to send the domain name information and channel binding authenticator to send the domain name information and channel binding
information to the peer information to the peer.
Note that to support ERP, lower-layer specifications may need to be Note that to support ERP, lower-layer specifications may need to be
revised. Specifically, RFC 5996 must be updated to include EAP code revised. Specifically, RFC 5996 must be updated to include EAP code
values higher than 4 in order to use ERP with Internet Key Exchange values higher than 4 in order to use ERP with Internet Key Exchange
Protocol version 2 (IKEv2). IKEv2 may also be updated to support Protocol version 2 (IKEv2). IKEv2 may also be updated to support
peer-initiated ERP for optimized operation. Other lower layers may peer-initiated ERP for optimized operation. Other lower layers may
need similar revisions. need similar revisions.
Our analysis indicates that some EAP implementations are not RFC 3748 Our analysis indicates that some EAP implementations are not RFC 3748
compliant in that instead of silently dropping EAP packets with code compliant in that instead of silently dropping EAP packets with code
values higher than 4, they may consider it an error. To accommodate values higher than 4, they may consider it an error. To accommodate
such non-compliant EAP implementations, additional guidance has been such non-compliant EAP implementations, additional guidance has been
provided below. Furthermore, it may not be easy to upgrade all the provided below. Furthermore, it may not be easy to upgrade all the
peers in some cases. In such cases, authenticators may be configured peers in some cases. In such cases, authenticators may be configured
to not send EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start; peers may learn whether an to not send EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start messages; peers may learn
authenticator supports ERP via configuration or from advertisements whether an authenticator supports ERP via configuration or from
at the lower layer. advertisements at the lower layer.
In order to accommodate implementations that are not compliant to RFC In order to accommodate implementations that are not compliant to
3748, such lower layers SHOULD ensure that both parties support ERP; RFC 3748, such lower layers SHOULD ensure that both parties support
this is trivial for instance when using a lower layer that is known ERP; this is trivial, for instance, when using a lower layer that is
to always support ERP. For lower layers where ERP support is not known to always support ERP. For lower layers where ERP support is
guaranteed, ERP support may be indicated through signaling (e.g., not guaranteed, ERP support may be indicated through signaling (e.g.,
piggy-backed on a beacon) or through negotiation. Alternatively, piggybacked on a beacon) or through negotiation. Alternatively,
clients may recognize environments where ERP is available based on clients may recognize environments where ERP is available based on
pre-configuration. Other similar mechanisms may also be used. When preconfiguration. Other similar mechanisms may also be used. When
ERP support cannot be verified, lower layers may mandate falling back ERP support cannot be verified, lower layers may mandate falling back
to full EAP authentication to accommodate EAP implementations that to full EAP authentication to accommodate EAP implementations that
are not compliant to RFC 3748. are not compliant to RFC 3748.
7. AAA Transport of ERP Messages 7. AAA Transport of ERP Messages
AAA Transport of ERP messages is specified by Hoeper, et AAA transport of ERP messages is specified by Hoeper,
al. [RFC5749] and Bournelle, et al. [I-D.ietf-dime-erp]. et al. [RFC5749] and Bournelle, et al. [DIAMETER-ERP].
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
This section provides an analysis of the protocol in accordance with This section provides an analysis of the protocol in accordance with
the AAA key management guidelines described by Housley & Aboba the AAA key management guidelines described by Housley & Aboba
[RFC4962]. [RFC4962].
Cryptographic algorithm independence Cryptographic algorithm independence
The EAP Re-auth Protocol satisfies this requirement. The ERP satisfies this requirement. The algorithm chosen by the
algorithm chosen by the peer for the MAC generation is peer for the MAC generation is indicated in the EAP-Initiate/
indicated in the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. If the chosen Re-auth message. If the chosen algorithm is unacceptable, the
algorithm is unacceptable, the EAP server returns an EAP- EAP server returns an EAP-Finish/Re-auth message indicating a
Finish/Re-auth message with Failure indication. Algorithm failure. Algorithm agility for the KDF is specified in
agility for the KDF is specified in Salowey, et al. [RFC5295]. Salowey, et al. [RFC5295]. Only when the algorithms used are
Only when the algorithms used are deemed acceptable does the deemed acceptable does the server proceed with the derivation
server proceed with the derivation of keys and verification of of keys and verification of the proof of possession of relevant
the proof of possession of relevant keying material presented key material presented by the peer. A full-blown negotiation
by the peer. A full-blown negotiation of algorithms cannot be of algorithms cannot be provided in a single round-trip
provided in a single round trip protocol. Hence, while the protocol. Hence, while the protocol provides algorithm
protocol provides algorithm agility, it does not provide true agility, it does not provide true negotiation.
