INTERNET-DRAFT
         draft-ietf-ipp-model-06.txt
         draft-ietf-ipp-model-07.txt
                                                                       R. deBry
                                                                IBM Corporation
                                                                    T. Hastings
                                                              Xerox Corporation
                                                                     R. Herriot
                                                               Sun Microsystems
                                                                    S. Isaacson
                                                                   Novell, Inc.
                                                                      P. Powell
                                                     San Diego State University
                                                               October 14,
                                                               November 7, 1997

                  Internet Printing Protocol/1.0: Model and Semantics
            Copyright (C) The Internet Society (date). All Rights Reserved.

         Status of this Memo

         This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
         documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
         and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
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         Abstract

         This document is one of a set of documents, which together describe
         all aspects of a new Internet Printing Protocol (IPP).  IPP is an
         application level protocol that can be used for distributed printing
         using Internet tools and technology. technologies.  The protocol is heavily
         influenced by the printing model introduced in the Document Printing
         Application (DPA) [ISO10175] standard.  Although DPA specifies both
         end user and administrative features, IPP version 1.0 is focused (IPP/1.0)
         focuses only on end user functionality.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         The full set of IPP documents includes:

           Requirements for an Internet Printing Protocol [IPP-REQ]
           Internet Printing Protocol/1.0: Model and Semantics (this document)
           Internet Printing Protocol/1.0: Protocol Specification [IPP-PRO]
           Rationale for the Structure and Model and Protocol for the Internet
              Printing Protocol [IPP-RAT]

         The requirements document, "Requirements ''Requirements for an Internet Printing
         Protocol",
         Protocol'', takes a broad look at distributed printing functionality,
         and it enumerates real-life scenarios that help to clarify the
         features that need to be included in a printing protocol for the
         Internet.  It identifies requirements for three types of users: end
         users, operators, and administrators.  The requirements document calls
         out a subset of end user requirements that MUST be satisfied in the
         first version of IPP.
         IPP/1.0.  Operator and administrator requirements are out of scope for v1.0.
         version 1.0. This document, "Internet ''Internet Printing Protocol/1.0: Model and Semantics",
         Semantics'', describes a simplified model with abstract objects, their
         attributes, and their operations.  The model introduces a Printer object and
         a Job object. Job.  The Job object supports multiple documents per job. Job.  The model
         document also addresses how security, internationalization, and
         directory issues are addressed.  The protocol specification, " ''
         Internet Printing Protocol/1.0: Protocol
         Specification", Specification'', is a formal
         mapping of the abstract operations and attributes defined in the model
         document onto HTTP/1.1.  The protocol specification defines the
         encoding rules for a new Internet media type called "application/ipp". ''application/ipp''.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
                                   Table of Contents

         1.  Simplified Printing Model .......................................8 ......................................8
         2.  IPP Objects ....................................................10 ...................................................10
         2.1  Printer Object................................................10 Object................................................11
         2.2  Job Object....................................................13 Object....................................................12
         2.3  Object Relationships..........................................14 Relationships..........................................13
         2.4  Object Identity...............................................14
         3.  IPP Operations .................................................15 ................................................15
         3.1  General Semantics.............................................16
         3.1.1     Operation Characteristics................................16
         3.1.2     Operation Targets........................................18
         3.1.3     Character Set and Natural Language Operation Attributes..19
         3.1.3.1     Request Operation Attributes ..........................19
         3.1.3.2     Response Operation Attributes .........................20 .........................22
         3.1.4     Operation Status Codes and Messages......................21 Messages......................23
         3.1.5     Security Concerns for IPP Operations.....................22 Operations.....................23
         3.1.5.1     Authenticated Requester Identity ......................22 ......................23
         3.1.5.2     The "requesting-user-name" Operation Attribute ........24
         3.1.5.3     Restricted Queries ....................................23 ....................................25
         3.1.6     Versions.................................................23     Versions.................................................25
         3.1.7     Job Creation Operations..................................24 Operations..................................26
         3.2  Printer Operations............................................26 Operations............................................28
         3.2.1     Print-Job Operation......................................26 Operation......................................29
         3.2.1.1     Print-Job Request .....................................26 .....................................29
         3.2.1.2     Print-Job Response ....................................28 ....................................31
         3.2.2     Print-URI Operation......................................30 Operation......................................34
         3.2.3     Validate-Job Operation...................................31 Operation...................................34
         3.2.4     Create-Job Operation.....................................31 Operation.....................................35
         3.2.5     Get-Attributes Operation.................................31 Operation (for Printer objects)...........35
         3.2.5.1     Get-Attributes Request ................................32 ................................36
         3.2.5.2     Get-Attributes Response ...............................33 ...............................37
         3.2.6     Get-Jobs Operation.......................................34 Operation.......................................37
         3.2.6.1     Get-Jobs Request ......................................34 ......................................38
         3.2.6.2     Get-Jobs Response .....................................35 .....................................39
         3.3  Job Operations................................................36 Operations................................................40
         3.3.1     Send-Document Operation..................................37 Operation..................................41
         3.3.1.1     Send-Document Request .................................37 .................................42
         3.3.1.2     Send-Document Response ................................39 ................................43
         3.3.2     Send-URI Operation.......................................39 Operation.......................................43
         3.3.3     Cancel Job Operation.....................................39 Operation.....................................44
         3.3.3.1     Cancel-Job Request ....................................40 ....................................44
         3.3.3.2     Cancel-Job Response ...................................40 ...................................45
         3.3.4     Get-Attributes Operation.................................41 Operation (for Job objects)...............45
         3.3.4.1     Get-Attributes Request ................................41 ................................46
         3.3.4.2     Get-Attributes Response ...............................41 ...............................46
         4.  Object Attributes ..............................................42 .............................................47
         4.1  Attribute Syntaxes............................................42
         4.1.1     'text'...................................................43 Syntaxes............................................47

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         4.1.1     'text'...................................................48
         4.1.2     'name'...................................................44     'name'...................................................49
         4.1.3     'keyword'................................................44     'keyword'................................................50
         4.1.4     'enum'...................................................45     'enum'...................................................50
         4.1.5     'uri'....................................................45     'uri'....................................................51
         4.1.6     'uriScheme'..............................................45     'uriScheme'..............................................51
         4.1.7     'charSet'................................................46     'charset'................................................52
         4.1.8     'naturalLanguage'........................................46     'naturalLanguage'........................................52
         4.1.9     'mimeType'...............................................47     'mimeMediaType'..........................................53
         4.1.10    'octetString'............................................48    'octetString'............................................54
         4.1.11    'boolean'................................................48    'boolean'................................................54
         4.1.12    'integer'................................................48    'integer'................................................54
         4.1.13    'rangeOfInteger'.........................................48    'rangeOfInteger'.........................................54
         4.1.14    'dateTime'...............................................48    'dateTime'...............................................55
         4.1.15    'resolution'.............................................48    'resolution'.............................................55
         4.1.16    '1setOf  X'..............................................49  X'..............................................55
         4.2  Job Template Attributes.......................................49 Attributes.......................................56
         4.2.1     job-sheets (type4 keyword, name).........................53
         4.2.2     job-priority (integer(1:100))............................54
         4.2.3 (integer(1:100))............................59
         4.2.2     job-hold-until (type4 keyword, name).....................55 keyword | name)....................60
         4.2.3     job-sheets (type4 keyword | name)........................61
         4.2.4     multiple-document-handling (type2 keyword)...............56 keyword)...............61
         4.2.5     media (type4 keyword, name)..............................57     copies (integer(1:MAX))..................................63
         4.2.6     number-up (integer)......................................57     finishings (1setOf type2 enum)...........................63
         4.2.7     page-ranges (1setOf rangeOfInteger (1:MAX))..............64
         4.2.8     sides (type2 keyword)....................................58
         4.2.8     printer-resolution (resolution)..........................59 keyword)....................................65
         4.2.9     print-quality (type2 enum)...............................59     number-up (integer(0:MAX))...............................66
         4.2.10    finishings (1setOf type2 enum)...........................59    orientation (type2 enum).................................67
         4.2.11    copies (integer(1:2**31 - 1))............................60    media (type4 keyword | name).............................67
         4.2.12    page-ranges (1setOf rangeOfInteger)......................60    printer-resolution (resolution)..........................68
         4.2.13    orientation    print-quality (type2 enum).................................61 enum)...............................68
         4.2.14    document-format (mimeType)...............................61
         4.2.15    compression (type3 keyword)..............................62
         4.2.16 keyword)..............................69
         4.2.15    job-k-octets (integer(0:2**31 - 1))......................62
         4.2.17 (integer(0:MAX))............................69
         4.2.16    job-impressions (integer(0:2**31 - 1))...................62
         4.2.18 (integer(0:MAX)).........................70
         4.2.17    job-media-sheets (integer(0:2**31 - 1))..................63 (integer(0:MAX))........................70
         4.3  Job Description Attributes....................................63 Attributes....................................70
         4.3.1     job-uri (uri)............................................64 (uri)............................................73
         4.3.2     job-id (integer(1:MAX))..................................65 (integer(1:MAX))..................................73
         4.3.3     job-more-info (uri)......................................65 (uri)......................................73
         4.3.4     job-name (name)..........................................65 (name)..........................................73
         4.3.5     job-originating-user (octetString).......................65     job-originating-user-name (name).........................74
         4.3.6     job-state (type1 enum)...................................66 enum)...................................74
         4.3.7     job-state-reasons (1setOf  type2 keyword)................68 keyword)................77
         4.3.8     job-state-message (text).................................70 (text).................................79
         4.3.9     number-of-documents (integer(0:2**31 - 1))...............70 (integer(0:MAX)).....................80
         4.3.10    output-device-assigned (name)............................71    containing-printer-uri (uri).............................80
         4.3.11    time-of-creation (integer)...............................71    output-device-assigned (name)............................80
         4.3.12    time-at-processing (integer).............................71    time-at-creation (integer(0:MAX))........................80
         4.3.13    time-at-completed (integer)..............................71    time-at-processing (integer(0:MAX))......................80

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         4.3.14    number-of-intervening-jobs (integer(0:2**31 - 1))........71    time-at-completed (integer(0:MAX)).......................81
         4.3.15    job-message-from-operator (text).........................71    number-of-intervening-jobs (integer(0:MAX))..............81
         4.3.16    job-k-octets-processed (integer(0:2**31 - 1))............72    job-message-from-operator (text).........................81
         4.3.17    job-impressions-completed  (integer(0:2**31 - 1))........72    job-k-octets-processed (integer(0:MAX))..................81
         4.3.18    job-media-sheets-completed (integer(0:2**31 - 1))........72    job-impressions-completed  (integer(0:MAX))..............82
         4.3.19    attributes-charset (charSet).............................72    job-media-sheets-completed (integer(0:MAX))..............82
         4.3.20    attributes-charset (charset).............................82
         4.3.21    attributes-natural-language (naturalLanguage)............73 (naturalLanguage)............83
         4.4  Printer Description Attributes................................73 Attributes................................83
         4.4.1     printer-uri (uri)........................................75 (uri)........................................85
         4.4.2     printer-name (name)......................................75 (name)......................................85
         4.4.3     printer-location (text)..................................75 (text)..................................85
         4.4.4     printer-info (text)......................................75 (text)......................................85
         4.4.5     printer-more-info (uri)..................................75 (uri)..................................86
         4.4.6     printer-driver-installer (uri)...........................76 (uri)...........................86
         4.4.7     printer-make-and-model (text)............................76 (text)............................86
         4.4.8     printer-more-info-manufacturer (uri).....................76 (uri).....................86
         4.4.9     printer-state (type1 enum)...............................76 enum)...............................86
         4.4.10    printer-state-reasons (1setOf type2 keyword).............77 keyword).............88
         4.4.11    printer-state-message (text).............................80 (text).............................90
         4.4.12    operations-supported (1setOf operation)..................80 type2 enum).................90
         4.4.13    printer-charset (charSet)................................81    charset (charset)........................................91
         4.4.14    charsets-supported    charset-supported (1setOf charSet)......................81 charset).......................91
         4.4.15    printer-natural-language (naturalLanguage)...............81    natural-language (naturalLanguage).......................92
         4.4.16    natural-languages-supported    natural-language-supported (1setOf naturalLanguage).....81 naturalLanguage)......92
         4.4.17    printer-is-accepting-jobs (boolean)......................82    document-format (mimeMediaType)..........................93
         4.4.18    queued-job-count (integer(0:2**31 - 1))..................82    document format-supported (1setOf mimeMediaType).........93
         4.4.19    printer-message-from-operator (text).....................82    printer-is-accepting-jobs (boolean)......................93
         4.4.20    color-supported (boolean)................................82    queued-job-count (integer(0:MAX))........................93
         4.4.21    reference-uri-schemes-supported (1setOf uriScheme).......83    printer-message-from-operator (text).....................93
         4.4.22    pdl-override (type2 keyword).............................83    color-supported (boolean)................................94
         4.4.23    security-mechanisms-supported    reference-uri-schemes-supported (1setOf keyword)...........83 uriScheme).......94
         4.4.24    printer-up-time (integer(1:MAX)).........................84    pdl-override (type2 keyword).............................94
         4.4.25    printer-current-time (dateTime)..........................84    printer-up-time (integer(1:MAX)).........................95
         4.4.26    printer-current-time (dateTime)..........................95
         4.4.27    multiple-operation-time-out (integer)....................84 (integer(1:MAX)).............95
         5.  Conformance ....................................................84 ...................................................96
         5.1  Client Conformance Requirements...............................85 Requirements...............................96
         5.2  Printer  IPP Object Conformance Requirements.......................85 Requirements...........................97
         5.2.1     Objects..................................................86     Objects..................................................97
         5.2.2     Operations...............................................86     Operations...............................................97
         5.2.3     Attributes...............................................86     IPP Object Attributes....................................97
         5.2.4     Printer extensions.......................................87     Extensions...............................................98
         5.2.5     Attribute Syntaxes.......................................87 Syntaxes.......................................98
         5.3  charset and Natural Language Requirements.....................98
         5.4  Security Conformance Requirements.............................87 Requirements.............................99
         6.  IANA Considerations (registered and private extensions) ........87 .......99
         6.1  Typed Extensions..............................................88 Extensions..............................................99

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         6.2  Registration of MIME types/sub-types for document-formats.....89 document-formats....101
         6.3  Attribute Extensibility.......................................89 Extensibility......................................101
         6.4  Attribute Syntax Extensibility................................89

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 Extensibility...............................101
         7.  Internationalization Considerations ............................89 ..........................101
         8.  Security Considerations ........................................91 ......................................102
         8.1  Client and Printer in the Same Security Domain................92 Domain...............104
         8.2  Client and Printer in Different Security Domains..............92 Domains.............104
         8.3  Print by Reference............................................93 Reference...........................................104
         8.3.1     Unprotected Documents....................................93 Documents...................................104
         8.3.2     Protected Documents......................................93 Documents.....................................105
         8.4  Common Security Scenarios.....................................93 Scenarios....................................105
         8.4.1     No Security..............................................93 Security.............................................105
         8.4.2     Message Protection During Transmission...................94 Transmission..................105
         8.4.3     Client Authentication and Authorization..................94 Authorization.................106
         8.4.4     Mutual Authentication, Authorization and Message Protection
                   94
                        Protection.........................................106
         8.5  Recommended Security Mechanisms...............................94 Mechanisms..............................106
         9.  References .....................................................95
         10.Copyright ...................................................107
         10. Copyright Notice ...............................................99
         11.Author's .............................................110
         11. Author's Address ...............................................99
         12.APPENDIX .............................................110
         12. APPENDIX A: Terminology .......................................102 ......................................113
         12.1 Conformance Terminology......................................102 Terminology......................................113
         12.1.1    MUST....................................................102    MUST....................................................113
         12.1.2    MUST NOT................................................102 NOT................................................113
         12.1.3    SHOULD..................................................102    SHOULD..................................................113
         12.1.4    SHOULD NOT..............................................102 NOT..............................................113
         12.1.5    MAY.....................................................102    MAY.....................................................114
         12.1.6    NEED NOT................................................103 NOT................................................114
         12.2 Model Terminology............................................103 Terminology............................................114
         12.2.1    Keyword.................................................103    Keyword.................................................114
         12.2.2    Attributes..............................................103    Attributes..............................................114
         12.2.2.1    Attribute Name .......................................103 .......................................115
         12.2.2.2    Attribute Group Name .................................104 .................................115
         12.2.2.3    Attribute Value ......................................104 ......................................115
         12.2.2.4    Attribute Syntax .....................................104 .....................................115
         12.2.3    Supports................................................104    Supports................................................115
         12.2.4    print-stream page.......................................106 page.......................................117
         12.2.5    imposed page............................................106
         13.APPENDIX    impression..............................................118
         13. APPENDIX B:  Status Codes .....................................106 and Suggested Status Code Messages .118
         13.1 Status Codes.................................................107 Codes.................................................119
         13.1.1    Informational...........................................107    Informational...........................................119
         13.1.2    Successful Status Codes.................................107 Codes.................................119
         13.1.2.1    successful-ok (0x0000) ...............................107 ...............................119
         13.1.2.2    successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-attributes    successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-
                          attributes (0x0001)
                     108 .............................120
         13.1.2.3    successful-ok-conflicting-attributes (0x0002) ........120
         13.1.3    Redirection Status Codes................................108 Codes................................120
         13.1.4    Client Error Status Codes...............................108 Codes...............................120

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         13.1.4.1    client-error-bad-request (0x0400) ....................108 ....................120
         13.1.4.2    client-error-forbidden (0x0401) ......................108 ......................120
         13.1.4.3    client-error-not-authenticated (0x0402) ..............108 ..............121
         13.1.4.4    client-error-not-authorized (0x0403) .................109

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 .................121
         13.1.4.5    client-error-not-possible (0x0404) ...................109 ...................121
         13.1.4.6    client-error-timeout (0x0405) ........................109 ........................121
         13.1.4.7    client-error-not-found (0x0406) ......................109 ......................122
         13.1.4.8    client-error-gone (0x0407) ...........................110 ...........................122
         13.1.4.9    client-error-request-entity-too-large (0x0408) .......110 .......122
         13.1.4.10   client-error-request-URI-too-long   client-error-request-uri-too-long (0x0409) ...........110 ...........123
         13.1.4.11   client-error-unsupported-document-format   client-error-document-format-not-supported (0x040A) ....110 ..123
         13.1.4.12   client-error-attribute-not-supported (0x040B) ........111 ........123
         13.1.4.13   client-error-uri-scheme-not-supported (0x040C) .......111 .......124
         13.1.4.14   client-error-charset-not-supported (0x040D) ..........111 ..........124
         13.1.4.15   client-error-natural-language-not-supported   client-error-conflicting-attributes (0x040E) .111 .........124
         13.1.5    Server Error Status Codes...............................111 Codes...............................124
         13.1.5.1    server-error-internal- error    server-error-internal-error (0x0500) ................112 .................124
         13.1.5.2    server-error-operation-not-supported (0x0501) ........112 ........124
         13.1.5.3    server-error-service-unavailable (0x0502) ............112 ............125
         13.1.5.4    server-error-version-not-supported (0x0503) ..........112 ..........125
         13.1.5.5    server-error-device-error (0x0504) ...................112 ...................125
         13.1.5.6    server-error-temporary-error (0x0505) ................113 ................126
         13.2 Status Codes for IPP Operations..............................114
         14.APPENDIX Operations..............................127
         14. APPENDIX C:  "media" keyword values ...........................114
         15.APPENDIX ..........................127
         15. APPENDIX D: Processing IPP Attributes .........................119 ........................132
         15.1 Fidelity.....................................................119 Fidelity.....................................................133
         15.2 Page Description Language (PDL) Override.....................121 Override.....................134
         15.3 Suggested Operation Processing Algorithm.....................122 Algorithm for Create and
                   Validate-Job operations.................................136
         15.4 Using Job Template Attributes During Document Processing.....126
         16.APPENDIX Processing.....141
         16. APPENDIX E: Generic Directory Schema ..........................127 .........................143

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         1. Simplified Printing Model

         In order to achieve its goal of realizing a workable printing protocol
         for the Internet, the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) is based on a
         simplified printing model that abstracts the many components of real
         world printing solutions.  The Internet is a distributed computing
         environment where requesters of print services (clients, applications,
         printer drivers, etc.) cooperate and interact with print service
         providers.  This model and semantics document describes a simple,
         abstract model for IPP even though the underlying configurations may
         be complex "n-tier" client/server systems.  An important simplifying
         step in the IPP model is to expose only the key objects and interfaces
         required for printing.  The model described in this model document
         does not include features, interfaces, and relationships that are
         beyond the scope of IPP/1.0. the first version of IPP (IPP/1.0).  IPP/1.0
         incorporates many of the relevant ideas and lessons learned from other
         specification and development efforts [HTPP] [ISO10175] [LDPA]
         [P1387.4] [PSIS] [RFC1179] [SWP].

