draft-ietf-httpbis-rand-access-live-03.txt   draft-ietf-httpbis-rand-access-live-04.txt 
HTTP Working Group C. Pratt HTTP C. Pratt
Internet-Draft Internet-Draft
Intended status: Experimental D. Thakore Intended status: Experimental D. Thakore
Expires: September 21, 2018 CableLabs Expires: September 7, 2019 CableLabs
B. Stark B. Stark
AT&T AT&T
March 20, 2018 March 6, 2019
HTTP Random Access and Live Content HTTP Random Access and Live Content
draft-ietf-httpbis-rand-access-live-03 draft-ietf-httpbis-rand-access-live-04
Abstract Abstract
To accommodate byte range requests for content that has data appended To accommodate byte range requests for content that has data appended
over time, this document defines semantics that allow a HTTP client over time, this document defines semantics that allow a HTTP client
and server to perform byte-range GET and HEAD requests that start at and server to perform byte-range GET and HEAD requests that start at
an arbitrary byte offset within the representation and ends at an an arbitrary byte offset within the representation and ends at an
indeterminate offset. indeterminate offset.
Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor before publication) Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor before publication)
skipping to change at page 1, line 40 skipping to change at page 1, line 40
<https://github.com/httpwg/http-extensions/labels/rand-access-live>. <https://github.com/httpwg/http-extensions/labels/rand-access-live>.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
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This Internet-Draft will expire on September 21, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 7, 2019.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Performing Range requests on Random-Access Aggregating 2. Performing Range requests on Random-Access Aggregating
("live") Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ("live") Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. Establishing the Randomly Accessible Byte Range . . . . . 4 2.1. Establishing the Randomly Accessible Byte Range . . . . . 4
2.2. Byte-Range Requests Beyond the Randomly Accessible Byte 2.2. Byte-Range Requests Beyond the Randomly Accessible Byte
Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Other Applications of Random-Access Aggregating Content . . . 7 3. Other Applications of Random-Access Aggregating Content . . . 7
3.1. Requests Starting at the Aggregation ("Live") Point . . . 7 3.1. Requests Starting at the Aggregation ("Live") Point . . . 7
3.2. Shift Buffer Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2. Shift Buffer Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4. Recommendations for Very Large Values . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Appendix A. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Some Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) clients use byte-range Some Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) clients use byte-range
requests (Range requests using the "bytes" Range Unit) to transfer requests (Range requests using the "bytes" Range Unit) to transfer
select portions of large representations ([RFC7233]). And in some select portions of large representations ([RFC7233]). And in some
cases large representations require content to be continuously or cases large representations require content to be continuously or
periodically appended - such as representations consisting of live periodically appended - such as representations consisting of live
audio or video sources, blockchain databases, and log files. Clients audio or video sources, blockchain databases, and log files. Clients
cannot access the appended/live content using a Range request with cannot access the appended/live content using a Range request with
skipping to change at page 4, line 31 skipping to change at page 4, line 40
client's indeterminate range request by indicating that the range it client's indeterminate range request by indicating that the range it
is providing has a range end that exactly matches the client's is providing has a range end that exactly matches the client's
requested range end rather than a range that is bounded by what is requested range end rather than a range that is bounded by what is
currently available. See Section 2.2 for details. currently available. See Section 2.2 for details.
2.1. Establishing the Randomly Accessible Byte Range 2.1. Establishing the Randomly Accessible Byte Range
Establishing if a representation is continuously aggregating ("live") Establishing if a representation is continuously aggregating ("live")
and determining the randomly-accessible byte range can both be and determining the randomly-accessible byte range can both be
determined using the existing definition for an open-ended byte-range determined using the existing definition for an open-ended byte-range
request. Specifically, Section 2.1 of [RFC7233] defines a byte-range request. Specifically, [RFC7233] defines a byte-range request of the
request of the form: form:
byte-range-spec = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ] byte-range-spec = first-byte-pos "-" [ last-byte-pos ]
which allows a client to send a HEAD request with a first-byte-pos which allows a client to send a HEAD request with a first-byte-pos
and leave last-byte-pos absent. A server that receives a satisfiable and leave last-byte-pos absent. A server that receives a satisfiable
byte-range request (with first-byte-pos smaller than the current byte-range request (with first-byte-pos smaller than the current
representation length) may respond with a 206 status code (Partial representation length) may respond with a 206 status code (Partial
Content) with a Content-Range header field indicating the currently Content) with a Content-Range header field indicating the currently
satisfiable byte range. For example: satisfiable byte range. For example:
HEAD /resource HTTP/1.1 HEAD /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Range: bytes=0- Range: bytes=0-
returns a response of the form: returns a response of the form:
HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
Content-Range: bytes 0-1234567/* Content-Range: bytes 0-1234567/*
from the server indicating that (1) the complete representation from the server indicating that (1) the complete representation
length is unknown (via the "*" in place of the complete-length field) length is unknown (via the "*" in place of the complete-length field)
and (2) that only bytes 0-1234567 were accessable at the time the and (2) that only bytes 0-1234567 were accessible at the time the
request was processed by the server. The client can infer from this request was processed by the server. The client can infer from this
response that bytes 0-1234567 of the representation can be requested response that bytes 0-1234567 of the representation can be requested
and returned in a timely fashion (the bytes are immediately and returned in a timely fashion (the bytes are immediately
available). available).
