draft-ietf-i2rs-architecture-13.txt   draft-ietf-i2rs-architecture-14.txt 
Network Working Group A. Atlas Network Working Group A. Atlas
Internet-Draft Juniper Networks Internet-Draft Juniper Networks
Intended status: Informational J. Halpern Intended status: Informational J. Halpern
Expires: August 23, 2016 Ericsson Expires: October 23, 2016 Ericsson
S. Hares S. Hares
Huawei Huawei
D. Ward D. Ward
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
T. Nadeau T. Nadeau
Brocade Brocade
February 20, 2016 April 21, 2016
An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing System An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing System
draft-ietf-i2rs-architecture-13 draft-ietf-i2rs-architecture-14
Abstract Abstract
This document describes the IETF architecture for a standard, This document describes the IETF architecture for a standard,
programmatic interface for state transfer in and out of the Internet programmatic interface for state transfer in and out of the Internet
routing system. It describes the basic architecture, the components, routing system. It describes the high-level architecture, the
and their interfaces with particular focus on those to be building blocks of this high-level architecture, and their interfaces
standardized as part of the Interface to Routing System (I2RS). with particular focus on those to be standardized as part of the
Interface to Routing System (I2RS).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 23, 2016. This Internet-Draft will expire on October 23, 2016.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
skipping to change at page 2, line 18 skipping to change at page 2, line 21
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Drivers for the I2RS Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Drivers for the I2RS Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2. Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3. Key Architectural Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. Key Architectural Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1. Simplicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.1. Simplicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.2. Extensibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.3. Model-Driven Programmatic Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3. Model-Driven Programmatic Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . 13
4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.1. Identity and Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.1. Identity and Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.2. Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2. Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.3. Client Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.3. Client Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5. Network Applications and I2RS Client . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.4. I2RS in Personal Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.1. Example Network Application: Topology Manager . . . . . . 17 5. Network Applications and I2RS Client . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6. I2RS Agent Role and Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.1. Example Network Application: Topology Manager . . . . . . 19
6.1. Relationship to its Routing Element . . . . . . . . . . . 17 6. I2RS Agent Role and Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.2. I2RS State Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.1. Relationship to its Routing Element . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.2.1. I2RS Agent Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.2. I2RS State Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.2.2. Starting and Ending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2.1. I2RS Agent Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.2.3. Reversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6.2.2. Starting and Ending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.3. Interactions with Local Configuration . . . . . . . . . . 20 6.2.3. Reversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.4. Routing Components and Associated I2RS Services . . . . . 21 6.3. Interactions with Local Configuration . . . . . . . . . . 22
6.4.1. Routing and Label Information Bases . . . . . . . . . 22 6.3.1. Examples of Local Configuration vs. I2RS Ephemeral
6.4.2. IGPs, BGP and Multicast Protocols . . . . . . . . . . 22 Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.4.3. MPLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.4. Routing Components and Associated I2RS Services . . . . . 25
6.4.4. Policy and QoS Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.4.1. Routing and Label Information Bases . . . . . . . . . 26
6.4.2. IGPs, BGP and Multicast Protocols . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.4.3. MPLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.4.4. Policy and QoS Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.4.5. Information Modeling, Device Variation, and 6.4.5. Information Modeling, Device Variation, and
Information Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Information Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.4.5.1. Managing Variation: Object Classes/Types and 6.4.5.1. Managing Variation: Object Classes/Types and
Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.4.5.2. Managing Variation: Optionality . . . . . . . . . 24 6.4.5.2. Managing Variation: Optionality . . . . . . . . . 29
6.4.5.3. Managing Variation: Templating . . . . . . . . . 25 6.4.5.3. Managing Variation: Templating . . . . . . . . . 29
6.4.5.4. Object Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.4.5.4. Object Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.4.5.4.1. Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.4.5.4.1. Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.4.5.4.2. Correlation Identification . . . . . . . . . 26 6.4.5.4.2. Correlation Identification . . . . . . . . . 30
6.4.5.4.3. Object References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.4.5.4.3. Object References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6.4.5.4.4. Active Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.4.5.4.4. Active Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7. I2RS Client Agent Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 7. I2RS Client Agent Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.1. One Control and Data Exchange Protocol . . . . . . . . . 26 7.1. One Control and Data Exchange Protocol . . . . . . . . . 31
7.2. Communication Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.2. Communication Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.3. Capability Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.3. Capability Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.4. Scope Policy Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.4. Scope Policy Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.5. Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.5. Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.6. Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.6. Notifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.7. Information collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.7. Information collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.8. Multi-Headed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.8. Multi-Headed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.9. Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.9. Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8. Operational and Manageability Considerations . . . . . . . . 31 8. Operational and Manageability Considerations . . . . . . . . 36
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Routers that form the internet routing infrastructure maintain state Routers that form the internet routing infrastructure maintain state
at various layers of detail and function. For example, a typical at various layers of detail and function. For example, a typical
router maintains a Routing Information Base (RIB), and implements router maintains a Routing Information Base (RIB), and implements
routing protocols such as OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP to exchange routing protocols such as OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP to exchange
reachability information, topology information, protocol state, and reachability information, topology information, protocol state, and
other information about the state of the network with other routers. other information about the state of the network with other routers.
skipping to change at page 4, line 24 skipping to change at page 4, line 30
a framework for applications (including controller applications) to a framework for applications (including controller applications) to
register and to request the appropriate information for each register and to request the appropriate information for each
particular application. particular application.
Although the I2RS architecture is general enough to support Although the I2RS architecture is general enough to support
information and data models for a variety of data, and aspects of the information and data models for a variety of data, and aspects of the
I2RS solution may be useful in domains other than routing, I2RS and I2RS solution may be useful in domains other than routing, I2RS and
this document are specifically focused on an interface for routing this document are specifically focused on an interface for routing
data. data.
Security is a concern for any new interface to the routing system.
Section 4 provides an overview of the security considerations for the
I2RS architecture. The detailed requirements for I2RS protocol
security are contained in
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-protocol-security-requirements], and the detailed
security requirements for environment in which the I2RS protocol
exists in are contained in [I-D.ietf-i2rs-security-environment-reqs].
1.1. Drivers for the I2RS Architecture 1.1. Drivers for the I2RS Architecture
There are four key drivers that shape the I2RS architecture. First There are four key drivers that shape the I2RS architecture. First
is the need for an interface that is programmatic, asynchronous, and is the need for an interface that is programmatic, asynchronous, and
offers fast, interactive access for atomic operations. Second is the offers fast, interactive access for atomic operations. Second is the
access to structured information and state that is frequently not access to structured information and state that is frequently not
directly configurable or modeled in existing implementations or directly configurable or modeled in existing implementations or
configuration protocols. Third is the ability to subscribe to configuration protocols. Third is the ability to subscribe to
structured, filterable event notifications from the router. Fourth, structured, filterable event notifications from the router. Fourth,
the operation of I2RS is to be data-model driven to facilitate the operation of I2RS is to be data-model driven to facilitate
skipping to change at page 5, line 13 skipping to change at page 5, line 30
state could then be distributed in a routing or signaling protocol state could then be distributed in a routing or signaling protocol
and/or be used locally (e.g. to program the co-located forwarding and/or be used locally (e.g. to program the co-located forwarding
plane). I2RS will only permit modification of state that would be plane). I2RS will only permit modification of state that would be
safe, conceptually, to modify via local configuration; no direct safe, conceptually, to modify via local configuration; no direct
manipulation of protocol-internal dynamically determined data is manipulation of protocol-internal dynamically determined data is
envisioned. envisioned.
1.2. Architectural Overview 1.2. Architectural Overview
Figure 1 shows the basic architecture for I2RS between applications Figure 1 shows the basic architecture for I2RS between applications
using I2RS, their associated I2RS Clients, and I2RS Agents. using I2RS, their associated I2RS clients, and I2RS agents.
Applications access I2RS services through I2RS clients. A single Applications access I2RS services through I2RS clients. A single
client can provide access to one or more applications. This figure I2RS client can provide access to one or more applications. This
also shows the types of data models associated with the routing figure also shows the types of data models associated with the
system (dynamic configuration, static configuration, local routing system (dynamic configuration, static configuration, local
configuration, and routing and signaling configuration) which the configuration, and routing and signaling configuration) which the
I2RS Agent data models may access or augment. I2RS agent data models may access or augment.
Figure 1 is similar to the figure 1 found in the Figure 1 is similar to the figure 1 found in the
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-problem-statement], but this figure shows additional [I-D.ietf-i2rs-problem-statement], but this figure shows additional
detail on how the applications utilize I2RS clients to interact with detail on how the applications utilize I2RS clients to interact with
I2RS Agents. Figure 1 also shows a logical view of the data models I2RS agents. Figure 1 also shows a logical view of the data models
associated with the routing system rather than a functional view associated with the routing system rather than a functional view
(RIB, FIB, topology, policy, routing/signaling protocols, etc.) (RIB, FIB, topology, policy, routing/signaling protocols, etc.)
In figure 1, Clients A and B each provide access to a single In figure 1, Clients A and B each provide access to a single
application (application A and B respectively), while Client P application (application A and B respectively), while Client P
provides access to multiple applications. provides access to multiple applications.
Applications can access I2RS services through local or remote Applications can access I2RS services through local or remote
clients. A local client operates on the same physical box as routing clients. A local client operates on the same physical box as routing
system. In contrast, a remote client operates across the network. system. In contrast, a remote client operates across the network.
In the figure, Applications A and B access I2RS services through In the figure, Applications A and B access I2RS services through
local clients, while Applications C, D and E access I2RS services local clients, while Applications C, D and E access I2RS services
through a remote client. The details of how applications communicate through a remote client. The details of how applications communicate
with a remote client is out of scope for I2RS. with a remote client is out of scope for I2RS.
An I2RS Client can access one or more I2RS agents. In the figure 1, An I2RS client can access one or more I2RS agents. In the figure 1,
Clients B and P access I2RS Agents 1 and 2. Likewise, an I2RS Agent Clients B and P access I2RS agents 1 and 2. Likewise, an I2RS agent
can provide service to one or more clients. In this figure, I2RS can provide service to one or more clients. In this figure, I2RS
Agent 1 provides services to Clients A, B and P while Agent 2 agent 1 provides services to Clients A, B and P while Agent 2
provides services to only Clients B and P. provides services to only Clients B and P.
I2RS agents and clients communicate with one another using an I2RS agents and clients communicate with one another using an
asynchronous protocol. Therefore, a single client can post multiple asynchronous protocol. Therefore, a single client can post multiple
simultaneous requests, either to a single agent or to multiple simultaneous requests, either to a single agent or to multiple
agents. Furthermore, an agent can process multiple requests, either agents. Furthermore, an agent can process multiple requests, either
from a single client or from multiple clients, simultaneously. from a single client or from multiple clients, simultaneously.
The I2RS agent provides read and write access to selected data on the The I2RS agent provides read and write access to selected data on the
routing element that are organized into I2RS Services. Section 4 routing element that are organized into I2RS Services. Section 4
describes how access is mediated by authentication and access control describes how access is mediated by authentication and access control
mechanisms. Figure 1 shows I2RS agents being able to write ephemeral mechanisms. Figure 1 shows I2RS agents being able to write ephemeral
static state (e.g. RIB entries), and to read from dynamic static static state (e.g. RIB entries), and to read from dynamic static
(e.g. MPLS LSP-ID or number of active BGP peers). In addition, the (e.g. MPLS LSP-ID or number of active BGP peers).