         The IPP IPP/1.0 model encapsulates the important components of distributed
         printing into two object types:

           - Printer (Section 2.1)
           - Job (Section 2.2)

         Each object type has an associated set of operations (see section 3)
         and attributes (see section 4).

         The terminology used in the remainder of this document is defined in
         (section 12).
         section 12.  In the remainder of this document, terms such as
         "attributes", "keywords", and "supports" "support" have special meaning and are
         defined in the model terminology section. Capitalized terms such as
         MANDATORY, SHALL, and OPTIONAL have special meaning relating to
         conformance.  These terms are defined in the section on conformance
         terminology, most of which is taken from RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

         It is important, however, to understand that in real system
         implementations (which lie underneath the abstracted IPP IPP/1.0 model),
         there are other components of a print service which are not explicitly
         defined in the IPP IPP/1.0 model. The following figure illustrates where IPP
         IPP/1.0 fits with respect to these other components.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
                                      +--------------+
                                      |  Application |
                            o         +. . . . . . . |
                           \|/        |   Spooler    |
                           / \        +. . . . . . . |   +---------+
                         End-User     | Print Driver |---|  File   |
               +-----------+ +-----+  +------+-------+   +----+----+
               |  Browser  | | GUI |         |                |
               +-----+-----+ +--+--+         |                |
                     |          |            |                |
                     |      +---+------------+---+            |
         N   D   S   |      |      IPP Client    |------------+
         O   I   E   |      +---------+----------+
         T   R   C   |                |
         I   E   U   |
         F   C   R   -------------- Transport ------------------
         I   T   I
         C   O   T                    |         --+
         A   R   Y           +--------+--------+  |
         T   Y               |    IPP Server   |  |
         I                   +--------+--------+  |
         O                            |           |
         N                   +-----------------+  | IPP Printer
                             |  Print Service  |  |
                             +-----------------+  |
                                      |         --+
                             +-----------------+
                             | Output Device(s)|
                             +-----------------+

         An IPP Printer object encapsulates the functions normally associated
         with physical output devices along with the spooling, scheduling and
         multiple device management functions often associated with a print
         server. IPP Printers Printer objects are optionally registered as entries in a
         directory where end users find and select them based on some sort of
         filtered and context based searching mechanism. mechanism (see section 16).  The
         directory is used to store relatively static information about the
         Printer, allowing end users to search for and find Printers that match
         their search criteria, for example: name, context, printer
         capabilities, etc. (see
         section 16). etc..  The more dynamic information is directly
         associated with the IPP Printer itself. object itself (as compared to the entry in
         the directory which only represents the Printer object).  This more
         dynamic information includes state, currently loaded and ready media,
         number of jobs at the Printer, errors, warnings, and so forth.

         IPP Clients clients implement the IPP protocol on the client side, and give
         end users (or programs) programs running on behalf of end users) the ability to

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         query an IPP Printer objects and submit and manage print jobs.  An IPP server
         is just that part of the IPP

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 Printer object that implements the server-side server-
         side protocol.  The rest of the IPP Printer object implements (or gateways
         into) the application semantics of the print service itself.  The IPP
         Printer objects may be embedded in an output device or may be
         implemented on a host on the network that communicates with the output
         device.

         When a job is submitted to the Printer object and the Printer object
         validates the attributes in the submission request, the Printer object
         creates a new Job object.  The end user then interacts with this new
         Job object to query its status and monitor the progress of the job.
         End users may also cancel the print job by using the Job object's Cancel-
         Job
         Cancel-Job operation.  The notification service(s) are out of scope
         for IPP/1.0, but using such a notification service, the end user is
         able to register to for and receive certain
         events that are then routed Printer specific and Job specific
         events.  An end user can query the status of Printer objects and can
         follow the progress of Job objects by polling using the specified notification
         service(s). Get-Attributes
         and Get-Jobs operations.

         2. IPP Objects

         The IPP IPP/1.0 model introduces objects of type Printer and Job.  Each
         type of object models relevant aspects of a real-world entity such as
         a real printer or real print job.  Each object type is defined as a
         set of possible attributes that may be supported by instances of that
         object type.  For each object, object (instance), the actual set of supported
         attributes and values describe a specific implementation.  The
         object's attributes and values describe its state, capabilities,
         realizable features, job processing functions, and default behaviors
         and characteristics.  For example, the Printer object type Printer is defined
         as a set of attributes that each Printer object potentially supports.
         In the same manner, the Job object type Job is defined as a set of
         attributes that are potentially supported by each Job object.

         Each attribute included in the set of attributes defining an object
         type is labeled as:

           - "MANDATORY": each object SHALL support the attribute.
           - "OPTIONAL": each object OPTIONALLY supports the attribute.

         There is no such similar labeling of attribute values.  However, if an
         implementation supports an attribute, it MUST support at least one of
         the possible values for that attribute.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         2.1 Printer Object

         A major component of the IPP IPP/1.0 model is the Printer object (also called
         the IPP Printer). object.  A
         Printer object implements the IPP IPP/1.0 protocol.  Using the protocol,
         end users may query the attributes of the Printer object and submit Jobs
         print jobs to the Printer. Printer object.  The actual implementation
         components

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 behind the Printer abstraction may take on different forms
         and different configurations.  However, the model abstraction allows
         the details of the configuration of real components to remain opaque
         to the end user.  Section 3 describes each of the Printer operations
         in detail.

         The capabilities and state of a Printer object are described by its
         attributes.  Printer attributes are grouped divided into two groups:

           - "job-template" attributes: These attributes the describe supported
              job processing capabilities and defaults for the Printer object.
              (See section 4.2)
           - "printer-description" attributes:  These attributes describe the
              Printer object's identification, state, location, references to
              other sources of information about the Printer object, etc. (see
              section 4.4)
         Since a Printer object is an abstraction of a generic document output
         device and print service provider, a Printer object could be used to
         represent any real or virtual device with semantics consistent with
         the Printer object, such as a fax device, an imager, or even a CD
         writer.

         Some examples of configurations supporting a Printer object include:

           1) An output device, with no spooling capabilities
           2) An output device, with a built-in spooler
           3) A print server supporting IPP with one or more associated output
              devices
              3a) The associated output devices might or might not be capable
                of spooling jobs
              3b) The associated output devices might or might not support IPP

         The following figures show some examples of how Printer objects can be
         realized on top of various distributed printing configurations.  The
         embedded case below represents configurations 1 and 2. The hosted and
         fan-out figures below represent configuration 3.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         Legend:

         ##### indicates a Printer object which is
               either embedded in an output device or is
               hosted in a server.  The implementation Printer object
               might or might not be capable of queuing/spooling.

         any   indicates any network protocol or direct
               connect, including IPP

         embedded printer:
                                                   output device
                                                 +---------------+
          O   +--------+                         |  ###########  |
         /|\  | client |------------IPP------------># Printer #  |
         / \  +--------+                         |  # Object  #  |
                                                 |  ###########  |
                                                 +---------------+

         hosted printer:
                                                 +---------------+
          O   +--------+        ###########      |               |
         /|\  | client |--IPP--># Printer #-any->| output device |
         / \  +--------+        # Object  #      |               |
                                ###########      +---------------+

                                                  +---------------+
         fan out:                                 |               |
                                              +-->| output device |
                                          any/    |               |
          O   +--------+      ###########   /     +---------------+
         /|\  | client |-IPP-># Printer #--*
         / \  +--------+      # Object  #   \     +---------------+
                              ########### any\    |               |
                                              +-->| output device |
                                                  |               |
                                                  +---------------+

         A Printer object is identified with a Uniform Resource Identifier
         (URI) [RFC1630].  Often, the URI is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
         [RFC1738] [RFC1808]..

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         Note: The IPP protocol specification [IPP-PRO] defines a mapping of
         IPP onto HTTP/1.1.  Therefore, all conforming Printer objects SHALL
         support HTTP schemed URIs to identify themselves.  For example, a
         Printer object's URI could be "http://www.some-domain.org/printer-
         one".  A Printer object's URI could not be "ftp://ftp.some-
         domain.org/printer-one".

         IPP does not specify how the URI is obtained, but it is RECOMMENDED
         that a Printer object is registered in a directory service which end
         users and programs can interrogate. Section 16 defines a generic
         schema for Printer object entries in the directory service.

         2.2 Job Object

         A Job object is used to model a print job.  A Job can contain one or
         more documents.  The information required to create a Job object is

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         sent in a create request from the end user via an IPP Client to the
         Printer object.  Section 3 describes each of the Job operations in
         detail.

         The characteristics and state of a Job object are described by its
         attributes.  Job attributes are grouped into two groups as follows:

           - "job-template" attributes:  These attributes are optionally OPTIONALLY
              supplied by the client or end user and include job processing
              instructions which are intended to override any Printer object
              defaults and/or instructions embedded within the document data.
              (See section 4.2)
           - "job-description" attributes: These attributes describe the Job
              object's identification, state, size, etc. The Except for "job-name",
              the client does not supply values for these attributes, they are
              set by the Printer object. (See section 4.3)

         A Job object contains at least one document, but may contain multiple
         documents.  A document consists of either:

           - a stream of document data in a format supported by the Printer object,
              object (typically a Page Description Language - PDL), or
           - a URI reference to such a stream of document data in

         In IPP/1.0, a format supported by the
              Printer

         A document is not modeled as an IPP object, therefore it
         has no object identifier or associated attributes.  All job processing
         instructions are modeled as Job object attributes.  These attributes
         are called Job Template attributes and they apply equally to all
         documents within a
         Job.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 Job object.

         2.3 Object Relationships

         IPP objects have relationships that MUST be maintained persistently
         along with the persistent storage of the object attributes.

         A Printer object may MAY represent one or more output devices.  A Printer
         object may MAY represent a logical device which "processes" jobs but never
         actually uses a physical output device to put marks on paper (for
         example a Web page publisher or an interface into an online document
         archive or repository).  A Printer object contains zero or more Job
         objects.

         A Job object is contained by exactly one Printer object, however the
         identical document data associated with a Job object could be sent to
         either the same or a different Printer object.  In this case, a new
         Job object would be created which would be almost identical to the

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         existing Job object, however it would have a new (different) Job object identifier.
         identifiers (see section 2.4).

         A Job object contains one or more documents.  If the contained
         document is a stream of printer-ready document data, that stream can be contained in
         only one document.  However, there can be copies of the stream in
         other documents in the same or different Job objects.  If the
         contained document is a reference to a stream of printer-ready document data, other
         documents (in the same or different Job object(s)) may reference the
         same stream.

         2.4 Object Identity

         All Printer and Job objects have be identified by an identifier so that
         they can be persistently and unambiguously referenced.  The IPP IPP/1.0
         model requires that these identifiers be URIs. Uniform Resource Identifiers
         (URIs) [RFC1630].  Often, the URI is a URL [RFC1738] [RFC1808].

         Note: The IPP/1.0 protocol specification [IPP-PRO] defines a mapping
         of the IPP/1.0 model and semantics onto HTTP/1.1.  Therefore, all
         conforming Printer and Job objects SHALL support HTTP schemed URIs to
         identify themselves.  For example, a Printer object's URI could be
         "http://www.some-domain.org/printer-one".  A Printer object's URI
         could not be "ftp://ftp.some-domain.org/printer-one".

         IPP/1.0 does not specify how the URI is obtained, but it is
         RECOMMENDED that a Printer object is registered in a directory service
         which end users and programs can interrogate.  Section 16 defines a
         generic schema for Printer object entries in the directory service.

         Allowing Job objects to have URIs allows for flexibility and
         scalability.  In some implementations, the Printer object might create
         Jobs that are processed in the same local environment as the Printer
         object itself.  In this case, the Job URI might just be a composition
         of the Printer's URI and some unique component for the Job object. object,
         such as the unique 32-bit positive integer mentioned later in this
         paragraph.  In other implementations, the Printer object might be a
         central clearing-
         house clearing-house for validating all Job object creation
         requests, and the Job object itself might be created in some
         environment that is remote from the Printer object.  In this case, the
         Job object's URI may have no relationship at all to the Printer
         object's URI. However, many existing printing systems have local
         models or interface constraints that force Job objects to be
         identified using only a 32-
         bit 32-bit positive integer rather than a URI.
         This numeric Job ID is only unique within the context of the Printer
         object to which the create request was originally submitted.  In order
         to allow both types of client access to Jobs (either by Job URI or by

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         numeric Job ID), when the Printer object successfully processes a
         create request and creates a

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 new Job, the Printer object SHALL
         generate both a Job URI and a Job ID for the new Job object.  This
         requirement allows all clients to access Printer objects and Job
         objects no matter the local constraints imposed on the client
         implementation.

         In addition to a unique identifier, Printer objects and Job objects
         may
         have names.  An object name need not be unique across all instances of
         all objects. A Printer object's name is chosen and set by an
         administrator through some mechanism outside the scope of IPP. IPP/1.0.  A
         Job object's name is optionally chosen and supplied by the IPP Client client
         submitting the job.  If the client does not supply a Job object name,
         the Printer object generates a name for the new Job object.  In all
         cases, the name only has local meaning, and it meaning; the name is not constrained to
         be unique.

         To summarize:

           - Each Printer object is uniquely identified with a URI.  The
              Printer's "printer-uri" attribute contains the URI.
           - Each Job object is uniquely identified with a URI.  The Job's
              "job-uri" attribute contains the URI.
           - Each Job object is also uniquely identified with a combination of
              the URI of the Printer object to which the create request was
              originally submitted along with a Job ID (a 32-bit, positive
              number) that is unique within the context of that Printer object.
              The Printer object's "printer-uri" contains the Printer URI.  The
              Job object's "job-id" attribute contains the numeric Job ID.
           - Each Printer object has a name (which is not necessarily unique).
              The administrator chooses and sets this name through some
              mechanism outside the scope of IPP IPP/1.0 itself.  The Printer
              object's "printer-name" attribute contains the name.
           - Each Job object has a name (which is not necessarily unique).
              The client optionally supplies this name in the create request.
              If the client does not supply this name, the Printer object
              generates a name for the Job object. The Job object's "job-name"
              attribute contains the name.

         3. IPP Operations

         IPP objects have associated support operations.  An operation consists of a request
         and a response.  When a client communicates with an IPP object, it the
         client issues an operation request to the URI for that object.
         Operations have attributes that supply information about the operation
         itself.  These attributes are called operation attributes (as compared

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         to object attributes such as Printer object attributes or Job object
         attributes).  Each request carries along with it any operation attributes
         attributes, object attributes, and/or document data required by the
         object to perform the operation.  Each

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 request requires a response
         from the object.  Each response indicates success or failure of the
         operation with a status code.  The response contains any operation
         attributes, object attributes, and/or status messages generated by the
         execution of the operation request.

         This section describes the semantics of the IPP operations, both
         requests and responses, in terms of the attributes and other data
         associated with each operation.

         Note: The IPP IPP/1.0 protocol specification [IPP-PRO] describes a mapping
         and encoding of IPP IPP/1.0 operations onto HTTP/1.1 POST commands.  Other
         mappings for IPP IPP/1.0 operations to additional transport mechanisms are
         possible.

         The IPP/1.0 Printer operations are:

           Print-Job (section 3.2.1)
           Print-URI (section 3.2.2)
           Validate-Job (section 3.2.3)
           Create-Job (section 3.2.4)
           Get-Attributes (section 3.2.5)
           Get-Jobs (section 3.2.6)

         The Job operations are:

           Send-Document (section 3.3.1)
           Send-URI (section 3.3.2)
           Cancel-Job (section 3.3.3)
           Get-Attributes (section 3.3.4)

         The Send-Document and Send-URI Job operations are used to add a new
         document to an existing multi-document Job object created with the
         Create-Job operation.

         3.1 General Semantics

         3.1.1 Operation Characteristics

         Each IPP operation is defined as both a request and a response.  Both
         requests and responses are composed of groups of attributes and/or
         document data.  Attributes are grouped into the following groups:  The attributes groups are:

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           - Operation Attributes: These are attributes that are only passed in the operation itself,
              operation, and usually do not persist beyond the life of the
              operation.  Operation attributes may also affect other attributes
              or groups of attributes since values in the operation attributes
              usually affect the behavior of the object

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 that processes the
              operation.  All IPP objects that accept IPP operation request requests
              MUST support all operation attributes.  Some operation attributes
              are OPTIONAL for the client to supply, but the IPP object MUST
              support the attribute by being prepare prepared to handle the client
              supplied operation attribute by realizing the corresponding
              feature or function.  The addition of new operation attributes
              (either OPTIONAL or MANDATORY for the client to supply) will
              cause a change to the major version number.  Because some
              operation attributes are MANDATORY for the client to supply,
              every request and response MUST contain those operation
              attributes.
           - Job Template Attributes: These attributes affect the processing
              of a job.  They are OPTIONALLY supplied by a  A client OPTIONALLY supplies Job Template Attributes
              in a create request, and the receiving object MUST be prepared to received
              receive all supported attributes.  The Job object can later be
              queried to find out what was Job Template attributes were originally
              requested in the create request. request, and such attributes are returned
              in the response as Job Object Attributes.  The Printer object can
              be queried about its Job Template attributes to find out what
              type of job processing capabilities are supported and/or what the
              default job processing behaviors are. are, though such attributes are
              returned in the response as Printer Object Attributes..
           - Job Object Attributes: These attributes are returned in response
              to a query operation directed at a Job object.
           - Printer Object Attributes: These attributes are returned in
              response to a query operation directed at a Printer object.
           - Unsupported Attributes: In a create request, the client
              OPTIONALLY supplies
              an optional a set of Job Template attributes.  If any of
              these are unsupported by the Printer object, the Printer object
              returns
              them the set of unsupported attributes in the response.
              Section 15 gives a full description of how Job Template
              attributes supplied by the client in a create request are
              processed by the Printer object and how unsupported attributes
              are returned to the client.

         Later in this section, each operation is formally defined by
         identifying the allowed and expected groups of attributes for each
         request and response.  The model identifies a specific order for each
         group in each request or response, but the attributes within each
         group may be in any order.  It is an operation error for clients to
         supply in operation requests and/or IPP objects to returns in
         operations responses attribute value(s) that do not match the

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         syntax(es) defined for that attribute (see section 3 for operation
         attributes and section 4 for IPP object attributes).

         Note: Document data included in the operation is not strictly an
         attribute, but it is treated as a special attribute group for ordering
         purposes.  The only operations that support supplying the document
         data within an operation request are Print-Job and Send-Document.
         There are no operations operation responses that include document data.

         Since some

         Note: Some operations are MANDATORY and some for IPP objects to support; the
         others are OPTIONAL, OPTIONAL (see section 5.2.2).  Therefore, before using an
         OPTIONAL operation, a client SHOULD first use the MANDATORY Get-Attributes Get-
         Attributes operation to query the Printer's "operations-supported"
         attribute before using any
         unsupported operation.  A in order to determine which OPTIONAL Printer and Job
         operations are actually supported.  The client SHOULD NOT attempt to use an
         unsupported operation.
         OPTIONAL operation that is not supported.  When a Printer an IPP object
         receives a request to perform an operation it does not support, it
         returns the error code 'server-error-operation-not-supported' status code (see
         section 13.1.5.2).

                                 Expires April 14, 1998  It is non-conformance when an object does not
         support a MANDATORY operation.

         3.1.2 Operation Targets

         All IPP operations are directed at IPP objects.  For Printer
         operations, the operation is always directed at a Printer object using
         its URI (the "printer-uri" attribute). For Job operations, the
         operation is directed at either:

           - the Job object itself using the Job object's URI ("job-uri") (the "job-uri"
              attribute assigned by the Printer object, object), or
           - the Printer object to which the job was originally submitted
              using the URI of the Printer ("printer-uri") in combination with
              and
              the 32-bit numeric Job ID ("job-id") (the "job-id" attribute assigned by the
              Printer
              object. object).

         If the operation is directed at the Job object directly using the Job
         object's URI, the client SHOULD SHALL NOT include the redundant "job-id"
         operation attribute.

         Note:  In the mapping of IPP IPP/1.0 over HTTP/1.1, the object's URI is
         actually encoded as the "request-URI" field of the HTTP POST
         operation.  In the case of Printer operations directed at a Printer
         object, the Printer object's "printer-uri" attribute is mapped to the
         "request-URI" attribute in the HTTP header. In the case of Job
         operations directed at the Job object, the Job object's "job-uri"
         attribute is mapped to the "request-URI" attribute in the HTTP header.
         In the case of Job operations directed at the Printer object that

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         created the Job, the Printer object's "printer-uri" attribute is sent
         in the HTTP header, and the "job-id" attribute is sent as an
         operational operation
         attribute in the request body.  In other mappings of IPP operations
         onto some other transport mechanism, mechanisms, the target URI is encoded using some
         other transport specific addressing mechanism.

