draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11.txt   draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12.txt 
HTTPbis Working Group R. Fielding, Ed. HTTPbis Working Group R. Fielding, Ed.
Internet-Draft Day Software Internet-Draft Day Software
Obsoletes: 2616 (if approved) J. Gettys Obsoletes: 2616 (if approved) J. Gettys
Updates: 2617 (if approved) Alcatel-Lucent Updates: 2617 (if approved) Alcatel-Lucent
Intended status: Standards Track J. Mogul Intended status: Standards Track J. Mogul
Expires: February 5, 2011 HP Expires: April 28, 2011 HP
H. Frystyk H. Frystyk
Microsoft Microsoft
L. Masinter L. Masinter
Adobe Systems Adobe Systems
P. Leach P. Leach
Microsoft Microsoft
T. Berners-Lee T. Berners-Lee
W3C/MIT W3C/MIT
Y. Lafon, Ed. Y. Lafon, Ed.
W3C W3C
J. Reschke, Ed. J. Reschke, Ed.
greenbytes greenbytes
August 4, 2010 October 25, 2010
HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication HTTP/1.1, part 7: Authentication
draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11 draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-12
Abstract Abstract
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-level
protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information
systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global systems. HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web global
information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the information initiative since 1990. This document is Part 7 of the
seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as seven-part specification that defines the protocol referred to as
"HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 7 defines "HTTP/1.1" and, taken together, obsoletes RFC 2616. Part 7 defines
HTTP Authentication. HTTP Authentication.
Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor) Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor)
Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working Discussion of this draft should take place on the HTTPBIS working
group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org). The current issues list is group mailing list (ietf-http-wg@w3.org). The current issues list is
at <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3> and related at <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/report/3> and related
documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at documents (including fancy diffs) can be found at
<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/>. <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/>.
The changes in this draft are summarized in Appendix B.12. The changes in this draft are summarized in Appendix B.13.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on February 5, 2011. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 28, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 3, line 10 skipping to change at page 3, line 10
outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
than English. than English.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. Syntax Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Syntax Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.1. Core Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.1. Core Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.2. ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the 2. Access Authentication Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Authentication Scheme Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2. Status Code Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Status Code Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1. 401 Unauthorized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. 401 Unauthorized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2. 407 Proxy Authentication Required . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. 407 Proxy Authentication Required . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3. Header Field Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Header Field Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1. Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.2. Proxy-Authenticate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2. Proxy-Authenticate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.3. Proxy-Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.3. Proxy-Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4. WWW-Authenticate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.4. WWW-Authenticate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.1. Status Code Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.1. Authenticaton Scheme Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2. Header Field Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.2. Status Code Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.3. Header Field Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1. Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients . . . . . . . 9 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6.1. Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients . . . . . . . 11
7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Appendix A. Collected ABNF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Appendix A. Collected ABNF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Appendix B. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before Appendix B. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before
publication) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 publication) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B.1. Since RFC2616 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 B.1. Since RFC 2616 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00 . . . . . . . . . . . 11 B.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00 . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B.3. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 11 B.3. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-01 . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B.4. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 11 B.4. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02 . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B.5. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 11 B.5. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03 . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B.6. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04 . . . . . . . . . . . 11 B.6. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04 . . . . . . . . . . . 14
B.7. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05 . . . . . . . . . . . 12 B.7. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
B.8. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06 . . . . . . . . . . . 12 B.8. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
B.9. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07 . . . . . . . . . . . 12 B.9. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-07 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
B.10. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08 . . . . . . . . . . . 12 B.10. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-08 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
B.11. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09 . . . . . . . . . . . 12 B.11. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-09 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
B.12. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10 . . . . . . . . . . . 12 B.12. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 B.13. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. This document defines HTTP/1.1 access control and authentication. It
Right now it includes the extracted relevant sections of RFC 2616 includes the relevant parts of RFC 2616 with only minor changes, plus
with only minor changes. The intention is to move the general the general framework for HTTP authentication, as previously defined
framework for HTTP authentication here, as currently specified in in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication"
[RFC2617], and allow the individual authentication mechanisms to be ([RFC2617]).
defined elsewhere. This introduction will be rewritten when that
occurs.