negotiation.
Strong, fresh session keys Strong, fresh session keys
ERP results in the derivation of strong, fresh keys that are ERP results in the derivation of strong, fresh keys that are
unique for the given session. An rMSK is always derived on- unique for the given session. An rMSK is always derived on
demand when the peer requires a key with a new authenticator. demand when the peer requires a key with a new authenticator.
The derivation ensures that the compromise of one rMSK does not The derivation ensures that the compromise of one rMSK does not
result in the compromise of another rMSK at any time. result in the compromise of another rMSK at any time.
Limit key scope Limited key scope
The scope of all the keys derived by ERP is well defined. The The scope of all the keys derived by ERP is well defined. The
rRK and rIK are never shared with any entity and always remain rRK and rIK are never shared with any entity and always remain
on the peer and the server. The rMSK is provided only to the on the peer and the server. The rMSK is provided only to the
authenticator through which the peer performs the ERP exchange. authenticator through which the peer performs the ERP exchange.
No other authenticator is authorized to use that rMSK. No other authenticator is authorized to use that rMSK.
Replay detection mechanism Replay detection mechanism
For replay protection of ERP messages, a sequence number For replay protection of ERP messages, a sequence number
associated with the rIK is used. The sequence number is associated with the rIK is used. The sequence number is
maintained by the peer and the server, and initialized to zero maintained by the peer and the server and is initialized to
when the rIK is generated. The peer increments the sequence zero when the rIK is generated. The peer increments the
number by one after it sends an ERP message. The server sets sequence number by one after it sends an ERP message. The
the expected sequence number to the received sequence number server sets the expected sequence number to the received
plus one after verifying the validity of the received message sequence number plus one after verifying the validity of the
and responds to the message. received message and responds to the message.
Authenticate all parties Authenticating all parties
The EAP Re-auth Protocol provides mutual authentication of the ERP provides mutual authentication of the peer and the server.
peer and the server. Both parties need to possess the keying Both parties need to possess the key material that resulted
material that resulted from a previous EAP exchange in order to from a previous EAP exchange in order to successfully derive
successfully derive the required keys. Also, both the EAP re- the required keys. Also, both the EAP re-authentication
authentication Response and the EAP re-authentication Response and the EAP re-authentication Information messages are
Information messages are integrity protected so that the peer integrity protected so that the peer and the server can verify
and the server can verify each other. When the ERP exchange is each other. When the ERP exchange is executed with a local ER
executed with a local ER server, the peer and the local server server, the peer and the local server mutually authenticate
mutually authenticate each other via that exchange in the same each other via that exchange in the same manner. The peer and
manner. The peer and the authenticator authenticate each other the authenticator authenticate each other in the secure
in the secure association protocol executed by the lower layer, association protocol executed by the lower layer, just as in
just as in the case of a regular EAP exchange. the case of a regular EAP exchange.
Peer and authenticator authorization Peer and authenticator authorization
The peer and authenticator demonstrate possession of the same The peer and authenticator demonstrate possession of the same
key material without disclosing it, as part of the lower-layer key material without disclosing it, as part of the lower-layer
secure association protocol. Channel binding with ERP may be secure association protocol. Channel binding with ERP may be
used to verify consistency of the identities exchanged, when used to verify consistency of the identities exchanged, when
the identities used in the lower layer differ from that the identities used in the lower layer differ from those
exchanged within the AAA protocol. exchanged within the AAA protocol.