In addition to read and write access, the I2RS agent allows clients In addition to read and write access, the I2RS agent allows clients
to subscribe to different types of notifications about events to subscribe to different types of notifications about events
affecting different object instances. One example of a notification affecting different object instances. One example of a notification
of such an event (which is unrelated to an object creation, of such an event (which is unrelated to an object creation,
modification or deletion) is when a next-hop in the RIB is resolved modification or deletion) is when a next-hop in the RIB is resolved
in a way that allows it to be used by a RIB manager for installation in a way that allows it to be used by a RIB manager for installation
in the forwarding plane as part of a particular route. Please see in the forwarding plane as part of a particular route. Please see
Section 7.6 and Section 7.7 for details. Section 7.6 and Section 7.7 for details.
skipping to change at page 7, line 25 skipping to change at page 7, line 41
* v | v v * * v | v v * * v | v v * * v | v v *
* +----------+ +------------+ * * +----------+ +------------+ * * +----------+ +------------+ * * +----------+ +------------+ *
* | Dynamic | | Static | * * | Dynamic | | Static | * * | Dynamic | | Static | * * | Dynamic | | Static | *
* | System | | System | * * | System | | System | * * | System | | System | * * | System | | System | *
* | State | | State | * * | State | | State | * * | State | | State | * * | State | | State | *
* +----------+ +------------+ * * +----------+ +------------+ * * +----------+ +------------+ * * +----------+ +------------+ *
* * * * * * * *
* Routing Element 1 * * Routing Element 2 * * Routing Element 1 * * Routing Element 2 *
******************************** ******************************** ******************************** ********************************
Figure 1: Architecture of I2RS clients and agents Figure 1: Architecture of I2RS Clients and Agents
Routing Element: A Routing Element implements some subset of the Routing Element: A Routing Element implements some subset of the
routing system. It does not need to have a forwarding plane routing system. It does not need to have a forwarding plane
associated with it. Examples of Routing Elements can include: associated with it. Examples of Routing Elements can include:
* A router with a forwarding plane and RIB Manager that runs IS- * A router with a forwarding plane and RIB Manager that runs IS-
IS, OSPF, BGP, PIM, etc., IS, OSPF, BGP, PIM, etc.,
* A BGP speaker acting as a Route Reflector, * A BGP speaker acting as a Route Reflector,
* An LSR that implements RSVP-TE, OSPF-TE, and PCEP and has a * An LSR that implements RSVP-TE, OSPF-TE, and PCEP and has a
forwarding plane and associated RIB Manager, forwarding plane and associated RIB Manager,
* A server that runs IS-IS, OSPF, BGP and uses ForCES to control * A server that runs IS-IS, OSPF, BGP and uses ForCES to control
a remote forwarding plane, a remote forwarding plane,
A Routing Element may be locally managed, whether via CLI, SNMP, A Routing Element may be locally managed, whether via CLI, SNMP,
or NETCONF. or NETCONF.
Routing and Signaling: This block represents that portion of the Routing and Signaling: This block represents that portion of the
skipping to change at page 8, line 26 skipping to change at page 8, line 40
provided to the I2RS agent is out of scope, but the standardized provided to the I2RS agent is out of scope, but the standardized
information and data models for what is exposed are part of I2RS. information and data models for what is exposed are part of I2RS.
Static System State: An I2RS agent needs access to static state on Static System State: An I2RS agent needs access to static state on
a routing element beyond what is contained in the routing a routing element beyond what is contained in the routing
subsystem. An example of such state is specifying queueing subsystem. An example of such state is specifying queueing
behavior for an interface or traffic. How the I2RS agent modifies behavior for an interface or traffic. How the I2RS agent modifies
or obtains this information is out of scope, but the standardized or obtains this information is out of scope, but the standardized
information and data models for what is exposed are part of I2RS. information and data models for what is exposed are part of I2RS.
I2RS Agent: See the definition in Section 2. I2RS agent: See the definition in Section 2.
Application: A network application that needs to observe the Application: A network application that needs to observe the
network or manipulate the network to achieve its service network or manipulate the network to achieve its service
requirements. requirements.
I2RS Client: See the definition in Section 2. I2RS client: See the definition in Section 2.
As can be seen in Figure 1, an I2RS client can communicate with As can be seen in Figure 1, an I2RS client can communicate with
multiple I2RS agents. An I2RS client may connect to one or more I2RS multiple I2RS agents. Similarly, an I2RS agent may communicate with
agents based upon its needs. Similarly, an I2RS agent may multiple I2RS clients - whether to respond to their requests, to send
communicate with multiple I2RS clients - whether to respond to their notifications, etc. Timely notifications are critical so that
requests, to send notifications, etc. Timely notifications are several simultaneously operating applications have up-to-date
critical so that several simultaneously operating applications have information on the state of the network.
up-to-date information on the state of the network.
As can also be seen in Figure 1, an I2RS Agent may communicate with As can also be seen in Figure 1, an I2RS agent may communicate with
multiple clients. Each client may send the agent a variety of write multiple clients. Each client may send the agent a variety of write
operations. In order to keep the protocol simple, two clients should operations. In order to keep the protocol simple, two clients should
not attempt to write (modify) the same piece of information on an not attempt to write (modify) the same piece of information on an
I2RS Agent. This is considered an error. However, such collisions I2RS agent. This is considered an error. However, such collisions
may happen and section 7.8 (multi-headed control) describes how the may happen and section 7.8 (multi-headed control) describes how the
I2RS agent resolves collision by first utilizing priority to resolve I2RS agent resolves collision by first utilizing priority to resolve
collisions, and second by servicing the requests in a first in, first collisions, and second by servicing the requests in a first in, first
served basis. The i2rs architecture includes this definition of served basis. The I2RS architecture includes this definition of
behavior for this case simply for predictability not because this is behavior for this case simply for predictability not because this is
an intended result. This predictability will simplify the error an intended result. This predictability will simplify the error
handling and suppress oscillations. If additional error cases beyond handling and suppress oscillations. If additional error cases beyond
this simple treatment are required, these error cases should be this simple treatment are required, these error cases should be
resolved by the network applications and management systems. resolved by the network applications and management systems.
In contrast, although multiple I2RS clients may need to supply data In contrast, although multiple I2RS clients may need to supply data
into the same list (e.g. a prefix or filter list), this is not into the same list (e.g. a prefix or filter list), this is not
considered an error and must be correctly handled. The nuances so considered an error and must be correctly handled. The nuances so
that writers do not normally collide should be handled in the that writers do not normally collide should be handled in the
skipping to change at page 9, line 32 skipping to change at page 9, line 46
between write operations. A basic example of this is when two between write operations. A basic example of this is when two
different but overlapping prefixes are written with different different but overlapping prefixes are written with different
forwarding behavior. Detection and avoidance of such interactions is forwarding behavior. Detection and avoidance of such interactions is
outside the scope of the I2RS work and is left to agent design and outside the scope of the I2RS work and is left to agent design and
implementation. implementation.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
The following terminology is used in this document. The following terminology is used in this document.
agent or I2RS Agent: An I2RS agent provides the supported I2RS agent or I2RS agent: An I2RS agent provides the supported I2RS
services from the local system's routing sub-systems by services from the local system's routing sub-systems by
interacting with the routing element to provide specified interacting with the routing element to provide specified
behavior. The I2RS agent understands the I2RS protocol and can be behavior. The I2RS agent understands the I2RS protocol and can be
contacted by I2RS clients. contacted by I2RS clients.
client or I2RS Client: A client implements the I2RS protocol, uses client or I2RS client: A client implements the I2RS protocol, uses
it to communicate with I2RS Agents, and uses the I2RS services to it to communicate with I2RS agents, and uses the I2RS services to
accomplish a task. It interacts with other elements of the accomplish a task. It interacts with other elements of the
policy, provisioning, and configuration system by means outside of policy, provisioning, and configuration system by means outside of
the scope of the I2RS effort. It interacts with the I2RS agents the scope of the I2RS effort. It interacts with the I2RS agents
to collect information from the routing and forwarding system. to collect information from the routing and forwarding system.
Based on the information and the policy oriented interactions, the Based on the information and the policy oriented interactions, the
I2RS client may also interact with I2RS agents to modify the state I2RS client may also interact with I2RS agents to modify the state
of their associated routing systems to achieve operational goals. of their associated routing systems to achieve operational goals.
An I2RS client can be seen as the part of an application that uses An I2RS client can be seen as the part of an application that uses
and supports I2RS and could be a software library. and supports I2RS and could be a software library.
skipping to change at page 10, line 16 skipping to change at page 10, line 31
service' could be an example of a service that gives access to service' could be an example of a service that gives access to
state held in a device's RIB. state held in a device's RIB.
read scope: The read scope of an I2RS client within an I2RS agent read scope: The read scope of an I2RS client within an I2RS agent
is the set of information which the I2RS client is authorized to is the set of information which the I2RS client is authorized to
read within the I2RS agent. The read scope specifies the access read within the I2RS agent. The read scope specifies the access
restrictions to both see the existence of data and read the value restrictions to both see the existence of data and read the value
of that data. of that data.
notification scope: The set of events and associated information notification scope: The set of events and associated information
that the I2RS Client can request be pushed by the I2RS Agent. that the I2RS client can request be pushed by the I2RS agent.
I2RS Clients have the ability to register for specific events and I2RS clients have the ability to register for specific events and
information streams, but must be constrained by the access information streams, but must be constrained by the access
restrictions associated with their notification scope. restrictions associated with their notification scope.
write scope: The set of field values which the I2RS client is write scope: The set of field values which the I2RS client is
authorized to write (i.e. add, modify or delete). This access can authorized to write (i.e. add, modify or delete). This access can
restrict what data can be modified or created, and what specific restrict what data can be modified or created, and what specific
value sets and ranges can be installed. value sets and ranges can be installed.
scope: When unspecified as either read scope, write scope, or scope: When unspecified as either read scope, write scope, or
notification scope, the term scope applies to the read scope, notification scope, the term scope applies to the read scope,
skipping to change at page 11, line 16 skipping to change at page 11, line 31
a read-scope that is the logical OR of the read-scopes a read-scope that is the logical OR of the read-scopes
associated with its roles, associated with its roles,
a write-scope that is the logical OR of the write-scopes a write-scope that is the logical OR of the write-scopes
associated with its roles, and associated with its roles, and
a notification-scope that is the logical OR of the a notification-scope that is the logical OR of the
notification-scopes associated with its roles. notification-scopes associated with its roles.
secondary identity: An I2RS Client may supply a secondary opaque secondary identity: An I2RS client may supply a secondary opaque
identity that is not interpreted by the I2RS Agent. An example identifier for a secondary identity that is not interpreted by the
use is when the I2RS Client is a go-between for multiple I2RS agent. An example of the use of the secondary opaque
identifier is when the I2RS client is a go-between for multiple
applications and it is necessary to track which application has applications and it is necessary to track which application has
requested a particular operation. requested a particular operation.
Groups: NETCONF Network Access [RFC6536] uses the term group in ephemeral data: is data which does not persist across a reboot
(software or hardware) or a power on/off condition. Ephemeral
data can be configured data or data recorded from operations of
the router. Ephemeral configuration data also has the property
that a system cannot roll back to a previous ephemeral
configuration state.
safe modification of routing state via I2RS: are I2RS ephemeral
configuration changes which which modify local configuration
rather than the direct modification of protocol-internal state.
Direct modifications to protocol-internal state may have unsafe
consequences.
groups: NETCONF Network Access [RFC6536] uses the term group in
terms of an Administrative group which supports the well- terms of an Administrative group which supports the well-
established distinction between a root account and other types of established distinction between a root account and other types of
less-privileged conceptual user accounts. Group still refers to a less-privileged conceptual user accounts. Group still refers to a
single identity (e.g. root) which is shared by a group of users. single identity (e.g. root) which is shared by a group of users.
routing system/subsystem: is a set of software and hardware that
handles determining where packets are forwarded to which the I2RS
system connects. The term "packets" may be qualified to be layer
1 frames, layer 2 frames or layer 3 packets. The phrase "Internet
routing system" implies the packets which have IP as layer 3. A
routing "subsystem" indicates that the routing software/hardware
is only the subsystem of another larger system.
3. Key Architectural Properties 3. Key Architectural Properties
Several key architectural properties for the I2RS protocol are Several key architectural properties for the I2RS protocol are
elucidated below (simplicity, extensibility, and model-driven elucidated below (simplicity, extensibility, and model-driven
programmatic interfaces). However, some architecture properties such programmatic interfaces). However, some architecture properties such
as performance and scaling are not described below because they are as performance and scaling are not described below because they are
discussed in [I-D.ietf-i2rs-problem-statement], may may vary based on discussed in [I-D.ietf-i2rs-problem-statement], may vary based on the
the particular use-cases. particular use-cases.