2.2. Byte-Range Requests Beyond the Randomly Accessible Byte Range 2.2. Byte-Range Requests Beyond the Randomly Accessible Byte Range
Once a client has determined that a representation has an Once a client has determined that a representation has an
indeterminate length and established the byte range that can be indeterminate length and established the byte range that can be
accessed, it may want to perform a request with a start position accessed, it may want to perform a request with a start position
skipping to change at page 5, line 29 skipping to change at page 5, line 38
an indefinite "live" point - a point where the byte-range GET request an indefinite "live" point - a point where the byte-range GET request
is fulfilled on-demand as the content is aggregated. is fulfilled on-demand as the content is aggregated.
For example, for a large video asset, a client may wish to start a For example, for a large video asset, a client may wish to start a
content transfer from the video "key" frame immediately before the content transfer from the video "key" frame immediately before the
point of aggregation and continue the content transfer indefinitely point of aggregation and continue the content transfer indefinitely
as content is aggregated - in order to support low-latency startup of as content is aggregated - in order to support low-latency startup of
a live video stream. a live video stream.
Unlike a byte-range Range request, a byte-range Content-Range Unlike a byte-range Range request, a byte-range Content-Range
response header field cannot be "open ended", per Section 4.2 of response header field cannot be "open ended", per [RFC7233]:
[RFC7233]:
byte-content-range = bytes-unit SP byte-content-range = bytes-unit SP
( byte-range-resp / unsatisfied-range ) ( byte-range-resp / unsatisfied-range )
byte-range-resp = byte-range "/" ( complete-length / "*" ) byte-range-resp = byte-range "/" ( complete-length / "*" )
byte-range = first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos byte-range = first-byte-pos "-" last-byte-pos
unsatisfied-range = "*/" complete-length unsatisfied-range = "*/" complete-length
complete-length = 1*DIGIT complete-length = 1*DIGIT
Specifically, last-byte-pos is required in byte-range. So in order Specifically, last-byte-pos is required in byte-range. So in order
to preserve interoperability with existing HTTP clients, servers, to preserve interoperability with existing HTTP clients, servers,
proxies, and caches, this document proposes a mechanism for a client proxies, and caches, this document proposes a mechanism for a client
to indicate support for handling an indeterminate-length byte-range to indicate support for handling an indeterminate-length byte-range
response, and a mechanism for a server to indicate if/when it's response, and a mechanism for a server to indicate if/when it's
providing a indeterminate-length response. providing an indeterminate-length response.
A client can indicate support for handling indeterminate-length byte- A client can indicate support for handling indeterminate-length byte-
range responses by providing a Very Large Value for the last-byte-pos range responses by providing a very large value for the last-byte-pos
in the byte-range request. For example, a client can perform a byte- in the byte-range request. For example, a client can perform a byte-
range GET request of the form: range GET request of the form:
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Range: bytes=1230000-999999999999 Range: bytes=1230000-999999999999
where the last-byte-pos in the Request is much larger than the last- where the last-byte-pos in the Request is much larger than the last-
byte-pos returned in response to an open-ended byte-range HEAD byte-pos returned in response to an open-ended byte-range HEAD
request, as described above. request, as described above, and much larger than the expected
maximum size of the representation. See Section 6 for range value
considerations.
