draft-ietf-idnabis-protocol-17.txt   draft-ietf-idnabis-protocol-18.txt 
Network Working Group J. Klensin Network Working Group J. Klensin
Internet-Draft October 25, 2009 Internet-Draft January 6, 2010
Obsoletes: 3490, 3491 Obsoletes: 3490, 3491
(if approved) (if approved)
Updates: 3492 (if approved) Updates: 3492 (if approved)
Intended status: Standards Track Intended status: Standards Track
Expires: April 28, 2010 Expires: July 10, 2010
Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol
draft-ietf-idnabis-protocol-17.txt draft-ietf-idnabis-protocol-18.txt
Abstract
This document is the revised protocol definition for
internationalized domain names (IDNs). The rationale for changes,
the relationship to the older specification, and important
terminology are provided in other documents. This document specifies
the protocol mechanism, called Internationalized Domain Names in
Applications (IDNA), for registering and looking up IDNs in a way
that does not require changes to the DNS itself. IDNA is only meant
for processing domain names, not free text.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. This document may contain material provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly
available before November 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the
copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF
Trust the right to allow modifications of such material outside the
IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from
the person(s) controlling the copyright in such materials, this
document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and
derivative works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards
Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to
translate it into languages other than English.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Abstract include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the BSD License.
This document is the revised protocol definition for This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
internationalized domain names (IDNs). The rationale for changes, Contributions published or made publicly available before November
the relationship to the older specification, and important 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
terminology are provided in other documents. This document specifies material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
the protocol mechanism, called Internationalized Domain Names in modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
Applications (IDNA), for registering and looking up IDNs in a way Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
that does not require changes to the DNS itself. IDNA is only meant the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
for processing domain names, not free text. outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
than English.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Discussion Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Discussion Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Requirements and Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Requirements and Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2.1. DNS Resource Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2.1. DNS Resource Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2.2. Non-domain-name Data Types Stored in the DNS . . . . . 7 3.2.2. Non-domain-name Data Types Stored in the DNS . . . . . 6
4. Registration Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. Registration Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. Input to IDNA Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. Input to IDNA Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2. Permitted Character and Label Validation . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. Permitted Character and Label Validation . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2.1. Input Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2.1. Input Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2.2. Rejection of Characters that are not Permitted . . . . 9 4.2.2. Rejection of Characters that are not Permitted . . . . 8
4.2.3. Label Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2.3. Label Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2.4. Registration Validation Requirements . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2.4. Registration Validation Requirements . . . . . . . . . 9
4.3. Registry Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3. Registry Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.4. Punycode Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.4. Punycode Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.5. Insertion in the Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.5. Insertion in the Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Domain Name Lookup Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. Domain Name Lookup Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1. Label String Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.1. Label String Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2. Conversion to Unicode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2. Conversion to Unicode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.3. A-label Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.3. A-label Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.4. Validation and Character List Testing . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.4. Validation and Character List Testing . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.5. Punycode Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.5. Punycode Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.6. DNS Name Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.6. DNS Name Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Appendix A. Summary of Major Changes from IDNA2003 . . . . . . . 18 Appendix A. Summary of Major Changes from IDNA2003 . . . . . . . 16
Appendix B. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Appendix B. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
B.1. Changes between Version -00 and -01 of B.1. Changes between Version -00 and -01 of
draft-ietf-idnabis-protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 draft-ietf-idnabis-protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
B.2. Version -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B.2. Version -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
B.3. Version -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B.3. Version -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
B.4. Version -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B.4. Version -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
B.5. Version -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B.5. Version -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
B.6. Version -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 B.6. Version -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
B.7. Version -07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 B.7. Version -07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
B.8. Version -08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 B.8. Version -08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
B.9. Version -09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 B.9. Version -09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
B.10. Version -10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 B.10. Version -10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
B.11. Version -11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 B.11. Version -11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
B.12. Version -12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 B.12. Version -12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
B.13. Version -13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 B.13. Version -13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
B.14. Version -14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 B.14. Version -14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
B.15. Version -15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 B.15. Version -15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
B.16. Version -16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 B.16. Version -16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
B.17. Version -17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 B.17. Version -17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 B.18. Version -18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document supplies the protocol definition for internationalized This document supplies the protocol definition for internationalized
domain names. Essential definitions and terminology for domain names. Essential definitions and terminology for
understanding this document and a road map of the collection of understanding this document and a road map of the collection of
documents that make up IDNA2008 appear in [IDNA2008-Defs]. documents that make up IDNA2008 appear in [IDNA2008-Defs].