HTTP provides several OPTIONAL challenge-response authentication HTTP provides several OPTIONAL challenge-response authentication
mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client mechanisms which can be used by a server to challenge a client
request and by a client to provide authentication information. The request and by a client to provide authentication information. The
general framework for access authentication, and the specification of "basic" and "digest" authentication schemes continue to be specified
"basic" and "digest" authentication, are specified in "HTTP in RFC 2617.
Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].
This specification adopts the definitions of "challenge" and
"credentials" from that specification.
1.1. Requirements 1.1. Requirements
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more An implementation is not compliant if it fails to satisfy one or more
of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the protocols it of the "MUST" or "REQUIRED" level requirements for the protocols it
implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or implements. An implementation that satisfies all the "MUST" or
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[RFC5234], Appendix B.1: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF [RFC5234], Appendix B.1: ALPHA (letters), CR (carriage return), CRLF
(CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote), (CR LF), CTL (controls), DIGIT (decimal 0-9), DQUOTE (double quote),
HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit HEXDIG (hexadecimal 0-9/A-F/a-f), LF (line feed), OCTET (any 8-bit
sequence of data), SP (space), VCHAR (any visible USASCII character), sequence of data), SP (space), VCHAR (any visible USASCII character),
and WSP (whitespace). and WSP (whitespace).
1.2.1. Core Rules 1.2.1. Core Rules
The core rules below are defined in Section 1.2.2 of [Part1]: The core rules below are defined in Section 1.2.2 of [Part1]:
OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2> quoted-string = <quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
token = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
1.2.2. ABNF Rules defined in other Parts of the Specification 2. Access Authentication Framework
The ABNF rules below are defined in other specifications: HTTP provides a simple challenge-response authentication mechanism
that can be used by a server to challenge a client request and by a
client to provide authentication information. It uses an extensible,
case-insensitive token to identify the authentication scheme,
followed by a comma-separated list of attribute-value pairs which
carry the parameters necessary for achieving authentication via that
scheme.
challenge = <challenge, defined in [RFC2617], Section 1.2> auth-scheme = token
credentials = <credentials, defined in [RFC2617], Section 1.2> auth-param = token "=" ( token / quoted-string )
2. Status Code Definitions The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server
to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response MUST
include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one
challenge applicable to the requested resource. The 407 (Proxy
Authentication Required) response message is used by a proxy to
challenge the authorization of a client and MUST include a Proxy-
Authenticate header field containing at least one challenge
applicable to the proxy for the requested resource.
2.1. 401 Unauthorized challenge = auth-scheme 1*SP 1#auth-param
Note: User agents will need to take special care in parsing the
WWW-Authenticate or Proxy-Authenticate header field value if it
contains more than one challenge, or if more than one WWW-
Authenticate header field is provided, since the contents of a
challenge can itself contain a comma-separated list of
authentication parameters.
Note: Many browsers fail to parse challenges containing unknown
schemes. A workaround for this problem is to list well-supported
schemes (such as "basic") first.
The authentication parameter realm is defined for all authentication
schemes:
realm = "realm" "=" realm-value
realm-value = quoted-string
The realm directive (case-insensitive) is required for all
authentication schemes that issue a challenge. The realm value
(case-sensitive), in combination with the canonical root URI (the
scheme and authority components of the effective request URI; see
Section 4.3 of [Part1]) of the server being accessed, defines the
protection space. These realms allow the protected resources on a
server to be partitioned into a set of protection spaces, each with
its own authentication scheme and/or authorization database. The
realm value is a string, generally assigned by the origin server,
which can have additional semantics specific to the authentication
scheme. Note that there can be multiple challenges with the same
auth-scheme but different realms.
A user agent that wishes to authenticate itself with an origin server
-- usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized)
-- MAY do so by including an Authorization header field with the
request. A client that wishes to authenticate itself with a proxy --
usually, but not necessarily, after receiving a 407 (Proxy
Authentication Required) -- MAY do so by including a Proxy-
Authorization header field with the request. Both the Authorization
field value and the Proxy-Authorization field value consist of
credentials containing the authentication information of the client
for the realm of the resource being requested. The user agent MUST
choose to use one of the challenges with the strongest auth-scheme it
understands and request credentials from the user based upon that
challenge.
credentials = auth-scheme ( token
/ quoted-string
/ #auth-param )
The protection space determines the domain over which credentials can
be automatically applied. If a prior request has been authorized,
the same credentials MAY be reused for all other requests within that
protection space for a period of time determined by the
authentication scheme, parameters, and/or user preference. Unless
otherwise defined by the authentication scheme, a single protection
space cannot extend outside the scope of its server.