Keying material confidentiality Key material confidentiality
The peer and the server derive the keys independently using The peer and the server derive the keys independently using
parameters known to each entity. The AAA server sends the DSRK parameters known to each entity. The AAA server sends the DSRK
of a domain to the corresponding local ER server via the AAA of a domain to the corresponding local ER server via the AAA
protocol. Likewise, the ER server sends the rMSK to the protocol. Likewise, the ER server sends the rMSK to the
authenticator via the AAA protocol. authenticator via the AAA protocol.
Note that compromise of the DSRK results in compromise of all Note that compromise of the DSRK results in compromise of all
keys derived from it. Moreover, there is no forward secrecy keys derived from it. Moreover, there is no forward secrecy
within ERP. Thus, compromise of an DSRK retroactively within ERP. Thus, compromise of a DSRK retroactively
compromises all ERP keys. compromises all ERP keys.
It is RECOMMENDED that the AAA protocol be protected using It is RECOMMENDED that the AAA protocol be protected using
IPsec or TLS so that the keys are protected in transit. Note, IPsec or Transport Layer Security (TLS) so that the keys are
however, that keys may be exposed to AAA proxies along the way protected in transit. Note, however, that keys may be exposed
and compromise of any of those proxies may result in compromise to AAA proxies along the way, and compromise of any of those
of keys being transported through them. proxies may result in compromise of keys being transported
through them.
The home EAP server MUST NOT hand out a given DSRK to a local The home EAP server MUST NOT hand out a given DSRK to a local
domain server more than once, unless it can verify that the domain server more than once, unless it can verify that the
entity receiving the DSRK after the first time is the same as entity receiving the DSRK after the first time is the same
that received the DSRK originally. If the home EAP server entity that received the DSRK originally. If the home EAP
verifies authorization of a local domain server, it MAY hand server verifies authorization of a local domain server, it MAY
out the DSRK to that domain more than once. In this case, the hand out the DSRK to that domain more than once. In this case,
home EAP server includes the Authorization Indication TLV to the home EAP server includes the Authorization Indication TLV
assure the peer that DSRK delivery is secure. to assure the peer that DSRK delivery is secure.
Confirm cryptosuite selection Confirming cryptosuite selection
Crypto algorithms for integrity and key derivation in the Cryptographic algorithms for integrity and key derivation in
context of ERP MAY be the same as that used by the EAP method. the context of ERP MAY be the same as that used by the EAP
In that case, the EAP method is responsible for confirming the method. In that case, the EAP method is responsible for
cryptosuite selection. Furthermore, the cryptosuite is confirming the cryptosuite selection. Furthermore, the
included in the ERP exchange by the peer and confirmed by the cryptosuite is included in the ERP exchange by the peer and
server. The protocol allows the server to reject the confirmed by the server. The protocol allows the server to
cryptosuite selected by the peer and provide alternatives. reject the cryptosuite selected by the peer and provide
When a suitable rIK is not available for the peer, the alternatives. When a suitable rIK is not available for the
alternatives may be sent in an unprotected fashion. The peer peer, the alternatives may be sent in an unprotected fashion.
is allowed to retry the exchange using one of the allowed The peer is allowed to retry the exchange using one of the
cryptosuites. However, in this case, any en route allowed cryptosuites. However, in this case, any en route
modifications to the list sent by the server will go modifications to the list sent by the server will go
undetected. If the server does have an rIK available for the undetected. If the server does have an rIK available for the
peer, the list will be provided in a protected manner and this peer, the list will be provided in a protected manner and this
issue does not apply. issue does not apply.
Uniquely named keys Uniquely named keys
All keys produced within the ERP context can be referred to All keys produced within the context of ERP can be referred to
uniquely as specified in this document. Also, the key names do uniquely as specified in this document. Also, the key names do
not reveal any part of the keying material. not reveal any part of the key material.
