draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-01.txt   draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-02.txt 
Network Working Group J. Jeong Network Working Group J. Jeong
Internet-Draft S. Hyun Internet-Draft S. Hyun
Intended status: Informational Sungkyunkwan University Intended status: Informational Sungkyunkwan University
Expires: May 18, 2018 T. Ahn Expires: September 6, 2018 T. Ahn
Korea Telecom Korea Telecom
S. Hares S. Hares
Huawei Huawei
D. Lopez D. Lopez
Telefonica I+D Telefonica I+D
November 14, 2017 March 5, 2018
Applicability of Interfaces to Network Security Functions to Network- Applicability of Interfaces to Network Security Functions to Network-
Based Security Services Based Security Services
draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-01 draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-02
Abstract Abstract
This document describes the applicability of Interface to Network This document describes the applicability of Interface to Network
Security Functions (I2NSF) to network-based security services in Security Functions (I2NSF) to network-based security services in
Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) environments, such as Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) environments, such as
firewall, deep packet inspection, or attack mitigation engines. firewall, deep packet inspection, or attack mitigation engines.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
skipping to change at page 1, line 40 skipping to change at page 1, line 40
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on May 18, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 6, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. I2NSF Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. I2NSF Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. Time-dependent Web Access Control Service . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Time-dependent Web Access Control Service . . . . . . . . 5
4. I2NSF Framework with SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. I2NSF Framework with SDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Firewall: Centralized Firewall System . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1. Firewall: Centralized Firewall System . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2. Deep Packet Inspection: Centralized VoIP/VoLTE Security 4.2. Deep Packet Inspection: Centralized VoIP/VoLTE Security
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3. Attack Mitigation: Centralized DDoS-attack Mitigation 4.3. Attack Mitigation: Centralized DDoS-attack Mitigation
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Appendix A. Changes from draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-01 . . . 18 Appendix A. Changes from draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-01 . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) defined a framework Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) defined a framework
and interfaces for interacting with Network Security Functions and interfaces for interacting with Network Security Functions
(NSFs). The I2NSF framework allows heterogeneous NSFs developed by (NSFs). The I2NSF framework allows heterogeneous NSFs developed by
different security solution vendors to be used in the NFV environment different security solution vendors to be used in the NFV environment
by utilizing the capabilities of such products and the virtualization by utilizing the capabilities of such products and the virtualization
of security functions in the NFV platform. In the I2NSF framework, of security functions in the NFV platform. In the I2NSF framework,
each NSF initially registers the profile of its own capabilities into each NSF initially registers the profile of its own capabilities into
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efficient security services and use cases, such as firewall efficient security services and use cases, such as firewall
[opsawg-firewalls], Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), and Distributed [opsawg-firewalls], Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), and Distributed
Denial of Service (DDoS) attack mitigation. We implemented the I2NSF Denial of Service (DDoS) attack mitigation. We implemented the I2NSF
framework based on SDN for these use cases, and the implementation framework based on SDN for these use cases, and the implementation
successfully verified the effectiveness of the I2NSF framework. successfully verified the effectiveness of the I2NSF framework.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
This document uses the terminology described in [RFC7149], This document uses the terminology described in [RFC7149],
[ITU-T.Y.3300], [ONF-OpenFlow], [ONF-SDN-Architecture], [ITU-T.Y.3300], [ONF-OpenFlow], [ONF-SDN-Architecture],
[ITU-T.X.1252], [ITU-T.X.800], [i2nsf-framework], [ITU-T.X.1252], [ITU-T.X.800], [RFC8329], [i2nsf-terminology],
[i2nsf-terminology], [consumer-facing-inf-im], [consumer-facing-inf-im], [consumer-facing-inf-dm],
[consumer-facing-inf-dm], [i2nsf-nsf-cap-im], [nsf-facing-inf-dm], [i2nsf-nsf-cap-im], [nsf-facing-inf-dm], [registration-inf-im],
[registration-inf-im], [registration-inf-dm], and [registration-inf-dm], and [nsf-triggered-steering]. In addition,
[nsf-triggered-steering]. In addition, the following terms are the following terms are defined below:
defined below:
o Software-Defined Networking (SDN): A set of techniques that o Software-Defined Networking (SDN): A set of techniques that
enables to directly program, orchestrate, control, and manage enables to directly program, orchestrate, control, and manage
network resources, which facilitates the design, delivery and network resources, which facilitates the design, delivery and
operation of network services in a dynamic and scalable manner operation of network services in a dynamic and scalable manner
[ITU-T.Y.3300]. [ITU-T.Y.3300].