If the origin server does not wish to accept the credentials sent
with a request, it SHOULD return a 401 (Unauthorized) response. The
response MUST include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at
least one (possibly new) challenge applicable to the requested
resource. If a proxy does not accept the credentials sent with a
request, it SHOULD return a 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). The
response MUST include a Proxy-Authenticate header field containing a
(possibly new) challenge applicable to the proxy for the requested
resource.
The HTTP protocol does not restrict applications to this simple
challenge-response mechanism for access authentication. Additional
mechanisms MAY be used, such as encryption at the transport level or
via message encapsulation, and with additional header fields
specifying authentication information. However, these additional
mechanisms are not defined by this specification.
Proxies MUST be completely transparent regarding user agent
authentication by origin servers. That is, they MUST forward the
WWW-Authenticate and Authorization headers untouched, and follow the
rules found in Section 4.1. Both the Proxy-Authenticate and the
Proxy-Authorization header fields are hop-by-hop headers (see Section
7.1.3.1 of [Part1]).
2.1. Authentication Scheme Registry
The HTTP Authentication Scheme Registry defines the name space for
the authentication schemes in challenges and credentials.
Registrations MUST include the following fields:
o Authentication Scheme Name
o Pointer to specification text
Values to be added to this name space are subject to IETF review
([RFC5226], Section 4.1).
The registry itself is maintained at
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes>.
3. Status Code Definitions
3.1. 401 Unauthorized
The request requires user authentication. The response MUST include The request requires user authentication. The response MUST include
a WWW-Authenticate header field (Section 3.4) containing a challenge a WWW-Authenticate header field (Section 4.4) containing a challenge
applicable to the target resource. The client MAY repeat the request applicable to the target resource. The client MAY repeat the request
with a suitable Authorization header field (Section 3.1). If the with a suitable Authorization header field (Section 4.1). If the
request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401 request already included Authorization credentials, then the 401
response indicates that authorization has been refused for those response indicates that authorization has been refused for those
credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the credentials. If the 401 response contains the same challenge as the
prior response, and the user agent has already attempted prior response, and the user agent has already attempted
authentication at least once, then the user SHOULD be presented the authentication at least once, then the user SHOULD be presented the
representation that was given in the response, since that representation that was given in the response, since that
representation might include relevant diagnostic information. HTTP representation might include relevant diagnostic information.
access authentication is explained in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and
Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].
2.2. 407 Proxy Authentication Required 3.2. 407 Proxy Authentication Required
This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the This code is similar to 401 (Unauthorized), but indicates that the
client must first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy MUST client ought to first authenticate itself with the proxy. The proxy
return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (Section 3.2) containing a MUST return a Proxy-Authenticate header field (Section 4.2)
challenge applicable to the proxy for the target resource. The containing a challenge applicable to the proxy for the target
client MAY repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-Authorization resource. The client MAY repeat the request with a suitable Proxy-
header field (Section 3.3). HTTP access authentication is explained Authorization header field (Section 4.3).
in "HTTP Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication"
[RFC2617].
3. Header Field Definitions 4. Header Field Definitions
This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header This section defines the syntax and semantics of HTTP/1.1 header
fields related to authentication. fields related to authentication.
3.1. Authorization 4.1. Authorization
The "Authorization" request-header field allows a user agent to The "Authorization" request-header field allows a user agent to
authenticate itself with a server -- usually, but not necessarily, authenticate itself with a server -- usually, but not necessarily,
after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of after receiving a 401 (Unauthorized) response. Its value consists of
credentials containing information of the user agent for the realm of credentials containing information of the user agent for the realm of
the resource being requested. the resource being requested.
Authorization = "Authorization" ":" OWS Authorization-v Authorization = "Authorization" ":" OWS Authorization-v
Authorization-v = credentials Authorization-v = credentials
HTTP access authentication is described in "HTTP Authentication: If a request is authenticated and a realm specified, the same
Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617]. If a request is credentials SHOULD be valid for all other requests within this realm
authenticated and a realm specified, the same credentials SHOULD be (assuming that the authentication scheme itself does not require
valid for all other requests within this realm (assuming that the otherwise, such as credentials that vary according to a challenge
authentication scheme itself does not require otherwise, such as value or using synchronized clocks).
credentials that vary according to a challenge value or using
synchronized clocks).