Prevent the domino effect Preventing the domino effect
The compromise of one peer does not result in the compromise of The compromise of one peer does not result in the compromise of
keying material held by any other peer in the system. Also, key material held by any other peer in the system. Also, the
the rMSK is meant for a single authenticator and is not shared rMSK is meant for a single authenticator and is not shared with
with any other authenticator. Hence, the compromise of one any other authenticator. Hence, the compromise of one
authenticator does not lead to the compromise of sessions or authenticator does not lead to the compromise of sessions or
keys held by any other authenticator in the system. Hence, the keys held by any other authenticator in the system, and ERP
EAP Re-auth Protocol allows prevention of the domino effect by thereby allows prevention of the domino effect by appropriately
appropriately defining key scope. defining key scope.
However, if keys are transported using hop-by-hop protection, However, if keys are transported using hop-by-hop protection,
compromise of a proxy may result in compromise of key material, compromise of a proxy may result in compromise of key material,
e.g., the DSRK being sent to a local ER server. e.g., the DSRK being sent to a local ER server.
Bind key to its context Binding a key to its context
All the keys derived for ERP are bound to the appropriate All the keys derived for ERP are bound to the appropriate
context using appropriate key labels. Lifetime of a child key context using appropriate key labels. The lifetime of a child
is less than or equal to that of its parent key as specified in key is less than or equal to that of its parent key as
RFC 4962 [RFC4962]. The key usage, lifetime and the parties specified in RFC 4962 [RFC4962]. The key usage, lifetime, and
that have access to the keys are specified. the parties that have access to the keys are specified.
Confidentiality of identity Confidentiality of identity
Deployments where privacy is a concern may find the use of Deployments where privacy is a concern may find that the use of
rIKname-NAI to route ERP messages serves their privacy the rIKname-NAI to route ERP messages serves their privacy
requirements. Note that it is plausible to associate multiple requirements. Note that it is plausible to associate multiple
runs of ERP messages since the rIKname is not changed as part runs of ERP messages, since the rIKname is not changed as part
of the ERP protocol. There was no consensus for that of ERP. There was no consensus for that requirement at the
requirement at the time of development of this specification. time of development of this specification. If the rIKname is
If the rIKname is not used and the Peer-ID is used instead, the not used and the Peer-ID is used instead, the ERP exchange will
ERP exchange will reveal the Peer-ID over the wire. reveal the Peer-ID over the wire.
Authorization restriction Authorization restriction
All the keys derived are limited in lifetime by that of the All the derived keys are limited in lifetime by that of the
parent key or by server policy. Any domain-specific keys are parent key or by server policy. Any domain-specific keys are
further restricted for use only in the domain for which the further restricted for use only in the domain for which the
keys are derived. All the keys specified in this document are keys are derived. All the keys specified in this document are
meant for use in ERP only. Other restrictions on the use of meant for use in ERP only. Other restrictions on the use of
session keys may be imposed by the specific lower layer but are session keys may be imposed by the specific lower layer but are
out of scope for this specification. out of scope for this specification.
Prevent DoS attack Preventing a DoS attack
A denial-of-service (DoS) attack on the peer may be possible A denial-of-service (DoS) attack on the peer may be possible
when using the EAP Initiate/Re-auth message. An attacker may when using the EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. An attacker may
send a bogus EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, which may be carried send a bogus EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message, which may be carried
by the authenticator in a AAA request to the server; in by the authenticator in a AAA-Request to the server; in
response, the server may send an EAP-Finish/Re-auth with response, the server may send in a AAA reply an EAP-Finish/
Failure indication in a AAA reply. Note that such attacks may Re-auth message indicating failure. Note that such attacks may
be possible with the EAPoL-Start capability of IEEE 802.11 and be possible with the EAPoL-Start capability of IEEE 802.11 and
other similar facilities in other link layers and where the other similar facilities in other link layers and where the
peer can initiate EAP authentication. An attacker may use such peer can initiate EAP authentication. An attacker may use such
messages to start an EAP method run, which fails and may result messages to start an EAP method run, which fails and may result
in the server sending a rejection message, thus resulting in in the server sending a rejection message, thus resulting in
the link-layer connections being terminated. the link-layer connections being terminated.