3.1. Simplicity 3.1. Simplicity
There have been many efforts over the years to improve the access to There have been many efforts over the years to improve the access to
the information available to the routing and forwarding system. the information available to the routing and forwarding system.
Making such information visible and usable to network management and Making such information visible and usable to network management and
applications has many well-understood benefits. There are two applications has many well-understood benefits. There are two
related challenges in doing so. First, the quantity and diversity of related challenges in doing so. First, the quantity and diversity of
information potentially available is very large. Second, the information potentially available is very large. Second, the
variation both in the structure of the data and in the kinds of variation both in the structure of the data and in the kinds of
skipping to change at page 12, line 12 skipping to change at page 12, line 48
Adding complexity beyond what is needed to satisfy well known and Adding complexity beyond what is needed to satisfy well known and
understood requirements would hinder the ease of implementation, the understood requirements would hinder the ease of implementation, the
robustness of the protocol, and the deployability of the protocol. robustness of the protocol, and the deployability of the protocol.
Overly complex data models tend to ossify information sets by Overly complex data models tend to ossify information sets by
attempting to describe and close off every possible option, attempting to describe and close off every possible option,
complicating extensibility. complicating extensibility.
Thus, one of the key aims for I2RS is the keep the protocol and Thus, one of the key aims for I2RS is the keep the protocol and
modeling architecture simple. So for each architectural component or modeling architecture simple. So for each architectural component or
aspect, we ask ourselves "do we need this complexity, or is the aspect, we ask ourselves "do we need this complexity, or is the
behavior merely nice to have?" behavior merely nice to have?" If we need the complexity, we should
ask ourselves "Is this the simpliest way to provide in the I2RS
external interface?"
3.2. Extensibility 3.2. Extensibility
Extensibility of the protocol and data model is very important. In Extensibility of the protocol and data model is very important. In
particular, given the necessary scope limitations of the initial particular, given the necessary scope limitations of the initial
work, it is critical that the initial design include strong support work, it is critical that the initial design include strong support
for extensibility. for extensibility.
The scope of the I2RS work is being restricted in the interests of The scope of I2RS work is being designed in phases to provide
achieving a deliverable and deployable result. The I2RS Working deliverable and deployable results at every phase. Each phase will
Group is modeling only a subset of the data of interest. It is have a specific set of requirements, and the I2RS protocol and data
clearly desirable for the data models defined in the I2RS to be models will progress toward these requirements. Therefore, it is
useful in more general settings. It should be easy to integrate data clearly desirable for the I2RS data models to be easily and highly
models from the I2RS with other data. Other work should be able to extensible to represent additional aspects of the network elements or
easily extend it to represent additional aspects of the network network systems. It should be easy to integrate data models from the
elements or network systems. This reinforces the criticality of I2RS with other data. This reinforces the criticality of designing
designing the data models to be highly extensible, preferably in a the data models to be highly extensible, preferably in a regular and
regular and simple fashion. simple fashion.
The I2RS Working Group is defining operations for the I2RS protocol. The I2RS Working Group is defining operations for the I2RS protocol.
It would be optimistic to assume that more and different ones may not It would be optimistic to assume that more and different ones may not
be needed when the scope of I2RS increases. Thus, it is important to be needed when the scope of I2RS increases. Thus, it is important to
consider extensibility not only of the underlying services' data consider extensibility not only of the underlying services' data
models, but also of the primitives and protocol operations. models, but also of the primitives and protocol operations.
3.3. Model-Driven Programmatic Interfaces 3.3. Model-Driven Programmatic Interfaces
A critical component of I2RS is the standard information and data A critical component of I2RS is the standard information and data
models with their associated semantics. While many components of the models with their associated semantics. While many components of the
routing system are standardized, associated data models for them are routing system are standardized, associated data models for them are
not yet available. Instead, each router uses different information, not yet available. Instead, each router uses different information,
different mechanisms, and different CLI which makes a standard different mechanisms, and different CLI which makes a standard
interface for use by applications extremely cumbersome to develop and interface for use by applications extremely cumbersome to develop and
maintain. Well-known data modeling languages exist and may be used maintain. Well-known data modeling languages exist and may be used
for defining the data models for I2RS. for defining the data models for I2RS.
There are several key benefits for I2RS in using model-driven There are several key benefits for I2RS in using model-driven
architecture and protocol(s). First, it allows for transferring architecture and protocol(s). First, it allows for data-model
data-models whose content is not explicitly implemented or focused processing of management data that provides modular
understood. Second, tools can automate checking and manipulating implementation in I2RS clients and I2RS agents. The I2RS client only
data; this is particularly valuable for both extensibility and for needs to implement the models the I2RS client is able to access. The
the ability to easily manipulate and check proprietary data-models. I2RS agent only needs to implement the data models the I2RS agent
supports.
Second, tools can automate checking and manipulating data; this is
particularly valuable for both extensibility and for the ability to
easily manipulate and check proprietary data-models.
The different services provided by I2RS can correspond to separate The different services provided by I2RS can correspond to separate
data-models. An I2RS agent may indicate which data-models are data-models. An I2RS agent may indicate which data-models are
supported. supported.
The purpose of the data model is to provide an definition of the The purpose of the data model is to provide a definition of the
information regarding the routing system that can be used in information regarding the routing system that can be used in
operational networks. If routing information is being modeled for operational networks. If routing information is being modeled for
the first time, a logical information model may be standardized prior the first time, a logical information model may be standardized prior
to creating the data model. to creating the data model.
4. Security Considerations 4. Security Considerations
This I2RS architecture describes interfaces that clearly require This I2RS architecture describes interfaces that clearly require
serious consideration of security. As an architecture, I2RS has been serious consideration of security. As an architecture, I2RS has been
designed to re-utilize existing protocols that carry network designed to reuse existing protocols that carry network management
management information. Two of the existing protocols which the information. Two of the existing protocols which are being reused
which may be re-used are NETCONF [RFC6241] and RESTCONF for I2RS protocol version 1 are NETCONF [RFC6241] and RESTCONF
[I-D.ietf-netconf-restconf]. The I2RS protocol design process will [I-D.ietf-netconf-restconf]. Additional protocol may be reused in
be to specify additional requirements including security for these future versions of the I2RS protocol.
existing protocol in order to support the I2RS architecture. After
an existing protocol, (e.g. NETCONF or RESTCONF) has been altered to The I2RS protocol design process will be to specify additional
fit the I2RS requirements, then it will be reviewed to determine if requirements (including security) for the existing protocols in order
it meets the I2RS security requirements. in order to support the I2RS architecture. After an existing
protocol, (e.g. NETCONF or RESTCONF) has been altered to fit the
I2RS requirements, then it will be reviewed to determine if it meets
these requirements. During this review of changes to existing
protocols to serve the I2RS architecture, an in-depth security review
of the revised protocol should be done.
Due to the re-use strategy of the I2RS architecture, this security Due to the re-use strategy of the I2RS architecture, this security
section describes the assumed security environment for I2RS with section describes the assumed security environment for I2RS with
additional details on: a) identity and authentication, b) additional details on: a) identity and authentication, b)
authorization, and c) client redundancy. Each protocol proposed for authorization, and c) client redundancy. Each protocol proposed for
inclusion as an I2RS protocol will need to be evaluated for the inclusion as an I2RS protocol will need to be evaluated for the
security constraints of the protocol. The detailed requirements for security constraints of the protocol. The detailed requirements for
the I2RS protocol and the I2RS security environment will be defined the I2RS protocol and the I2RS security environment will be defined
within these global security environments. within these global security environments.
The I2RS protocol security requirements for I2RS protocol version 1
are contained in [I-D.ietf-i2rs-protocol-security-requirements], and
the global I2RS security environment requirements for protocol
version 1 are contained [I-D.ietf-i2rs-security-environment-reqs].
First, here is a brief description of the assumed security First, here is a brief description of the assumed security
environment for I2RS. The I2RS Agent associated with a Routing environment for I2RS. The I2RS agent associated with a Routing
Element is a trusted part of that Routing Element. For example, it Element is a trusted part of that Routing Element. For example, it
may be part of a vendor-distributed signed software image for the may be part of a vendor-distributed signed software image for the
entire Routing Element or it may be trusted signed application that entire Routing Element or it may be trusted signed application that
an operator has installed. The I2RS Agent is assumed to have a an operator has installed. The I2RS agent is assumed to have a
separate authentication and authorization channel by which it can separate authentication and authorization channel by which it can
validate both the identity and permissions associated with an I2RS validate both the identity and permissions associated with an I2RS
Client. To support numerous and speedy interactions between the I2RS client. To support numerous and speedy interactions between the I2RS
Agent and I2RS Client, it is assumed that the I2RS Agent can also agent and I2RS client, it is assumed that the I2RS agent can also
cache that particular I2RS Clients are trusted and their associated cache that particular I2RS clients are trusted and their associated
authorized scope. This implies that the permission information may authorized scope. This implies that the permission information may
be old either in a pull model until the I2RS Agent re-requests it, or be old either in a pull model until the I2RS agent re-requests it, or
in a push model until the authentication and authorization channel in a push model until the authentication and authorization channel
can notify the I2RS Agent of changes. can notify the I2RS agent of changes.
Mutual authentication between the I2RS Client and I2RS Agent is Mutual authentication between the I2RS client and I2RS agent is
required. An I2RS Client must be able to trust that the I2RS Agent required. An I2RS client must be able to trust that the I2RS agent
is attached to the relevant Routing Element so that write/modify is attached to the relevant Routing Element so that write/modify
operations are correctly applied and so that information received operations are correctly applied and so that information received
from the I2RS Agent can be trusted by the I2RS Client. from the I2RS agent can be trusted by the I2RS client.
An I2RS Client is not automatically trustworthy. Each I2RS Client is An I2RS client is not automatically trustworthy. Each I2RS client is
associated with identity with a set of scope limitations. associated with identity with a set of scope limitations.
Applications using the I2RSS should be aware of the scope limitations Applications using an I2RS should be aware that the scope limitations
of that I2RS Client. If the I2RS Client is acting as a broker for of an I2RS client are based on its identity (see section 4.1) and the
multiple applications, then managing the security, authentication and assigned role that that identity has sets specific authorization
authorization for that communication is out of scope; nothing limits on performation actions on an I2RS agent (see section 4.2).
prevents the broker from using I2RS protocol and a separate For example, one I2RS client may only be able to read a static route
authentication and authorization channel from being used. Regardless table, but another client may be able add an ephemeral route to the
of mechanism, an I2RS Client that is acting as a broker is static route table.
responsible for determining that applications using it are trusted
and permitted to make the particular requests. If the I2RS client is acting as a broker for multiple applications,
then managing the security, authentication and authorization for that
communication is out of scope; nothing prevents the broker from using
I2RS protocol and a separate authentication and authorization channel
from being used. Regardless of mechanism, an I2RS client that is
acting as a broker is responsible for determining that applications
using it are trusted and permitted to make the particular requests.
Different levels of integrity, confidentiality, and replay protection Different levels of integrity, confidentiality, and replay protection
are relevant for different aspects of I2RS. The primary are relevant for different aspects of I2RS. The primary
communication channel that is used for client authentication and then communication channel that is used for client authentication and then
used by the client to write data requires integrity, confidentiality used by the client to write data requires integrity, confidentiality
and replay protection. Appropriate selection of a default required and replay protection. Appropriate selection of a default required
transport protocol is the preferred way of meeting these transport protocol is the preferred way of meeting these
requirements. requirements.