When a shared cache (see Section 1.2 of [Part6]) receives a request When a shared cache (see Section 1.2 of [Part6]) receives a request
containing an Authorization field, it MUST NOT return the containing an Authorization field, it MUST NOT return the
corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one of corresponding response as a reply to any other request, unless one of
the following specific exceptions holds: the following specific exceptions holds:
1. If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control directive, 1. If the response includes the "s-maxage" cache-control directive,
the cache MAY use that response in replying to a subsequent the cache MAY use that response in replying to a subsequent
request. But (if the specified maximum age has passed) a proxy request. But (if the specified maximum age has passed) a proxy
cache MUST first revalidate it with the origin server, using the cache MUST first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server request-header fields from the new request to allow the origin
to authenticate the new request. (This is the defined behavior server to authenticate the new request. (This is the defined
for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0", the proxy behavior for s-maxage.) If the response includes "s-maxage=0",
MUST always revalidate it before re-using it. the proxy MUST always revalidate it before re-using it.
2. If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control 2. If the response includes the "must-revalidate" cache-control
directive, the cache MAY use that response in replying to a directive, the cache MAY use that response in replying to a
subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches subsequent request. But if the response is stale, all caches
MUST first revalidate it with the origin server, using the MUST first revalidate it with the origin server, using the
request-headers from the new request to allow the origin server request-header fields from the new request to allow the origin
to authenticate the new request. server to authenticate the new request.
3. If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive, it 3. If the response includes the "public" cache-control directive, it
MAY be returned in reply to any subsequent request. MAY be returned in reply to any subsequent request.
3.2. Proxy-Authenticate 4.2. Proxy-Authenticate
The "Proxy-Authenticate" response-header field consists of a The "Proxy-Authenticate" response-header field consists of a
challenge that indicates the authentication scheme and parameters challenge that indicates the authentication scheme and parameters
applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (Section 4.3 applicable to the proxy for this effective request URI (Section 4.3
of [Part1]). It MUST be included as part of a 407 (Proxy of [Part1]). It MUST be included as part of a 407 (Proxy
Authentication Required) response. Authentication Required) response.
Proxy-Authenticate = "Proxy-Authenticate" ":" OWS Proxy-Authenticate = "Proxy-Authenticate" ":" OWS
Proxy-Authenticate-v Proxy-Authenticate-v
Proxy-Authenticate-v = 1#challenge Proxy-Authenticate-v = 1#challenge
The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].
Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies Unlike WWW-Authenticate, the Proxy-Authenticate header field applies
only to the current connection and SHOULD NOT be passed on to only to the current connection and SHOULD NOT be passed on to
downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to downstream clients. However, an intermediate proxy might need to
obtain its own credentials by requesting them from the downstream obtain its own credentials by requesting them from the downstream
client, which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is client, which in some circumstances will appear as if the proxy is
forwarding the Proxy-Authenticate header field. forwarding the Proxy-Authenticate header field.
3.3. Proxy-Authorization 4.3. Proxy-Authorization
The "Proxy-Authorization" request-header field allows the client to The "Proxy-Authorization" request-header field allows the client to
identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires identify itself (or its user) to a proxy which requires
authentication. Its value consists of credentials containing the authentication. Its value consists of credentials containing the
authentication information of the user agent for the proxy and/or authentication information of the user agent for the proxy and/or
realm of the resource being requested. realm of the resource being requested.
Proxy-Authorization = "Proxy-Authorization" ":" OWS Proxy-Authorization = "Proxy-Authorization" ":" OWS
Proxy-Authorization-v Proxy-Authorization-v
Proxy-Authorization-v = credentials Proxy-Authorization-v = credentials
The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].
Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies Unlike Authorization, the Proxy-Authorization header field applies
only to the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using only to the next outbound proxy that demanded authentication using
the Proxy-Authenticate field. When multiple proxies are used in a the Proxy-Authenticate field. When multiple proxies are used in a
chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first chain, the Proxy-Authorization header field is consumed by the first
outbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy outbound proxy that was expecting to receive credentials. A proxy
MAY relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy MAY relay the credentials from the client request to the next proxy
if that is the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively if that is the mechanism by which the proxies cooperatively
authenticate a given request. authenticate a given request.