To prevent such DoS attacks, an ERP failure should not result To prevent such DoS attacks, an ERP failure should not result
in deletion of any authorization state established by a full in deletion of any authorization state established by a full
EAP exchange. Alternatively, the lower layers and AAA EAP exchange. Alternatively, the lower layers and AAA
protocols may define mechanisms to allow two link-layer protocols may define mechanisms to allow two link-layer
security associations (SAs) derived from different EAP keying Security Associations (SAs) derived from different EAP key
materials for the same peer to exist so that smooth migration material for the same peer to exist so that smooth migration
from the current link layer SA to the new one is possible from the current link-layer SA to the new one is possible
during rekey. These mechanisms prevent the link layer during rekey. These mechanisms prevent the link-layer
connections from being terminated when a re-authentication connections from being terminated when a re-authentication
procedure fails due to a bogus EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message. procedure fails due to a bogus EAP-Initiate/Re-auth message.
Keying materials Transport Key material transport
When a DSRK is sent from the home EAP server to a local domain When a DSRK is sent from the home EAP server to a local domain
server or when a rMSK is sent from an ER server to an server or when an rMSK is sent from an ER server to an
authenticator, in the absence of end-to-end security between authenticator, in the absence of end-to-end security between
the entity that is sending the key and the entity receiving the the entity that is sending the key and the entity receiving the
key, it is plausible for other entities to get access to keys key, it is plausible for other entities to get access to keys
being sent to an ER server in another domain. This mode of key being sent to an ER server in another domain. This mode of key
transport is similar to that of MSK transport in the context of transport is similar to that of MSK transport in the context of
EAP authentication. We further observe that ERP is for access EAP authentication. We further observe that ERP is for access
authentication and does not support end-to-end data security. authentication and does not support end-to-end data security.
In typical implementations, the traffic is in the clear beyond In typical implementations, the traffic is in the clear beyond
the access control enforcement point (the authenticator or an the access control enforcement point (the authenticator or an
entity delegated by the authenticator for access control entity delegated by the authenticator for access control
enforcement). The model works as long as entities in the enforcement). The model works as long as entities in the
middle of the network do not use keys intended for other middle of the network do not use keys intended for other
parties to steal service from an access network. If that is parties to steal service from an access network. If that is
not achievable, key delivery must be protected in an end-to-end not achievable, key delivery must be protected in an end-to-end
manner. manner.
9. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
This document replaces and obsoletes RFC 5296, and IANA is asked to The previous version of this document -- [RFC5296] -- performed the
change all registered references to that document to point instead to following IANA [IANA] actions:
this document. [RFC Editor note: please remove the previous
paragraph on publication.]
The previous version of this document performed the following IANA
[IANA] actions:
1. It registered Packet Codes "Initiate" and "Finish" in the EAP 1. It registered Packet Codes "Initiate" and "Finish" in the EAP
Registry. Those are documented throughout this document as "EAP- Registry. Those codes are referred to as "EAP-Initiate" and
Initiate" and "EAP-Finish". "EAP-Finish" throughout this document.
2. It created a Message Types table in the EAP Registry, and 2. It created a Message Types table in the EAP Registry and
registered several items in that table. Those are documented registered several items in that table. Those items are referred
throughout this document as "Re-auth-start" and "Re-auth". to as "Re-auth-start" and "Re-auth" throughout this document.
3. It created an EAP Initiate and Finish Attributes table in the EAP 3. It created an EAP-Initiate and Finish Attributes table in the EAP
registry, and registered several items in that table. Those are registry and registered several items in that table. Those items
documented in this document in Section 5.3.4. are recorded in this document in Section 5.3.4.
4. It created a Re-authentication Cryptosuites table in the EAP 4. It created a Re-authentication Cryptosuites table in the EAP
registry, and registered several items in that table. Those are registry and registered several items in that table. Those items
documented in this document at the end of Section 5.3.2. are recorded in this document at the end of Section 5.3.2.
5. It registered two items in the USRK Key Labels registry: 5. It registered two items in the USRK Key Labels registry:
* Re-auth usage label "EAP Re-authentication Root Key@ietf.org", * Re-auth usage label "EAP Re-authentication Root Key@ietf.org",
documented in this document in Section 4.1. recorded in this document in Section 4.1.