In response, a server may indicate that it is supplying a In response, a server may indicate that it is supplying a
continuously aggregating ("live") response by supplying the client continuously aggregating ("live") response by supplying the client
request's last-byte-pos in the Content-Range response header field. request's last-byte-pos in the Content-Range response header field.
For example: For example:
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Range: bytes=1230000-999999999999 Range: bytes=1230000-999999999999
returns returns
HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
Content-Range: bytes 1230000-999999999999/* Content-Range: bytes 1230000-999999999999/*
from the server to indicate that the response will start at byte from the server to indicate that the response will start at byte
1230000 and continues indefinitely to include all aggregated content, 1230000 and continues indefinitely to include all aggregated content,
as it becomes available. as it becomes available.
A server that doesn't support or supply a continuously aggregating A server that doesn't support or supply a continuously aggregating
("live") response will supply the currently satisfiable byte range, ("live") response will supply the currently satisfiable byte range,
as it would with an open-ended byte request. as it would with an open-ended byte request.
For example: For example:
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Range: bytes=1230000-999999999999 Range: bytes=1230000-999999999999
will return will return
HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
Content-Range: bytes 1230000-1234567/* Content-Range: bytes 1230000-1234567/*
from the server to indicate that the response will start at byte from the server to indicate that the response will start at byte
1230000 and end at byte 1234567 and will not include any aggregated 1230000 and end at byte 1234567 and will not include any aggregated
content. This is the response expected from a typical HTTP server - content. This is the response expected from a typical HTTP server -
one that doesn't support byte-range requests on aggregating content. one that doesn't support byte-range requests on aggregating content.
A client that doesn't receive a response indicating it is A client that doesn't receive a response indicating it is
continuously aggregating must use other means to access aggregated continuously aggregating must use other means to access aggregated
content (e.g. periodic byte-range polling). content (e.g. periodic byte-range polling).
A server that does return a continuously aggregating ("live") A server that does return a continuously aggregating ("live")
response should return data using chunked transfer coding and not response should return data using chunked transfer coding and not
provide a Content-Length header field. A 0-length chunk indicates provide a Content-Length header field. A 0-length chunk indicates
the end of the transfer, per Section 4.1 of [RFC7230]. the end of the transfer, per [RFC7230].
3. Other Applications of Random-Access Aggregating Content 3. Other Applications of Random-Access Aggregating Content
3.1. Requests Starting at the Aggregation ("Live") Point 3.1. Requests Starting at the Aggregation ("Live") Point
A client that wishes to only receive newly-aggregated portions of a A client that wishes to only receive newly-aggregated portions of a
resource (i.e., start at the "live" point), can use a HEAD request to resource (i.e., start at the "live" point), can use a HEAD request to
learn what range the server has currently available and initiate an learn what range the server has currently available and initiate an
indeterminate-length transfer. For example: indeterminate-length transfer. For example:
HEAD /resource HTTP/1.1 HEAD /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Range: bytes=0- Range: bytes=0-
With the Content-Range response header field indicating the range (or With the Content-Range response header field indicating the range (or
ranges) available. For example: ranges) available. For example:
206 Partial Content 206 Partial Content
Content-Range: bytes 0-1234567/* Content-Range: bytes 0-1234567/*
The client can then issue a request for a range starting at the end The client can then issue a request for a range starting at the end
value (using a very large value for the end of a range) and receive value (using a very large value for the end of a range) and receive
only new content. only new content.
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Range: bytes=1234567-999999999999 Range: bytes=1234567-999999999999
with a server returning a Content-Range response indicating that an with a server returning a Content-Range response indicating that an
indeterminate-length response body will be provided indeterminate-length response body will be provided
206 Partial Content 206 Partial Content
Content-Range: bytes 1234567-999999999999/* Content-Range: bytes 1234567-999999999999/*
3.2. Shift Buffer Representations 3.2. Shift Buffer Representations
Some representations lend themselves to front-end content removal in Some representations lend themselves to front-end content removal in
addition to aggregation. While still supporting random access, addition to aggregation. While still supporting random access,
representations of this type have a portion at the beginning (the "0" representations of this type have a portion at the beginning (the "0"
end) of the randomly-accessible region that become inaccessible over end) of the randomly-accessible region that become inaccessible over
time. Examples of this kind of representation would be an audio- time. Examples of this kind of representation would be an audio-
video time-shift buffer or a rolling log file. video time-shift buffer or a rolling log file.