Appendix A discusses the relationship between this specification and Appendix A discusses the relationship between this specification and
the earlier version of IDNA (referred to here as "IDNA2003"). The the earlier version of IDNA (referred to here as "IDNA2003"). The
rationale for these changes, along with considerable explanatory rationale for these changes, along with considerable explanatory
skipping to change at page 6, line 25 skipping to change at page 6, line 25
ASCII characters (i.e., its labels must be either A-labels or NR- ASCII characters (i.e., its labels must be either A-labels or NR-
LDH-labels), unless the DNS application is not subject to LDH-labels), unless the DNS application is not subject to
historical recommendations for "hostname"-style names (see historical recommendations for "hostname"-style names (see
[RFC1034] and Section 3.2.1). [RFC1034] and Section 3.2.1).
2. Labels MUST be compared using equivalent forms: either both 2. Labels MUST be compared using equivalent forms: either both
A-Label forms or both U-Label forms. Because A-labels and A-Label forms or both U-Label forms. Because A-labels and
U-labels can be transformed into each other without loss of U-labels can be transformed into each other without loss of
information, these comparisons are equivalent. A pair of information, these comparisons are equivalent. A pair of
A-labels MUST be compared as case-insensitive ASCII (as with all A-labels MUST be compared as case-insensitive ASCII (as with all
comparisons of ASCII DNS labels). U-labels must be compared comparisons of ASCII DNS labels). U-labels MUST be compared
as-is, without case-folding or other intermediate steps. Note as-is, without case-folding or other intermediate steps. Note
that it is not necessary to validate labels in order to compare that it is not necessary to validate labels in order to compare
them and that successful comparison does not imply validity. In them and that successful comparison does not imply validity. In
many cases, not limited to comparison, validation may be many cases, not limited to comparison, validation may be
important for other reasons and SHOULD be performed. important for other reasons and SHOULD be performed.
3. Labels being registered MUST conform to the requirements of 3. Labels being registered MUST conform to the requirements of
Section 4. Labels being looked up and the lookup process MUST Section 4. Labels being looked up and the lookup process MUST
conform to the requirements of Section 5. conform to the requirements of Section 5.
skipping to change at page 9, line 6 skipping to change at page 9, line 6
not performed, the registry MUST still verify that the A-label is not performed, the registry MUST still verify that the A-label is
superficially valid, i.e., that it does not violate any of the rules superficially valid, i.e., that it does not violate any of the rules
of Punycode [RFC3492] encoding such as the prohibition on trailing of Punycode [RFC3492] encoding such as the prohibition on trailing
hyphen-minus, appearance of non-basic characters before the hyphen-minus, appearance of non-basic characters before the
delimiter, and so on. Strings that appear to be A-labels (e.g., they delimiter, and so on. Strings that appear to be A-labels (e.g., they
start with "xn--") and strings that are supplied to the registry in a start with "xn--") and strings that are supplied to the registry in a
context (such as a field in a form to be filled out) reserved for context (such as a field in a form to be filled out) reserved for
A-labels, but that are not valid A-labels as described in this A-labels, but that are not valid A-labels as described in this
paragraph, MUST NOT be placed in DNS zones that support IDNA. paragraph, MUST NOT be placed in DNS zones that support IDNA.
If only an A-label is provided, the conversion to a U-label is not
performed, and the superficial tests described in the previous
paragraph are performed, registration procedures MAY, and usually
will, bypass the tests and actions in the balance of Section 4.2 and
in Section 4.3 and Section 4.4.