         The following rules apply to the use of port numbers in URIs that
         identify IPP objects:

           1. If the protocol scheme for the URI allows the port number to be
              explicitly included in the URI string, and an explicit port
              number is specified in within the syntax of the published URI, then that port
              number MUST be used by the client to contact the IPP server. object.

           2. If the protocol scheme for the URI does not allow an explicit
              port number specification, then the default port number for the
              protocol should MUST be used.

           3. Consult the appropriate IPP protocol mapping document to
              determine alternate port numbers for the protocol specified in
              the server URI.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         3.1.3 Character Set and Natural Language Operation Attributes

         Some Job and Printer attributes have values that are text strings and
         names intended for human understanding rather than machine
         understanding (see the 'text' and 'name' attribute syntax descriptions
         in section 4.1).  The following sections describe two MANDATORY
         operation attributes for every IPP operation request and response.  These
         attributes are "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language". "attributes-natural-language"
         which SHALL be stored as Job Description attributes.  For the sake of
         brevity in this document, these operation attribute descriptions are
         not repeated with every operation request and response, but have a
         reference back to this section instead.

         3.1.3.1 Request Operation Attributes

         The client SHALL supply and the Printer object SHALL support the
         following MANDATORY operation attributes in every IPP IPP/1.0 operation
         request:

           "attributes-charset" (charSet): (charset):
              This operation attribute identifies the charset (coded character
              set and encoding method) used by any 'text' and 'name' attributes
              that the client is supplying in this request and that request.  It also identifies
              the charset that the Printer object SHALL return use (if supported) for
              all 'text' and 'name' attributes and status messages that the
              Printer object returns in the response to this operation response. request. See
              Sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 for the specification of the 'text' and
              'name' attribute syntaxes.

              The Printer object

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              All IPP objects SHALL support the 'utf-8' charset [RFC2044] and
              MAY support additional charsets provided that they are registered
              with IANA [IANA-CS].  If the Printer object does not support the
              client supplied charset value, the Printer object SHALL reject
              the request and return the 'client-error-charset-not-supported'
              status code 'client-error-charset-
              not-supported'. code.  The Printer object SHALL indicate the charset(s)
              supported as the values of the "charsets-supported" " charset-supported" Printer
              attribute (see Section 4.4.14), so that the client MAY query
              which charset(s) are supported.

              Note to client implementers:  Since IPP objects are only required
              to support the 'utf-8' charset, in order to maximize
              interoperability with multiple IPP object implementations, a
              client may want to supply 'utf-8' in the "attributes-charset"
              operation attribute, even though the client is only passing and
              able to present a simpler charset, such as US-ASCII or ISO-8859-
              1.  Then the client will have to filter out (or charset convert)
              those characters that are returned in the response that it cannot
              present to its user.  On the other hand, if both the client and
              the IPP objects also support a charset in common besides utf-8,
              the client MAY want to use that charset in order to avoid charset
              conversion or data loss.

              See the 'charSet' 'charset' attribute syntax description in Section 4.1.7
              for the syntax and semantic interpretation of the values of this
              attribute and for example values.

           "attributes-natural-language" (naturalLanguage):
              This operation attribute identifies the natural language used by
              any 'text' and 'name' attributes that the client is supplying in
              this request.  A  This attribute also identifies the natural
              language that the Printer object SHOULD do its best to respond use for all 'text' and
              'name' attributes and status messages that the Printer object
              returns in the
              same natural language.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 response to this request.

              There are no MANDATORY natural languages required for the Printer
              object to support.  However, the Printer's "natural-language-
              supported" Printer object's "natural-
              language-supported" attribute SHALL list the natural languages supported,
              supported by the Printer object and any contained Job objects, so
              that the client MAY query which natural language(s) are
              supported.
              For any of the attributes for which the Printer object generates messages,
              text, i.e., for the "job-state-message", "printer-
              state-message" attributes ", "printer-state-message",
              and Status Messages status messages (see Section
              3.1.4) in operation responses, 3.1.4), the Printer object SHALL
              be able to generate messages these text strings in any of its supported
              natural languages.  If the client requests a natural language
              that is not supported, the Printer object SHALL return these

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              generated messages in the Printer's configured natural language
              as specified by the Printer's "printer-natural-language " "natural-language" attribute" (see
              Section 4.4.15).

              For other Printer 'text' and 'name' attributes supplied by the client,
              authentication system, operator, system administrator, or
              manufacturer, i.e., for
              "printer-name" "job-originating-user-name", "printer-
              name" (name), "printer-location" (text), "printer-info" (text),
              and "printer-make-and-model" (text), the Printer object is only
              required to support the configured natural language of the
              Printer identified by the Printer's "printer-natural-language
              " Printer object's "natural-language"
              attribute, though support of additional natural languages for
              these attributes is permitted

              If the Printer object does not support permitted.

              For any 'text' or 'name' attribute in the request that is in a
              different natural language than the value supplied by in the client,
              "attributes-natural-language", the Printer object client SHALL either (1)
              reject the request and return status code ' client-error-natural-
              language-not-supported' or (2) accept use the natural language rather
              than returning an error, depending Natural
              Language Override mechanism (see section 4.1.1 on implementation.  In the
              latter case, the Printer 'text'
              attribute syntax) on each attribute value supplied.

              The IPP object SHALL use the method for
              representing exception accept any natural languages in attribute values as
              described for the 'text' attribute syntax in Section 4.1.1 for language and any such 'text' or 'name' attributes that Natural
              Language Override, whether the Printer (1) accepts
              from IPP object supports that natural
              language or (2) returns to a client.

              See the 'naturalLanguage' attribute syntax description in Section
              4.1.8 for the syntax and semantic interpretation not (and independent of the values value of
              this attribute and for example values.

         3.1.3.2 Response the "ipp-
              attribute-fidelity" Operation Attributes

         The attribute), i.e., whether the
              Printer object SHALL supply and object's "natural-language-supported" contains the client SHALL support value
              supplied by the
         following MANDATORY operation attributes client in every IPP operation
         response:

           "attributescharset" (charSet):
              This operation the "attributes-natural-language"
              Operation attribute identifies or in a Natural Language Override.  In some
              cases, the charset used by any
              'text' and 'name' attributes client supplies an attribute with a natural language
              that is not supported.  In these cases, the Printer IPP object is SHALL
              remember that natural language for that attribute, and SHALL
              indicate that natural language  when returning

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
              in this response.  The value the attribute in this
              response SHALL be the same
              value as to a query.  For example, the "attributes-charset" operation "job-name" attribute is
              supplied by the client in a create request, and its value, if
              supplied, is used to populate the request.  See Job objects "job-name"
              attribute.  If the client supplies a Job name in an unsupported
              natural language, Printer object SHALL accept the create request
              and remember the client supplied natural language.  There is no
              need for the Printer object to reject the create request just
              because the client choose to pick some unsupported natural
              language for the Job name.  Whenever a client queries the "job-
              name" attribute, the IPP object returns the attribute and
              indicates the natural language of the attribute as a Natural
              Language Override if it is different than the natural language of
              the other attributes in the response.

              See the 'naturalLanguage' attribute syntax description in Section
              4.1.8 for the syntax and semantic interpretation of the values of
              this attribute and for example values.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         3.1.3.2 Response Operation Attributes

         The Printer object SHALL supply and the client SHALL support the
         following MANDATORY operation attributes in every IPP/1.0 operation
         response:

           "attributes-charset" (charset):
              This operation attribute identifies the charset used by any
              'text' and 'name' attributes that the Printer object is returning
              in this response.  The value in this response SHALL be the same
              value as the "attributes-charset" operation attribute supplied by
              the client in the request.  See "attributes-charset" described in
              Section 3.1.3.1 above.

              If the Printer object supports more than just the 'utf-8'
              charset, the Printer object SHALL be able to code convert between
              each of the charsets supported on a highest fidelity possible
              basis in order to return the 'text' and 'name' attributes in the
              charset requested by the client.  However, some information loss
              MAY occur during the charset conversion depending on the charsets
              involved.  For example, the Printer object may convert from a
              UTF-8 'a' to a US-ASCII 'a' (with no loss of information),  from
              an ISO Latin 1 CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE ACCENT to US-ASCII 'A'
              (losing the accent), or from a UTF-8 Japanese Kanji character to
              some ISO Latin 1 error character indication such as '?', decimal
              code equivalent, or to the absence of a character, depending on
              implementation.

           "attributes-natural-language" (naturalLanguage):
              This is a MANDATORY Job Template attribute for

              Note: Whether an implementation that supports more than one
              charset stores the Printer object data in the charset supplied by the client or
              code converts to one of the other supported charsets, depends on
              implementation.  The strategy SHOULD try to return. minimize loss of
              information during code conversion.  In any case, responses SHALL
              always be in the charset requested.  If this is not possible
              (i.e., the charset requested is not supported), the request SHALL
              be rejected.

           "attributes-natural-language" (naturalLanguage):
              This operation attribute specifies identifies the natural language used by
              any 'text' and 'name' attributes with empty tags that the IPP object is returning
              in this response and
              SHALL be response.  Unlike the "attributes-charset" operation
              attribute, the IPP object NEED NOT return the same value as that
              supplied by the client in the request,
              whether the Printer request.  The IPP object supports that value or not.  Any
              'text' or 'name' values in this response that have a different MAY return
              the natural language SHALL have a fully specified of the Job object or the Printer's default,
              rather than the natural language
              tag pre-pended to each such attribute value.

              In a subsequent query request (Get-Attributes or Get-Jobs), supplied by the
              Printer object NEED NOT convert client.  For any
              'text' or 'name' attribute
              values to or status message in the response that

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              is in a different natural language of than the requester when it is
              different from that specified (and subsequently stored) value returned in the
              original create request..  In such cases,
              "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute, the Printer IPP object
              SHALL return an explicit natural language indicator for each such
              attribute value.  See use the Natural Language Override mechanism (see section
              4.1.1 on the 'text' attribute syntax description in
              Section 4.1.1. syntax) on each attribute value
              returned.

         3.1.4 Operation Status Codes and Messages

         Every operation response returns a MANDATORY status code and an
         OPTIONAL status message.  A status code provides information on the
         processing of a request.  A status message provides a short textual
         description of the status of the operation.  The status code is
         intended for use by automata automata, and the status message is intended for
         the human end user.  If a response does include a status message, an
         IPP client is not required to NEED NOT examine or display the status message, however it
         SHOULD do so in some implementation specific manner.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         Section 13 describes the status codes and suggests a corresponding
         status message for each status code.  In some cases, if the status
         code indicates an error, there may be additional attributes in the
         response that are not returned in the successful case.  One such
         example is the set of unsupported attributes in the Print-Job response
         (see section 3.2.1.2).

         The status code is a numeric value that has semantic meaning.  The
         status code is similar to a "type2 enum" (see section 4.1 on
         "Attribute Syntaxes") except that values can range only from 0x0000 to
         0xFFFF.

         A client implementation of IPP could convert status code
         0x7FFF.  Section 13 describes the status codes, assigns the numeric
         values, and suggests a corresponding status message for each status
         code.

         A client implementation of IPP SHOULD convert status code values into
         any localized string message that has semantic meaning to the end user.  The  If
         the Printer object SHALL supports the status message, the Printer object
         MUST be able to generate this message in any of the natural languages
         identified by the Printer's "natural-language-
         supported" Printer object's "natural-language-supported"
         attribute (see the "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute
         specified in Section 3.1.3.1).  If  As described in Section 3.1.3.1 for
         any returned 'text' attribute, if there is a choice for generating
         this message, the charset requested Printer object uses the natural language indicated
         by the client in value of the "attributes-charset" operation attribute is not
         supported by "attributes-natural-language" in the Printer object, client
         request if supported, otherwise the Printer object SHALL represent uses the status message, if returned, value in
         the charset specified by the
         Printer's "printer-charset" attribute (which the client MAY not be
         able to interpret). Printer object's own "natural-language" attribute.

         3.1.5 Security Concerns for IPP Operations

         3.1.5.1 Authenticated Requester Identity

         IPP is layered on top of security services that supply the requester's
         identity.  It is assumed that the identity supplied by the
         authentication service is the most authenticated identity required by
         a given site's configuration and current policy.  It is also assumed
         that the layering allows for a single IPP implementation to be run

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         over a consistent interface that supplies the authenticated identity.
         The authentication interface should SHOULD allow for various modular and
         extensible authentication service implementations without requiring
         changes to the IPP implementation.

         Once the authenticated identity of the requester has been supplied to
         the IPP implementation, the implementation uses that identity to
         enforce any authorization policy(ies) that might be in place.  When a
         Job object is created, the identity of the requester from the create
         request is persistently stored in the Job's "job-originating-user" Job object in an internal
         implementation-dependent attribute.   This attribute can be used to
         match the requester's identity of subsequent operations on that Job
         object in order to enforce the local authorization policy(ies), if
         any. For example, a one site's policy might be that only the job owner
         is allowed to cancel a job.  Another site's policy might be that any
         end user is allowed to cancel any job.  There are operation status
         codes that allow an implementation IPP object to return

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 information back to the
         operation requester about what has been forbidden, not allowed, or not
         authorized.  The details of and mechanisms to set up authorization
         policy(ies) are not part of IPP, IPP/1.0, and must be established via some
         mechanism outside the scope of IPP. IPP/1.0.

         3.1.5.2 The "requesting-user-name" Operation Attribute

         A Printer object SHALL support the MANDATORY "requesting-user-name"
         operation attribute that a client SHOULD supply in all operations.
         This operation attribute is provided in case (1) there is no security
         service being used, (2) the client and Printer object negotiate to no
         authorization, or (3) the authentication service does not make
         available to the Printer object an authenticated printable
         representation of the user's name that is making the request.  The
         client SHALL obtain the value for this attribute from an environmental
         or network login name for the user, rather than allowing the user to
         supply any value.

         For create requests the Printer object, upon creating a new Job
         object, SHALL store the originating user's name in the MANDATORY "job-
         originating-user-name" Job Description attribute.  The "job-
         originating-user-name" attribute is used for presentation only, such
         as returning in queries or printing on start sheets, and is not used
         for matching the authenticated principal of subsequent operations.  If
         the Printer object has access to a more authenticated printable
         representation of the user's name, the Printer object SHALL store that
         value instead of the value supplied by the client in the "requesting-
         user-name" operation attribute.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         The Printer object, upon creating a new Job object, SHALL store the
         originating user's principal credential in an internal implementation-
         dependent Job Description attribute.  This attribute is not specified
         as part of IPP, since it is not of any interest to clients.  However,
         the Printer object uses this internal attribute for matching the
         authenticated principal id of subsequent operations.  If the Printer
         object has access to a more authenticated representation of the user's
         id, the Printer object SHALL store that value instead of the value
         supplied by the client in the "requesting-user-name" operation
         attribute.  Otherwise, the Printer object SHALL store the value
         supplied by the client in the "requesting-user-name" operation
         attribute.

         3.1.5.3 Restricted Queries

         In many of these IPP operations, a client supplies a list of
         attributes to be returned in the response.  A Printer  An IPP object may be
         configured, for security reasons, not to return all attributes that a
         client requests.  It may  The job attributes returned MAY depend on whether
         the requesting user is the same as the user that submitted the job.
         The IPP object MAY even return none of the requested attributes.  In
         such cases, the status returned is the same as if the Printer object had
         returned all requested attributes.  The client cannot tell by such a
         response whether the requested attribute was present or absent on the
         Printer or Job.
         object.

         3.1.6 Versions

         Each operation request carries with it a version number. Each version
         number is in the form "X.Y" where X is the major version number and Y
         is the minor version number. By including a version number in the
         client request, it allows the client (the requester) to identify which
         version of IPP it is interested in using.  If the Printer IPP object does not
         support that version, the Printer object responds with a status code of
         'server-error-version-not-supported'.

         There is no version negotiation per se.  However, if after receiving a
         version not supported
         'server-error-version-not-supported' status code from the Printer,
         there is nothing that prevents a client from trying again with a
         different version number. For example, a client might be configured In order to conform to IPP/1.0, an
         implementation MUST support IPP at least version 3.0, 2.5, 2.0 and 1.0 (hypothetically speaking). A client
         might first try to speak version 3.0. If after receiving a version not
         supported, it might successively try version 2.5, then 2.0, and then
         1.0. All implementations MUST support version 1.0. '1.0'.

         There is only one notion of version number that covers both IPP Model and the IPP
         Protocol changes. Thus the version number MUST change when introducing
         a new version of the Model document or a new version of the Protocol
         document.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         Changes to the major version number indicate structural or syntactic
         changes that make it impossible for older version of IPP processors clients and
         Printer objects  to correctly parse and interpret the new or changed
         attributes, operations and responses.  If the major version number
         changes, the minor version numbers is set to zero. One example that would have
         required a change to the major version number would have been  As an example,
         adding the "ipp-attribute-fidelity" attribute if (if it had not been part
         of version 1.0. '1.0'), would have required a change to the major version
         number. .  Items that might affect the changing of the major version

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         number include any changes to the protocol specification itself such
         as:

           - reordering of ordered attributes or attribute sets
           - changes to the syntax of existing attributes
           - changing OPTIONAL to MANDATORY and vice versa
           - adding new operation attributes
           - adding values to existing operation attributes
           - adding MANDATORY operations

         Changes to the minor version number indicate the addition of new
         features, attributes and attribute values that may not be understood
         by all IPP processors, objects, but which can be ignored if not understood.  Items
         that might affect the changing of the minor version number include any
         changes to the model objects and attributes but not the protocol
         specification itself, itself (except adding attribute syntaxes), such as:

           - grouping all extensions not included in a previous version into a
              new version
           - formally adding in new attribute values
           - changing any of the type1 attributes
           - adding new object attributes
           - adding new attribute syntaxes
           - adding OPTIONAL operations

         3.1.7 Job Creation Operations

         In order to "submit a print job" and create a new Job object, a client
         issues a create request.  A create request is any one of following
         three operation requests:

           - The Print-Job Request: A client that wants to submit a print job
              with only a single document uses the Print-Job operation. .  The
              operation allows for the client to "push" the document data to
              the Printer object by including the document data in the request
              itself.

           - The Print-URI Request: A client that wants to submit a print job
              with only a single document where (where the Printer object "pulls" the

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              document data instead of the client "pushing" the data to the
              Printer object) uses the Print-URI operation.   In this case, the
              client includes in the request only a URI reference to the
              document data (not the document data itself).

           - The Create-Job Request: A client that wants to submit a print job
              with multiple documents uses the Create-Job operation. .  This
              operation is followed by an arbitrary number of Send-Document or
              and/or Send-URI operations (each creating another document for
              the newly create Job object).  The Send-Document operation
              includes the document data in the request (the client "pushes"
              the document data to the printer), and the Send-URI operation
              includes only a URI reference to the document data in the request
              (the Printer "pulls" the document data from the referenced
              location).  The last Send-Document or Send-URI request for a
              given Job object includes a "last-document" operation attribute
              set to 'true' indicating that this is the last document.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         Throughout this model specification, the term "create request" is used
         to refer to any of these three operation requests.

         A Create-Job operation followed by only one Send-Document operation is
         semantically equivalent to a Print-Job operation, however, for
         performance reasons, the client SHOULD use the Print-Job operation for
         all single Document Jobs.  Also, Print-Job is a MANDATORY operation
         (all implementations MUST support it) whereas Create-Job is an
         OPTIONAL operation, hence some implementations might not support it.

         Section 15 describes the rules and issues surrounding the processing
         of client supplied attributes and how a Printer object either the acceptance accepts
         or rejection of rejects a create request.

         Job submission time is the point in time when a client issues a create
         request.  The initial state of every Job object is the 'pending' or
         'pending-held' state.  Later, the Printer object begins processing the
         print job.  At this point in time, the Job object's state moves to
         'processing'.  This is known as job processing time.  There are
         validation checks that must be done at job submission time and others
         that must be performed at job processing time.