Other communications via I2RS may not require integrity, Other communications via I2RS may not require integrity,
confidentiality, and replay protection. For instance, if an I2RS confidentiality, and replay protection. For instance, if an I2RS
Client subscribes to an information stream of prefix announcements client subscribes to an information stream of prefix announcements
from OSPF, those may require integrity but probably not from OSPF, those may require integrity but probably not
confidentiality or replay protection. Similarly, an information confidentiality or replay protection. Similarly, an information
stream of interface statistics may not even require guaranteed stream of interface statistics may not even require guaranteed
delivery. In Section 7.2, additional login regarding multiple delivery. In Section 7.2, additional login regarding multiple
communication channels and their use is provided. From the security communication channels and their use is provided. From the security
perspective, it is critical to realize that an I2RS Agent may open a perspective, it is critical to realize that an I2RS agent may open a
new communication channel based upon information provided by an I2RS new communication channel based upon information provided by an I2RS
Client (as described in Section 7.2). For example, an I2RS client client (as described in Section 7.2). For example, an I2RS client
may request notifications of certain events and the agent will open a may request notifications of certain events and the agent will open a
communication channel to report such events. Therefore, to avoid an communication channel to report such events. Therefore, to avoid an
indirect attack, such a request must be done in the context of an indirect attack, such a request must be done in the context of an
authenticated and authorized client whose communications cannot have authenticated and authorized client whose communications cannot have
been altered. been altered.
4.1. Identity and Authentication 4.1. Identity and Authentication
As discussed above, all control exchanges between the I2RS client and As discussed above, all control exchanges between the I2RS client and
agent should be authenticated and integrity protected (such that the agent should be authenticated and integrity protected (such that the
contents cannot be changed without detection). Further, manipulation contents cannot be changed without detection). Further, manipulation
of the system must be accurately attributable. In an ideal of the system must be accurately attributable. In an ideal
architecture, even information collection and notification should be architecture, even information collection and notification should be
protected; this may be subject to engineering tradeoffs during the protected; this may be subject to engineering tradeoffs during the
design. design.
I2RS clients may be operating on behalf of other applications. While I2RS clients may be operating on behalf of other applications. While
those applications' identities are not needed for authentication or those applications' identities are not needed for authentication or
authorization, each application should have a unique opaque authorization, each application should have a unique opaque
identifier that can be provided by the I2RS client to the I2RS agent identifier that can be provided by the I2RS client to the I2RS agent
for purposes of tracking attribution of operations to support for purposes of tracking attribution of operations to an application
functionality such as troubleshooting and logging of network changes. identifier (and from that to the application's identity). This
tracking of operations to an application supports I2RS functionality
for tracing actions (to aid troubleshooting in routers) and logging
of network changes.
4.2. Authorization 4.2. Authorization
All operations using I2RS, both observation and manipulation, should All operations using I2RS, both observation and manipulation, should
be subject to appropriate authorization controls. Such authorization be subject to appropriate authorization controls. Such authorization
is based on the identity and assigned role of the I2RS client is based on the identity and assigned role of the I2RS client
performing the operations and the I2RS agent in the network element. performing the operations and the I2RS agent in the network element.
Multiple Identities may use the same role(s). As noted in the Multiple Identities may use the same role(s). As noted in the
definition of the identity and role above, if multiple roles are definition of the identity and role above, if multiple roles are
associated with an identity then the identity is authorized to associated with an identity then the identity is authorized to
perform any operation authorized by any of its roles. perform any operation authorized by any of its roles.
I2RS Agents, in performing information collection and manipulation, I2RS agents, in performing information collection and manipulation,
will be acting on behalf of the I2RS clients. As such, each will be acting on behalf of the I2RS clients. As such, each
operation authorization will be based on the lower of the two operation authorization will be based on the lower of the two
permissions of the agent itself and of the authenticated client. The permissions of the agent itself and of the authenticated client. The
mechanism by which this authorization is applied within the device is mechanism by which this authorization is applied within the device is
outside of the scope of I2RS. outside of the scope of I2RS.
The appropriate or necessary level of granularity for scope can The appropriate or necessary level of granularity for scope can
depend upon the particular I2RS Service and the implementation's depend upon the particular I2RS Service and the implementation's
granularity. An approach to a similar access control problem is granularity. An approach to a similar access control problem is
defined in the NetConf Access Control Model (NACM) [RFC6536]; it defined in the NetConf Access Control Model (NACM) [RFC6536]; it
skipping to change at page 16, line 7 skipping to change at page 17, line 22
identifier while defining meaningful manipulable defaults. The identifier while defining meaningful manipulable defaults. The
identity within NACM [RFC6536] can be specify as either a user name identity within NACM [RFC6536] can be specify as either a user name
or a group user name (e.g. Root), and this name is linked a scope or a group user name (e.g. Root), and this name is linked a scope
policy that is contained in a set of access control rules. policy that is contained in a set of access control rules.
Similarly, it is expected the I2RS identity links to one role which Similarly, it is expected the I2RS identity links to one role which
has a scope policy specified by a set of access control rules. This has a scope policy specified by a set of access control rules. This
scope policy can be provided via Local Configuration, exposed as an scope policy can be provided via Local Configuration, exposed as an
I2RS Service for manipulation by authorized clients, or via some I2RS Service for manipulation by authorized clients, or via some
other method (e.g. AAA service) other method (e.g. AAA service)
While the I2RS agent allows access based on the I2RS client's scope
policy, this does not mean the access is required to arrive on a
particular transport connection or from a particular I2RS client by
the I2RS architecture. The operator-applied scope policy may/may not
restrict the transport connection or the identities that can access a
local I2RS agent.
When an I2RS client is authenticated, its identity is provided to the When an I2RS client is authenticated, its identity is provided to the
I2RS Agent, and this identity links to a role which links to the I2RS agent, and this identity links to a role which links to the
scope policy. Multiple identities may belong to the same role; for scope policy. Multiple identities may belong to the same role; for
example, such a role might be an Internal-Routes-Monitor that allows example, such a role might be an Internal-Routes-Monitor that allows
reading of the portion of the I2RS RIB associated with IP prefixes reading of the portion of the I2RS RIB associated with IP prefixes
used for internal device addresses in the AS." used for internal device addresses in the AS."
4.3. Client Redundancy 4.3. Client Redundancy
I2RS must support client redundancy. At the simplest, this can be I2RS must support client redundancy. At the simplest, this can be
handled by having a primary and a backup network application that handled by having a primary and a backup network application that
both use the same client identity and can successfully authenticate both use the same client identity and can successfully authenticate
as such. Since I2RS does not require a continuous transport as such. Since I2RS does not require a continuous transport
connection and supports multiple transport sessions, this can provide connection and supports multiple transport sessions, this can provide
some basic redundancy. However, it does not address the need for some basic redundancy. However, it does not address the need for
troubleshooting and logging of network changes to be informed about troubleshooting and logging of network changes to be informed about
which network application is actually active. At a minimum, basic which network application is actually active. At a minimum, basic
transport information about each connection and time can be logged transport information about each connection and time can be logged
with the identity. with the identity.
4.4. I2RS in Personal Devices
If an I2RS agent or I2RS client is tightly correlated with a person
(such as if an I2RS agent is running on someone's phone to control
tethering) then this usage can raise privacy issues, over and above
the security issues normally need to be handled in I2RS. One example
of an I2RS interaction that could raise privacy issues is if the I2RS
interaction enabled easier location tracking of a person's phone.
The I2RS protocol and data models should consider if privacy issues
can arise when clients or agents are used for such use cases.
5. Network Applications and I2RS Client 5. Network Applications and I2RS Client
I2RS is expected to be used by network-oriented applications in I2RS is expected to be used by network-oriented applications in
different architectures. While the interface between a network- different architectures. While the interface between a network-
oriented application and the I2RS client is outside the scope of oriented application and the I2RS client is outside the scope of
I2RS, considering the different architectures is important to I2RS, considering the different architectures is important to
sufficiently specify I2RS. sufficiently specify I2RS.
In the simplest architecture of direct access, a network-oriented In the simplest architecture of direct access, a network-oriented
application has an I2RS client as a library or driver for application has an I2RS client as a library or driver for
communication with routing elements. communication with routing elements.
In the broker architecture, multiple network-oriented applications In the broker architecture, multiple network-oriented applications
communicate in an unspecified fashion to a broker application that communicate in an unspecified fashion to a broker application that
contains an I2RS Client. That broker application requires additional contains an I2RS client. That broker application requires additional
functionality for authentication and authorization of the network- functionality for authentication and authorization of the network-
oriented applications; such functionality is out of scope for I2RS oriented applications; such functionality is out of scope for I2RS
but similar considerations to those described in Section 4.2 do but similar considerations to those described in Section 4.2 do
apply. As discussed in Section 4.1, the broker I2RS Client should apply. As discussed in Section 4.1, the broker I2RS client should
determine distinct opaque identifiers for each network-oriented determine distinct opaque identifiers for each network-oriented
application that is using it. The broker I2RS Client can pass along application that is using it. The broker I2RS client can pass along
the appropriate value as a secondary identifier which can be used for the appropriate value as a secondary identifier which can be used for
tracking attribution of operations. tracking attribution of operations.
In a third architecture, a routing element or network-oriented In a third architecture, a routing element or network-oriented
application that uses an I2RS Client to access services on a application that uses an I2RS client to access services on a
different routing element may also contain an I2RS agent to provide different routing element may also contain an I2RS agent to provide
services to other network-oriented applications. However, where the services to other network-oriented applications. However, where the
needed information and data models for those services differs from needed information and data models for those services differs from
that of a conventional routing element, those models are, at least that of a conventional routing element, those models are, at least
initially, out of scope for I2RS. Below is an example of such a initially, out of scope for I2RS. Below is an example of such a
network application network application
5.1. Example Network Application: Topology Manager 5.1. Example Network Application: Topology Manager
A Topology Manager includes an I2RS client that uses the I2RS data A Topology Manager includes an I2RS client that uses the I2RS data
models and protocol to collect information about the state of the models and protocol to collect information about the state of the
network by communicating directly with one or more I2RS agents. From network by communicating directly with one or more I2RS agents. From
these I2RS agents, the Topology Manager collects routing these I2RS agents, the Topology Manager collects routing
configuration and operational data, such as interface and label- configuration and operational data, such as interface and label-
switched path (LSP) information. In addition, the Topology Manager switched path (LSP) information. In addition, the Topology Manager
may collect link-state data in several ways - either via I2RS models, may collect link-state data in several ways - either via I2RS models,
by peering with BGP-LS[I-D.ietf-idr-ls-distribution] or listening by peering with BGP-LS[RFC7752] or listening into the IGP.
into the IGP.
The set of functionality and collected information that is the The set of functionality and collected information that is the
Topology Manager may be embedded as a component of a larger Topology Manager may be embedded as a component of a larger
application, such as a path computation application. As a stand- application, such as a path computation application. As a stand-
alone application, the Topology Manager could be useful to other alone application, the Topology Manager could be useful to other
network applications by providing a coherent picture of the network network applications by providing a coherent picture of the network
state accessible via another interface. That interface might use the state accessible via another interface. That interface might use the
same I2RS protocol and could provide a topology service using same I2RS protocol and could provide a topology service using
extensions to the I2RS data models. extensions to the I2RS data models.
6. I2RS Agent Role and Functionality 6. I2RS Agent Role and Functionality
The I2RS Agent is part of a routing element. As such, it has The I2RS agent is part of a routing element. As such, it has
relationships with that routing element as a whole, and with various relationships with that routing element as a whole, and with various
components of that routing element. components of that routing element.
6.1. Relationship to its Routing Element 6.1. Relationship to its Routing Element
A Routing Element may be implemented with a wide variety of different A Routing Element may be implemented with a wide variety of different
architectures: an integrated router, a split architecture, architectures: an integrated router, a split architecture,
distributed architecture, etc. The architecture does not need to distributed architecture, etc. The architecture does not need to
affect the general I2RS agent behavior. affect the general I2RS agent behavior.