* DSRK-authorized delivery key "DSRK Delivery Authorized * DSRK-authorized delivery key "DSRK Delivery Authorized
Key@ietf.org", documented in this document in the description Key@ietf.org", recorded in this document in the description of
of "Authorization Indication" in Section 5.3.3. "Authorization Indication" in Section 5.3.3.
10. Contributors 10. Contributors
Barry Leiba contributed all of the text in Section 9 and, as Barry Leiba contributed all of the text in Section 9 and, as
Applications Area Director, insisted upon its inclusion as a Applications Area Director, insisted upon its inclusion as a
condition of publication. condition of publication.
11. Acknowledgements 11. Acknowledgments
This document is largely based upon RFC 5296; thanks to all who This document is largely based upon RFC 5296; thanks to all who
partipated in that effort (see Appendix A). In addition, thanks to participated in that effort (see Appendix A). In addition, thanks to
Yaron Sheffer, Sebastien Decugis, Ralph Droms, Stephen Farrel, Yaron Sheffer, Sebastien Decugis, Ralph Droms, Stephen Farrell,
Charlie Kaufman and Yoav Nir for (mostly) useful comments and review. Charlie Kaufman, and Yoav Nir for (mostly) useful comments and
review.
12. References 12. References
12.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed- [RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
February 1997. February 1997.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3748] Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and H. [RFC3748] Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J., and H.
Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)", Levkowetz, Ed., "Extensible Authentication Protocol
RFC 3748, June 2004. (EAP)", RFC 3748, June 2004.
[RFC4282] Aboba, B., Beadles, M., Arkko, J., and P. Eronen, "The [RFC4282] Aboba, B., Beadles, M., Arkko, J., and P. Eronen, "The
Network Access Identifier", RFC 4282, December 2005. Network Access Identifier", RFC 4282, December 2005.
[RFC5295] Salowey, J., Dondeti, L., Narayanan, V., and M. Nakhjiri, [RFC5295] Salowey, J., Dondeti, L., Narayanan, V., and M. Nakhjiri,
"Specification for the Derivation of Root Keys from an "Specification for the Derivation of Root Keys from an
Extended Master Session Key (EMSK)", RFC 5295, Extended Master Session Key (EMSK)", RFC 5295,
August 2008. August 2008.
12.2. Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[I-D.ietf-dime-erp] [DIAMETER-ERP]
Decugis, S., Morand, L., Wu, W., Bournelle, J., and G. Bournelle, J., Morand, L., Decugis, S., Wu, Q., and G.
Zorn, "Diameter Support for the EAP Re-authentication Zorn, "Diameter Support for the EAP Re-authentication
Protocol (ERP)", draft-ietf-dime-erp-09 (work in Protocol (ERP)", Work in Progress, June 2012.
progress), February 2012.
[I-D.nir-ipsecme-erx]
Nir, Y. and W. Wu, "An IKEv2 Extension for Supporting
ERP", draft-nir-ipsecme-erx-03 (work in progress),
April 2012.
[IANA] "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority", [IANA] "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority",
<http://www.iana.org/>. <http://www.iana.org/>.
[IEEE_802.1X] [IEEE_802.1X]
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, "IEEE
Standards for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Port Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks:
based Network Access Control, IEEE Std 802.1X-2004", Port-Based Network Access Control", IEEE Std 802.1X-2010,
December 2004. February 2010.
[IKE-EXT-for-ERP]
Nir, Y. and Q. Wu, "An IKEv2 Extension for Supporting
ERP", Work in Progress, May 2012.
[MSKHierarchy] [MSKHierarchy]
Lopez, R., Skarmeta, A., Bournelle, J., Laurent- Lopez, R., Skarmeta, A., Bournelle, J., Laurent-
Maknavicus, M., and J. Combes, "Improved EAP keying Maknavicus, M., and J. Combes, "Improved EAP keying
framework for a secure mobility access service", framework for a secure mobility access service",
IWCMC '06, Proceedings of the 2006 International IWCMC '06, Proceedings of the 2006 International
Conference on Wireless Communications and Mobile Conference on Wireless Communications and Mobile
Computing, New York, NY, USA, 2006. Computing, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
[RFC2865] Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson, [RFC2865] Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
skipping to change at page 43, line 9 skipping to change at page 43, line 40
BCP 132, RFC 4962, July 2007. BCP 132, RFC 4962, July 2007.