         At job submission time and at the time a Validate-Job operation is
         received, the Printer MUST do the following:

           1. Process the client supplied attributes using the rules supplied
              in section 15 and either accept or reject the request
           2. Validate the syntax of and support for the scheme of any client
              supplied URI

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         At job submission time the Printer SHOULD NOT perform the validation
         checks reserved for job processing time such as:

           1. Validate the document data
           2. Validate the actual contents of any client supplied URI (resolve
              the reference and follow the link to the document data)

         At job submission time, these additional job processing time
         validation checks are essentially useless, since they require actually
         parsing and interpreting the document data, are not guaranteed to be
         100% accurate, and must MUST yet be done again at job processing time.
         Also, in the case of a URI, checking for availability at job
         submission time does not guarantee availability at job processing
         time.   In addition, at job processing time, the Printer object might
         discover any of the following conditions that were not detectable at
         job submission time:

           - runtime errors in the document data,

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           - nested document data that is in an unsupported format,
           - the URI reference is no longer valid (i.e., the server hosting
              the document might be down), or
           - any other job processing error

         At job processing time, since the Printer object has already responded
         with a successful status code in the response to the create request,
         if the Printer object detects an error, the Printer object in is unable
         to inform the end user of the error with an operational operation status code.
         In this case, the Printer, depending on the error, can set the "job-
         state", "job-state-reasons", or "job-state-message" attributes to the
         appropriate value(s) so that later queries can report the correct job
         status.

         Note: Asynchronous notification of events is outside the scope of
         IPP/1.0.

         3.2 Printer Operations

         All Printer operations are directed at Printer objects.  A client MUST
         always supply the "printer-uri" attribute in order to identify the
         correct target of the operation.

         Note: In the HTTP/1.1 mapping of IPP, IPP/1.0, this attribute is not
         supplied in the body of the operation as other operation attributes are.  It
         are -- it is supplied in the "request-URI" field in the HTTP header.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         3.2.1 Print-Job Operation

         When an end user desires to submit a print job with only one document
         and the client supplies the document data (rather than just a
         reference to the data), the client uses a Print-Job operation.  See
         Section 15 for a suggested processing algorithm for the create
         operations and their Operation and Job Template attributes.

         3.2.1.1 Print-Job Request

         The following groups of attributes are supplied as part of the Print-
         Job Request:

         Group1:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Target:
              The "printer-uri" target for this operation as described in
              section 3.1.2.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.1.  The Printer object
              SHALL copy these values to the corresponding Job Description
              attributes described in sections 4.3.20 and 4.3.21.

           Requesting User Name:
              The "requesting-user-name" attribute SHOULD be supplied by the
              client as described in section 3.1.5.2.

           "job-name" (name):
              This attribute is OPTIONALLY supplied by the client, and it
              contains the client supplied Job name.  If this attribute is

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
              supplied,
              supplied by the client, its value it is used for the "job-name"
              attribute of the newly created Job object.  The client MAY
              automatically include any information that will help the end-user
              distinguish amongst his/her jobs, such as the name of the
              application program along with information from the document,
              such as the document name, document subject, or source file name.
              If this attribute is not supplied by the client, the Printer
              generates a name to use in the "job-name" attribute of the newly
              created Job object (see Section 4.3.4).

           "document-name" (name):
              This attribute is OPTIONALLY supplied by the client, and it
              contains the client supplied document name.  The document name
              MAY be different than the Job name.  Typically, the client
              software automatically supplies the document name on behalf of

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              the end user by using a file name or an application generated
              name.  If this attribute is supplied, its value can be used in a
              manner defined by each implementation.  Examples include: printed
              along with the Job (banner page, (job start sheet, page adornments, etc.), used
              by accounting or resource tracking management tools, or even
              stored along with the document as a document level attribute.
              IPP/1.0 does not support the concept of document level attributes,
              however, a vendor specific extension to IPP/1.0 might support the
              document level
              attributes.  In

           "document-format" (mimeMediaType) :
              The client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  The value of this case, the "document-name"
              attribute could be persistently stored along with describes the format of the supplied document
              and queried using a Get-Attributes operation on data.  If
              the Job client does not supply this attribute, the Printer object
              assumes that includes a request for the document level attributes or some
              other private extension mechanism. data is in the format defined by the
              Printer object's "document-format" attribute.

           "ipp-attribute-fidelity" (boolean):
              This attribute is OPTIONALLY supplied by the client.  If not
              supplied, the Printer object assumes the value is 'false'.  The
              value 'true' indicates that total fidelity to client supplied
              attributes and values is required. required, else the Printer object SHALL
              reject the Print-Job request.  The value 'false' indicates that a
              reasonable attempt to print the Job object is acceptable. acceptable and the
              Printer object SHALL accept the Print-job request.  All Printer
              objects MUST support both types of job processing.  See section
              15 for a full description of "ipp-attribute-fidelity" and its
              relationship to other attributes, especially the Printer object's
              "pdl-override" attribute.

           "document-charset" (charSet):
              This attribute is OPTIONALLY supplied by the client.  A Printer
              object SHALL support this attribute if it supports a document-
              format that requires a character set to be identified in order to
              unambiguously interpret the document, such as 'text/plain'.
              There are no particular values required for the Printer object to
              support.  This attribute specifies the charset of the document
              for those document-formats that require a specification of the
              charset in order to image the document unambiguously.  If the
              value of the "document-format" attribute contains a charset
              parameter (see 'mimeType' attribute syntax in Section 4.1.9), the
              client SHALL also supply the "document-charset" attribute and its
              value SHALL be the same.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

           "document-natural-language" (naturalLanguage):
              This attribute is OPTIONALLY supplied by the client.  There are
              no particular values are required for the Printer object to support.
              This attribute specifies the natural language of the document for
              those document-formats that require a specification of the
              natural language in order to image the document unambiguously.

         Group2:

         Group 2: Job Template Attributes

              The client OPTIONALLY supplies a set of Job Template attributes
              as defined in section 4.2. See section 15  for a full description
              of Job Template attributes.

         Group 3: Document Content

              The client MUST supply the document data to be processed.

         Note: The simplest Print-Job Request consists of just the Document
         Content
         Content, the "attributes-charset" and nothing else.  In "attributes-natural-language"

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         operation attributes, and nothing else.  In this case, the Printer
         object:

           - creates a new Job object (the Job object contains a single
              document),
           - stores a generated Job name in the "job-name" attribute,
           - assumes that the document data is attribute in a supported format, the
              natural language and charset requested (see Section 3.1.3.1) (if
              those are supported, otherwise using the Printer object's default
              natural language and charset), and
           - at job processing time, uses its corresponding default value
              attributes for missing the supported Job Template attributes and that were
              not supplied by the client as IPP attribute or embedded
              instructions in the document data.

         3.2.1.2 Print-Job Response

         The Printer object SHALL return to the client the following sets of
         attributes as part of the Print-Job Response:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Status Code and Message:
              The response includes the MANDATORY status code and an OPTIONAL
              "status-message" (text) operation attribute as described in
              section 3.1.4.  If the client supplies unsupported or conflicting
              attributes or values, the Printer object SHALL reject or accept
              the Print-Job request depending on the whether the client
              supplied a 'true' or 'false' value for the "ipp-attribute-
              fidelity" operation attribute.  See section 15 for a complete
              description of the processing algorithm.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.2.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         Group 2: Job Object Attributes

           "job-uri" (uri):
              The Printer object MUST return the Job object's MANDATORY  "job-
              uri" attribute.

           "job-id":
              The Printer object MUST return the Job object's MANDATORY  "job-
              id" attribute.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           "job-state":
              The Printer object MUST return the Job object's MANDATORY "job-
              state" attribute. The value of this attribute (along with the
              value of the next attribute "job-state-reasons") is taken from a
              "snapshot" of the new Job object at some meaningful point in time
              (implementation defined) between when the Printer object receives
              the Print-Job Request and when the Printer object returns the
              response.

           "job-state-reasons":
              The Printer object OPTIONALLY returns the Job object's OPTIONAL
              "job-state-reasons" attribute.  If the Printer object supports
              this attribute then it MUST be returned in the response.  If this
              attribute is not returned in the response, the client can assume
              that the "job-state-reasons" attribute is not supported and will
              not be returned in a subsequent Job object query.

           "job-state-message":
              The Printer object OPTIONALLY returns the Job object's OPTIONAL
              "job-state-message" attribute.  If the Printer object supports
              this attribute then it MUST be returned in the response.  If this
              attribute is not returned in the response, the client can assume
              that the "job-state-message" attribute is not supported and will
              not be returned in a subsequent Job object query.

           "number-of-intervening-jobs":
              The Printer object OPTIONALLY returns the Job object's OPTIONAL
              "number-of-intervening-jobs" attribute.  If the Printer object
              supports this attribute then it MUST be returned in the response.
              If this attribute is not returned in the response, the client can
              assume that the "number-of-intervening-jobs" attribute is not
              supported and will not be returned in a subsequent Job object
              query.

              Note: Since any printer state information which affects a job's
              state is reflected in the "job-state" and "job-state-reasons"
              attributes, it is sufficient to return only these attributes and
              no specific printer status attributes.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         Group 3: Unsupported Attributes

              This is an OPTIONAL set of attributes.  It is a set of Job Template attributes supplied by the client
              (in the request) that are not supported by the Printer object. When the Printer object
              rejects the request because of more than one unsupported
              attribute (see section 15), it SHOULD return all of the
              unsupported attributes.  Some implementations may choose to only
              return the first unsupported attribute that is encountered during
              the processing of the attributes, but or
              that may lead to additional
              requests conflict with only one "fixed" attribute from the set of problem
              attributes.  In the case where the Printer object accepts the
              request and creates a Job object, the Printer MUST return the set
              of unsupported attributes where substitutions were made or the
              attribute was completely ignored. another (see section 15).

              Unsupported attributes fall into two three categories:

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              1. The Printer object does not support the named attribute (no
              matter what the value), or
              2. The Printer object does supports support the attribute, but does not
              support some or all of the particular value values supplied by the
              client (i.e., the Printer object does not have that value those values in
              the corresponding supported values attribute).
              3. The Printer object does support the attributes and values
              supplied, but the particular values are in conflict with one
              another, because they violate a constraint, such as not being
              able to staple transparencies.

              In the case of an unsupported attribute name, the Printer object
              returns the client supplied client-supplied attribute with a substituted special
              value of 'unsupported' indicating no support for the attribute
              itself.

              In the case of a supported attribute with an one or more unsupported
              value,
              values, the Printer object simply returns the client-supplied
              attribute.
              attribute with the unsupported values as supplied by the client.
              This indicates support for the attribute, but no support for that
              particular value. If the client supplies a multi-valued attribute
              with more than one value and the Printer object supports the
              attribute but only supports a subset of the client supplied
              values, the Printer object SHALL return only those values that
              are unsupported.

              In the case of two (or more) supported attribute values that are
              in conflict because they cannot be used, the Printer object SHALL
              return all the values that it ignores or substitutes to resolve
              the conflict.

              In these three cases, the value of the "ipp-attribute-fidelity"
              supplied by the client does not affect what the Printer object
              returns.  The value of "ipp-attribute-fidelity" only affects
              whether the Print-Job operation is accepted or rejected.  If the
              job is accepted, the client may query the job using the Get-
              Attributes operation requesting the attributes returned in the
              create response to see which attributes were ignored (not stored
              on the Job object) and which attributes were stored with other
              (substituted) values.

         Note: The simplest response consists of the just the MANDATORY Job
         Attributes
         Attributes, the MANDATORY "attributes-charset" and "attributes-
         natural-language" operation attributes, and a status code of
         "successful-ok".

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         3.2.2 Print-URI Operation

         This operation is identical to the Print-Job operation (section 3.2.1)
         except that a client supplies a URI reference to the document data
         using the "document-uri" (uri) operation attribute rather than
         including the document data itself.  It is up to the IPP server to
         interpret the URI and subsequently "pull" the document from the source
         referenced by  Before returning the URI string.  At job submission time, response,
         the Printer MUST validate the fact that it the Printer supports the retrieval
         method (e.g., http, ftp, etc.) implied by the URI. URI, and SHOULD check
         for valid URI syntax.  The Printer NEED NOT follow the reference and
         validate the contents of the reference.

         If the Printer object supports

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 this operation, it MUST support the
         "reference-uri-schemes-supported" attribute (see section 4.4.21). 4.4.23).

         It is up to the IPP object to interpret the URI and subsequently
         "pull" the document from the source referenced by the URI string.

         3.2.3 Validate-Job Operation

         This operation is similar to the Print-Job operation (section 3.2.1)
         except that a client supplies no document data and the Printer
         allocates no resources (i.e., it does not create a new Job object).
         This operation is used only to verify capabilities of a printer object
         against whatever attributes are supplied by the client in the
         Validate-Job request.  There are no Job Object Attributes returned in  By using the Validate-Job Response.  If the Printer supports either the Print-
         URI or Send-URI operations, the client MAY include operation a "document-uri"
         attribute in the request.  In this case, the Printer MUST validate client
         can check that the Printer supports the retrieval method implied by same Print-Job operation will be accepted without
         having to send the URI, and
         SHOULD check for validate URI syntax. document data.  The Printer NEED NOT follow the
         reference and validate the contents of the reference. If all is well, Validate-Job operation also
         performs the Printer returns same security negotiation as the status code "successful-ok".  Otherwise, Print-Job operation (see
         section 8), so that a client can check that the client and Printer returns
         object security requirements can be met before performing a set of unsupported attributes and/or Print-Job
         operation.

         Note: The Validate-Job operation does not accept a "document-uri"
         attribute in order to allow a client to check that the appropriate
         error status code.  If same Print-URI
         operation will be accepted, since the client supplies doesn't send the "ipp-attribute-
         fidelity" attribute set to false (or does not supply data
         with the attribute at
         all) and if Print-URI operation.  The client SHOULD just issue the Print-
         URI request.

         The Printer object returns a "successful-ok-ignored-or-
         substituted-attributes", the Printer object SHOULD return all ignored
         or substituted in the same status codes, Operation Attributes
         (Group 1) and Unsupported Attributes group.  In such a case, (Group 3) as the Printer Print-Job
         operation.  However, no Job Object Attributes (Group 2) are returned,
         since no Job object MUST return at least one attribute indicating an
         unsupported attribute value or an ignored attribute. is created.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         3.2.4 Create-Job Operation

         This operation is similar to the Print-Job operation (section 3.2.1)
         except that in the Create-Job request , a client does not supply
         document data (or any reference to document data).  Also, the client
         does not supply any either of the "document-name", "content-charset", "document-name" or
         "content-natural-language" "document-natural-
         language" attributes.  This operation is followed by one or more Send-Document Send-
         Document or Send-URI operations.  In each of these those operation requests,
         the client OPTIONALLY supplies the "document-name" and "document-
         name", "content-charset", or "content-natural-language"
         natural-language" attributes for each document in the multi-document Job.
         Job object.  If a Printer object supports the Create-Job operation, it
         MUST also support the Send-Document operation and also MAY support the
         Send-URI operation.

         3.2.5 Get-Attributes Operation

         The (for Printer objects)

         The Get-Attributes operation allows a client to obtain
         information from request the values of
         the attributes of a Printer or Job object.  This section describes the
         former and section 3.3.4 describes the latter. In the operations attributes in a request, the
         client supplies the set of Printer attribute names and/or attribute
         group names in which the requester is interested.  In the
         operation attribute in the response,
         the Printer object returns a

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 corresponding attribute set with the
         appropriate attribute values filled in.

         For Printers, Printer objects, the possible names of attribute groups are:

           - 'job-template': all of the Job Template attributes that apply to
              a Printer object (the last two columns of the table in Section
              4.2).
           - 'printer-description': the attributes specified in Section 4.4.

         There is also the special group 'all' that includes all supported
         attributes.  Since a client MAY request specific attributes or named
         groups, there is a potential that there is some overlap.  For example,
         if a client requests, 'printer-name', 'printer-description', 'printer-name' and 'all', the client is actually
         requesting the "printer-group, "printer-name" attribute twice: once by naming it
         explicitly, and once by inclusion in the 'all' group.  In all such cases,
         the Printer SHALL only object NEED NOT return the each attribute only once in the response.
         response even if it is requested multiple times.  The client SHOULD
         NOT request the same attribute in multiple ways.

         It is NOT REQUIRED that a Printer object support all attributes
         belonging to a group, however group (since some attributes are OPTIONAL), however, it
         is MANDATORY that each Printer implementation
         understand object support all group names.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         3.2.5.1 Get-Attributes Request

         The following sets of attributes are part of the Get-Attributes
         Request when the request is directed to a Printer object:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Target:
              The "printer-uri" target for this operation as described in
              section 3.1.2.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.1.

           Requesting User Name:
              The "requesting-user-name" attribute SHOULD be supplied by the
              client as described in section 3.1.5.2.

           "requested-attributes" (1setOf keyword) :
              The client OPTIONALLY supplies a set of attribute names  and/or
              attribute group names in whose values the requester is
              interested.  If the client omits this attribute, the Printer
              SHALL respond as if this attribute had been supplied with a value
              of 'all'.

           "document-format" (mimeType) (mimeMediaType) :
              The client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  This attribute is
              useful for a Printer object to determine the set of supported
              attribute values that relate to the requested document format.
              The Printer

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 object SHOULD return only (1) those attributes that
              are supported for that format and (2) the attribute values that
              are supported for the specified document format.  By specifying
              the document format, the client can get the Printer object to
              eliminate the attributes and values that are not supported for a
              specific document format.  For example, a Printer object might
              have multiple interpreters to support both
              'application/postscript' (for PostScript) and 'text/plain' (for
              text) documents.  However, for only one of those interpreters
              might the Printer object be able to support "number-up" with
              values of '1', '2', and '4'.  For the other interpreter it might
              be able to only support "number-up" with a value of '1'.

              If the client omits this attribute, the Printer SHALL object SHOULD
              respond as if the attribute had been supplied with a value set to
              the Printer object's "document-format-default" "document-format" default value
              attribute. attribute
              (if supported).  It is recommended that the client always supply
              a value for "document-format", since the Printer object's
              "document-format-default"

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              "document-format" may be 'application/octet-stream', in which
              case the returned attributes and values are for the union of the
              document formats that the Printer can automatically sense.  For
              more details, see the description of the 'mimeType' 'mimeMediaType'
              attribute syntax in section 4.1.9.

              NOTE:

              Note: The "document-format" operation attribute is a fairly
              sophisticated filtering notion that is not supported by many
              existing print systems or devices.

         3.2.5.2 Get-Attributes Response

         The Printer object returns the following sets of attributes as part of
         the Get-Attributes Response:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Status Code and Message:
              The response includes the MANDATORY status code and an OPTIONAL
              "status-message" (text) operation attribute as described in
              section 3.1.4.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.2.

         Group 2: Requested Printer Object Attributes

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

              This is the set of requested attributes and their current values.
              The Printer object ignores (does not respond with) any requested
              attribute which is not supported.

         3.2.6 Get-Jobs Operation

         The Get-Jobs operation allows a client to retrieve the list of Jobs Job
         objects belonging to the target Printer object.  The client may also
         supply a list of Job attribute names or and/or attribute group names.  These  A
         group of Job object attributes will be returned for each Job object
         that is returned.

         This operation is similar Get-Attributes, Get-Attributes for Job object, except that
         this Get-Jobs operation returns attributes from possibly more than one
         object (see the description of Job attribute group names in section
         3.3.4).

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         3.2.6.1 Get-Jobs Request

         The client submits the Get-Jobs request to a Printer object.

         The following groupsof groups of attributes are part of the Get-Jobs Request:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Target:
              The "printer-uri" target for this operation as described in
              section 3.1.2.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.1.

           Requesting User Name:
              The "requesting-user-name" attribute SHOULD be supplied by the
              client as described in section 3.1.5.2.

           "limit" (integer):
              The client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  It is an integer
              value that indicates a limit to the number of Job objects
              returned.  The limit is a "stateless limit" in that if the value
              supplied by the client is  'n', 'N', then only the first 'n' 'N' jobs are
              returned in the Get-Jobs Response.  There is no mechanism to
              allow for the next 'm' 'M' jobs after the first 'n' 'N' jobs.  If the
              client does not supply this attribute, the Printer object
              responds will all applicable jobs.

           "requested-attributes" (1setOf keyword):
              The client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  It is a set of
              Job attribute names or and/or attribute groups names in whose values
              the requester is interested.  This set of attributes is returned
              for each Job object that is returned.  The allowed attribute
              group names are the same as those defined in the Get-Attributes
              operation for Job
              objects. objects in section 3.3.4.  If the client does
              not supply this attribute, the

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 Printer SHALL respond as if the
              client had supplied values of this attribute with two values: 'job-uri' and
              'job-id'.

           "which-jobs" (keyword):
              The client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  It indicates
              which
              Jobs should Job objects SHOULD be returned by the Printer object.  The
              values for this attribute are:

              'completed': This includes any Job object whose state is
                'completed', 'cancelled', 'canceled', or 'aborted'.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              'not-completed': This includes any Job object whose state is
                   'pending', 'processing', 'processing-stopped', 'pending-
                   held', 'unknown'.