For scalability and generality, the I2RS agent may be responsible for For scalability and generality, the I2RS agent may be responsible for
collecting and delivering large amounts of data from various parts of collecting and delivering large amounts of data from various parts of
the routing element. Those parts may or may not actually be part of the routing element. Those parts may or may not actually be part of
a single physical device. Thus, for scalability and robustness, it a single physical device. Thus, for scalability and robustness, it
is important that the architecture allow for a distributed set of is important that the architecture allow for a distributed set of
reporting components providing collected data from the I2RS agent reporting components providing collected data from the I2RS agent
back to the relevant I2RS clients. There may be multiple I2RS Agents back to the relevant I2RS clients. There may be multiple I2RS agents
within the same router. In such a case, they must have non- within the same router. In such a case, they must have non-
overlapping sets of information which they manipulate. overlapping sets of information which they manipulate.
To facilitate operations, deployment and troubleshooting, it is To facilitate operations, deployment and troubleshooting, it is
important that traceability of the requests received by I2RS Agent's important that traceability of the requests received by I2RS agent's
and actions taken be supported via a common data model. and actions taken be supported via a common data model.
6.2. I2RS State Storage 6.2. I2RS State Storage
State modification requests are sent to the I2RS agent in a routing State modification requests are sent to the I2RS agent in a routing
element by I2RS clients. The I2RS agent is responsible for applying element by I2RS clients. The I2RS agent is responsible for applying
these changes to the system, subject to the authorization discussed these changes to the system, subject to the authorization discussed
above. The I2RS agent will retain knowledge of the changes it has above. The I2RS agent will retain knowledge of the changes it has
applied, and the client on whose behalf it applied the changes. The applied, and the client on whose behalf it applied the changes. The
I2RS agent will also store active subscriptions. These sets of data I2RS agent will also store active subscriptions. These sets of data
skipping to change at page 18, line 32 skipping to change at page 20, line 24
the state is removed by the client, overridden by some other the state is removed by the client, overridden by some other
operation such as CLI, or the device reboots. Meaningful logging of operation such as CLI, or the device reboots. Meaningful logging of
the application and removal of changes is recommended. I2RS applied the application and removal of changes is recommended. I2RS applied
changes to the routing element state will not be retained across changes to the routing element state will not be retained across
routing element reboot. The I2RS data store is not preserved across routing element reboot. The I2RS data store is not preserved across
routing element reboots; thus the I2RS agent will not attempt to routing element reboots; thus the I2RS agent will not attempt to
reapply such changes after a reboot. reapply such changes after a reboot.
6.2.1. I2RS Agent Failure 6.2.1. I2RS Agent Failure
It is expected that an I2RS Agent may fail independently of the It is expected that an I2RS agent may fail independently of the
associated routing element. This could happen because I2RS is associated routing element. This could happen because I2RS is
disabled on the routing element or because the I2RS Agent, a separate disabled on the routing element or because the I2RS agent, a separate
process or even running on a separate processor, experiences an process or even running on a separate processor, experiences an
unexpected failure. Just as routing state learned from a failed unexpected failure. Just as routing state learned from a failed
source is removed, the ephemeral I2RS state will usually be removed source is removed, the ephemeral I2RS state will usually be removed
shortly after the failure is detected or as part of a graceful shortly after the failure is detected or as part of a graceful
shutdown process. To handle I2RS Agent failure, the I2RS Agent must shutdown process. To handle these two types of failures, the I2RS
use two different notifications. agent MUST support two different notifications: a notification for
the I2RS agent terminating gracefully, and a notification for the
NOTIFICATION_I2RS_AGENT_STARTING: This notification signals to the I2RS agent starting up after an unexpected failure. The two
I2RS Client(s) that the associated I2RS Agent has started. It notifications are described below followed by the a description of
includes an agent-boot-count that indicates how many times the their use in unexpected failures and graceful shutdowns.
I2RS Agent has restarted since the associated routing element
restarted. The agent-boot-count allows an I2RS Client to
determine if the I2RS Agent has restarted. (Note: This
notification will be only transmitted to I2RS clients which are
know in some way after a reboot.)
NOTIFICATION_I2RS_AGENT_TERMINATING: This notification reports that NOTIFICATION_I2RS_AGENT_TERMINATING: This notification reports that
the associated I2RS Agent is shutting down gracefully, and that the associated I2RS agent is shutting down gracefully, and that
I2RS ephemeral state will be removed. It can optionally include a I2RS ephemeral state will be removed. It can optionally include a
timestamp indicating when the I2RS Agent will shutdown. Use of timestamp indicating when the I2RS agent will shutdown. Use of
this timestamp assumes that time synchronization has been done and this timestamp assumes that time synchronization has been done and
the timestamp should not have granularity finer than one second the timestamp should not have granularity finer than one second
because better accuracy of shutdown time is not guaranteed. because better accuracy of shutdown time is not guaranteed.
NOTIFICATION_I2RS_AGENT_STARTING: This notification signals to the
I2RS client(s) that the associated I2RS agent has started. It
includes an agent-boot-count that indicates how many times the
I2RS agent has restarted since the associated routing element
restarted. The agent-boot-count allows an I2RS client to
determine if the I2RS agent has restarted. (Note: This
notification will on be sent by the I2RS agent to I2RS clients
which are known by the I2RS agent after a reboot. How the I2RS
agent retains the knowledge of these I2RS clients is out of scope
of this architecture.)
There are two different failure types that are possible and each has There are two different failure types that are possible and each has
different behavior. different behavior.
Unexpected failure: In this case, the I2RS Agent has unexpectedly Unexpected failure: In this case, the I2RS agent has unexpectedly
crashed and thus cannot notify its clients of anything. Since crashed and thus cannot notify its clients of anything. Since
I2RS does not require a persistent connection between the I2RS I2RS does not require a persistent connection between the I2RS
Client and I2RS Agent, it is necessary to have a mechanism for the client and I2RS agent, it is necessary to have a mechanism for the
I2RS Agent to notify I2RS Clients that had subscriptions or I2RS agent to notify I2RS clients that had subscriptions or
written ephemeral state; such I2RS Clients should be cached by the written ephemeral state; such I2RS clients should be cached by the
I2RS Agent's system in persistent storage. When the I2RS Agent I2RS agent's system in persistent storage. When the I2RS agent
starts, it should send a NOTIFICATION_I2RS_AGENT_STARTING to each starts, it should send a NOTIFICATION_I2RS_AGENT_STARTING to each
cached I2RS Client. cached I2RS client.
Graceful failure: In this case, the I2RS Agent can do specific Graceful shutdowns: In this case, the I2RS agent can do specific
limited work as part of the process of being disabled. The I2RS limited work as part of the process of being disabled. The I2RS
Agent must send a NOTIFICATION_I2RS_AGENT_TERMINATING to all its agent must send a NOTIFICATION_I2RS_AGENT_TERMINATING to all its
cached I2RS Clients. cached I2RS clients. If the I2RS agent restarts after a graceful
termination, it will send a NOTIFICATION_I2RS_AGENT_STARTING to
each cached I2RS client.
6.2.2. Starting and Ending 6.2.2. Starting and Ending
When an I2RS client applies changes via the I2RS protocol, those When an I2RS client applies changes via the I2RS protocol, those
changes are applied and left until removed or the routing element changes are applied and left until removed or the routing element
reboots. The network application may make decisions about what to reboots. The network application may make decisions about what to
request via I2RS based upon a variety of conditions that imply request via I2RS based upon a variety of conditions that imply
different start times and stop times. That complexity is managed by different start times and stop times. That complexity is managed by
the network application and is not handled by I2RS. the network application and is not handled by I2RS.
6.2.3. Reversion 6.2.3. Reversion
An I2RS Agent may decide that some state should no longer be applied. An I2RS agent may decide that some state should no longer be applied.
An I2RS Client may instruct an Agent to remove state it has applied. An I2RS client may instruct an agent to remove state it has applied.
In all such cases, the state will revert to what it would have been In all such cases, the state will revert to what it would have been
without the I2RS client-agent interaction; that state is generally without the I2RS client-agent interaction; that state is generally
whatever was specified via the CLI, NETCONF, SNMP, etc. I2RS Agents whatever was specified via the CLI, NETCONF, SNMP, etc. I2RS agents
will not store multiple alternative states, nor try to determine will not store multiple alternative states, nor try to determine
which one among such a plurality it should fall back to. Thus, the which one among such a plurality it should fall back to. Thus, the
model followed is not like the RIB, where multiple routes are stored model followed is not like the RIB, where multiple routes are stored
at different preferences. (For I2RS state in the presence of two at different preferences. (For I2RS state in the presence of two
I2RS clients, please see section 1.2 and section 7.8) I2RS clients, please see section 1.2 and section 7.8)
An I2RS Client may register for notifications, subject to its An I2RS client may register for notifications, subject to its
notification scope, regarding state modification or removal by a notification scope, regarding state modification or removal by a
particular I2RS Client. particular I2RS client.
6.3. Interactions with Local Configuration 6.3. Interactions with Local Configuration
Changes may originate from either Local Configuration or from I2RS. Changes may originate from either Local Configuration or from I2RS.
The modifications and data stored by I2RS are separate from the local The modifications and data stored by I2RS are separate from the local
device configuration, but conflicts between the two must be resolved device configuration, but conflicts between the two must be resolved
in a deterministic manner that respects operator-applied policy. The in a deterministic manner that respects operator-applied policy. The
deterministic model is the result of general I2RS rules, system deterministic manner is the result of general I2RS rules, system
rules, knobs adjust by operator-applied policy, and the rules rules, knobs adjusted by operator-applied policy, and the rules
associated with the yang data model (often in MUST and WHEN clauses associated with the YANG data model (often in MUST and WHEN clauses
for dependencies). for dependencies).
This operator-applied policy can determine whether Local The operator-applied policy knobs can determine whether the Local
Configuration overrides a particular I2RS client's request or vice Configuration overrides a particular I2RS client's request or vice
versa. To achieve this end, the I2RS data modules have a general versa. Normally, most devices will have an operator-applied policy
rule that by default the Local Configuration always wins. that will prioritize the I2RS client's ephemeral configuration
Optionally, a routing element may permit a priority to be to be changes so that ephemeral data overides the Local Configuration.
configured on the device for the Local Configuration mechanism
interaction with the I2RS model. The policy mechanism would compare These operator-applied policy knobs can be implemented in many ways.
the I2RS client's priority with that priority assigned to the Local One way is for the routing element to configure a priority on the
Configuration in order to determine whether Local Configuration or Local Configuration and and a priority on the I2RS client's write of
I2RS wins. the ephemeral configuration. The I2RS mechanism would compare the
I2RS client's priority to write with that priority assigned to the
Local Configuration in order to determine whether Local Configuration
or I2RS Client's write of ephemeral data wins.
To make sure the I2RS clients requests are what the operator desires,
the I2RS data modules have a general rule that by default the Local
Configuration always wins over the I2RS ephemeral configuration.
The reason for this general rule is if there is no operator-applied
policy to turn on I2RS ephemeral overwrites of Local Configuration,
then the I2RS overwrites should not occur. This general rule allows
the I2RS agents to be installed in routing systems, and the
communication tested between I2RS clients and I2RS agents without the
I2RS agent overwriting configuration state. For more details, see
the examples below.
For the case when the I2RS ephemeral state always wins for a data For the case when the I2RS ephemeral state always wins for a data
model, if there is an I2RS ephemeral state value it is installed model, if there is an I2RS ephemeral state value is installed instead
instead of the local configuration state. The local configuration of the local configuration state. The local configuration
information is stored so that if/when I2RS client removes I2RS information is stored so that if/when I2RS client removes I2RS
ephemeral state the local configuration state can be restored. ephemeral state the local configuration state can be restored.