3.4. WWW-Authenticate 4.4. WWW-Authenticate
The "WWW-Authenticate" response-header field consists of at least one The "WWW-Authenticate" response-header field consists of at least one
challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters challenge that indicates the authentication scheme(s) and parameters
applicable to the effective request URI (Section 4.3 of [Part1]). It applicable to the effective request URI (Section 4.3 of [Part1]). It
MUST be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages. MUST be included in 401 (Unauthorized) response messages.
WWW-Authenticate = "WWW-Authenticate" ":" OWS WWW-Authenticate-v WWW-Authenticate = "WWW-Authenticate" ":" OWS WWW-Authenticate-v
WWW-Authenticate-v = 1#challenge WWW-Authenticate-v = 1#challenge
The HTTP access authentication process is described in "HTTP
Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication" [RFC2617].
User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW- User agents are advised to take special care in parsing the WWW-
Authenticate field value as it might contain more than one challenge, Authenticate field value as it might contain more than one challenge,
or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the or if more than one WWW-Authenticate header field is provided, the
contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of contents of a challenge itself can contain a comma-separated list of
authentication parameters. authentication parameters.
4. IANA Considerations 5. IANA Considerations
4.1. Status Code Registration 5.1. Authenticaton Scheme Registry
The registration procedure for HTTP Authentication Schemes is defined
by Section 2.1 of this document.
The HTTP Method Authentication Scheme shall be created at
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-authschemes>.
5.2. Status Code Registration
The HTTP Status Code Registry located at The HTTP Status Code Registry located at
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes> shall be updated <http://www.iana.org/assignments/http-status-codes> shall be updated
with the registrations below: with the registrations below:
+-------+-------------------------------+-------------+ +-------+-------------------------------+-------------+
| Value | Description | Reference | | Value | Description | Reference |
+-------+-------------------------------+-------------+ +-------+-------------------------------+-------------+
| 401 | Unauthorized | Section 2.1 | | 401 | Unauthorized | Section 3.1 |
| 407 | Proxy Authentication Required | Section 2.2 | | 407 | Proxy Authentication Required | Section 3.2 |
+-------+-------------------------------+-------------+ +-------+-------------------------------+-------------+
4.2. Header Field Registration 5.3. Header Field Registration
The Message Header Field Registry located at <http://www.iana.org/ The Message Header Field Registry located at <http://www.iana.org/
assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html> shall be assignments/message-headers/message-header-index.html> shall be
updated with the permanent registrations below (see [RFC3864]): updated with the permanent registrations below (see [RFC3864]):
+---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+ +---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
| Header Field Name | Protocol | Status | Reference | | Header Field Name | Protocol | Status | Reference |
+---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+ +---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
| Authorization | http | standard | Section 3.1 | | Authorization | http | standard | Section 4.1 |
| Proxy-Authenticate | http | standard | Section 3.2 | | Proxy-Authenticate | http | standard | Section 4.2 |
| Proxy-Authorization | http | standard | Section 3.3 | | Proxy-Authorization | http | standard | Section 4.3 |
| WWW-Authenticate | http | standard | Section 3.4 | | WWW-Authenticate | http | standard | Section 4.4 |
+---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+ +---------------------+----------+----------+-------------+
The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet The change controller is: "IETF (iesg@ietf.org) - Internet
Engineering Task Force". Engineering Task Force".
5. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
This section is meant to inform application developers, information This section is meant to inform application developers, information
providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as providers, and users of the security limitations in HTTP/1.1 as
described by this document. The discussion does not include described by this document. The discussion does not include
definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make definitive solutions to the problems revealed, though it does make
some suggestions for reducing security risks. some suggestions for reducing security risks.
5.1. Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients 6.1. Authentication Credentials and Idle Clients
Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication Existing HTTP clients and user agents typically retain authentication
information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a information indefinitely. HTTP/1.1 does not provide a method for a
server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This server to direct clients to discard these cached credentials. This
is a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP. is a significant defect that requires further extensions to HTTP.
Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the Circumstances under which credential caching can interfere with the
application's security model include but are not limited to: application's security model include but are not limited to:
o Clients which have been idle for an extended period following o Clients which have been idle for an extended period following
which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the which the server might wish to cause the client to reprompt the
skipping to change at page 9, line 31 skipping to change at page 12, line 5
for the client to retain the credentials. for the client to retain the credentials.