              If the client does not supply the this attribute, the Printer object
              SHALL respond as if the client had supplied the attribute with a
              value of 'not-
              completed'.

         3.2.6.2 Get-Jobs Response 'not-completed'.

           "my-jobs" (boolean):
              The Printer object returns client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  It indicates
              whether all of the Job objects that match jobs or just the
         criteria as defined jobs submitted by the attribute values requesting
              user of this request  SHALL be returned by the Printer object.
              If the client does not supply this attribute, the Printer object
              SHALL respond as if the client had supplied the attribute with a
              value of 'false', i.e., all jobs not just my jobs.  The means for
              authenticating the requesting user and matching the jobs is
              described in section 3.1.5.

         3.2.6.2 Get-Jobs Response

         The Printer object returns all of the Job objects that match the
         criteria as defined by the attribute values supplied by the client in
         the request.  It is possible that no Job objects are returned since
         there may literally be no Job objects at the Printer, or there may be
         no Job objects that match the criteria supplied by the client.  If the
         client requests any Job attributes at all, there is a set of Job
         Object Attributes returned for each Job object.

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Status Code and Message:
              The response includes the MANDATORY status code and an OPTIONAL
              "status-message" (text) operation attribute as described in
              section 3.1.4.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.2.

         Groups 2 to N: Job Object Attributes

              The Printer object responds with one set of Job Object Attributes
              for each returned Job object.  The Printer object ignores (does
              not respond with) any requested attribute which is not supported
              or which is restricted by the security policy in force, including
              whether the requesting user is the user that submitted the job
              (job originating user) or not (see section 3.1.5).

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              For any job submitted in a different natural language than the
              natural language that the client Printer object is requesting returning in the
              "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute in the Get-Jobs
              request,
              response, the Printer SHALL indicate the submitted natural
              language by returning the "job-natural-language" Job object's "attributes-natural-
              language" as the first Job

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 object attribute, which overrides the "attributes-natural-
              language"
              "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute value being
              returned by the
              Printer. Printer object.  If any returned 'text' or 'name'
              attribute includes an
              exception natural language a Natural Language Override as described in
              the 'text' attribute syntax (see Section 4.1.1), the exception natural language Natural
              Language Override overrides the "job-natural-language" Job object's "attributes-natural-
              language" value (for and/or the immediately
              following "attributes-natural-language"
              operation attribute value only). value.

         Jobs are returned in the following order:

           - If the client requests all 'completed' Jobs (Jobs in the
              'completed', 'aborted', or 'cancelled' 'canceled' states), then the Jobs are
              returned newest to oldest (with respect to actual completion
              time)
           - If the client requests all 'non-completed' Jobs (Jobs in the
              'pending', 'processing', 'pending-held', 'processing-stopped',
              and 'unknown' states), then Jobs are returned in relative
              chronological order of expected time to complete (based on
              whatever scheduling algorithm is configured for the Printer
              object).

         3.3 Job Operations

         All Job operations are directed at Job objects.  A client MUST always
         supply some means of identifying the Job object in order to identify
         the correct target of the operation.  Since  Job objects can be identified
         with either a single Job URI or a combination of a Printer URI with a local
         Job ID, the ID.

         Note:  The following rules apply to all Job operation requests mapped
         onto HTTP/1.1:

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           -  If the client chooses to identify Job objects with just the Job
              URI, this "job-uri" attribute is not supplied in the body of the
              operation as other operation attributes are.  It is supplied in
              the "request-URI" field in the HTTP header.
           - If the client chooses to identify Job objects with both a Printer
              URI and a local Job ID, the "printer-uri" attribute is not
              supplied in the body of the operation, but it is supplied in the
              "request-URI" field in the HTTP header.  The "job-id" attribute
              is included as an operation attribute.

         Since the Get-Attributes operation can be both a Printer operation and
         a Job operation, if a Printer object receives a Get-Attributes
         request, the Printer object must check for the existence of the "job-
         id" operation attribute.  If present, the operation is intended to be
         a Job operation on the corresponding Job object.  If absent, the
         operation is intended to be a Printer operation.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         3.3.1 Send-Document Operation

         A client uses a Create-Job operation to create a multi-document Job
         object that is initially "empty" (contains no documents).  In the
         Create-Job response, the Printer object returns the Job object's URI
         (the "job-uri" attribute) and the Job object's 32-bit identifier (the
         "job-id" attribute).  For each new document that the client desires to
         add, the client uses a Send-Document operation.  Each Send-Document
         Request contains the entire stream of document data for one document.

         Since the Create-Job and the Send-Documents send operations (Send-Document or Send-
         URI operations) that follow can occur over arbitrarily long periods of
         time, each Printer object must decide how long to "wait" for the next Send-Document
         send operation.  The Printer object OPTIONALLY supports the "multiple-operation-timeout" "multiple-
         operation-timeout" attribute.  This attribute indicates the maximum
         number of seconds the Printer object will wait for the next Send-Document send
         operation.  If the Printer object times-out waiting for the next Send-Document send
         operation, the Printer object MAY decide on any of the following
         semantic actions:

           1. Assume that the Job is an invalid job, start the process of
              changing the job state to 'aborted', and clean up all resources
              associated with the Job.  In this case, if another Send-Document send operation
              is finally received, the Printer responds with an
              "client-error-not-possible" "client-error-
              not-possible" or "client-error-not-found" depending on whether or
              not the Job object is still around when it finally arrives.
           2. Assume that the last Send-Document send operation received was in fact the
              last document (as if the "last-document" flag had been set to
              'true'), close the Job, Job object, and proceed to process it (i.e.,
              move the Job's state to 'pending').

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           3. Assume that the last Send-Document send operation received was in fact the
              last document, close the Job, but move it to the 'pending-held'
              to allow an operator to determine whether or not to continue
              processing the Job by moving it back to the 'pending' state.

         Each implementation is free to decide the "best" action to take
         depending on local policy, the value of "ipp-attribute-fidelity",
         and/or any other piece of information available to it.  If the choice
         is to abort the Job, Job object, it is possible that the Job object may
         already have been processed to the point that some media sheet pages
         have been printed.

         3.3.1.1 Send-Document Request

         The following attribute sets are part of the Send-Document Request:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

           Target:
              Either (1) the "printer-uri" plus "job-id" or (2) the "job-uri"
              target for this operation as described in section 3.1.2.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.1.

           Requesting User Name:
              The "requesting-user-name" attribute SHOULD be supplied by the
              client as described in section 3.1.5.2.

           "document-name" (name):
              The client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute, and it contains
              the client supplied document name.  The document name MAY be
              different than the Job name.  It might be helpful, but NEED NOT
              be unique across multiple documents in the same Job.  Typically,
              the client software automatically supplies the document name on
              behalf of the end user by using a file name or an application
              generated name.  See the description of the "document-name"
              operation attribute in the Print-Job Request (section 3.2.1.1)
              for more information about this attribute.

           "last-document" (boolean):

           "document-format" (mimeMediaType) :
              The client MUST supply OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  It is a boolean flag that
              is set to 'true' if  The value of this is
              attribute describes the last document for format of the Job,
              'false' otherwise.

           "document-charset" (charSet):
              This attribute is OPTIONALLY supplied by document data.  If
              the client.  A Printer
              object SHALL support client does not supply this attribute if it supports a document-
              format that requires a character set to be identified in order to
              unambiguously interpret the document, such as 'text/plain'.
              There are no particular values required for attribute, the Printer object to
              support.  This attribute specifies the charset of the document
              for those document-formats
              assumes that require a specification of the
              charset in order to image the document unambiguously.  If the
              value of the "document-format" attribute contains a charset
              parameter (see 'mimeType' attribute syntax data is in Section 4.1.9), the
              client SHALL also supply the "document-charset" attribute and its
              value SHALL be format defined by the same.
              Printer object's "document-format" attribute.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           "document-natural-language" (naturalLanguage):
              This attribute is OPTIONALLY supplied by the client.  There are
              no particular values required for the Printer object to support.
              This attribute specifies the natural language of the document for
              those document-formats that require a specification of the
              natural language in order to image the document unambiguously,
              such as proper glyph selection.. unambiguously.

           "last-document" (boolean):
              The client MUST supply this attribute.  It is a boolean flag that
              is set to 'true' if this is the last document for the Job,
              'false' otherwise.

         Group 2: Document Content

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

              The client MUST supply the document data if the "last-document"
              flag is set to 'false'.  However, since a client might not know
              that the previous document sent with a Send-Document operation
              was the last document (i.e., the "last-document" attribute was
              set to 'false'), it is legal to send a Send-Document request with
              no document data where the "last-document" flag is set to 'true'.

         3.3.1.2 Send-Document Response

         The following sets of attributes are part of the Send-Document
         Response:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Status Code and Message:
              The response includes the MANDATORY status code and an OPTIONAL
              "status-message" (text) operation attribute as described in
              section 3.1.4.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.2.

         Group 2: Job Object Attributes

              This is the same set of attributes as described in the Print-Job
              response (see section 3.2.1.2).

         3.3.2 Send-URI Operation

         This operation is identical to the Send-Document operation (see
         section 3.3.1) except that a client supplies a URI reference

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         ("document-uri" operation attribute) rather than the document data
         itself.  If a Printer object supports this operation, clients can use
         both Send-URI or Send-Document operations to add new documents to an
         existing multi-document Job object.

         The Printer object MUST validate the syntax of the supplied URI before
         returning a response.  If the Printer object supports this operation,
         it MUST support the URI types defined under the Print-URI operation
         (see section 3.2.2)

         3.3.3 Cancel Job Operation

         This operation allows a client to cancel a Print Job any time after a
         create job operation.. operation.  Since a Job might already be printing by the

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         time a Cancel-Job is received, some media sheet pages may might be printed
         before the job is actually terminated.

         3.3.3.1 Cancel-Job Request

         The following groups of attributes are part of the Cancel-Job Request:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Target:
              Either (1) the "printer-uri" plus "job-id" or (2) the "job-uri"
              target for this operation as described in section 3.1.2.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.1.

           Requesting User Name:
              The "requesting-user-name" attribute SHOULD be supplied by the
              client as described in section 3.1.5.2.

           "message" (text):
              OPTIONAL
              This attribute is OPTIONALLY supplied by the client.  It is a
              message to the operator.  This "message" attribute is not the
              same as the "job-message-from-operator" attribute.  That
              attribute is used to report a message from the operator to the
              end user that queries that attribute.  This "message" operation
              attribute is used to send a message from the client to the
              operator along with the operation request.  It is an
              implementation decision of how or where to display this message
              to the operator (if at all).

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         3.3.3.2 Cancel-Job Response

         The following sets of attributes are part of the Cancel-Job Response:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Status Code and Message:
              The response includes the MANDATORY status code and an OPTIONAL
              "status-message" (text) operation attribute as described in
              section 3.1.4.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.2.

         Once

              If the job is already in the 'completed', 'aborted', or
              'canceled' state, or the 'process-to-stop-point' value is set in
              the Job's "job-state-reasons" attribute, the Printer object SHALL
              reject the request and return the 'client-error-not-possible'
              error status code.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.2.

         Once a successful response has been sent, the implementation
         guarantees that the Job will eventually end up in the 'cancelled' 'canceled'
         state.  If Between the implementation time of the Cancel-Job operation is forced to leave accepted and
         when the job in enters the some
         other state, 'canceled' job-state (see section 4.3.6), the
         "job-state-reasons" attribute SHOULD contain the ' processing-
         to-stop-point processing-to-stop-
         point ' value which indicates to later queries that although the Job may
         might still be 'processing', it will eventually end up in the
         'cancelled'
         'canceled' state, not the 'completed' state.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         3.3.4 Get-Attributes Operation

         The (for Job objects)

         The Get-Attributes operation allows a client to obtain information
         from request the values of
         attributes of a Job object and it is almost identical to the Get-Attributes Get-
         Attributes operation for a Printer object (see section 3.2.5).  The
         only differences are that the operation is directed at a Job object
         rather than a Printer object and there is no "document-format"
         operation attribute used when querying a Job object.

         For Jobs, the attribute groups include:

           - 'job-template': all of the Job Template attributes that apply to
              a Job object (the first column of the table in Section 4.2).
           - 'job-description': all of the Job Description attributes
              specified in Section 4.3.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         There is also the special group 'all' that includes all supported
         attributes.  If for some reason, the  Since a client includes an attribute two
         or more times in the MAY request (e.g., specific attributes or named
         groups, there is a potential that there is some overlap.  For example,
         if a client requests, 'job-name' and 'job-description', the client supplies values of
         'all', 'job-template', is
         actually requesting the "job-name" attribute once by naming it
         explicitly, and 'sides' once by inclusion in the "requested-attributes"
         attribute), 'job-description' group.  In
         such cases, the Printer SHALL only object NEED NOT return one occurrence of the attribute only once
         in the response. response even if it is requested multiple times.  The client
         SHOULD NOT request the same attribute in multiple ways.

         It is NOT REQUIRED that a Job object support all attributes belonging
         to a group (since some attributes are OPTIONAL), however it is
         MANDATORY that each Job object support all group names.

         3.3.4.1 Get-Attributes Request

         The following groups of attributes are part of the Get-Attributes
         Request when the request is directed at a Job object:

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

           Target:
              Either (1) the "printer-uri" plus "job-id" or (2) the "job-uri"
              target for this operation as described in section 3.1.2.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.1.

           Requesting User Name:
              The "requesting-user-name" attribute SHOULD be supplied by the
              client as described in section 3.1.5.2.

           "requested-attributes" (1setOf keyword) :
              An OPTIONAL
              The client OPTIONALLY supplies this attribute.  It is a set of
              attribute names and/or attribute group names in whose values the
              requester is interested.  If the client omits this attribute, the
              Printer object SHALL respond as if this attribute had been
              supplied with a value of 'all'.

         3.3.4.2 Get-Attributes Response

         The Printer object returns the following sets of attributes as part of
         the Get-Attributes Response:

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         Group 1: Operation Attributes

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           Status Code and Message:
              The response includes the MANDATORY status code and an OPTIONAL
              "status-message" (text) operation attribute as described in
              section 3.1.4.

           Natural Language and Character Set:
              The "attributes-charset" and "attributes-natural-language"
              attributes as described in section 3.1.3.2.  The "attributes-
              natural-language" MAY be the natural language of the Job object,
              rather than the one requested.

         Group 2: Requested Job Object Attributes

              This is the set of requested attributes and their current values.
              The Printer object ignores (does not respond with) any requested
              attribute which is not supported. supported or which is restricted by the
              security policy in force, including whether the requesting user
              is the user that submitted the job (job originating user) or not
              (see section 3.1.5).

         4. Object Attributes

         This section describes the attributes with their corresponding
         attribute syntaxes and values that are part of the IPP model.  The
         sections below show the objects and their associated attributes which
         are included within the scope of this protocol.  Many of these
         attributes are derived from other relevant specifications:

           - Document Printing Application (DPA) [ISODPA] [ISO10175]
           - RFC 1759 Printer MIB [RFC1759]

         Each attribute is uniquely identified in this document using a
         "keyword" (see section 12.2.1).  The keyword is included in the
         section header describing that attribute.  All attributes are uniquely
         identified with a keyword as its name.  In addition, one of the
         attribute syntaxes described below is "keyword".  Therefore, some
         attributes
         are can be defined as having a an attribute syntax that is a set
         of keywords.

         4.1 Attribute Syntaxes

         This section defines the basic attribute syntax types that a client all clients
         and server IPP objects SHALL be able to handle. accept in responses and accept in
         requests, respectively.  Each attribute description in sections 3 and
         4 includes the name of attribute syntax(es) in the heading (in
         parentheses).  A conforming implementation of an attribute SHALL
         include the semantics of the attribute syntax(es) so identified.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         Section 6 describes how the protocol can be extended with new
         attribute syntaxes.

         The attribute syntaxes are specified in the following sub-sections,
         where the sub-section heading is the keyword name of the attribute
         syntax inside the single quotes.  In operation requests and responses
         each attribute value MUST be represented as one of the attribute
         syntaxes specified in the sub-section heading for the attribute or be
         one of the "out of band" values.   Standard values are:

           'unknown': The attribute is supported, but the value is unknown for
              some reason.
           'unsupported': The attribute is unsupported.

         The protocol specification defines mechanisms for allowing passing
         "out of band" values.

         Most attributes are defined to have a single attribute syntax.
         However, a few attributes (e.g., "job-sheet", "media", "job-hold-
         until") are defined to have several attribute syntaxes, depending on

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         the value.  These multiple attribute syntaxes are separated by the "|"
         character in the sub-section heading to indicate the choice.  Since
         each value SHALL be tagged as to its attribute syntax in the protocol,
         a single-valued attribute instance may have any one of its attribute
         syntaxes and a multi-valued attribute instance may have a mixture of
         its defined attribute syntaxes.

         The attribute syntaxes are specified in the following sub-sections,
         where the sub-section heading is the name of the attribute syntax
         inside the single quotes:

         4.1.1 'text'

         The 'text' attribute syntax is a sequence of one or more characters
         with
         encoded in a limit maximum of 1 to 4095 octets.  The Printer object SHALL support
         the UTF-8 charset [RFC2044] and MAY support additional charsets
         provided that they are registered with IANA [IANA-CS].  See Section
         4.1.7 for the specification of the 'charSet' 'charset' attribute syntax,
         including restricted semantics and examples of charsets.

         If the client needs to pass supply or the Printer object needs to return a
         'text' attribute in a different natural language than from the rest of the
         'text' attributes in the request or response as indicated by the
         "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute (see Section 3.1.3), 3.1.3)
         or job attribute (see Section 4.3.21), the client or Printer object
         SHALL immediately precede identify the natural language for that attribute
         value with attribute.  This
         mechanism for identifying the natural language of a 'naturalLanguage' single attribute
         value that indicates the
         differing natural language.  Thus the attribute becomes multi-valued
         with two values.  This additional values is called an "exception"
         natural language value.  In a create operation, the Printer object
         SHOULD accept and store an exception natural language value.  If the
         Printer object does not store an exception natural language value, the
         Printer SHALL ignore it and SHALL store the immediately following
         'text' value only.  The Printer SHALL not reject the request no matter
         what value the client supplies as an exception natural language. Natural Language Override mechanism.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         If the attribute is multi-valued (1setOf text), then the exception Natural
         Language Override must be explicitly specified with each attribute
         value whose natural language value applies only needs to the next 'text' value.
         Subsequent be overriden.  Other values in a
         multi-valued 'text' attribute in a request or a response revert to the
         natural language of the operation attribute or to the "job-natural-language" job "attributes-
         natural-language" Job attribute, if present, in the case of a Get-Jobs
         response.

         In a create request, the Printer object MUST accept and store with the
         Job object any natural languages in the "attributes-natural-language"
         operation attribute, whether the Printer object supports that natural
         language or not.  Furthermore, the Printer object MUST accept and
         store with each attribute value any Natural Language Override, whether
         the Printer object supports that natural language or not.  These
         requirements are independent of the value of the "ipp-attribute-
         fidelity" operation attribute that the client supplies.

         Example:  If the client supplies the "attributes-natural-language"
         operation attribute with the value:  'en' indicating English, but the
         values
         value of the "job-name" attribute is in French, the values of the
         normally single-valued "job-name" attribute supplied by the client in
         any request or returned by the Printer object in any response would be
         the following two values, each tagged with the appropriate attribute
         syntax ('naturalLanguage' and 'text') in MUST use
         the protocol:

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 Natural Language Override mechanism as follows:

           'fr': exception natural language Natural Language Override indicating French with attribute
              syntax 'naturalLanguage'
           'Rapport Mensuel': the job name in French with attribute syntax
              'name'.

         See the Protocol document [IPP-PRO] for a detailed example of the
         Natural Language Override mechanism.

         4.1.2 'name'

         The 'name' attribute syntax is the same as 'text', including the
         MANDATORY support of UTF-8 and the exception natural language Natural Language Override
         mechanism, except that the sequence of characters is limited so that
         its encoded form is of length 1 to 255 octets.  This syntax type is
         used for user-friendly strings, such as a Printer name, that, for
         humans, are more meaningful than identifiers.

         Note:  Only the 'text' and 'name 'name' attribute syntaxes permit the
         exception natural language
         Natural Language Override mechanism.

         Example:  If the client supplies the "attributes-natural-language"
         operation attribute with the value:  'en' indicating English, but the
         "printer-name" attribute is in German, the values of the normally
         single-valued "printer-name" attribute returned by the Printer in any
         operation response would be the following two values, each tagged with
         the appropriate attribute syntax ('naturalLanguage' and 'name') in the
         protocol: client MUST use Natural
         Language Override as follows:

           'de':  exception natural language  Natural Language Override indicating German with the
              attribute syntax 'naturalLanguage'
           'Farbdrucker':  the Printer name in German with attribute syntax
              'name'

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         4.1.3 'keyword'

         The 'keyword' attribute syntax is a sequence of characters, length: 1
         to 255, containing only the US-ASCII [ASCII] encoded values for
         lowercase letters ("a" - "z"), digits ("0" - "9"), hyphen ("-"), dot
         ("."), and underscore ("_").  The first character MUST be a lowercase
         letter.  Furthermore, keywords SHALL be in U.S. English.