[RFC5169] Clancy, T., Nakhjiri, M., Narayanan, V., and L. Dondeti, [RFC5169] Clancy, T., Nakhjiri, M., Narayanan, V., and L. Dondeti,
"Handover Key Management and Re-Authentication Problem "Handover Key Management and Re-Authentication Problem
Statement", RFC 5169, March 2008. Statement", RFC 5169, March 2008.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[RFC5296] Narayanan, V. and L. Dondeti, "EAP Extensions for EAP Re- [RFC5296] Narayanan, V. and L. Dondeti, "EAP Extensions for EAP
authentication Protocol (ERP)", RFC 5296, August 2008. Re-authentication Protocol (ERP)", RFC 5296, August 2008.
[RFC5749] Hoeper, K., Nakhjiri, M., and Y. Ohba, "Distribution of [RFC5749] Hoeper, K., Ed., Nakhjiri, M., and Y. Ohba, Ed.,
EAP-Based Keys for Handover and Re-Authentication", "Distribution of EAP-Based Keys for Handover and
RFC 5749, March 2010. Re-Authentication", RFC 5749, March 2010.
[RFC5996] Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., and P. Eronen, [RFC5996] Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., and P. Eronen,
"Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)", "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 (IKEv2)",
RFC 5996, September 2010. RFC 5996, September 2010.
[RFC6440] Zorn, G., Wu, Q., and Y. Wang, "The EAP Re-authentication [RFC6440] Zorn, G., Wu, Q., and Y. Wang, "The EAP Re-authentication
Protocol (ERP) Local Domain Name DHCPv6 Option", RFC 6440, Protocol (ERP) Local Domain Name DHCPv6 Option", RFC 6440,
December 2011. December 2011.
Appendix A. RFC 5296 Acknowledgments Appendix A. RFC 5296 Acknowledgments
In writing this document, we benefited from discussing the problem In writing this document, we benefited from discussing the problem
space and the protocol itself with a number of folks including space and the protocol itself with a number of folks including
Bernard Aboba, Jari Arkko, Sam Hartman, Russ Housley, Joe Salowey, Bernard Aboba, Jari Arkko, Sam Hartman, Russ Housley, Joe Salowey,
Jesse Walker, Charles Clancy, Michaela Vanderveen, Kedar Gaonkar, Jesse Walker, Charles Clancy, Michaela Vanderveen, Kedar Gaonkar,
Parag Agashe, Dinesh Dharmaraju, Pasi Eronen, Dan Harkins, Yoshi Parag Agashe, Dinesh Dharmaraju, Pasi Eronen, Dan Harkins, Yoshi
Ohba, Glen Zorn, Alan DeKok, Katrin Hoeper, and other participants of Ohba, Glen Zorn, Alan DeKok, Katrin Hoeper, and other participants of
the HOKEY working group. The credit for the idea to use EAP- the HOKEY Working Group. Credit for the idea to use EAP-Initiate/
Initiate/Re-auth-Start goes to Charles Clancy, and the multiple link- Re-auth-Start goes to Charles Clancy, and credit for the idea to use
layer SAs idea to mitigate the DoS attack goes to Yoshi Ohba. Katrin multiple link-layer SAs to mitigate DoS attacks goes to Yoshi Ohba.
Hoeper suggested the use of the windowing technique to handle Katrin Hoeper suggested the use of the windowing technique to handle
multiple simultaneous ER exchanges. Many thanks to Pasi Eronen for multiple simultaneous ER exchanges. Many thanks to Pasi Eronen for
the suggestion to use hexadecimal encoding for rIKname when sent as the suggestion to use hexadecimal encoding for the rIKname when sent
part of keyName-NAI field. Thanks to Bernard Aboba for suggestions as part of the keyName-NAI field. Thanks to Bernard Aboba for
in clarifying the EAP lock-step operation, and Joe Salowey and Glen suggestions in clarifying the EAP lock-step operation, and to Joe
Zorn for help in specifying AAA transport of ERP messages. Thanks to Salowey and Glen Zorn for help in specifying AAA transport of ERP
Sam Hartman for the DSRK Authorization Indication mechanism. messages. Thanks to Sam Hartman for the DSRK Authorization
Indication mechanism.