This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work- This is currently under separate study. There are a number of work-
arounds to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of arounds to parts of this problem, and we encourage the use of
password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other password protection in screen savers, idle time-outs, and other
methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this methods which mitigate the security problems inherent in this
problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are problem. In particular, user agents which cache credentials are
encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding encouraged to provide a readily accessible mechanism for discarding
cached credentials under user control. cached credentials under user control.
6. Acknowledgments 7. Acknowledgments
[[acks: TBD.]] This specification takes over the definition of the HTTP
Authentication Framework, previously defined in RFC 2617. We thank
to John Franks, Phillip M. Hallam-Baker, Jeffery L. Hostetler, Scott
D. Lawrence, Paul J. Leach, Ari Luotonen, and Lawrence C. Stewart for
their work on that specification.
7. References [[acks: HTTPbis acknowledgements.]]
7.1. Normative References 8. References
8.1. Normative References
[Part1] Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., [Part1] Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed., Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed.,
and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections, and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part 1: URIs, Connections,
and Message Parsing", draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-11 and Message Parsing", draft-ietf-httpbis-p1-messaging-12
(work in progress), August 2010. (work in progress), October 2010.
[Part6] Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., [Part6] Fielding, R., Ed., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed., Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners-Lee, T., Lafon, Y., Ed.,
Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "HTTP/1.1, part
6: Caching", draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-11 (work in 6: Caching", draft-ietf-httpbis-p6-cache-12 (work in
progress), August 2010. progress), October 2010.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2617] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP
Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication",
RFC 2617, June 1999.
[RFC5234] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax [RFC5234] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008. Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, January 2008.
7.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[RFC2616] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., [RFC2616] Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H.,
Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999. Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1", RFC 2616, June 1999.
[RFC2617] Franks, J., Hallam-Baker, P., Hostetler, J., Lawrence, S.,
Leach, P., Luotonen, A., and L. Stewart, "HTTP
Authentication: Basic and Digest Access Authentication",
RFC 2617, June 1999.
[RFC3864] Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, "Registration [RFC3864] Klyne, G., Nottingham, M., and J. Mogul, "Registration
Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864, Procedures for Message Header Fields", BCP 90, RFC 3864,
September 2004. September 2004.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008.
Appendix A. Collected ABNF Appendix A. Collected ABNF
Authorization = "Authorization:" OWS Authorization-v Authorization = "Authorization:" OWS Authorization-v
Authorization-v = credentials Authorization-v = credentials
OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2> OWS = <OWS, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
Proxy-Authenticate = "Proxy-Authenticate:" OWS Proxy-Authenticate-v Proxy-Authenticate = "Proxy-Authenticate:" OWS Proxy-Authenticate-v
Proxy-Authenticate-v = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS Proxy-Authenticate-v = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
challenge ] ) challenge ] )
Proxy-Authorization = "Proxy-Authorization:" OWS Proxy-Authorization = "Proxy-Authorization:" OWS
Proxy-Authorization-v Proxy-Authorization-v
Proxy-Authorization-v = credentials Proxy-Authorization-v = credentials
WWW-Authenticate = "WWW-Authenticate:" OWS WWW-Authenticate-v WWW-Authenticate = "WWW-Authenticate:" OWS WWW-Authenticate-v
WWW-Authenticate-v = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS WWW-Authenticate-v = *( "," OWS ) challenge *( OWS "," [ OWS
challenge ] ) challenge ] )
challenge = <challenge, defined in [RFC2617], Section 1.2> auth-param = token "=" ( token / quoted-string )
credentials = <credentials, defined in [RFC2617], Section 1.2> auth-scheme = token
challenge = auth-scheme 1*SP *( "," OWS ) auth-param *( OWS "," [ OWS
auth-param ] )
credentials = auth-scheme ( token / quoted-string / [ ( "," /
auth-param ) *( OWS "," [ OWS auth-param ] ) ] )
quoted-string = <quoted-string, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
realm = "realm=" realm-value
realm-value = quoted-string
token = <token, defined in [Part1], Section 1.2.2>
ABNF diagnostics: ABNF diagnostics:
; Authorization defined but not used ; Authorization defined but not used
; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used ; Proxy-Authenticate defined but not used
; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used ; Proxy-Authorization defined but not used
; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used ; WWW-Authenticate defined but not used
; realm defined but not used
Appendix B. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication) Appendix B. Change Log (to be removed by RFC Editor before publication)
B.1. Since RFC2616 B.1. Since RFC 2616
Extracted relevant partitions from [RFC2616]. Extracted relevant partitions from [RFC2616].