o Firewall: A service function at the junction of two network o Firewall: A service function at the junction of two network
segments that inspects every packet that attempts to cross the segments that inspects every packet that attempts to cross the
boundary. It also rejects any packet that does not satisfy boundary. It also rejects any packet that does not satisfy
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network resources for efficient DDoS-attack mitigation. These network resources for efficient DDoS-attack mitigation. These
rules can be managed dynamically by a centralized server for DDoS- rules can be managed dynamically by a centralized server for DDoS-
attack mitigation. The SDN controller and switches can attack mitigation. The SDN controller and switches can
cooperatively work as a network-based firewall system through a cooperatively work as a network-based firewall system through a
standard interface between an SDN switch and a firewall function standard interface between an SDN switch and a firewall function
as a VNF running in the SDN controller. as a VNF running in the SDN controller.
3. I2NSF Framework 3. I2NSF Framework
This section describes an I2NSF framework and its use case. Figure 1 This section describes an I2NSF framework and its use case. Figure 1
shows an I2NSF framework [i2nsf-framework] to support network-based shows an I2NSF framework [RFC8329] to support network-based security
security services. As shown in Figure 1, I2NSF User can use security services. As shown in Figure 1, I2NSF User can use security
functions by delivering high-level security policies, which specify functions by delivering high-level security policies, which specify
security requirements the I2NSF user wants to enforce, to the security requirements the I2NSF user wants to enforce, to the
Security Controller via the Consumer-Facing Interface Security Controller via the Consumer-Facing Interface
[consumer-facing-inf-im][consumer-facing-inf-dm]. [consumer-facing-inf-im][consumer-facing-inf-dm].
The Security Controller receives and analyzes the high-level security The Security Controller receives and analyzes the high-level security
policies from an I2NSF User, and identifies what types of security policies from an I2NSF User, and identifies what types of security
capabilities are required to meet these high-level security policies. capabilities are required to meet these high-level security policies.
The Security Controller then identifies NSFs that have the required The Security Controller then identifies NSFs that have the required
security capabilities, and generates low-level security policies for security capabilities, and generates low-level security policies for
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4. I2NSF Framework with SDN 4. I2NSF Framework with SDN
This section describes an I2NSF framework with SDN for I2NSF This section describes an I2NSF framework with SDN for I2NSF
applicability and use cases, such as firewall, deep packet applicability and use cases, such as firewall, deep packet
inspection, and DDoS-attack mitigation functions. SDN enables some inspection, and DDoS-attack mitigation functions. SDN enables some
packet filtering rules to be enforced in the network switches by packet filtering rules to be enforced in the network switches by
controlling their packet forwarding rules. By taking advantage of controlling their packet forwarding rules. By taking advantage of
this capability of SDN, it is possible to optimize the process of this capability of SDN, it is possible to optimize the process of
security service enforcement in the I2NSF system. security service enforcement in the I2NSF system.
Figure 2 shows an I2NSF framework [i2nsf-framework] with SDN networks Figure 2 shows an I2NSF framework [RFC8329] with SDN networks to
to support network-based security services. In this system, the support network-based security services. In this system, the
enforcement of security policy rules is divided into the SDN switches enforcement of security policy rules is divided into the SDN switches
and NSFs. Especially, SDN switches enforce simple packet filtering and NSFs. Especially, SDN switches enforce simple packet filtering
rules that can be translated into their packet forwarding rules, rules that can be translated into their packet forwarding rules,
whereas NSFs enforce NSF-related security rules requiring the whereas NSFs enforce NSF-related security rules requiring the
security capabilities of the NSFs. For this purpose, the Security security capabilities of the NSFs. For this purpose, the Security
Controller instructs the Switch Controller via NSF-Facing Interface Controller instructs the Switch Controller via NSF-Facing Interface
so that SDN switches can perform the required security services with so that SDN switches can perform the required security services with
flow tables under the supervision of the Switch Controller (i.e., SDN flow tables under the supervision of the Switch Controller (i.e., SDN
Controller). Controller).