When the Local Configuration always wins, some communication between When the Local Configuration always wins, some communication between
that subsystem and the I2RS Agent is still necessary. As an I2RS that subsystem and the I2RS agent is still necessary. As an I2RS
Agent connects to the routing sub-system, the I2RS Agent must also agent connects to the routing sub-system, the I2RS agent must also
communicate with the Local Configuration to exchange model communicate with the Local Configuration to exchange model
information so the I2RS agent knows the details of each specific information so the I2RS agent knows the details of each specific
device configuration change that the I2RS Agent is permitted to device configuration change that the I2RS agent is permitted to
modify. In addition, when the system determines, that a client's modify. In addition, when the system determines, that a client's
I2RS state is preempted, the I2RS agent must notify the affected I2RS I2RS state is preempted, the I2RS agent must notify the affected I2RS
clients; how the system determines this is implementation-dependent. clients; how the system determines this is implementation-dependent.
It is critical that policy based upon the source is used because the It is critical that policy based upon the source is used because the
resolution cannot be time-based. Simply allowing the most recent resolution cannot be time-based. Simply allowing the most recent
state to prevail could cause race conditions where the final state is state to prevail could cause race conditions where the final state is
not repeatably deterministic. not repeatably deterministic.
6.3.1. Examples of Local Configuration vs. I2RS Ephemeral Configuration
A set of examples are useful in order to illustrated these
architecture principles. Assume there are three routers: router A,
router B, and router C. There are two operator-applied policy knobs
that these three routers must have regarding ephemeral state.
Policy Knob 1: Ephemeral configuration overwrites local
configuration.
Policy Knob 2: Update of local configuration value supercedes and
overwrites the ephemeral configuration.
For Policy Knob 1, the routers with I2RS agent receiving a write for
an ephemeral entry in a Data Model must consider the following:
1. Does the operator policy allow the ephemeral configuration
changes to have priority over existing local configuration?
2. Does the YANG data model have any rules associated with the
ephemeral configuration (such as "MUST" or "WHEN" rule)?
For this example, there is no "MUST" or "WHEN" rule in the data being
written.
The policy settings are:
Policy Knob 1 Policy Knob 2
================ ===============
Router A ephemeral has ephemeral has
priority priority
Router B local config has local config has
priority priority
Router C ephemeral has local config
priority has priority
Router A has the normal operator policy in Policy Knob 1 and Policy
Knob 2 that prioritizes ephemeral configuration over Local
Configuration in the I2RS agent. An I2RS client sends a write to an
ephemeral configuration value via I2RS agent in Router A. The I2RS
agent overwrites the configuration value in the intended
configuration, and the I2RS agent returns an acknowledgement of the
write. If the Local Configuration value changes, Router A stays with
the ephemeral configuration written by the I2RS client.
Router B's operator has no desire to allow ephemeral writes to
overwrite Local Configuration even though it has installed an I2RS
agent. Router B's policy prioritizes the Local Configuration over
the ephemeral write. When the I2RS agent on Router B receives a
write from an I2RS client, the I2RS agent will check the operator
Policy Knob 1 and return a response to the I2RS client indicating the
operator policy did not allow the overwriting of the Local
Configuration.
Router B case demonstrates why the I2RS architecture sets the default
to the Local Configuration wins. Since I2RS functionality is new,
the operator must enable it. Otherwise, the I2RS ephemeral
functionality is off. Router B's operators can install the I2RS code
and test responses without engaging the I2RS overwrite function.
Router C's operator sets the Policy Knob 1 for the I2RS clients to
overwrite existing Local Configuration and the Policy Knob 2 for the
Local Configuration changes to update ephemeral state. To understand
why an operator might set the policy knobs this way, consider that
Router C is under the control of an operator that has a back-end
system that re-writes the the Local Configuration of all systems at
11pm each night. Any ephemeral change to the network is only
supposed to last until 11pm when the next Local Configuration changes
are rolled out from the back-end system. The I2RS client writes the
ephemeral state during the day, and the I2RS agent on router C
updates the value. At 11pm, the back-end configuration system
updates the Local Configuration via NETCONF and the I2RS agent is
notified the Local Configuration updated this value. The I2RS agent
notifies the I2RS client that the value has been overwritten by the
Local Configuration. The I2RS client in this use case is a part of
an application that tracks any ephemeral state changes to make sure
all ephemeral changes are included in the next configuration run.
6.4. Routing Components and Associated I2RS Services 6.4. Routing Components and Associated I2RS Services
For simplicity, each logical protocol or set of functionality that For simplicity, each logical protocol or set of functionality that
can be compactly described in a separable information and data model can be compactly described in a separable information and data model
is considered as a separate I2RS Service. A routing element need not is considered as a separate I2RS Service. A routing element need not
implement all routing components described nor provide the associated implement all routing components described nor provide the associated
I2RS services. I2RS Services should include a capability model so I2RS services. I2RS Services should include a capability model so
that peers can determine which parts of the service are supported. that peers can determine which parts of the service are supported.
Each I2RS Service requires an information model that describes at Each I2RS Service requires an information model that describes at
least the following: data that can be read, data that can be written, least the following: data that can be read, data that can be written,
skipping to change at page 22, line 20 skipping to change at page 27, line 4
or for QoS behaviors that traffic is direct into). Section 6.4.5 or for QoS behaviors that traffic is direct into). Section 6.4.5
discusses information modeling constructs and the range of discusses information modeling constructs and the range of
relationship types that are applicable. relationship types that are applicable.
6.4.1. Routing and Label Information Bases 6.4.1. Routing and Label Information Bases
Routing elements may maintain one or more Information Bases. Routing elements may maintain one or more Information Bases.
Examples include Routing Information Bases such as IPv4/IPv6 Unicast Examples include Routing Information Bases such as IPv4/IPv6 Unicast
or IPv4/IPv6 Multicast. Another such example includes the MPLS Label or IPv4/IPv6 Multicast. Another such example includes the MPLS Label
Information Bases, per-platform or per-interface or per-context. Information Bases, per-platform or per-interface or per-context.
This functionality, exposed via an I2RS Service, must interact This functionality, exposed via an I2RS Service, must interact
smoothly with the same mechanisms that the routing element already smoothly with the same mechanisms that the routing element already
uses to handle RIB input from multiple sources, so as to safely uses to handle RIB input from multiple sources, so as to safely
change the system state. Conceptually, this can be handled by having change the system state. Conceptually, this can be handled by having
the I2RS Agent communicate with a RIB Manager as a separate routing the I2RS agent communicate with a RIB Manager as a separate routing
source. source.
The point-to-multipoint state added to the RIB does not need to match The point-to-multipoint state added to the RIB does not need to match
to well-known multicast protocol installed state. The I2RS Agent can to well-known multicast protocol installed state. The I2RS agent can
create arbitrary replication state in the RIB, subject to the create arbitrary replication state in the RIB, subject to the
advertised capabilities of the routing element. advertised capabilities of the routing element.
6.4.2. IGPs, BGP and Multicast Protocols 6.4.2. IGPs, BGP and Multicast Protocols
A separate I2RS Service can expose each routing protocol on the A separate I2RS Service can expose each routing protocol on the
device. Such I2RS services may include a number of different kinds device. Such I2RS services may include a number of different kinds
of operations: of operations:
o reading the various internal RIB(s) of the routing protocol is o reading the various internal RIB(s) of the routing protocol is
skipping to change at page 22, line 52 skipping to change at page 27, line 37
o reading the various pieces of policy information the particular o reading the various pieces of policy information the particular
protocol instance is using to drive its operations. protocol instance is using to drive its operations.
o writing policy information such as interface attributes that are o writing policy information such as interface attributes that are
specific to the routing protocol or BGP policy that may indirectly specific to the routing protocol or BGP policy that may indirectly
manipulate attributes of routes carried in BGP. manipulate attributes of routes carried in BGP.
o writing routes or prefixes to be advertised via the protocol. o writing routes or prefixes to be advertised via the protocol.
o joining/removing interfaces from the multicast trees o joining/removing interfaces from the multicast trees.
o subscribing to an information stream of route changes o subscribing to an information stream of route changes
o receiving notifications about peers coming up or going down o receiving notifications about peers coming up or going down.
For example, the interaction with OSPF might include modifying the For example, the interaction with OSPF might include modifying the
local routing element's link metrics, announcing a locally-attached local routing element's link metrics, announcing a locally-attached
prefix, or reading some of the OSPF link-state database. However, prefix, or reading some of the OSPF link-state database. However,
direct modification of the link-state database must not be allowed in direct modification of the link-state database must not be allowed in
order to preserve network state consistency. order to preserve network state consistency.
6.4.3. MPLS 6.4.3. MPLS
I2RS Services will be needed to expose the protocols that create I2RS Services will be needed to expose the protocols that create
skipping to change at page 23, line 30 skipping to change at page 28, line 21
originating in, transiting, or terminating in this Routing Element. originating in, transiting, or terminating in this Routing Element.
6.4.4. Policy and QoS Mechanisms 6.4.4. Policy and QoS Mechanisms
Many network elements have separate policy and QoS mechanisms, Many network elements have separate policy and QoS mechanisms,
including knobs which affect local path computation and queue control including knobs which affect local path computation and queue control
capabilities. These capabilities vary widely across implementations, capabilities. These capabilities vary widely across implementations,
and I2RS cannot model the full range of information collection or and I2RS cannot model the full range of information collection or
manipulation of these attributes. A core set does need to be manipulation of these attributes. A core set does need to be
included in the I2RS information models and supported in the expected included in the I2RS information models and supported in the expected
interfaces between the I2RS Agent and the network element, in order interfaces between the I2RS agent and the network element, in order
to provide basic capabilities and the hooks for future extensibility. to provide basic capabilities and the hooks for future extensibility.
By taking advantage of extensibility and sub-classing, information By taking advantage of extensibility and sub-classing, information
models can specify use of a basic model that can be replaced by a models can specify use of a basic model that can be replaced by a
more detailed model. more detailed model.
6.4.5. Information Modeling, Device Variation, and Information 6.4.5. Information Modeling, Device Variation, and Information
Relationships Relationships
I2RS depends heavily on information models of the relevant aspects of I2RS depends heavily on information models of the relevant aspects of
skipping to change at page 24, line 21 skipping to change at page 29, line 7
will be used as the example terminology. This I2RS architecture does will be used as the example terminology. This I2RS architecture does
require the ability to address variation in Routing Elements by require the ability to address variation in Routing Elements by
allowing information models to define parent or base classes and allowing information models to define parent or base classes and
subclasses. subclasses.
The base or parent class defines the common aspects that all Routing The base or parent class defines the common aspects that all Routing
Elements are expected to support. Individual subclasses can Elements are expected to support. Individual subclasses can
represent variations and additional capabilities. When applicable, represent variations and additional capabilities. When applicable,
there may be several levels of refinement. The I2RS protocol can there may be several levels of refinement. The I2RS protocol can
then provide mechanisms to allow an I2RS client to determine which then provide mechanisms to allow an I2RS client to determine which
classes a given I2RS Agent has available. Clients which only want classes a given I2RS agent has available. I2RS clients which only
basic capabilities can operate purely in terms of base or parent want basic capabilities can operate purely in terms of base or parent
classes, while a client needing more details or features can work classes, while a client needing more details or features can work
with the supported sub-class(es). with the supported sub-class(es).
As part of I2RS information modeling, clear rules should be specified As part of I2RS information modeling, clear rules should be specified
for how the parent class and subclass can relate; for example, what for how the parent class and subclass can relate; for example, what
changes can a subclass make to its parent? The description of such changes can a subclass make to its parent? The description of such
rules should be done so that it can apply across data modeling tools rules should be done so that it can apply across data modeling tools
until the I2RS data modeling language is selected. until the I2RS data modeling language is selected.
6.4.5.2. Managing Variation: Optionality 6.4.5.2. Managing Variation: Optionality
skipping to change at page 26, line 43 skipping to change at page 31, line 29
Tunnel MTU, then the tunnel is actively coupled to the link Tunnel MTU, then the tunnel is actively coupled to the link
interface. This kind of active state coupling implies some sort of interface. This kind of active state coupling implies some sort of
internal bookkeeping to ensure consistency, often conceptualized as a internal bookkeeping to ensure consistency, often conceptualized as a
subscription model across objects. subscription model across objects.