         This syntax type is used for enumerating semantic identifiers of
         entities in the abstract protocol, i.e., entities identified in this
         document.  Keywords are used as attribute names or values of
         attributes.  Unlike 'text' and 'name' attribute values, 'keyword'
         values SHALL NOT use the exception natural language Natural Language Override mechanism, since
         they SHALL always be US-ASCII and U.S. English.  When accepting
         keywords from users and displaying keywords to users, clients SHOULD
         localize

         Keywords are for use in the protocol.  A user interface will likely
         provide a mapping between protocol keywords and displayable user-
         friendly words and phrases which are localized to the charset and natural language
         of the user.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998  While the keywords specified in this document MAY be
         displayed to users whose natural language is U.S. English, they MAY be
         mapped to other U.S. English words for U.S. English users, since the
         user interface is outside the scope of this document.

         In the definition for each attribute of this syntax type, the full set
         of defined keyword values for that attribute are listed.

         When a keyword is used to represent an attribute (its name), it MUST
         be unique within the full scope of all IPP objects and attributes.
         When a keyword is used to represent a value of an attribute, it MUST
         be unique just within the scope of that attribute.  That is, the same
         keyword SHALL not be used for two different values within the same
         attribute to mean two different semantic ideas.  However, the same
         keyword MAY be used across two or more attributes, representing
         different semantic ideas for each attribute.  Section 6 describes how
         the protocol can be extended with new keyword values.  Examples of
         attribute name keywords:

           "job-name"
           "attributes-charset "
           "attributes-charset"

         4.1.4 'enum'

         The 'enum' attribute syntax is an enumerated integer value that is in
         the range from -2**31 (MIN) to 2**31 - 1. 1 (MAX).   Each value has an
         associated 'keyword' name.  In the definition for each attribute of

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         this syntax type, the full set of possible values for that attribute
         are listed.. listed.  This syntax type is used for attributes for which there
         are enum values assigned by other standards, such as SNMP MIBs.  A
         number of attribute enum values in this specification are also used
         for corresponding attributes in other standards [RFC1759].. [RFC1759].  This
         syntax type is not used for attributes to which the system
         administrator may assign values.  Section 6 describes how the protocol
         can be extended with new enum values.  Though this document includes a symbolic name

         Enum values are for each enum value (in U.S. English), when accepting use in the protocol.  A user interface will
         provide a mapping between protocol enum names from
         users values and displaying enum names to users, clients SHOULD localize the
         names displayable user-
         friendly words and phrases which are localized to the charset and natural language
         of the user.

         4.1.5 'uri'

         The 'uri' attribute syntax  While the enum symbols specified in this document MAY be
         displayed to users whose natural language is any valid Uniform Resource Identifier or
         URI [RFC1630].  Most U.S. English, they MAY be
         mapped to other U.S. English words for U.S. English users, since the
         user interface is outside the scope of this document.

         Note: SNMP MIBs use '2' for 'unknown' which corresponds to the IPP out
         of band value 'unknown'.  Therefore, most attributes of type 'enum'
         often start at '3'.

         4.1.5 'uri'

         The 'uri' attribute syntax is any valid Uniform Resource Identifier or
         URI [RFC1630].  Most often, URIs are simply Uniform Resource Locators
         or URLs [RFC1738] [RFC1808].

         4.1.6 'uriScheme'

         The 'uriScheme' attribute syntax is a sequence of characters
         representing a URI scheme according to RFC 1738 [RFC1738].  Though RFC
         1736 requires that the  values be case-insensitive, IPP requires all
         lower case to simplify comparing by IPP clients and Printer objects.
         Standard values for this syntax type are the following keywords:

           'http':  for HTTP schemed URIs (e.g., "http://...")
           'https':  for HTTPS schemed URIs (e.g., https://...)
           'ftp': for FTP schemed URIs (e.g., "ftp://...")

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           'mailto': for SMTP schemed URIs (e.g., "mailto:...")
           'file': for file schemed URIs (e.g., "file:...")

         A Printer object MAY support any URI scheme that has been registered
         with IANA [IANA-MT]

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         4.1.7 'charSet' 'charset'

         The 'charSet' 'charset' attribute syntax is a standard identifier of for a
         "charset".  A charset is a coded character set and encoding scheme scheme.
         Charsets are used for labeling certain document contents and 'text'
         and 'name' attribute values.  The syntax and semantics of this
         attribute syntax are specified in RFC 2046 [RFC2046] and contained in
         the IANA character-set Registry [IANA-CS] according to the IANA
         procedures [IANA-CSa].  As specified in  Though RFC 2046, 2046 requires that the values SHALL be
         case-insensitive US-ASCII, IPP requires all lower case to simplify
         comparing by IPP clients and SHALL be in US-ASCII. Printer objects.  When a character-set in
         the IANA registry has more than one name (alias), the name labeled as
         "(preferred MIME name)" name)", if present, SHALL be used.

         Some examples are:

           'utf-8':  ISO 10646 Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set
              (UCS) represented as the UTF-8 [RFC2044] transfer encoding scheme
              in which US-ASCII is a subset charset.  The 'utf-8' charset value
              supplied in the "attributes-charset" operation attribute (see
              Section 3.1.3), which is used to identify the charset of 'text'
              and 'name' attributes, SHALL be restricted to conformance level 2
              of any characters
              defined by ISO 10646 [ISO10646-1], so that accented letters SHALL NOT be
              represented with non-spacing accents.  This same 'utf-8' value
              supplied in the "document-format" operation attribute (see
              Sections 3.2.1.1 and 3.3.1.1), MAY include level 3 of ISO 10646.
           'US-ASCII': [ISO10646-1].
           'us-ascii':  7-bit American Standard Code for Information
              Interchange (ASCII), ANSI X3.4-1986 [ASCII].  This  That standard
              defines US-ASCII, but RFC 2045 [46] eliminates most of the
              control characters from conformant usage in MIME and IPP.
           'iso-8859-1':  8-bit One-Byte Coded Character Set, Latin Alphabet
              Nr 1 [ISO8859-1].  This  That standard defines a coded character set
              that is used by Latin languages in the Western Hemisphere and
              Western Europe.  US-ASCII is a subset charset.

         Some attribute descriptions MAY place additional requirements on
         charset values that may be used, such as MANDATORY values the that MUST be
         supported or additional restrictions, such as requiring that the
         charset have US-ASCII as a subset charset.

         4.1.8 'naturalLanguage'

         The 'naturalLanguage' attribute syntax is a standard identifier for a
         natural language and optionally a country.  The values for this syntax
         type are taken from RFC 1766 [RFC1766].  As specified in  Though RFC 1766, 1766 requires that
         the values SHALL be case-insensitive US-ASCII, IPP requires all lower case
         to simplify comparing by IPP clients and SHALL be in US-ASCII. Printer objects.  Examples
         include:

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

           'en':  for English

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           'en-us': for US English
           'FR':
           'fr': for French
           'de':  for German

         4.1.9 'mimeType' 'mimeMediaType'

         The 'mimeType' 'mimeMediaType' attribute syntax is the standard defined Internet Media Type
         (sometimes called MIME type) as defined by RFC 2046 [RFC2046] and
         registered according to the procedures of RFC 2048 [RFC2048] for
         identifying a document format.  The value MAY include a charset
         parameter, depending on the specification of the Media Type in the
         IANA Registry [IANA-MT]. Examples:

           'text/html': An HTML document
           'text/plain': A plain text document in US-ASCII (RFC 2046 indicates
              that in the absence of the charset parameter SHALL mean US-ASCII
              rather than simply unspecified) [RFC2046].
           'text/plain; charset=US-ASCII':  A plain text document in US-ASCII
              [52, 56].
           'text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1':  A plain text document in ISO
              8859-1 (Latin 1) [ISO8859-1].
           'text/plain; charset=utf-8':  A plain text document in ISO 10646
              represented as UTF-8 [RFC2044]
           'text/plain, charset=iso-10646-ucs-2':  A plain text document in
              ISO 10646 represented in two octets (UCS-2) [ISO10646-1]
           'application/postscript':  A PostScript document [RFC2046]
           'application/vnd.hp-PCL':  A PCL document [IANA-MT] (charset escape
              sequence embedded in the document data)
           'application/octet-stream':  Auto-sense - see below

         One special type is 'application/octet-stream'.  If the Printer object
         supports this value, the Printer object or the device SHALL be capable of auto-sensing auto-
         sensing the format of the document data.  If the Printer object's
         default value attribute "document-format" is set to 'application/octet-
         stream'
         'application/octet-stream', the Printer object not only supports auto-sensing auto-
         sensing of the document format, but will depend on the result of
         applying its auto-
         sensing algorithm in auto-sensing when the case of missing information client does not supplied by supply the client.
         "document-format" attribute.  If the client supplies a document format
         value, the Printer SHOULD rely on the supplied attribute, rather than
         trust its auto-sensing algorithm.  To summarize:

           1. If the client does not supply a document format value, the
              Printer MUST rely on its default value setting (which may be
              'application/octet-stream' indicating an auto-sensing mechanism).
           2. If the client supplies a value other than 'application/octet-
              stream', the client is supplying valid information about the
              format of the document data and the Printer object SHOULD trust

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
              the client supplied value more than the outcome of applying an
              automatic format detection mechanism.  For example, the client
              may be requesting the printing of a PostScript file as a
              'text/plain' document.  The Printer object SHOULD SHALL print a text
              representation of the PostScript commands rather than interpret
              the stream of PostScript commands and print the result.
           3. If the client supplies a value of 'application/octet-stream',
              the client is indicating that the Printer object SHOULD SHALL use its
              auto-sensing mechanism on the client supplied document data
              whether auto-sensing is the Printer object's default or not.

         Note:  Since the auto-sensing algorithm is probabilistic, if the
         client requests both auto-sensing ("document-format" set to
         'application/octet-stream') and true fidelity ("ipp-attribute-
         fidelity" set to 'true'), the Printer object might not be able to
         guarantee exactly what the end user intended (the auto-sensing
         algorithm might mistake one document format for another ), but it is
         able to guarantee that its auto-sensing mechanism be used.

         4.1.10 'octetString'

         The 'octetString' attribute syntax is a sequence of octets encoded in
         a maximum of 4095 octets.  This syntax type is used for opaque data data.

         4.1.11 'boolean'

         The 'boolean' attribute syntax is like a keyword similar to an enum with only two values
         values:  'true' and 'false'.

         4.1.12 'integer'

         The 'integer' attribute syntax is an integer value that is in the
         range from -2**31 (MIN) to 2**31 - 1. 1 (MAX). Each individual attribute
         may specify the range constraint explicitly if the range is different
         from the full range of possible integer values (e.g., 0 - 100 0:100 for the "job-
         priority"
         "job-priority" attribute), however, the enforcement of that additional
         constraint is up to the IPP objects, not the protocol.

         4.1.13 'rangeOfInteger'

         The 'rangeOfInteger' attribute syntax is an ordered set of two
         integers, the smallest first, followed by the largest.  The pair of integers identifies
         that defines an inclusive range of integer values.  The first integer
         specifies the lower bound and the second specifies the upper bound.
         If a range constraint is specified in the header description for an

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         attribute in this document whose attribute syntax is 'rangeOfInteger'
         (i.e., 'X:Y' indicating X as a minimum value and Y as a maximum
         value), then the constraint applies to both integers.

         4.1.14 'dateTime'

         The 'dateTime' attribute syntax is a standard, fixed length length, 11 octet
         representation of the "DateAndTime" syntax as defined in RFC 1514
         [RFC1514] and RFC 1903
         [RFC1903].  RFC 1903 also identifies an 8 octet representation of a
         "DateAndTime" value, but IPP objects MUST use the 11 octet
         representation.  When accepting 'dateTime' values from users and
         displaying 'dateTime' values to users, clients SHOULD localize the
         values to the charset and natural language of the user.

         4.1.15 'resolution'

         The 'resolution' attribute syntax specifies a two-dimensional
         resolution in the indicated units.  It consists of 3 integers: a cross

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         feed direction resolution (positive integer value), a feed direction
         resolution (positive integer value), and a units value.  The semantics
         of these three components are taken from the Printer MIB [RFC1759]
         suggested values.  That is, the cross feed direction component
         resolution component is the same as the
         prtMarkerAddressabilityXFeedDir object in the Printer MIB, the feed
         direction component resolution component is the same as the
         prtMarkerAddressabilityFeedDir in the Printer MIB, and the units
         component is the same as the prtMarkerAddressabilityUnit object in the
         Printer MIB (namely dots per inch and dots per centimeter).  All three
         values MUST be present even if the first two values are the same.
         Example:  '300', '600', '3' indicates a 300 dpi cross-feed direction
         resolution, a 600 dpi feed direction resolution, since a '3' indicates
         dots per inch.

         4.1.16 '1setOf  X'

         The '1setOf  X' attribute syntax is 1 or more values of attribute
         syntax type X.  This syntax type is used for multi-valued attributes.
         The syntax type is called '1setOf' rather than just 'setOf' as a
         reminder that the set of values SHALL NOT be empty (i.e., a set of
         size 0).  Sets are normally unordered, however each attribute
         description of this type may specify that the values MUST be in a
         certain order for that attribute.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         4.2 Job Template Attributes

         Job Template attributes describe job processing behavior.  Support for
         Job Template attributes by a Printer object is OPTIONAL (see section
         12.2.3 for a description of support for OPTIONAL attributes).  Also,
         clients OPTIONALLY supply Job Template attributes in create requests.

         Job Template attributes conform to the following rules.  For each Job
         Template attribute called "foo": "xxx":

           1. The If the Printer object OPTIOINALLY supports "xxx" then it SHALL support both
              a "foo-supported" "xxx-default" default value attribute that describes which job processing behaviors are
              supported by that Printer object.  A client can query (unless there is a "No"
              in the Printer
              object to find out what foo-related behaviors are table below) and a "xxx-supported" supported by
              inspecting the returned values of the "foo-supported"
              attribute.

           2. The Printer also OPTIONALLY supports a default value attribute
              named "foo-default". This default value attribute describes what
              will be done when no other job processing information "xxx" is supplied
              by the client (either explicitly as an IPP attribute in the
              create request or implicitly as an embedded instruction within
              the document data). If the Printer supports either the "foo-

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
              default" default value attribute or the "foo-supported"
              attribute, the Printer MUST support both.

           3. "foo" is OPTIOINALLY OPTIONALLY supplied by the client in a create request.
           If "foo" "xxx" is supplied, the client is specifying that the Printer
              SHALL apply the corresponding indicating a desired job
           processing behavior to for this Job
              while processing the Job.  When "foo" "xxx" is not supplied, the
           client is specifying indicating that the Printer object apply the its default job
           processing behavior at job processing time if the document content
           does not contain an embedded instruction indicating an xxx-related
           behavior.

              NOTE:

              Note: Since an administrator MAY change the default value
              attribute after a Job object has been submitted but before it has
              been processed, the default value used by the Printer object at
              job processing time may be different that the default value in
              effect at job submission time.

         The "xxx-supported" attribute is a Printer object attribute that
         describes which job processing behaviors are supported by that Printer
         object.  A client can query the Printer object to find out what xxx-
         related behaviors are supported by inspecting the returned values of
         the "xxx-supported" attribute.  The "xxx-default" default value
         attribute describes what will be done at job processing time when no
         other job processing information is supplied by the client (either
         explicitly as an IPP attribute in the create request or implicitly as
         an embedded instruction within the document data).

         If an application wishes to present an end user with a list of
         supported values from which to choose, the application SHOULD query
         the Printer object for the its supported values. value attributes.  The
         application SHOULD also query the default value attributes.  If the
         application then limits selectable values to only those value that are
         supported, the application can guarantee that the values supplied by
         the client in the create request all fall within the set of supported
         values at the Printer.  When querying the Printer, the client MAY
         enumerate each attribute by name in the Get-Attributes Request, or the

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         client MAY just name the "job-template" group in order to get the
         complete set of supported attributes (both supported and default
         attributes).

         The "finishings" attribute is an example of a Job Template attribute.
         It can take on a set of values such as 'staple', 'punch', and/or
         'cover'.  A client can query the Printer object for the "finishings-
         supported" attribute and the "finishings-default" attribute.  The
         supported attribute contains a set of supported values.  The default
         value attribute contains the finishing value(s) that will be used for
         a new Job if the client does not supply a "finishings" attribute in
         the create request.  If the client does supply the "finishings"
         attribute in the create request, the Printer validates the value or
         values to make sure that they are a subset of the supported values.
         If the client-supplied values are all supported, the Job object is
         created with a "finishings" attribute that is populated with the
         values supplied by the client.  Subsequently, when the Job object is
         queried, it returns the values supplied by the client.  If the client
         does not supply a "finishings" attribute in the create request, the
         Job object is created, but no "finishings" attribute is associated
         with the new Job object.  A subsequent query of the Job object will
         return no "finishings" attribute.  In this case, the querying client
         knows that there were was no client supplied "finishings" attribute.
         If the client is interested to know what the default value is that the

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         Printer will use at job processing time for the missing attribute, the
         client can query the Printer object's default value "finishings-default" "finishings-
         default" attribute to find out how the Job will be finished. finished, unless
         the document(s) contain embedded finishing instructions.

         The table below summarizes the names and relationships for all Job
         Template attributes. The first column of the table (labeled "Job")
         shows the name and syntax for each Job Template attribute in the Job
         object. These are the attributes that can optionally be supplied by
         the client in a create request.   The last two columns (labeled
         "Printer: Default Value" and "Printer: Supported Values") shows the
         name and syntax for each Job Template attribute in the Printer object
         (the default value attribute and the supported values attribute).  A
         "No" in the table means the Printer SHALL NOT support the attribute
         (that is the attribute is simply not applicable).