As an example, let us consider two different types of security rules:
Rule A is a simple packet fltering rule that checks only the IP
address and port number of a given packet, whereas rule B is a time-
consuming packet inspection rule for analyzing whether an attached
file being transmitted over a flow of packets contains malware. Rule
A can be translated into packet forwarding rules of SDN switches and
thus be enforced by the switches. In contrast, rule B cannot be
enforced by switches, but it can be enforced by NSFs with anti-
malware capability. Specifically, a flow of packets is forwarded to
and reassembled by an NSF to reconstruct the attached file stored in
the flow of packets. The NSF then analyzes the file to check the
existence of malware. If the file contains malware, the NSF drops
the packets.
In an I2NSF framework with SDN, the Security Controller can analyze
given security policy rules and automatically determine which of the
given security policy rules should be enforced by SDN switches and
which should be enforced by NSFs. If some of the given rules
requires security capabilities that can be provided by SDN switches,
then the Security Controller instructs the Switch Controller via NSF-
Facing Interface so that SDN switches can enforce those security
policy rules with flow tables under the supervision of the Switch
Controller (i.e., SDN Controller). Or if some rules require security
capabilities that can be provided by not SDN switches but NSFs, then
the Security Controller instructs relevant NSFs to enforce those
rules.
+------------+ +------------+
| I2NSF User | | I2NSF User |
+------------+ +------------+
^ ^
| Consumer-Facing Interface | Consumer-Facing Interface
v v
+-------------------+ Registration +-----------------------+ +-------------------+ Registration +-----------------------+
|Security Controller|<-------------------->|Developer's Mgmt System| |Security Controller|<-------------------->|Developer's Mgmt System|
+-------------------+ Interface +-----------------------+ +-------------------+ Interface +-----------------------+
^ ^ ^ ^
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framework with SDN networks. To support these use cases in the framework with SDN networks. To support these use cases in the
proposed data-driven security service framework, YANG data models proposed data-driven security service framework, YANG data models
described in [consumer-facing-inf-dm], [nsf-facing-inf-dm], and described in [consumer-facing-inf-dm], [nsf-facing-inf-dm], and
[registration-inf-dm] can be used as Consumer-Facing Interface, NSF- [registration-inf-dm] can be used as Consumer-Facing Interface, NSF-
Facing Interface, and Registration Interface, respectively, along Facing Interface, and Registration Interface, respectively, along
with RESTCONF [RFC8040] and NETCONF [RFC6241]. with RESTCONF [RFC8040] and NETCONF [RFC6241].
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
The I2NSF framework with SDN networks in this document is derived The I2NSF framework with SDN networks in this document is derived
from the I2NSF framework [i2nsf-framework], so the security from the I2NSF framework [RFC8329], so the security considerations of
considerations of the I2NSF framework should be included in this the I2NSF framework should be included in this document. Therefore,
document. Therefore, proper secure communication channels should be proper secure communication channels should be used the delivery of
used the delivery of control or management messages among the control or management messages among the components in the proposed
components in the proposed framework. framework.
This document shares all the security issues of SDN that are This document shares all the security issues of SDN that are
specified in the "Security Considerations" section of [ITU-T.Y.3300]. specified in the "Security Considerations" section of [ITU-T.Y.3300].
6. Acknowledgments 6. Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications
Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government
(MSIP) (No.R-20160222-002755, Cloud based Security Intelligence (MSIP) (No.R-20160222-002755, Cloud based Security Intelligence
Technology Development for the Customized Security Service Technology Development for the Customized Security Service
skipping to change at page 15, line 8 skipping to change at page 16, line 8
8. Informative References 8. Informative References
[AVANT-GUARD] [AVANT-GUARD]
Shin, S., Yegneswaran, V., Porras, P., and G. Gu, "AVANT- Shin, S., Yegneswaran, V., Porras, P., and G. Gu, "AVANT-
GUARD: Scalable and Vigilant Switch Flow Management in GUARD: Scalable and Vigilant Switch Flow Management in
Software-Defined Networks", ACM CCS, November 2013. Software-Defined Networks", ACM CCS, November 2013.