7. I2RS Client Agent Interface 7. I2RS Client Agent Interface
7.1. One Control and Data Exchange Protocol 7.1. One Control and Data Exchange Protocol
This I2RS architecture assumes a data-model driven protocol where the This I2RS architecture assumes a data-model driven protocol where the
data-models are defined in Yang 1.1 ([RFC6020]), Yang 1.1 data-models are defined in YANG 1.1 ([I-D.ietf-netmod-rfc6020bis]),
([I-D.ietf-netmod-rfc6020bis]), and associated Yang based model and associated YANG based model drafts ([RFC6991], [RFC7223],
drafts ([RFC6991], [RFC7223], [RFC7224], [RFC7277], [RFC7317]). Two [RFC7224], [RFC7277], [RFC7317]). Two the protocols to be expanded
the protocols to be expanded to support the I2RS protocol are NETCONF to support the I2RS protocol are NETCONF [RFC6241] and RESTCONF
[RFC6241] and RESTCONF [I-D.ietf-netconf-restconf]. This helps meet [I-D.ietf-netconf-restconf]. This helps meet the goal of simplicity
the goal of simplicity and thereby enhances deployability. The I2RS and thereby enhances deployability. The I2RS protocol may need to
protocol may need to use several underlying transports (TCP, SCTP use several underlying transports (TCP, SCTP (stream control
(stream control transport protocol), DCCP (Datagram Congestion transport protocol), DCCP (Datagram Congestion Control Protocol)),
Control Protocol)), with suitable authentication and integrity with suitable authentication and integrity protection mechanisms.
protection mechanisms. These different transports can support These different transports can support different types of
different types of communication (e.g. control, reading, communication (e.g. control, reading, notifications, and information
notifications, and information collection) and different sets of collection) and different sets of data. Whatever transport is used
data. Whatever transport is used for the data exchange, it must also for the data exchange, it must also support suitable congestion
support suitable congestion control mechanisms. The transports control mechanisms. The transports chosen should be operator and
chosen should be operator and implementor friendly to ease adoption. implementor friendly to ease adoption.
Each version of the I2RS protocol will specify the following: a)
which transports the I2RS protocol may used by the I2RS protocol. b)
which transports are mandatory to implement, and c) which transports
are optional to implement.
7.2. Communication Channels 7.2. Communication Channels
Multiple communication channels and multiple types of communication Multiple communication channels and multiple types of communication
channels are required. There may be a range of requirements (e.g. channels are required. There may be a range of requirements (e.g.
confidentiality, reliability), and to support the scaling there may confidentiality, reliability), and to support the scaling there may
need to be channels originating from multiple sub-components of a need to be channels originating from multiple sub-components of a
routing element and/or to multiple parts of an I2RS client. All such routing element and/or to multiple parts of an I2RS client. All such
communication channels will use the same higher-layer I2RS protocol communication channels will use the same higher-layer I2RS protocol
(which combines secure transport and I2RS contextual information). (which combines secure transport and I2RS contextual information).
skipping to change at page 27, line 34 skipping to change at page 32, line 28
system's data plane. I2RS protocol communication might be delivered system's data plane. I2RS protocol communication might be delivered
out-of-band via a management interface. Depending on what operations out-of-band via a management interface. Depending on what operations
are requested, it is possible for the I2RS protocol communication to are requested, it is possible for the I2RS protocol communication to
cause the in-band communication channels to stop working; this could cause the in-band communication channels to stop working; this could
cause the I2RS agent to become unreachable across that communication cause the I2RS agent to become unreachable across that communication
channel. channel.
7.3. Capability Negotiation 7.3. Capability Negotiation
The support for different protocol capabilities and I2RS Services The support for different protocol capabilities and I2RS Services
will vary across I2RS Clients and Routing Elements supporting I2RS will vary across I2RS clients and Routing Elements supporting I2RS
Agents. Since each I2RS Service is required to include a capability agents. Since each I2RS Service is required to include a capability
model (see Section 6.4), negotiation at the protocol level can be model (see Section 6.4), negotiation at the protocol level can be
restricted to protocol specifics and which I2RS Services are restricted to protocol specifics and which I2RS Services are
supported. supported.
Capability negotiation (such as which transports are supported beyond Capability negotiation (such as which transports are supported beyond
the minimum required to implement) will clearly be necessary. It is the minimum required to implement) will clearly be necessary. It is
important that such negotiations be kept simple and robust, as such important that such negotiations be kept simple and robust, as such
mechanisms are often a source of difficulty in implementation and mechanisms are often a source of difficulty in implementation and
deployment. deployment.
The protocol capability negotiation can be segmented into the basic The protocol capability negotiation can be segmented into the basic
version negotiation (required to ensure basic communication), and the version negotiation (required to ensure basic communication), and the
more complex capability exchange which can take place within the base more complex capability exchange which can take place within the base
protocol mechanisms. In particular, the more complex protocol and protocol mechanisms. In particular, the more complex protocol and
mechanism negotiation can be addressed by defining information models mechanism negotiation can be addressed by defining information models
for both the I2RS Agent and the I2RS Client. These information for both the I2RS agent and the I2RS client. These information
models can describe the various capability options. This can then models can describe the various capability options. This can then
represent and be used to communicate important information about the represent and be used to communicate important information about the
agent, and the capabilities thereof. agent, and the capabilities thereof.
7.4. Scope Policy Specifications 7.4. Scope Policy Specifications
As section 4.1 and 4.2 describe, each I2RS Client will have a unique As section 4.1 and 4.2 describe, each I2RS client will have a unique
identity and it may have a secondary identity (see section 2) to aid identity and it may have a secondary identity (see section 2) to aid
in troubleshooting. As section 4 indicates, all authentication and in troubleshooting. As section 4 indicates, all authentication and
authorization mechanisms are based on the primary Identity which authorization mechanisms are based on the primary Identity which
links to a role with scope policy for reading data, for writing data, links to a role with scope policy for reading data, for writing data,
and limitations on the resources that can be consumed. and limitations on the resources that can be consumed. The
Specifications for scope policy need to specify the data and value specifications for data scope policy (for read, write, or resources
ranges for portion of scope policy. consumption) need to specify the data being controlled by the policy,
and acceptable ranges of values for the data.
7.5. Connectivity 7.5. Connectivity
A client may or may not maintain an active communication channel with An I2RS client may or may not maintain an active communication
an agent. Therefore, an agent may need to open a communication channel with an I2RS agent. Therefore, an I2RS agent may need to
channel to the client to communicate previously requested open a communication channel to the client to communicate previously
information. The lack of an active communication channel does not requested information. The lack of an active communication channel
imply that the associated client is non-functional. When does not imply that the associated I2RS client is non-functional.
communication is required, the agent or client can open a new When communication is required, the I2RS agent or I2RS client can
communication channel. open a new communication channel.
State held by an agent that is owned by a client should not be State held by an I2RS agent that is owned by an I2RS client should
removed or cleaned up when a client is no longer communicating - even not be removed or cleaned up when a client is no longer communicating
if the agent cannot successfully open a new communication channel to - even if the agent cannot successfully open a new communication
the client. channel to the client.
For many applications, it may be desirable to clean up state if a For many applications, it may be desirable to clean up state if a
network application dies before removing the state it has created. network application dies before removing the state it has created.
Typically, this is dealt with in terms of network application Typically, this is dealt with in terms of network application
redundancy. If stronger mechanisms are desired, mechanisms outside redundancy. If stronger mechanisms are desired, mechanisms outside
of I2RS may allow a supervisory network application to monitor I2RS of I2RS may allow a supervisory network application to monitor I2RS
clients, and based on policy known to the supervisor clean up state clients, and based on policy known to the supervisor clean up state
if applications die. More complex mechanism instantiated in the I2RS if applications die. More complex mechanisms instantiated in the
agent would add complications to the I2RS protocol and are thus left I2RS agent would add complications to the I2RS protocol and are thus
for future work. left for future work.
Some examples of such a mechanism include the following. In one Some examples of such a mechanism include the following. In one
option, the client could request state clean-up if a particular option, the client could request state clean-up if a particular
transport session is terminated. The second is to allow state transport session is terminated. The second is to allow state
expiration, expressed as a policy associated with the I2RS client's expiration, expressed as a policy associated with the I2RS client's
role. The state expiration could occur after there has been no role. The state expiration could occur after there has been no
successful communication channel to or from the I2RS client for the successful communication channel to or from the I2RS client for the
policy-specified duration. policy-specified duration.
7.6. Notifications 7.6. Notifications
As with any policy system interacting with the network, the I2RS As with any policy system interacting with the network, the I2RS
Client needs to be able to receive notifications of changes in client needs to be able to receive notifications of changes in
network state. Notifications here refers to changes which are network state. Notifications here refers to changes which are
unanticipated, represent events outside the control of the systems unanticipated, represent events outside the control of the systems
(such as interface failures on controlled devices), or are (such as interface failures on controlled devices), or are
sufficiently sparse as to be anomalous in some fashion. A sufficiently sparse as to be anomalous in some fashion. A
notification may also be due to a regular event. notification may also be due to a regular event.
Such events may be of interest to multiple I2RS Clients controlling Such events may be of interest to multiple I2RS clients controlling
data handled by an I2RS Agent, and to multiple other I2RS clients data handled by an I2RS agent, and to multiple other I2RS clients
which are collecting information without exerting control. The which are collecting information without exerting control. The
architecture therefore requires that it be practical for I2RS Clients architecture therefore requires that it be practical for I2RS clients
to register for a range of notifications, and for the I2RS Agents to to register for a range of notifications, and for the I2RS agents to
send notifications to a number of Clients. The I2RS Client should be send notifications to a number of clients. The I2RS client should be
able to filter the specific notifications that will be received; the able to filter the specific notifications that will be received; the
specific types of events and filtering operations can vary by specific types of events and filtering operations can vary by
information model and need to be specified as part of the information information model and need to be specified as part of the information
model. model.
The I2RS information model needs to include representation of these The I2RS information model needs to include representation of these
events. As discussed earlier, the capability information in the events. As discussed earlier, the capability information in the
model will allow I2RS clients to understand which events a given I2RS model will allow I2RS clients to understand which events a given I2RS
Agent is capable of generating. agent is capable of generating.
For performance and scaling by the I2RS client and general For performance and scaling by the I2RS client and general
information confidentiality, an I2RS Client needs to be able to information confidentiality, an I2RS client needs to be able to
register for just the events it is interested in. It is also register for just the events it is interested in. It is also
possible that I2RS might provide a stream of notifications via a possible that I2RS might provide a stream of notifications via a
publish/subscribe mechanism that is not amenable to having the I2RS publish/subscribe mechanism that is not amenable to having the I2RS
agent do the filtering. agent do the filtering.
7.7. Information collection 7.7. Information collection
One of the other important aspects of the I2RS is that it is intended One of the other important aspects of the I2RS is that it is intended
to simplify collecting information about the state of network to simplify collecting information about the state of network
elements. This includes both getting a snapshot of a large amount of elements. This includes both getting a snapshot of a large amount of
data about the current state of the network element, and subscribing data about the current state of the network element, and subscribing
to a feed of the ongoing changes to the set of data or a subset to a feed of the ongoing changes to the set of data or a subset
thereof. This is considered architecturally separate from thereof. This is considered architecturally separate from
notifications due to the differences in information rate and total notifications due to the differences in information rate and total
volume. volume.
7.8. Multi-Headed Control 7.8. Multi-Headed Control
As was described earlier, an I2RS Agent interacts with multiple I2RS As was described earlier, an I2RS agent interacts with multiple I2RS
Clients who are actively controlling the network element. From an clients who are actively controlling the network element. From an
architecture and design perspective, the assumption is that by means architecture and design perspective, the assumption is that by means
outside of this system the data to be manipulated within the network outside of this system the data to be manipulated within the network
element is appropriately partitioned so that any given piece of element is appropriately partitioned so that any given piece of
information is only being manipulated by a single I2RS Client. information is only being manipulated by a single I2RS client.