Appendix B. Sample ERP Exchange Appendix B. Sample ERP Exchange
0. Authenticator --> Peer:
EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start [Optional]
1. Peer --> Authenticator: 0. Authenticator --> Peer:
EAP Initiate/Re-auth(SEQ, keyName-NAI, cryptosuite, EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start [Optional]
Auth-tag*)
1a. Authenticator --> Re-auth-Server: 1. Peer --> Authenticator:
AAA-Request EAP-Initiate/Re-auth(SEQ, keyName-NAI, cryptosuite,
{ Auth-tag*)
1a. Authenticator --> Re-auth-Server:
AAA-Request
{
Authenticator-Id, Authenticator-Id,
EAP Initiate/Re-auth(SEQ, keyName-NAI, cryptosuite, EAP-Initiate/Re-auth(SEQ, keyName-NAI, cryptosuite,
Auth-tag*) Auth-tag*)
} }
2. ER-Server --> Authenticator: 2. ER-Server --> Authenticator:
AAA-Response AAA-Response
{ {
rMSK, rMSK,
EAP-Finish/Re-auth(SEQ, keyName-NAI, cryptosuite, [CB-Info], EAP-Finish/Re-auth(SEQ, keyName-NAI, cryptosuite, [CB-Info],
Auth-tag*) Auth-tag*)
} }
2b. Authenticator --> Peer: 2b. Authenticator --> Peer:
EAP-Finish/Re-auth(SEQ, keyName-NAI, cryptosuite, [CB-Info], EAP-Finish/Re-auth(SEQ, keyName-NAI, cryptosuite, [CB-Info],
Auth-tag*) Auth-tag*)
* Auth-tag computation is over the entire EAP Initiate/Finish message; * Auth-tag computation is over the entire EAP-Initiate/Finish
the code values for Initiate and Finish are different and thus message; the code values for Initiate and Finish are different,
reflection attacks are mitigated. and thus reflection attacks are mitigated.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Zhen Cao Zhen Cao
China Mobile China Mobile
53A Xibianmennei Ave., Xuanwu District No. 32, Xuanwumenxi Ave., Xicheng District
Beijing, Beijing 100053 Beijing 100053
P.R. China P.R. China
EMail: caozhen@chinamobile.com
Email: caozhen@chinamobile.com
Baohong He Baohong He
China Academy of Telecommunication Research China Academy of Telecommunication Research
China Beijing
P.R. China
Email: hebaohong@catr.cn Phone: +86 10 62300050
EMail: hebaohong@catr.cn
Yang Shi Yang Shi
Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
156, Beiqing Road, Zhongguancun, Haidian District 156 Beiqing Road, Zhongguancun, Haidian District
Beijing Beijing
P.R. China P.R. China
Phone: +86 10 60614043 Phone: +86 10 60614043
Email: shiyang1@huawei.com EMail: shiyang1@huawei.com
Qin Wu (editor) Qin Wu (editor)
Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
101 Software Avenue, Yuhua District 101 Software Avenue, Yuhua District
Nanjing, JiangSu 210012 Nanjing, JiangSu 210012
China China
Phone: +86-25-84565892
Email: Sunseawq@huawei.com EMail: bill.wu@huawei.com
Glen Zorn (editor) Glen Zorn (editor)
Network Zen Network Zen
227/358 Thanon Sanphawut 227/358 Thanon Sanphawut
Bang Na, Bangkok 10260 Bang Na, Bangkok 10260
Thailand Thailand
Phone: +66 (0) 909 201060
Phone: +66 (0) 87-0404617 EMail: glenzorn@gmail.com
Email: glenzorn@gmail.com
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