[consumer-facing-inf-dm] [consumer-facing-inf-dm]
Jeong, J., Kim, E., Ahn, T., Kumar, R., and S. Hares, Jeong, J., Kim, E., Ahn, T., Kumar, R., and S. Hares,
"I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model", draft- "I2NSF Consumer-Facing Interface YANG Data Model", draft-
jeong-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-05 (work in ietf-i2nsf-consumer-facing-interface-dm-00 (work in
progress), November 2017. progress), March 2018.
[consumer-facing-inf-im] [consumer-facing-inf-im]
Kumar, R., Lohiya, A., Qi, D., Bitar, N., Palislamovic, Kumar, R., Lohiya, A., Qi, D., Bitar, N., Palislamovic,
S., and L. Xia, "Information model for Client-Facing S., Xia, L., and J. Jeong, "Information Model for
Interface to Security Controller", draft-kumar-i2nsf- Consumer-Facing Interface to Security Controller", draft-
client-facing-interface-im-04 (work in progress), October kumar-i2nsf-client-facing-interface-im-04 (work in
2017. progress), October 2017.
[ETSI-NFV] [ETSI-NFV]
ETSI GS NFV 002 V1.1.1, "Network Functions Virtualisation ETSI GS NFV 002 V1.1.1, "Network Functions Virtualisation
(NFV); Architectural Framework", October 2013. (NFV); Architectural Framework", October 2013.
[i2nsf-framework]
Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., and R.
Kumar, "Framework for Interface to Network Security
Functions", draft-ietf-i2nsf-framework-08 (work in
progress), October 2017.
[i2nsf-nsf-cap-im] [i2nsf-nsf-cap-im]
Xia, L., Strassner, J., Basile, C., and D. Lopez, Xia, L., Strassner, J., Basile, C., and D. Lopez,
"Information Model of NSFs Capabilities", draft-ietf- "Information Model of NSFs Capabilities", draft-ietf-
i2nsf-capability-00 (work in progress), September 2017. i2nsf-capability-00 (work in progress), September 2017.
[i2nsf-terminology] [i2nsf-terminology]
Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D., Xia, L., and H. Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D., Xia, L., and H.
Birkholz, "Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF) Birkholz, "Interface to Network Security Functions (I2NSF)
Terminology", draft-ietf-i2nsf-terminology-04 (work in Terminology", draft-ietf-i2nsf-terminology-05 (work in
progress), July 2017. progress), January 2018.
[ITU-T.X.1252] [ITU-T.X.1252]
Recommendation ITU-T X.1252, "Baseline Identity Management Recommendation ITU-T X.1252, "Baseline Identity Management
Terms and Definitions", April 2010. Terms and Definitions", April 2010.
[ITU-T.X.800] [ITU-T.X.800]
Recommendation ITU-T X.800, "Security Architecture for Recommendation ITU-T X.800, "Security Architecture for
Open Systems Interconnection for CCITT Applications", Open Systems Interconnection for CCITT Applications",
March 1991. March 1991.
[ITU-T.Y.3300] [ITU-T.Y.3300]
Recommendation ITU-T Y.3300, "Framework of Software- Recommendation ITU-T Y.3300, "Framework of Software-
Defined Networking", June 2014. Defined Networking", June 2014.
[nsf-facing-inf-dm] [nsf-facing-inf-dm]
Kim, J., Jeong, J., Park, J., Hares, S., and L. Xia, Kim, J., Jeong, J., Park, J., Hares, S., and Q. Lin,
"I2NSF Network Security Functions-Facing Interface YANG "I2NSF Network Security Function-Facing Interface YANG
Data Model", draft-kim-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-data- Data Model", draft-ietf-i2nsf-nsf-facing-interface-data-
model-04 (work in progress), October 2017. model-00 (work in progress), March 2018.
[nsf-triggered-steering] [nsf-triggered-steering]
Hyun, S., Jeong, J., Park, J., and S. Hares, "Service Hyun, S., Jeong, J., Park, J., and S. Hares, "Service
Function Chaining-Enabled I2NSF Architecture", draft-hyun- Function Chaining-Enabled I2NSF Architecture", draft-hyun-
i2nsf-nsf-triggered-steering-04 (work in progress), i2nsf-nsf-triggered-steering-05 (work in progress), March
October 2017. 2018.