4.2.2. Rejection of Characters that are not Permitted 4.2.2. Rejection of Characters that are not Permitted
The candidate Unicode string MUST NOT contain characters that appear The candidate Unicode string MUST NOT contain characters that appear
in the "DISALLOWED" and "UNASSIGNED" lists specified in in the "DISALLOWED" and "UNASSIGNED" lists specified in
[IDNA2008-Tables]. [IDNA2008-Tables].
4.2.3. Label Validation 4.2.3. Label Validation
The proposed label (in the form of a Unicode string, i.e., a string The proposed label (in the form of a Unicode string, i.e., a string
that at least superficially appears to be a U-label) is then that at least superficially appears to be a U-label) is then
skipping to change at page 9, line 37 skipping to change at page 9, line 43
The Unicode string MUST NOT begin with a combining mark or combining The Unicode string MUST NOT begin with a combining mark or combining
character (see The Unicode Standard, Section 2.11 [Unicode] for an character (see The Unicode Standard, Section 2.11 [Unicode] for an
exact definition). exact definition).
4.2.3.3. Contextual Rules 4.2.3.3. Contextual Rules
The Unicode string MUST NOT contain any characters whose validity is The Unicode string MUST NOT contain any characters whose validity is
context-dependent, unless the validity is positively confirmed by a context-dependent, unless the validity is positively confirmed by a
contextual rule. To check this, each code-point marked as CONTEXTJ contextual rule. To check this, each code-point marked as CONTEXTJ
and CONTEXTO in [IDNA2008-Tables] MUST have a non-null rule. If such or CONTEXTO in [IDNA2008-Tables] MUST have a non-null rule. If such
a code-point is missing a rule, it is invalid. If the rule exists a code-point is missing a rule, it is invalid. If the rule exists
but the result of applying the rule is negative or inconclusive, the but the result of applying the rule is negative or inconclusive, the
proposed label is invalid. proposed label is invalid.
4.2.3.4. Labels Containing Characters Written Right to Left 4.2.3.4. Labels Containing Characters Written Right to Left
If the proposed label contains any characters that are written from If the proposed label contains any characters that are written from
right to left it MUST meet the BIDI criteria [IDNA2008-BIDI]. right to left it MUST meet the BIDI criteria [IDNA2008-BIDI].
4.2.4. Registration Validation Requirements 4.2.4. Registration Validation Requirements
skipping to change at page 16, line 19 skipping to change at page 16, line 19
[RFC1123] Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application [RFC1123] Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application
and Support", STD 3, RFC 1123, October 1989. and Support", STD 3, RFC 1123, October 1989.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3492] Costello, A., "Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode [RFC3492] Costello, A., "Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode
for Internationalized Domain Names in Applications for Internationalized Domain Names in Applications
(IDNA)", RFC 3492, March 2003. (IDNA)", RFC 3492, March 2003.
[Unicode-PropertyValueAliases]
The Unicode Consortium, "Unicode Character Database:
PropertyValueAliases", March 2008, <http://
www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/PropertyValueAliases.txt>.
[Unicode-RegEx]
The Unicode Consortium, "Unicode Technical Standard #18:
Unicode Regular Expressions", May 2005,
<http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr18/>.
[Unicode-Scripts]
The Unicode Consortium, "Unicode Standard Annex #24:
Unicode Script Property", February 2008,
<http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr24/>.
[Unicode-UAX15] [Unicode-UAX15]
The Unicode Consortium, "Unicode Standard Annex #15: The Unicode Consortium, "Unicode Standard Annex #15:
Unicode Normalization Forms", 2006, Unicode Normalization Forms", 2006,
<http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/>. <http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/>.
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[ASCII] American National Standards Institute (formerly United [ASCII] American National Standards Institute (formerly United
States of America Standards Institute), "USA Code for States of America Standards Institute), "USA Code for
Information Interchange", ANSI X3.4-1968, 1968. Information Interchange", ANSI X3.4-1968, 1968.
skipping to change at page 17, line 12 skipping to change at page 16, line 45
Resnick, P. and P. Hoffman, "Mapping Characters in IDNA", Resnick, P. and P. Hoffman, "Mapping Characters in IDNA",
September 2009, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/ September 2009, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/
draft-ietf-idnabis-mapping/>. draft-ietf-idnabis-mapping/>.