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
           +===================+======================+======================+
           | Job Attribute     |Printer: Default Value|  Printer: Supported  |
           |                   |   Attribute          |   Values Attribute   |
           +===================+======================+======================+
           | job-sheets        | job-sheets-default   |job-sheets-supported  |
           | (type4 keyword,   | (type4 keyword,      |(1setOf type4 keyword,|
           |    name)          |    name)             |    name)             |
           |                   |                      |                      |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
         | job-priority      | job-priority-default |job-priority-supported|
           | (integer 1:100)   | (integer 1:100)      |(integer 1:100)       |
           |                   |                      |                      |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | job-hold-until    | job-hold-until-      |job-hold-until-       |
           | (type4 keyword, keyword |  |  default             | supported            |
           |    name)          |  (type4 keyword, keyword |    |(1setOf type4 keyword,|               |
           |                   |    name)             | type4 keyword | name)|
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | job-sheets        | job-sheets-default   |job-sheets-supported  |
           | (type4 keyword |  | (type4 keyword |     |(1setOf
           |    name)          |    name)             | type4 keyword | name)|
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           |multiple-document- |multiple-document-    |multiple-document-    |
           | handling          | handling-default     |handling-supported    |
           | (type2 keyword)   | (type2 keyword)      |(1setOf type2 keyword)|
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | media copies            | media-default copies-default       | media-supported copies-supported     |
           | (type4 keyword, (integer (1:MAX)) | (type4 keyword,      |(1setOf type4 keyword,| (integer (1:MAX))    |    name) (integer (1:MAX))    |    name)
           |    name)                   |                      |                      |
           |                   | copies-collated-     | copies-collated-     |
           | media-ready                   | default              | supported            |                      |(1setOf type4 keyword,|
           |                   | (integer (1:MAX))    |    name) (integer (1:MAX))    |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | finishings        | finishings-default   | finishings-supported |
           |(1setOf type2 enum)|(1setOf type2 enum)   |(1setOf type2 enum)   |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | number-up page-ranges       | number-up-default No                   | page-ranges-         | number-up-supported
           | (1setOf           | (integer)                      | (integer)            |(1setOf integer) supported (boolean)  |
           |   rangeOfInteger  |                      |                      |
           |        (1:MAX))   |                      |                      |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | sides             | sides-default        | sides-supported      |
           | (type2 keyword)   | (type2 keyword)      |(1setOf type2 keyword)|
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | number-up         | number-up-default    | number-up-supported  |
           | (integer (0:MAX)) |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ (integer (0:MAX))    |(1setOf integer       | printer-resolution| printer-resolution-
           | printer-resolution-                   |                      | (resolution) (0:MAX) |  default            | supported
           |                   |                      | (resolution)         |(1setOf resolution)  rangeOfInteger      |
           |                   |                      |   (0:MAX))           |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | print-quality orientation       | print-quality-default| print-quality- orientation-default  | orientation-         |
           | (type2 enum)      |  (type2 enum)        | supported            |
           |                   |                      |(1setOf                      |  (1setOf type2 enum) |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | finishings        | finishings-default   | finishings-supported |

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
           |(1setOf type2 enum)|(1setOf type2 enum)   |(1setOf type2 enum)   |
           | media             | media-default        |                      |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | copies            | copies-default       | copies-supported media-supported      |
           | (integer: 1:MAX) (type4 keyword | (integer: 1:MAX)  | (integer: 1:MAX) (type4 keyword |     |(1setOf               |
           |    name)          |    name)             | type4 keyword | name)|
           |                   | collated-copies-                      |                      |
           |                   | supported                      | media-ready          |
           |                   | (integer: 1:MAX)                      |(1setOf               |
           |                   |                      | type4 keyword | name)|
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | page-ranges       | No printer-resolution| printer-resolution-  | page-ranges- printer-resolution-  |
           | (1setOf (resolution)      |  default             | supported (boolean)            |
           |   rangeOfInteger) |                   | (resolution)         |(1setOf resolution)   |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | orientation       | orientation-default print-quality     | orientation- print-quality-default| print-quality-       |
           | (type2 enum)      | (type2 enum)         | supported            |
           |                   |                      |  (1setOf                      |(1setOf type2 enum)   |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | document-format   | document-format-     | document-format-     |
           | (mimeType)        |  default             | supported            |
           |                   |  (mimeType)          |(1setOf mimeType)     |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | compression       | No                   | compression-supported|
           | (type3 keyword)   |                      |(1setOf type3 keyword)|
           |                   |                      |                      |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | job-k-octets      | No                   |job-k-octets-supported|
           | (integer) (integer (0:MAX)) |                      | (rangeOf integer) (rangeOfInteger      |
           |                   |                      |      (0:MAX))        |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | job-              | No                   | job-impressions-     |
           | impressions       |                      | supported            |
           | (integer) (integer (0:MAX)) |                      | (rangeOfInteger      |
           | (rangeOf integer)                   |                      |      (0:MAX))        |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
           | job-media-        | No                   | job-media-sheets-    |
           | sheets            |                      | supported            |
           | (integer) (integer (0:MAX)) |                      | (rangeOfInteger)    |
           |                   | (rangeOf integer)                      |      (0:MAX))        |
           +-------------------+----------------------+----------------------+

         4.2.1 job-sheets (type4 keyword, name) job-priority (integer(1:100))

         This  attribute determines which if any banner page(s) specifies a priority for scheduling the Job. A higher
         value specifies a higher priority. The value 1 indicates the lowest
         possible priority. The value 100 indicates the highest possible
         priority.  Among those jobs that are ready to print, a Printer SHALL be printed
         with a job.

         Standard values are:

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           'none': no job sheet is printed
           'standard': one or more site specific standard job sheets are
              printed, e.g. a single start sheet or both start and end sheet is
              printed

         An administrator MAY define additional values using the 'name' or
         'keyword' attribute syntax, depending on implementation.

         Note: The effect of this attribute on jobs with multiple documents is
         controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4).

         4.2.2 job-priority (integer(1:100))

         This attribute specifies a priority for scheduling the Job. A higher
         value specifies a higher priority. The value 1 indicates the lowest
         possible priority. The value 100 indicates the highest possible
         priority.  Among those jobs that are ready to print, a Printer SHALL
         print all jobs
         print all jobs with a priority value of n before printing those with a
         priority value of n-1 for all n.

         If the Printer object supports this attribute, it SHALL always support
         the full range from 1 to 100.  No administrative restrictions are
         permitted.  This way an end-user can always make full use of the

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         entire range with any Printer object.  If privileged jobs are
         implemented outside IPP/1.0, they SHALL have priorities higher than
         100, rather than restricting the range available to end-users.

         The syntax for the "job-priority-supported" is an also integer(1:100).
         This single integer value indicates the number of priority levels
         supported.  For example, if the value of "job-priority-supported" is
         '3', then the  The Printer object supports 3 levels of job priorities
         (let's call them 'high', 'medium', and 'low'). In this case, a client
         MUST assume the following:

           A client supplied value in the range 1-33 is SHALL take the same as any other value in supplied by the range 1-33
         client and any one of those values corresponds map it to the 'low' priority.
           A client supplied value in the range 34-66 is the same as any other
              value closest integer in the range 34-66 and any one a sequence of those n integers
         values corresponds
              to the 'medium' priority.
           A client supplied value in that are evenly distributed over the range 67-100 from 1 to 100 using
         the formula:

              roundToNearestInt((100x+50)/n)

         where n is the same as any
              other value in the range 67-100 and any one of those values
              corresponds to the 'high' priority. "job-priority-supported" and x ranges from 0
         through n-1.

         For another example, if n=1 the value sequence of "job-priority-supported" values is '10',
         then 50;  if n=2, the Printer object supports 3 levels
         sequence of job priorities, (let's
         call them 'one', 'two', ..., values is:  25 and 'ten' with 'one' being 75;  if n = 3, the lowest
         priority sequence of values
         is:  17, 50 and 'ten' being the highest). In this case, a client MUST
         assume the following:

           A client supplied value in the range 1-10 is the same as any other
              value in 83;  if n = 10, the range 1-10 sequence of values is: 5, 15, 25,
         35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85, and any one 95;  if n = 100, the sequence of those values corresponds
              to
         is:  1, 2, 3, _ 100.

         If the 'one' priority.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           A client supplied value in of the range 11-20 Printer object's "job-priority-supported" is the same as any other
              value in the range 11-20 10
         and any one of those values corresponds
              to the 'two' priority.
           ...
           A client supplied value supplies values in the range 91-100 is the same as any
              other value in 1 to 10, the range 91-100 and any one of those values
              corresponds Printer
         object maps them to 5, 11 to 20, the 'ten' priority.

         4.2.3 Printer object maps them to 15,
         etc.

         4.2.2 job-hold-until (type4 keyword, keyword | name)

         This job  attribute specifies the named time period during which the Job
         SHALL become a candidate for printing.

         Standard values for named time periods are:

           'no-hold': immediately, if there are not other reasons to hold the
              job.
              job
           'day-time': during the day. day
           'evening': evening
           'night': night
           'weekend': weekend
           'second-shift': second-shift (after close of business)
           'third-shift': third-shift (after midnight)

         An administrator SHALL associate allowable print times with a named
         time period (by means outside IPP 1.0). IPP/1.0).  An administrator is
         encouraged to pick names that suggest the type of time period. An

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         administrator MAY define additional values using the 'name' or
         'keyword' attribute syntax, depending on implementation.

         If the value of this attribute specifies a time period that is in the
         future, the Printer SHALL add the 'job-hold-until-specified' value to
         the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute, move the job to the 'pending-
         held' state, and SHALL NOT schedule the job for printing until the
         specified time-period arrives.  When the specified time period
         arrives, the Printer SHALL remove the 'job-hold-until-specified' value
         from the job's "job-state-reason" attribute and, if there are no other
         job state reasons that keep it the job in the 'pending-held' state
         remain, the Printer SHALL consider the job as a candidate for
         processing by moving the job to the 'pending' state.

         If this job attribute value is the named value 'no-hold', or the
         specified time period is in effect has already started, the job SHALL be a
         candidate for processing immediately.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         4.2.4 multiple-document-handling (type2 keyword)

         4.2.3 job-sheets (type4 keyword | name)

         This job attribute is relevant only determines which job start/end sheet(s), if any, SHALL
         be printed with a job.

         Standard values are:

           'none': no job consists of two sheet is printed
           'standard': one or more site specific standard job sheets are
              printed, e.g. a single start sheet or both start and end sheet is
              printed

         An administrator MAY define additional values using the 'name' or
         'keyword' attribute syntax, depending on implementation.

         Note: The effect of this attribute on jobs with multiple documents MAY
         be affected by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4), depending on the job sheet semantics.

         4.2.4 multiple-document-handling (type2 keyword)

         This attribute is relevant only if a job consists of two or more
         documents. The attribute controls finishing operations and the
         placement of one or more
         documents. The attribute controls finishing operations and the
         placement of print-stream pages into imposed pages impressions and onto
         media sheets.  When the value of the "copies" attribute exceeds 1, it
         also controls the order in which the copies that result from
         processing the documents are produced. For the purposes of this
         explanations, if "a" represents an instance of document data, then the

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         result of processing the data in document "a" is a sequence of media
         sheets represented by "a(*)".

         Standard values are:

           'single-document': If a Job object has multiple documents, say say, the
              document data is called a and b, then the result of processing
              all the document data (a and then b) SHALL be treated as a single
              sequence of media sheets for finishing operations; that is,
              finishing would be performed on the concatenation of the
              seqeunces
              sequences a(*),b(*).  The Printer object SHALL NOT force the data
              in each document instance to be formatted onto a new print-stream
              page, nor to start a new imposed page or impression on a new media sheet. If more
              than one copy is made, the ordering of the sets of media sheets
              resulting from processing the document data SHALL be a(*), b(*),
              a(*), b(*),...., b(*), ..., and the Printer object SHALL force each copy
              (a(*),b(*)) to start on a new media sheet.
           'separate-documents-uncollated-copies': If a Job object has
              multiple documents, say say, the document data is called a and b,
              then the result of processing the data in each document instance
              SHALL be treated as a single sequence of media sheets for
              finishing operations; that is, the sets a(*) and b(*) would each
              be finished separately. The Printer object SHALL force each copy
              of the result of process processing the data in a single document to
              start on a new media sheet. If more than one copy is made, the
              ordering of the sets of media sheets resulting from processing
              the document data SHALL be a(*), a(*), ..., b(*), b(*) .... ... .
           'separate-documents-collated-copies': If a Job object has multiple
              documents, say say, the document data is called a and b, then the
              result of processing the data in each document instance SHALL be
              treated as a single sequence of media sheets for finishing
              operations; that is, the sets a(*) and b(*) would each be
              finished separately. The Printer object SHALL force each copy of
              the result of processing the data in a single document to start
              on a new media sheet.  If more than one copy is made, the
              ordering of the sets of media sheets resulting from processing
              the document data SHALL be a(*), b(*), a(*), b(*), ...., and the
              Printer SHALL force each document copy to start on a new sheet ... .

         'separate-documents-collated-copies'

         The 'single-document' value is the same as 'single-document' 'separate-documents-
         collated-copies' with respect to ordering of print-stream pages, but
         not media sheet generation,

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 since the latter 'single-document' will put the first
         page of the next document on the back side of a sheet if an odd number
         of pages have been produced so far for the job, while the former case 'separate-
         documents-collated-copies' always force forces the next document or document
         copy on to a new sheet.

         4.2.5 media (type4 keyword, name)

         This job attribute identifies the medium that the Printer uses for all
         pages of  In addition, if the Job.

         The values for "media" include medium-names, medium-sizes, input-trays
         and electronic forms so that one _finishings_ attribute
         specifies the media. If a
         printer allows a client to specify a medium name as the value of this
         attribute, such a medium name implicitly selects an input-tray that
         contains the specified medium.  If a printer allows a client to
         specify a medium size as the value of this attribute, such a medium
         size implicitly selects a medium name that in turn implicitly selects
         an input-tray that contains the medium `staple', then with the specified size.  If a
         printer allows a client to specify an input-tray as the value of this
         attribute, such an input-tray implicitly selects the medium that is in
         that input-tray at the time the job prints. This case includes manual-
         feed input-trays.  If a printer allows 'single-document', documents a client to specify an
         electronic form and b are
         stapled together as the value of this attribute, such an electronic
         form implicitly selects a medium-name that in turn implicitly selects
         an input-tray that contains the medium specified by the electronic
         form. The electronic form also implicitly selects an image that the
         Printer SHALL merge single document, but with the document data as its prints each page.

         Standard values are (taken from ISO DPA and the Printer MIB) 'separate-documents-
         collated-copies', documents a and b are
         listed in section 14. An administrator MAY define additional values
         using the 'name' or 'keyword' attribute syntax, depending on
         implementation.

         There is also an additional attribute named "media-ready" which
         differs from "media-supported" in that legal values only include the
         subset of "media-supported" values that are physically loaded and
         ready for printing with no operator intervention required. stapled separately.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         The relationship of this attribute and the other attributes that
         control document processing is described in section 15.4.

         4.2.6 number-up (integer)

         4.2.5 copies (integer(1:MAX))

         This job attribute specifies the number of source page-images copies to
         impose upon a single side of an instance of a selected medium.  For
         example, if be printed.

         On many devices the value is

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           '1': The Printer SHALL place one logical page on a single side of
              an instance supported number of collated copies will be
         limited by the selected medium (MAY add some sort number of
              translation, scaling, or rotation).
           '2': The Printer SHALL place two logical pages physical output bins on a single side of
              an instance of the selected medium (MAY add some sort device, and may
         be different from the number of
              translation, scaling, or rotation).
           '4': uncollated copies which can be
         supported.

         The Printer SHALL place four logical pages "copies-supported" attribute is the limit on a single side of
              an instance of the selected medium (MAY add some sort number of
              translation, scaling, or rotation).

         This attribute primarily controls
         uncollated copies supported, i.e., the translation, scaling and
         rotation limit when the value of page images, but a site may choose to add embellishments,
         such as borders to each logical page.

         Note: the
         "multiple-document-handling" attribute is 'single-document' or
         'separate-documents-uncollated-copies'.  The effect of this " copies-collated-
         supported" attribute on jobs with multiple documents is
         controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4) and limit on the relationship number of this attribute and collated copies
         supported, i.e., the other attributes
         that control document processing is described in section 15.4.

         ISSUE: Steve Z.: should this section be changed to include "print-
         stream page" and "layout page"?? rather than "source page" and
         "logical page"?

         4.2.7 sides (type2 keyword)

         This attribute specifies how source page-images are to be imposed upon limit when the sides of an instance value of a selected medium. the "multiple-document-
         handling" attribute is 'separate-documents-collated-copies'.

         The standard values are:

           'one-sided': imposes each consecutive source page-image upon "copies-default" attribute is the
              same side of consecutive media sheets.
           'two-sided-long-edge': imposes each consecutive pair of source
              page-image upon front and back sides of consecutive media sheets,
              such that default for the orientation of each pair number of source-pages on
         uncollated copies, i.e., the
              medium would be correct for default when the reader as if for binding on value of the
              long edge.  This imposition "multiple-
         document-handling" attribute is sometimes called 'duplex' 'single-document' or
              'head-to-head'.
           'two-sided-short-edge': imposes each consecutive pair of source
              page-image upon front and back sides of consecutive media sheets,
              such that the orientation of each pair of source-pages on 'separate-
         documents-uncollated-copies'.  The " copies-collated-default"
         attribute is the
              medium would be correct default for the reader as if for binding on number of collated copies, i.e., the
              short edge.  This imposition is sometimes called 'tumble' or
              'head-to-toe'.

         'two-sided-long-edge', 'two-sided-short-edge', 'tumble', and 'duplex'
         all work
         default when the same for portrait or landscape.  However 'head-to-toe' value of the "multiple-document-handling" attribute
         is
         'tumble' in portrait but 'duplex' in landscape.  'head-to-head' also

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         switches between 'duplex' and 'tumble' when using portrait and
         landscape modes. 'separate-documents-collated-copies'.

         Note: The effect of this attribute on jobs with multiple documents is
         controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other attributes
         that control document processing is described in section 15.4.

         4.2.8  printer-resolution (resolution)

         This attribute identifies the resolution that Printer uses for a
         certain Job.

         4.2.9 print-quality (type2 enum)

         This attribute specifies the print quality that the Printer SHALL use
         for a certain Job.

         The standard values are:

           '3'     'draft': lowest quality available on the printer
           '4'     'normal': normal or intermediate quality on the printer
           '5'     'high': highest quality available on the printer

         4.2.10

         4.2.6 finishings (1setOf type2 enum)

         This attribute identifies the finishing operations that the Printer
         uses for each copy of each printed document in a particular the Job. For Jobs with
         multiple documents, the "multiple-document-handling" attribute
         determines what constitutes a _copy_ "copy" for purposes of finishing.

         Standard values are:

           Value   Symbolic Name and Description

           '3'     'none':  Perform no finishing

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           '4'     'staple':  Bind the document(s) with one or more staples.
                        The exact number and placement of the staples is site-
                        defined.
           '5'     'punch':  This value indicates that holes are required in
                        the finished document. The exact number and placement
                        of the holes is site-defined  The punch specification
                        MAY be satisfied (in a site- and implementation-
                        specific manner) either by drilling/punching, or by
                        substituting pre-drilled media.
           '6'     'cover':  This value is specified when it is desired to
                        select a non-printed (or pre-printed) cover for the
                        document. This does not supplant the specification of a

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
                        printed cover (on cover stock medium) by the document
                        itself.
           '7'     'bind':  This value indicates that a binding is to be
                        applied to the document; the type and placement of the
                        binding is site-defined."

         Note: The effect of this attribute on jobs with multiple documents is
         controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4).
         4.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other attributes
         that control document processing is described in section 15.4.

         If the client supplies a value of 'none' along with any other
         combination of values, it is the same as if only that other
         combination of values had been supplied (that is the 'none' value has
         no effect).

         4.2.11 copies (integer(1:2**31 - 1))

         4.2.7 page-ranges (1setOf rangeOfInteger (1:MAX))

         This attribute specifies identifies the number range(s) of copies print-stream pages that the
         Printer object uses for each copy of each document which are to be
         printed.  On many
         devices  Nothing is printed for any pages identified that do not
         exist in the supported number of collated copies will be limited by document(s).

         For Jobs with multiple documents, the
         number "multiple-document-handling"
         attribute determines what constitutes a "copy" for purposes of physical output bins on the device, and may be different
         from the number of uncollated copies which can be supported. The
         "copies-supported" attribute
         specified page range(s).  When "multiple-document-handling" is
         'single-document', the limit on Printer object SHALL apply each supplied page
         range once to the number concatenation of uncollated
         copies supported.  The "collated-copies-supported" attribute is the
         limit on the number print-stream pages.  For
         example, if there are 8 documents of collated copies supported.  The value in 10 pages each, the
         "copies-default" default value attribute applies to either collated or
         uncollated as determined by page-range
         '41:60' prints the value pages in the "multiple-document-
         handling-default" attribute.

         Note: The effect of this attribute on jobs with multiple 5th and 6th documents is
         controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4) as a single
         document and none of the relationship pages of this attribute and the other attributes
         that control document processing documents are printed.
         When "multiple-document-handling" is described in section 15.4.

         4.2.12 page-ranges (1setOf rangeOfInteger)

         This attribute specifies 'separate-document-uncollated-
         copies' or 'separate-document-collated-copies', the Printer object
         SHALL apply each supplied page range repeatedly to each document copy.
         For the same job, the page-range '1:3, 10:10' would print the first 3

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         pages and the 10th page of a document which are to be
         printed. each of the 8 documents in the Job, as 8
         separate documents.

         In most cases, the exact pages to be printed will be generated by a
         device driver and this attribute would not be required.  However, when
         printing an archived document which has already been formatted, the
         end user may elect to print just a subset of the pages contained in
         the document.  In this case, if page-range = n.m is specified, the
         first page to be printed will be page n. All subsequent pages of the
         document will be printed through and including page m.

         "page-ranges-supported" is a boolean value indicating whether or not
         the printer is capable of supporting the printing of page ranges.
         This capability may differ from one PDL to another. There is no "page-

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         ranges-default" attribute.  If the "page-ranges" attribute is not
         supplied by the client, all pages of the document will be printed.

         4.2.13 orientation (type2 enum)

         This attribute specifies the orientation of the content on the output
         pages to be printed.  In most cases, the orientation of the content is
         specified within the document format generated by the device driver at
         print time. However, some document formats (such as 'text/plain') do
         not support the notion of page orientation, and it is possible to bind
         the orientation after the document content has been generated.  This
         attribute provides an end user with the means to specify orientation
         for such documents.

         Standard values are:

           '1'     'portrait':  The content will be imaged across the short
                        edge of the medium.
           '2'     'landscape':  The content will be imaged across the long
                        edge of the medium.  Landscape is defined to be a
                        rotation of the logical page to be imaged by +90
                        degrees with respect to the medium (i.e. anti-
                        clockwise) from the portrait orientation.  Note:  The
                        +90 direction was chosen because simple finishing on
                        the long edge is the same edge whether portrait or
                        landscape
           '3'     'reverse-landscape':  The content will be imaged across the
                        long edge of the medium.  Reverse-landscape is defined
                        to be a rotation of the logical page to be imaged by -
                        90 degrees with respect to the medium (i.e. clockwise)
                        from the portrait orientation.  Note: The 'reverse-
                        landscape' value was added because some applications
                        rotate landscape -90 degrees from portrait, rather than
                        +90 degrees.