For example a Range request containing: For example a Range request containing:
HEAD /resource HTTP/1.1 HEAD /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Range: bytes=0- Range: bytes=0-
returns returns
206 Partial Content 206 Partial Content
Content-Range: bytes 1000000-1234567/* Content-Range: bytes 1000000-1234567/*
indicating that the first 1000000 bytes were not accessible at the indicating that the first 1000000 bytes were not accessible at the
time the HEAD request was processed. Subsequent HEAD requests could time the HEAD request was processed. Subsequent HEAD requests could
return: return:
Content-Range: bytes 1000000-1234567/* Content-Range: bytes 1000000-1234567/*
Content-Range: bytes 1010000-1244567/* Content-Range: bytes 1010000-1244567/*
Content-Range: bytes 1020000-1254567/* Content-Range: bytes 1020000-1254567/*
Note though that the difference between the first-byte-pos and last- Note though that the difference between the first-byte-pos and last-
byte-pos need not be constant. byte-pos need not be constant.
The client could then follow-up with a GET Range request containing The client could then follow-up with a GET Range request containing
GET /resource HTTP/1.1
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 Host: example.com
Host: example.com Range: bytes=1020000-999999999999
Range: bytes=1020000-999999999999
with the server returning with the server returning
206 Partial Content 206 Partial Content
Content-Range: bytes 1020000-999999999999/* Content-Range: bytes 1020000-999999999999/*
with the response body returning bytes 1020000-1254567 immediately with the response body returning bytes 1020000-1254567 immediately
and aggregated ("live") data being returned as the content is and aggregated ("live") data being returned as the content is
aggregated. aggregated.
A server that doesn't support or supply a continuously aggregating A server that doesn't support or supply a continuously aggregating
("live") response will supply the currently satisfiable byte range, ("live") response will supply the currently satisfiable byte range,
as it would with an open-ended byte request. as it would with an open-ended byte request.
For example: For example:
GET /resource HTTP/1.1 GET /resource HTTP/1.1
Host: example.com Host: example.com
Range: bytes=0-999999999999 Range: bytes=0-999999999999
will return will return
HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content HTTP/1.1 206 Partial Content
Content-Range: bytes 1020000-1254567/* Content-Range: bytes 1020000-1254567/*
from the server to indicate that the response will start at byte from the server to indicate that the response will start at byte
1020000, end at byte 1254567, and will not include any aggregated 1020000, end at byte 1254567, and will not include any aggregated
content. This is the response expected from a typical HTTP server - content. This is the response expected from a typical HTTP server -
one that doesn't support byte-range requests on aggregating content. one that doesn't support byte-range requests on aggregating content.
Note that responses to GET requests against shift-buffer Note that responses to GET requests against shift-buffer
representations using Range can be cached by intermediaries, since representations using Range can be cached by intermediaries, since
the Content-Range response header indicates which portion of the the Content-Range response header indicates which portion of the
representation is being returned in the response body. However GET representation is being returned in the response body. However GET
requests without a Range header cannot be cached since the first byte requests without a Range header cannot be cached since the first byte
of the response body can vary from request to request. To ensure of the response body can vary from request to request. To ensure
Range-less GET requests against shift-buffer representations are not Range-less GET requests against shift-buffer representations are not
cached, servers hosting a shift-buffer representation should either cached, servers hosting a shift-buffer representation should either
not return a 200-level response (e.g. sending a 300-level redirect not return a 200-level response (e.g. sending a 300-level redirect
response with a URI that represents the current start of the shift- response with a URI that represents the current start of the shift-
buffer) or indicate the response is non-cacheable. See HTTP Caching buffer) or indicate the response is non-cacheable. See HTTP Caching
([RFC7234]) for details on HTTP cache control. ([RFC7234]) for details on HTTP cache control.
4. IANA Considerations 4. Recommendations for Very Large Values
While it would be ideal to define a single numerical Very Large
Value, there's no single value that would work for all applications
and platforms. e.g. JavaScript numbers cannot represent all integer
values above 2^^53, so a JavaScript application may want to use
2^^53-1 for a Very Large Value. This value, however, would not be
sufficient for all applications, such as continuously-streaming high-
bitrate streams. So the value 2^^53-1 (9007199254740991) is
recommended as a Very Large Value unless an application has a good
justification to use a smaller or larger value. e.g. If it's always
known that the resource won't exceed a value smaller than the
recommended Very Large Value for an application, a smaller value can
be used. And if it's likely that an application will utilize
resources larger than the recommended Very Large Value - such as a
continuously aggregating high-bitrate media stream - a larger value
should be used.