[IDNA2008-Rationale] [IDNA2008-Rationale]
Klensin, J., Ed., "Internationalized Domain Names for Klensin, J., Ed., "Internationalized Domain Names for
Applications (IDNA): Issues, Explanation, and Rationale", Applications (IDNA): Issues, Explanation, and Rationale",
February 2009, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/ February 2009, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/
draft-ietf-idnabis-rationale>. draft-ietf-idnabis-rationale>.
[RFC2136] Vixie, P., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound,
"Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)",
RFC 2136, April 1997.
[RFC2181] Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS [RFC2181] Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS
Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997. Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997.
[RFC2671] Vixie, P., "Extension Mechanisms for DNS (EDNS0)", [RFC2671] Vixie, P., "Extension Mechanisms for DNS (EDNS0)",
RFC 2671, August 1999. RFC 2671, August 1999.
[RFC3490] Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello, [RFC3490] Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello,
"Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)", "Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)",
RFC 3490, March 2003. RFC 3490, March 2003.
skipping to change at page 17, line 47 skipping to change at page 17, line 28
[RFC4690] Klensin, J., Faltstrom, P., Karp, C., and IAB, "Review and [RFC4690] Klensin, J., Faltstrom, P., Karp, C., and IAB, "Review and
Recommendations for Internationalized Domain Names Recommendations for Internationalized Domain Names
(IDNs)", RFC 4690, September 2006. (IDNs)", RFC 4690, September 2006.
[RFC4952] Klensin, J. and Y. Ko, "Overview and Framework for [RFC4952] Klensin, J. and Y. Ko, "Overview and Framework for
Internationalized Email", RFC 4952, July 2007. Internationalized Email", RFC 4952, July 2007.
[Unicode] The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard, Version [Unicode] The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard, Version
5.0", 2007. 5.0", 2007.
Boston, MA, USA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-321-48091-0 Boston, MA, USA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-321-48091-0.
This printed reference has now been updated online to
reflect additional codepoints. For codepoints, the
reference at the time this document was published is to
Unicode 5.2.
Appendix A. Summary of Major Changes from IDNA2003 Appendix A. Summary of Major Changes from IDNA2003
1. Update base character set from Unicode 3.2 to Unicode version- 1. Update base character set from Unicode 3.2 to Unicode version-
agnostic. agnostic.
2. Separate the definitions for the "registration" and "lookup" 2. Separate the definitions for the "registration" and "lookup"
activities. activities.
3. Disallow symbol and punctuation characters except where special 3. Disallow symbol and punctuation characters except where special
skipping to change at page 24, line 39 skipping to change at page 24, line 19
reflecting the change removing the 63 octet limit on U-labels. reflecting the change removing the 63 octet limit on U-labels.
(Dan Winship review, 20091013) (Dan Winship review, 20091013)
o Another patch to the case-sensitivity of A-labels. (James o Another patch to the case-sensitivity of A-labels. (James
Mitchell, 20091014) Mitchell, 20091014)
o Added text to 3.2 to explicitly indicate that IDNA-aware o Added text to 3.2 to explicitly indicate that IDNA-aware
applications may choose to accept A-labels, U-labels, or both. applications may choose to accept A-labels, U-labels, or both.
(Peter Saint-Andre, 20091019) (Peter Saint-Andre, 20091019)
B.18. Version -18
Changes made in response to IESG post-Last-Call review.
o Several typographical and reference fixes.
o Added new paragraph to the end of Section 4.2.1 to clarify the
relationship among the "no U-label" option and the rest of Section
4.
Author's Address Author's Address
John C Klensin John C Klensin
1770 Massachusetts Ave, Ste 322 1770 Massachusetts Ave, Ste 322
Cambridge, MA 02140 Cambridge, MA 02140
USA USA
Phone: +1 617 245 1457 Phone: +1 617 245 1457
Email: john+ietf@jck.com Email: john+ietf@jck.com
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