Nonetheless, unexpected interactions happen and two (or more) I2RS Nonetheless, unexpected interactions happen and two (or more) I2RS
clients may attempt to manipulate the same piece of data. This is clients may attempt to manipulate the same piece of data. This is
considered an error case. This architecture does not attempt to considered an error case. This architecture does not attempt to
determine what the right state of data should be when such a determine what the right state of data should be when such a
collision happens. Rather, the architecture mandates that there be collision happens. Rather, the architecture mandates that there be
decidable means by which I2RS Agents handle the collisions. The decidable means by which I2RS agents handle the collisions. The
mechanism for ensuring predictability is to have a simple priority mechanism for ensuring predictability is to have a simple priority
associated with each I2RS clients, and the highest priority change associated with each I2RS clients, and the highest priority change
remains in effect. In the case of priority ties, the first client remains in effect. In the case of priority ties, the first I2RS
whose attribution is associated with the data will keep control. client whose attribution is associated with the data will keep
control.
In order for this approach to multi-headed control to be useful for In order for this approach to multi-headed control to be useful for
I2RS Clients, it is important that it is possible for an I2RS Client I2RS clients, it is important that it is possible for an I2RS client
to register for changes to any changes made by I2RS to data that it to register for changes to any changes made by I2RS to data that it
may care about. This is included in the I2RS event mechanisms. This may care about. This is included in the I2RS event mechanisms. This
also needs to apply to changes made by CLI/NETCONF/SNMP within the also needs to apply to changes made by CLI/NETCONF/SNMP within the
write-scope of the I2RS Agent, as the same priority mechanism (even write-scope of the I2RS agent, as the same priority mechanism (even
if it is "CLI always wins") applies there. The I2RS client may then if it is "CLI always wins") applies there. The I2RS client may then
respond to the situation as it sees fit. respond to the situation as it sees fit.
7.9. Transactions 7.9. Transactions
In the interest of simplicity, the I2RS architecture does not include In the interest of simplicity, the I2RS architecture does not include
multi-message atomicity and rollback mechanisms. Rather, it includes multi-message atomicity and rollback mechanisms. Rather, it includes
a small range of error handling for a set of operations included in a a small range of error handling for a set of operations included in a
single message. An I2RS Client may indicate one of the following single message. An I2RS client may indicate one of the following
three error handling for a given message with multiple operations three error handling for a given message with multiple operations
which it sends to an I2RS Agent: which it sends to an I2RS agent:
Perform all or none: This traditional SNMP semantic indicates that Perform all or none: This traditional SNMP semantic indicates that
other I2RS agent will keep enough state when handling a single other I2RS agent will keep enough state when handling a single
message to roll back the operations within that message. Either message to roll back the operations within that message. Either
all the operations will succeed, or none of them will be applied all the operations will succeed, or none of them will be applied
and an error message will report the single failure which caused and an error message will report the single failure which caused
them not to be applied. This is useful when there are, for them not to be applied. This is useful when there are, for
example, mutual dependencies across operations in the message. example, mutual dependencies across operations in the message.
Perform until error: In this case, the operations in the message Perform until error: In this case, the operations in the message
are applied in the specified order. When an error occurs, no are applied in the specified order. When an error occurs, no
further operations are applied, and an error is returned further operations are applied, and an error is returned
indicating the failure. This is useful if there are dependencies indicating the failure. This is useful if there are dependencies
among the operations and they can be topologically sorted. among the operations and they can be topologically sorted.
Perform all storing errors: In this case, the I2RS Agent will Perform all storing errors: In this case, the I2RS agent will
attempt to perform all the operations in the message, and will attempt to perform all the operations in the message, and will
return error indications for each one that fails. This is useful return error indications for each one that fails. This is useful
when there is no dependency across the operation, or where the when there is no dependency across the operation, or where the
client would prefer to sort out the effect of errors on its own. I2RS client would prefer to sort out the effect of errors on its
own.
In the interest of robustness and clarity of protocol state, the In the interest of robustness and clarity of protocol state, the
protocol will include an explicit reply to modification or write protocol will include an explicit reply to modification or write
operations even when they fully succeed. operations even when they fully succeed.
8. Operational and Manageability Considerations 8. Operational and Manageability Considerations
In order to facilitate troubleshooting of routing elements In order to facilitate troubleshooting of routing elements
implementing I2RS agents, the routing elements should provide for a implementing I2RS agents, the routing elements should provide for a
mechanism to show actively provisioned I2RS state and other I2RS mechanism to show actively provisioned I2RS state and other I2RS
Agent internal information. Note that this information may contain agent internal information. Note that this information may contain
highly sensitive material subject to the Security Considerations of highly sensitive material subject to the Security Considerations of
any data models implemented by that Agent and thus must be protected any data models implemented by that agent and thus must be protected
according to those considerations. Preferably, this mechanism should according to those considerations. Preferably, this mechanism should
use a different privileged means other than simply connecting as an use a different privileged means other than simply connecting as an
I2RS client to learn the data. Using a different mechanism should I2RS client to learn the data. Using a different mechanism should
improve traceability and failure management. improve traceability and failure management.
Manageability plays a key aspect in I2RS. Some initial examples Manageability plays a key aspect in I2RS. Some initial examples
include: include:
Resource Limitations: Using I2RS, applications can consume Resource Limitations: Using I2RS, applications can consume
resources, whether those be operations in a time-frame, entries in resources, whether those be operations in a time-frame, entries in
the RIB, stored operations to be triggered, etc. The ability to the RIB, stored operations to be triggered, etc. The ability to
set resource limits based upon authorization is important. set resource limits based upon authorization is important.
Configuration Interactions: The interaction of state installed via Configuration Interactions: The interaction of state installed via
the I2RS and via a router's configuration needs to be clearly the I2RS and via a router's configuration needs to be clearly
defined. As described in this architecture, a simple priority defined. As described in this architecture, a simple priority
that is configured is used to provide sufficient policy that is configured is used to provide sufficient policy
flexibility. flexibility.
Traceability of Interactions: The ability to trace the interactions Traceability of Interactions: The ability to trace the interactions
of the requests received by the I2RS Agent's and actions taken by of the requests received by the I2RS agent's and actions taken by
the I2RS agents is needed so that operations can monitor I2RS the I2RS agents is needed so that operations can monitor I2RS
Agents during deployment, and troubleshoot software or network agents during deployment, and troubleshoot software or network
problems. problems.
Notification Subscription Service: The ability for an I2RS Client to Notification Subscription Service: The ability for an I2RS client to
subscribe to a notification stream pushed from the I2RS Agent subscribe to a notification stream pushed from the I2RS agent
(rather than having I2RS client poll the I2RS agent) provides a (rather than having I2RS client poll the I2RS agent) provides a
more scalable notification handling for the I2RS Agent-Client more scalable notification handling for the I2RS agent-client
interactions. interactions.
9. IANA Considerations 9. IANA Considerations
This document includes no request to IANA. This document includes no request to IANA.
10. Acknowledgements 10. Acknowledgements
Significant portions of this draft came from draft-ward-i2rs- Significant portions of this draft came from draft-ward-i2rs-
framework-00 and draft-atlas-i2rs-policy-framework-00. framework-00 and draft-atlas-i2rs-policy-framework-00.
The authors would like to thank Nitin Bahadur, Shane Amante, Ed The authors would like to thank Nitin Bahadur, Shane Amante, Ed
Crabbe, Ken Gray, Carlos Pignataro, Wes George, Ron Bonica, Joe Crabbe, Ken Gray, Carlos Pignataro, Wes George, Ron Bonica, Joe
Clarke, Juergen Schoenwalder, Jeff Haas, Jamal Hadi Salim, Scott Clarke, Juergen Schoenwalder, Jeff Haas, Jamal Hadi Salim, Scott
Brim, Thomas Narten, Dean Bogdanovic, Tom Petch, Robert Raszuk, Brim, Thomas Narten, Dean Bogdanovic, Tom Petch, Robert Raszuk,
Sriganesh Kini, John Mattsson, Nancy Cam-Winget, DaCheng Zhang, Qin Sriganesh Kini, John Mattsson, Nancy Cam-Winget, DaCheng Zhang, Qin
Wu, Ahmed Abro, Salman Asadullah, Eric Yu, and Deborah Brungard for Wu, Ahmed Abro, Salman Asadullah, Eric Yu, Deborah Brungard, Russ
their suggestions and review. Housley, Russ White, Charlie Kaufman, Benoit Claise, Spencer Dawkins,
and Stephen Farrell for their suggestions and review.
11. Informative References 11. References
11.1. Normative References
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-problem-statement] [I-D.ietf-i2rs-problem-statement]
Atlas, A., Nadeau, T., and D. Ward, "Interface to the Atlas, A., Nadeau, T., and D. Ward, "Interface to the
Routing System Problem Statement", draft-ietf-i2rs- Routing System Problem Statement", draft-ietf-i2rs-
problem-statement-10 (work in progress), February 2016. problem-statement-10 (work in progress), February 2016.
[I-D.ietf-idr-ls-distribution] 11.2. Informative References
Gredler, H., Medved, J., Previdi, S., Farrel, A., and S.
Ray, "North-Bound Distribution of Link-State and TE [I-D.ietf-i2rs-protocol-security-requirements]
Information using BGP", draft-ietf-idr-ls-distribution-13 Hares, S., Migault, D., and J. Halpern, "I2RS Security
(work in progress), October 2015. Related Requirements", draft-ietf-i2rs-protocol-security-
requirements-03 (work in progress), March 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-security-environment-reqs]
Migault, D., Halpern, J., and S. Hares, "I2RS Environment
Security Requirements", draft-ietf-i2rs-security-
environment-reqs-01 (work in progress), April 2016.
[I-D.ietf-netconf-restconf] [I-D.ietf-netconf-restconf]
Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
Protocol", draft-ietf-netconf-restconf-09 (work in Protocol", draft-ietf-netconf-restconf-12 (work in
progress), December 2015. progress), April 2016.
[I-D.ietf-netmod-rfc6020bis] [I-D.ietf-netmod-rfc6020bis]
Bjorklund, M., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language", Bjorklund, M., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
draft-ietf-netmod-rfc6020bis-11 (work in progress), draft-ietf-netmod-rfc6020bis-11 (work in progress),
February 2016. February 2016.
[RFC6020] Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.
[RFC6241] Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed., [RFC6241] Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
(NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011, (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.
[RFC6536] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration [RFC6536] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
Protocol (NETCONF) Access Control Model", RFC 6536, Protocol (NETCONF) Access Control Model", RFC 6536,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6536, March 2012, DOI 10.17487/RFC6536, March 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6536>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6536>.
skipping to change at page 33, line 40 skipping to change at page 38, line 45
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7224>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7224>.
[RFC7277] Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for IP Management", [RFC7277] Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for IP Management",
RFC 7277, DOI 10.17487/RFC7277, June 2014, RFC 7277, DOI 10.17487/RFC7277, June 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7277>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7277>.
[RFC7317] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "A YANG Data Model for [RFC7317] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "A YANG Data Model for
System Management", RFC 7317, DOI 10.17487/RFC7317, August System Management", RFC 7317, DOI 10.17487/RFC7317, August
2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7317>. 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7317>.
[RFC7752] Gredler, H., Ed., Medved, J., Previdi, S., Farrel, A., and
S. Ray, "North-Bound Distribution of Link-State and
Traffic Engineering (TE) Information Using BGP", RFC 7752,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7752, March 2016,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7752>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Alia Atlas Alia Atlas
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
10 Technology Park Drive 10 Technology Park Drive
Westford, MA 01886 Westford, MA 01886
USA USA
Email: akatlas@juniper.net Email: akatlas@juniper.net
Joel Halpern Joel Halpern
Ericsson Ericsson
Email: Joel.Halpern@ericsson.com Email: Joel.Halpern@ericsson.com
Susan Hares Susan Hares
Huawei Huawei
Email: shares@ndzh.com Email: shares@ndzh.com
 End of changes. 127 change blocks. 
280 lines changed or deleted 481 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.45. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/