B.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00 B.2. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-00
Closed issues: Closed issues:
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35>: "Normative and o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/35>: "Normative and
Informative references" Informative references"
skipping to change at page 11, line 31 skipping to change at page 14, line 31
(<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>): (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>):
o Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from o Explicitly import BNF rules for "challenge" and "credentials" from
RFC2617. RFC2617.
o Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from o Add explicit references to BNF syntax and rules imported from
other parts of the specification. other parts of the specification.
B.4. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02 B.4. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-02
Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Registration Ongoing work on IANA Message Header Field Registration
(<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40>): (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/40>):
o Reference RFC 3984, and update header registrations for headers o Reference RFC 3984, and update header field registrations for
defined in this document. header fields defined in this document.
B.5. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03 B.5. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-03
B.6. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04 B.6. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-04
Ongoing work on ABNF conversion Ongoing work on ABNF conversion
(<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>): (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>):
o Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives. o Use "/" instead of "|" for alternatives.
o Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional o Introduce new ABNF rules for "bad" whitespace ("BWS"), optional
whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS"). whitespace ("OWS") and required whitespace ("RWS").
o Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out header o Rewrite ABNFs to spell out whitespace rules, factor out header
value format definitions. field value format definitions.
B.7. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05 B.7. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-05
Final work on ABNF conversion Final work on ABNF conversion
(<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>): (<http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/36>):
o Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize o Add appendix containing collected and expanded ABNF, reorganize
ABNF introduction. ABNF introduction.
B.8. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06 B.8. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-06
skipping to change at page 12, line 39 skipping to change at page 15, line 39
Partly resolved issues: Partly resolved issues:
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196>: "Term for the o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/196>: "Term for the
requested resource's URI" requested resource's URI"
B.12. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10 B.12. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-10
None yet. None yet.
B.13. Since draft-ietf-httpbis-p7-auth-11
Closed issues:
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/130>: "introduction
to part 7 is work-in-progress"
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/195>: "auth-param
syntax"
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/237>: "absorbing the
auth framework from 2617"
Partly resolved issues:
o <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/httpbis/trac/ticket/141>: "should we
have an auth scheme registry"
Index Index
4 4
401 Unauthorized (status code) 5 401 Unauthorized (status code) 7
407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code) 5 407 Proxy Authentication Required (status code) 8
A A
Authorization header 6 auth-param 5
auth-scheme 5
Authorization header 8
C
challenge 5
credentials 6
G G
Grammar Grammar
Authorization 6 Authorization 8
Authorization-v 6 Authorization-v 8
challenge 5 Proxy-Authenticate 9
credentials 5 Proxy-Authenticate-v 9
Proxy-Authenticate 7 Proxy-Authorization 9
Proxy-Authenticate-v 7 Proxy-Authorization-v 9
Proxy-Authorization 7 WWW-Authenticate 10
Proxy-Authorization-v 7 WWW-Authenticate-v 10
WWW-Authenticate 7
WWW-Authenticate-v 7
H H
Headers Headers
Authorization 6 Authorization 8
Proxy-Authenticate 6 Proxy-Authenticate 9
Proxy-Authorization 7 Proxy-Authorization 9
WWW-Authenticate 7 WWW-Authenticate 10
P P
Proxy-Authenticate header 6 Proxy-Authenticate header 9
Proxy-Authorization header 7 Proxy-Authorization header 9
R
realm 5
realm-value 5
S S
Status Codes Status Codes
401 Unauthorized 5 401 Unauthorized 7
407 Proxy Authentication Required 5 407 Proxy Authentication Required 8
W W
WWW-Authenticate header 7 WWW-Authenticate header 10
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Roy T. Fielding (editor) Roy T. Fielding (editor)
Day Software Day Software
23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280 23 Corporate Plaza DR, Suite 280
Newport Beach, CA 92660 Newport Beach, CA 92660
USA USA
Phone: +1-949-706-5300 Phone: +1-949-706-5300
 End of changes. 62 change blocks. 
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