[ONF-OpenFlow] [ONF-OpenFlow]
ONF, "OpenFlow Switch Specification (Version 1.4.0)", ONF, "OpenFlow Switch Specification (Version 1.4.0)",
October 2013. October 2013.
[ONF-SDN-Architecture] [ONF-SDN-Architecture]
ONF, "SDN Architecture", June 2014. ONF, "SDN Architecture", June 2014.
[opsawg-firewalls] [opsawg-firewalls]
Baker, F. and P. Hoffman, "On Firewalls in Internet Baker, F. and P. Hoffman, "On Firewalls in Internet
Security", draft-ietf-opsawg-firewalls-01 (work in Security", draft-ietf-opsawg-firewalls-01 (work in
progress), October 2012. progress), October 2012.
[registration-inf-dm] [registration-inf-dm]
Hyun, S., Jeong, J., Yeo, Y., Woo, S., and J. Park, "I2NSF Hyun, S., Jeong, J., Roh, T., Wi, S., and J. Park, "I2NSF
Registration Interface YANG Data Model", draft-hyun-i2nsf- Registration Interface YANG Data Model", draft-hyun-i2nsf-
registration-dm-02 (work in progress), October 2017. registration-dm-03 (work in progress), March 2018.
[registration-inf-im] [registration-inf-im]
Hyun, S., Jeong, J., Woo, S., Yeo, Y., and J. Park, "I2NSF Hyun, S., Jeong, J., Roh, T., Wi, S., and J. Park, "I2NSF
Registration Interface Information Model", draft-hyun- Registration Interface Information Model", draft-hyun-
i2nsf-registration-interface-im-03 (work in progress), i2nsf-registration-interface-im-04 (work in progress),
October 2017. March 2018.
[RFC4566] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session [RFC4566] Handley, M., Jacobson, V., and C. Perkins, "SDP: Session
Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006. Description Protocol", RFC 4566, July 2006.
[RFC6020] Bjorklund, M., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for the [RFC6020] Bjorklund, M., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for the
Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020, Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
October 2010. October 2010.
[RFC6241] Enns, R., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., and A. [RFC6241] Enns, R., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., and A.
Bierman, "Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", Bierman, "Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)",
skipping to change at page 18, line 5 skipping to change at page 18, line 10
Environment", RFC 7149, March 2014. Environment", RFC 7149, March 2014.
[RFC8040] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF [RFC8040] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
Protocol", RFC 8040, January 2017. Protocol", RFC 8040, January 2017.
[RFC8192] Hares, S., Lopez, D., Zarny, M., Jacquenet, C., Kumar, R., [RFC8192] Hares, S., Lopez, D., Zarny, M., Jacquenet, C., Kumar, R.,
and J. Jeong, "Interface to Network Security Functions and J. Jeong, "Interface to Network Security Functions
(I2NSF): Problem Statement and Use Cases", RFC 8192, July (I2NSF): Problem Statement and Use Cases", RFC 8192, July
2017. 2017.
[RFC8329] Lopez, D., Lopez, E., Dunbar, L., Strassner, J., and R.
Kumar, "Framework for Interface to Network Security
Functions", RFC 8329, February 2018.
Appendix A. Changes from draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-01 Appendix A. Changes from draft-ietf-i2nsf-applicability-01
The following changes have been made from draft-ietf-i2nsf- The following changes have been made from draft-ietf-i2nsf-
applicability-01: applicability-01:
o In Section 3, a time-based web access control service is added as o In Section 4, it is clarified what types of security policy rules
a general use case in the I2NSF framework. can be enforced by SDN switches or NSFs in the environment of
I2NSF framework with SDN.
o In Section 4, the movitation of the I2NSF framework with SDN is
explained, that is, supporting the divided security policy
enforcement for efficient security service.
o In Section 4.2, the centralized VoIP/VoLTE security system is o In Section 4, it is explained what should be done by the Security
clarified as a use case to explain the security service chaining Controller in order to divide the enforcement of security policy
using SFC technology. rules into the SDN switches and NSFs in the I2NSF framework with
SDN.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Jaehoon Paul Jeong Jaehoon Paul Jeong
Department of Software Department of Software
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University
2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu 2066 Seobu-Ro, Jangan-Gu
Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16419 Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 16419
Republic of Korea Republic of Korea
 End of changes. 26 change blocks. 
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