Note that, in accordance with the semantics defined above, servers
that support random-access live content will need to return the last-
byte-pos provided in the Range request in some cases - even if the
last-byte-pos cannot be represented as a numerical value internally
by the server. As is the case with any live/continuously aggregating
resource, the server should terminate the content transfer when the
end of the resource is reached - whether the end is due to
termination of the content source or the content length exceeds the
server's maximum representation length.
5. IANA Considerations
This document has no actions for IANA. This document has no actions for IANA.
5. Security Considerations 6. Security Considerations
One potential issue with this recommendation is related to the use of As described above, servers need to be prepared to receive last-byte-
very-large last-byte-pos values. Some client and server pos values in Range requests that are numerically larger than the
implementations may not be prepared to deal with byte position values server implementation supports - and return these values in Content-
of 2^^63 and beyond. So in applications where there's no expectation Range response header fields. Servers should check the last-byte-pos
that the representation will ever exceed 2^^63, a value smaller than value before converting and storing them into numeric form to ensure
this value should be used as the Very Large last-byte-pos in a byte- the value doesn't cause an overflow or index incorrect data. The
seek request or content-range response. Also, some implementations simplest way to satisfy the live-range semantics defined in this
(e.g. JavaScript-based clients and servers) are not able to document without potential overflow issues is to store the last-byte-
represent all values beyond 2^^53. So similarly, if there's no pos as a string value and return it in the byte-range Content-Range
expectation that a representation will ever exceed 2^^53 bytes, response header's last-byte-pos field.
values smaller than this limit should be used for the last-byte-pos
in byte-range requests.
6. References 7. References
6.1. Normative References 7.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer [RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014, RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.
[RFC7233] Fielding, R., Ed., Lafon, Y., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., [RFC7233] Fielding, R., Ed., Lafon, Y., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed.,
"Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests", "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Range Requests",
RFC 7233, DOI 10.17487/RFC7233, June 2014, RFC 7233, DOI 10.17487/RFC7233, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7233>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7233>.
[RFC7234] Fielding, R., Ed., Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke, [RFC7234] Fielding, R., Ed., Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke,
Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching",
RFC 7234, DOI 10.17487/RFC7234, June 2014, RFC 7234, DOI 10.17487/RFC7234, June 2014,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7234>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7234>.
6.2. Informative References 7.2. Informative References
[DASH] ISO, "Information technology -- Dynamic adaptive streaming [DASH] ISO, "Information technology -- Dynamic adaptive streaming
over HTTP (DASH) -- Part 1: Media presentation description over HTTP (DASH) -- Part 1: Media presentation description
and segment formats", ISO/IEC 23009-1:2014, May 2014, and segment formats", ISO/IEC 23009-1:2014, May 2014,
<http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ <http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/
c065274_ISO_IEC_23009-1_2014.zip>. c065274_ISO_IEC_23009-1_2014.zip>.
[RFC5234] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax [RFC5234] Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234, Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008, DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008, <https://www.rfc-
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5234>. editor.org/info/rfc5234>.
[RFC8216] Pantos, R., Ed. and W. May, "HTTP Live Streaming", [RFC8216] Pantos, R., Ed. and W. May, "HTTP Live Streaming",
RFC 8216, DOI 10.17487/RFC8216, August 2017, RFC 8216, DOI 10.17487/RFC8216, August 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8216>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8216>.
Acknowledgements Appendix A. Acknowledgements
Mark Nottingham, Patrick McManus, Julian Reschke, Remy Lebeau, Rodger Mark Nottingham, Patrick McManus, Julian Reschke, Remy Lebeau, Rodger
Combs, Thorsten Lohmar, Martin Thompson, Adrien de Croy, K. Morgan, Combs, Thorsten Lohmar, Martin Thompson, Adrien de Croy, K. Morgan,
Roy T. Fielding, Jeremy Poulter. Roy T. Fielding, Jeremy Poulter.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Craig Pratt Craig Pratt
Portland, OR 97229 Portland, OR 97229
US US
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