         Note: The effect of this attribute on jobs with multiple documents is
         controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other attributes
         that control document processing is described in section 15.4.

         4.2.14 document-format (mimeType)

         4.2.8 sides (type2 keyword)

         This attribute identifies the document format of the data specifies how print-stream pages are to be
         printed. imposed upon
         the sides of an instance of a selected medium (an impression).

         The standard values for this attribute are Internet Media
         types which are sometimes called MIME types.  See are:

           'one-sided': imposes each consecutive print-stream page upon the description
              same side of consecutive media sheets.
           'two-sided-long-edge': imposes each consecutive pair of print-
              stream pages upon front and back sides of consecutive media
              sheets, such that the 'mimeType' attribute syntax orientation of each pair of print-stream
              pages on the medium would be correct for the reader as if for
              binding on the long edge.  This imposition is sometimes called
              'duplex' or 'head-to-head'.
           'two-sided-short-edge': imposes each consecutive pair of print-
              stream pages upon front and back sides of consecutive media
              sheets, such that the orientation of each pair of print-stream
              pages on the medium would be correct for the reader as if for
              binding on the short edge.  This imposition is sometimes called
              'tumble' or 'head-to-toe'.

         'two-sided-long-edge', 'two-sided-short-edge', 'tumble', and 'duplex'
         all work the same for portrait or landscape.  However 'head-to-toe' is
         'tumble' in portrait but 'duplex' in landscape.  'head-to-head' also

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         switches between 'duplex' and 'tumble' when using portrait and
         landscape modes.

         Note: The effect of this attribute on jobs with multiple documents is
         controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other attributes
         that control document processing is described in section 15.4.

         4.2.9 number-up (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute specifies the number of print-stream pages to impose
         upon a single side of an instance of a selected medium.  For example,
         if the value is

           Value   Description

           '0'     The Printer SHALL place one print-stream page on a single
                        side of an instance of the selected medium and SHALL
                        NOT add any sort of translation, scaling, rotation or
                        other embellishment).
           '1'     The Printer SHALL place one print-stream page on a single
                        side of an instance of the selected medium (MAY add
                        some sort of translation, scaling, or rotation).
           '2'     The Printer SHALL place two print-stream pages on a single
                        side of an instance of the selected medium (MAY add
                        some sort of translation, scaling, or rotation).
           '4'     The Printer SHALL place four print-stream pages on a single
                        side of an instance of the selected medium (MAY add
                        some sort of translation, scaling, or rotation).

         This attribute primarily controls the translation, scaling and
         rotation of print-stream pages, but a site may choose to add
         embellishments, such as borders, to any non-zero value.

         Note:  The '0' value is for the protocol.  It is expected that a
         client would chose some more user-friendly representation for
         displaying the value '0' to the end-user, such as 'none', rather than
         displaying a zero.

         Note: The effect of this attribute on jobs with multiple documents is
         controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other attributes
         that control document processing is described in section 15.4.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         4.2.10 orientation (type2 enum)

         This attribute specifies the orientation of the content of the print-
         stream pages to be printed.  In most cases, the orientation of the
         content is specified within the document format generated by the
         device driver at print time. However, some document formats (such as
         'text/plain') do not support the notion of page orientation, and it is
         possible to bind the orientation after the document content has been
         generated.  This attribute provides an end user with the means to
         specify orientation for such documents.

         Standard values are:

           Value   Symbolic Name and Description

           '1'     'portrait':  The content will be imaged across the short
                        edge of the medium.
           '2'     'landscape':  The content will be imaged across the long
                        edge of the medium.  Landscape is defined to be a
                        rotation of the print-stream page to be imaged by +90
                        degrees with respect to the medium (i.e. anti-
                        clockwise) from the portrait orientation.  Note:  The
                        +90 direction was chosen because simple finishing on
                        the long edge is the same edge whether portrait or
                        landscape
           '3'     'reverse-landscape':  The content will be imaged across the
                        long edge of the medium.  Reverse-landscape is defined
                        to be a rotation of the print-stream page to be imaged
                        by -90 degrees with respect to the medium (i.e.
                        clockwise) from the portrait orientation.  Note: The
                        'reverse-landscape' value was added because some
                        applications rotate landscape -90 degrees from
                        portrait, rather than +90 degrees.

         Note: The effect of this attribute on jobs with multiple documents is
         controlled by the "multiple-document-handling" job attribute (section
         4.2.4) and the relationship of this attribute and the other attributes
         that control document processing is described in section 15.4.

         4.2.11 media (type4 keyword | name)

         This attribute identifies the medium that the Printer uses for all
         impressions of the Job.

         The values for "media" include medium-names, medium-sizes, input-trays
         and electronic forms so that one attribute specifies the media. If a
         Printer object supports a medium name as a value of this attribute,

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         such a medium name implicitly selects an input-tray that contains the
         specified medium.  If a Printer object supports a medium size as a
         value of this attribute, such a medium size implicitly selects a
         medium name that in turn implicitly selects an input-tray that
         contains the medium with the specified size.  If a Printer object
         supports an input-tray as the value of this attribute, such an input-
         tray implicitly selects the medium that is in that input-tray at the
         time the job prints.  This case includes manual-feed input-trays.  If
         a Printer object supports an electronic form as the value of this
         attribute, such an electronic form implicitly selects a medium-name
         that in turn implicitly selects an input-tray that contains the medium
         specified by the electronic form. The electronic form also implicitly
         selects an image that the Printer SHALL merge with the document data
         as its prints each page.

         Standard values are (taken from ISO DPA and the Printer MIB) and are
         listed in section 14. An administrator MAY define additional values
         using the 'name' or 'keyword' attribute syntax, depending on
         implementation.

         There is also an additional Printer attribute named "media-ready"
         which differs from "media-supported" in that legal values only include
         the subset of "media-supported" values that are physically loaded and
         ready for printing with no operator intervention required.

         The relationship of this attribute and the other attributes that
         control document processing is described in Section 4.1.9. section 15.4.

         4.2.12 printer-resolution (resolution)

         This attribute identifies the resolution that Printer uses for the
         Job.

         4.2.13 print-quality (type2 enum)

         This attribute specifies the print quality that the Printer uses for
         the Job.

         The standard values are:

           Value   Symbolic Name and Description

           '3'     'draft': lowest quality available on the printer
           '4'     'normal': normal or intermediate quality on the printer
           '5'     'high': highest quality available on the printer

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         4.2.15
         4.2.14 compression (type3 keyword)

         This attribute identifies compression algorithms used on compressed
         document data.  The value of this attribute does not apply to the
         encoding of the IPP operation itself.

         Standard values are :

           'none': no compression is used.
           'deflate':  ZIP public domain inflate/deflate) compression
              technology
           `gzip' GNU zip compression technology described in RFC 1952.
           'compress': UNIX compression technology

         4.2.16

         4.2.15 job-k-octets (integer(0:2**31 - 1)) (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute specifies the total size of the document data in K
         octets, i.e., in units of 1024 octets requested to be  processed in
         the job.  The value SHALL be rounded up, so that a job between 1 and
         1024 octets SHALL be indicated as being 1, 1025 to 2048 SHALL be 2,
         etc.

         This value SHALL not include the multiplicative factors contributed by
         the number of copies specified by the "copies" attribute, independent
         of whether the device can process multiple copies without making
         multiple passes over the document data and independent of whether the
         output is collated or not.  Thus the value is independent of the
         implementation.

         This value SHALL also not include the multiplicative factor due to a
         copies instruction embedded in the document data.  If the document
         data actually includes replications of the document data, this value
         will include such replication.  In other words, this value is always
         the size of the source document data, rather than a measure of the
         hardcopy output to be produced.

         Note: This attribute and the following two attributes ("job-
         impressions" and "job-media-sheets") are not intended to be counters;
         they are intended to be useful routing and scheduling information if
         known.  For these three attributes, the Printer object may try to
         compute the value if it is not supplied in the create request.  Even
         if the client does supply a value for this attribute these three attributes in the
         create request, the Printer may object MAY choose to change the value if
         the Printer object is able to compute a value which is more accurate
         than the client supplied value.  The Printer object may be able to
         determine the correct value for this
         attribute these three attributes either right at
         job submission time or at any later point in time.  If the value of

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         this attribute is unknown, unknown at the moment, the Printer may object MAY choose
         to respond with a special value of '-2' (which signifies "unknown")  'unknown' rather than choose to not support return
         the attribute at all.

         4.2.17

         4.2.16 job-impressions (integer(0:2**31 - 1)) (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute specifies the total number of impressions of the
         document(s) being requested by this job to produce.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         This value SHALL not include the multiplicative factors contributed by
         the number of copies specified by the "copies" attribute, independent
         of whether the device can process multiple copies without making
         multiple passes over the document data and independent of whether the
         output is collated or not.  Thus the value is independent of the
         implementation.

         4.2.18

         As with "job-k-octets", this value SHALL also not include the
         multiplicative factor due to a copies instruction embedded in the
         document data.  If the document data actually includes replications of
         the document data, this value will include such replication.  In other
         words, this value is always the number of impressions in the source
         document data, rather than a measure of the number of impressions to
         be produced.

         See the Note in the "job-k-octets" attribute that also applies to this
         attribute.

         4.2.17 job-media-sheets (integer(0:2**31 - 1)) (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute specifies the total number of media sheets to be
         processed for this job.

         Unlike the "job-k-octets" and the "job-impressions" attributes, this
         value SHALL include the multiplicative factors contributes contributed by the
         number of copies specified by the "copies" attribute and number of
         copies instructions embedded in the document data, if any.

         See the Note in the "job-k-octets" attribute that also applies to this
         attribute.

         4.3 Job Description Attributes

         The attributes in this section form the attribute group called "job-
         description".  The following table summarizes these attributes.  The
         third column indicates whether the attribute is a MANDATORY attribute

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         that MUST be supported by Printer objects.  If it is not MANDATORY,
         then it is OPTIONAL.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         |      Attribute             |     Syntax           |   MANDATORY?   |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-uri                    | uri                  |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-id                     | integer(1:MAX)       |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-more-info              | uri                  |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-name                   | name                 |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-originating-user job-originating-user-name  | octetString name                 |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-state                  | type1 enum           |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-state-reasons          | 1setOf type2 keyword |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-state-message          | text                 |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | number-of-documents        | integer (0-MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | containing-printer-uri     | uri                  |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | output-device-assigned     | name                 |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | time-of-creation time-at-creation           | integer (0:MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | time-at-processing         | integer (0:MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | time-at-completed          | integer (0:MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | number-of-intervening-jobs | integer (0:MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-message-from-operator  | text                 |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-k-octets-processed     | integer (0:MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-impressions-completed  | integer (0:MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | job-media-sheets-completed | integer (0:MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | attributes-charset         | charSet charset              |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | attributes-natural-language| naturalLanguage      |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         4.3.1 job-uri (uri)

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         This MANDATORY attribute contains the URI for the job.  The Printer, Printer
         object, on receipt of a new job, generates a URI which identifies the
         new Job on that
         Printer. Printer object. The Printer object returns the value
         of the "job-uri" attribute as part of the response to a create
         request.   This MUST be an HTTP schemed URI, however the precise
         format of a Job URI is implementation dependent.

         For a description of this attribute and its relationship to the
         following "job-id" attribute, see the discussion in section 2.4 on
         "Object Identity".

         4.3.2 job-id (integer(1:MAX))

         This MANDATORY attribute contains the ID of the job.  The Printer, on
         receipt of a new job, generates an ID which identifies the new Job on
         that Printer.  The Printer returns the value of the "job-id" attribute
         as part of the response to a create request.  The 0 value is not used
         for compatibility with SNMP index values which cannot be 0.

         For a description of this attribute and its relationship to the
         previous "job-uri" attribute, see the discussion in section 2.4 on
         "Object Identity".

         4.3.3 job-more-info (uri)

         Similar to "printer-more-info", this attribute contains the URI
         referencing some resource with more information about this Job object,
         perhaps an HTML page containing information about the Job.

         4.3.4 job-name (name)

         This MANDATORY attribute is the name of the job.  It is a name that is
         more user friendly than the "job-uri" attribute value.  It does not
         need to be unique between Jobs.  The Job's "job-name" attribute is set
         to the value supplied by the client in the "job-name" operation
         attribute in the create request. request (see Section 3.2.1.1).   If, however, if
         the "job-name" operation attribute is not supplied by the client in
         the create request, the
         Printer, Printer object, on creation of the Job, SHALL
         generate a name.  The printer SHOULD generate the value of the Job's
         "job-name" attribute from the first of the following sources that
         produces a value: 1) the
         "document-URI" "document-name" operation attribute of the
         first (or only) document, 2) the
         "document-name" operation "document-URI" attribute of the first

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         (or only) document, or 3) any other piece of Job specific and/or
         Document Content information.

         4.3.5 job-originating-user (octetString) job-originating-user-name (name)

         This MANDATORY attribute contains the identity name of the end user that
         submitted the print job.  The Printer object sets this attribute to
         the most

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 authenticated printable name that it can obtain from the
         authentication service over which the IPP operation was received.
         Only if such is not available, does the Printer object use the value
         supplied by the client in the "requesting-user-name" operation
         attribute of the create operation.  See Section 3.1.5.

         Note:  The Printer object needs to keep an internal originating user
         id of some form, typically as a credential of a principal, with the
         Job object.  Since such an internal attribute is implementation-
         dependent and not of interest to clients, it is not specified as a Job
         Description attribute.  This originating user id is used for
         authorization checks (if any) on all subsequent operation.

         4.3.6 job-state (type1 enum)

         This MANDATORY attribute identifies the current state of the job.
         Even though the IPP protocol defines eight values for job states,
         implementations only need to support those states which are
         appropriate for the particular implementation.  In other words, a
         Printer supports only those job states implemented by the output
         device and available to the Printer object implementation.

         Standard values are:

           'unknown'(2):  The job state is not known, or its state is
              indeterminate.
           'pending'(3):

           Values  Symbolic Name and Description

           '3'     'pending':  The job is a candidate to start processing, but
                        is not yet processing.
           'pending-held'(4):

           '4'     'pending-held':  The job is not a candidate for processing
                        for any number of reasons but will return to the
                        'pending' state as soon as the reasons are no longer
                        present.  The job's "job-state-
              reason" "job-state-reason" attribute SHALL
                        indicate why the job is no longer a candidate for
                        processing.
           'processing'(5):

           '5'     'processing':  One or more of:

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
                        1.  the job is using, or is attempting to use, one or
                        more purely software processes that are analyzing,
                        creating, or interpreting a PDL, etc.,
                        2.  the job is using, or is attempting to use, one or
                        more hardware devices that are interpreting a PDL,
                        making marks on a medium, and/or performing finishing,
                        such as stapling, etc.,
                        3. the server Printer object has made the job ready for
                        printing, but the output device is not yet printing it,
                        either because the job hasn't reached the output device
                        or because the job is queued in the output device or
                        some other spooler, awaiting the output device to print
                        it.

              Implementations MAY, though they NEED NOT, include additional
              values in the job's "job-state-reasons" attribute to indicate the
              progress of the job, such as adding the 'job-printing' value to
              indicate when the device is actually making marks on a medium.

                        When the job is in the 'processing' state, the entire
                        job state includes the detailed status represented in
                        the printer's "printer-state", "printer-state-reasons",
                        and "printer-state-
              message" "printer-state-message" attributes.
                        Implementations MAY MAY, though they NEED NOT,  include
                        additional values in the job's "job-
              state-reasons" "job-state-reasons"
                        attribute to indicate the progress of the job, such as
                        adding the 'job-printing' value to indicate when the
                        output device is actually making marks on paper and/or
                        the

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 'processing-to-stop-point' value to indicate that
                        the server or
              device IPP object is in the process of canceling or
                        aborting the job.  Most implementations won't bother
                        with this nuance.
           'processing-stopped'(6):

           '6'     'processing-stopped':  The job has stopped while processing
                        for any number of reasons and will return to the
                        'processing' state as soon as the reasons are no longer
                        present.

                        The job's "job-state-reason" attribute MAY indicate why
                        the job has stopped processing.  For example, if the
                        output device is stopped, the 'printer-stopped' value
                        MAY be included in the job's "job-state-reasons"
                        attribute.

                        Note:  When an output device is stopped, the device
                        usually indicates its condition in human readable form
                        locally at the device.  A client can obtain more
                        complete device status remotely by querying the printer's Printer
                        object's "printer-state", "printer-state-
              reasons" "printer-state-reasons" and
                        "printer-state-message" attributes.

           'canceled'(7):

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           '7'     'canceled':  The job has been canceled by a Cancel-Job
                        operation and the Printer object has completed
                        canceling the job and all job status attributes have
                        reached their final values for the job.  While the
                        Printer object is canceling the job, the job remains in
                        its current state, but the job's "job-state-
              reasons" "job-state-reasons"
                        attribute SHOULD contain the 'processing-to-stop-point'
                        value and one of the 'canceled-by-user', 'canceled-by-operator', 'canceled-by-
                        operator', or 'canceled-at-device' value.
           'aborted'(8):  When the job
                        moves to the 'canceled' state, the  'processing-to-
                        stop-point' value, if present, SHALL be removed, but
                        the `canceled-by-xxx', if present, SHALL remain.

           '8'     'aborted':  The job has been aborted by the system, usually
                        while the job was in the 'processing' or 'processing-stopped' 'processing-
                        stopped' state and the Printer has completed aborting
                        the job and all job status attributes have reached
                        their final values for the job.  While the server or device Printer
                        object is aborting the job, the job remains in its
                        current state, but the job's "job-
              state-reasons" "job-state-reasons"
                        attribute MAY SHOULD contain the 'processing-to-stop-
              point' 'processing-to-stop-point'
                        and 'aborted-by-system' values.  If supported, the
              'aborted-by-system' value SHALL remain while  When the job is in moves to
                        the 'aborted' state.
           'completed'(9): state, the  'processing-to-stop-point'
                        value, if present, SHALL be removed, but the 'aborted-
                        by-system' value, if present, SHALL remain.

           '9'     'completed':  The job has completed successfully or with
                        warnings or errors after processing and all of the job
                        media sheets have been successfully stacked in the
                        appropriate output
              bin(s). bin(s) and all job status attributes
                        have reached their final values for the job.  The job's
                        "job-state-reasons" attribute SHOULD contain one of:
                        'completed-successfully', 'completed-with-warnings', or
                        'completed-with-errors' values.

         The final value for this attribute SHALL be one of: 'completed',
         'canceled', or 'aborted' before the Printer removes the job
         altogether.  The length of time that jobs remain in the 'canceled',
         'aborted', and 'completed' states depends on implementation.

         The following figure shows the normal job state transitions.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
                                                            +----> canceled
                                                           /
             +----> pending --------> processing ---------+------> completed
             |         ^                   ^               \
         --->+         |                   |                +----> aborted
             |         v                   v               /
             +----> pending-held    processing-stopped ---+

         Normally a job progresses from left to right.  Other state transitions
         are unlikely, but are not forbidden.  Not shown are the transitions to
         the 'canceled' state from the 'pending', 'pending-held', and
         'processing-stopped' states.

         Jobs reach one of the three terminal states: 'completed', 'canceled',
         or 'aborted', after the jobs have completed all activity, including
         stacking output media, after the jobs have completed all activity, and
         all job status attributes have reached their final values for the job.

         4.3.7 job-state-reasons (1setOf  type2 keyword)

         This attribute provides additional information about the job's current
         state, i.e., information that augments the value of the job's "job-
         state" attribute.

         Implementation of these values is OPTIONAL, i.e., a Printer NEED NOT
         implement them, even if (1) the output device supports the
         functionality represented by the reason and (2) is available to the
         Printer object implementation.  These values MAY be used with any job
         state or states for which the reason makes sense.  Furthermore, when
         implemented, the Printer SHALL return these values when the reason
         applies and SHALL NOT return them when the reason no longer applies
         whether the value of the Job's "job-state" attribute changed or not.
         When the Job does not have any reasons for being in its current state,
         the Printer MAY set the value of the Job's "job-state-reasons" attribute to SHALL be 'none'.

         NOTE -

         Note: While values cannot be added to the 'job-state' attribute
         without impacting deployed clients that take actions upon receiving
         "job-state" values, it is the intent that additional "job-state-
         reasons" values can be defined and registered without impacting such
         deployed clients.  In other words, the "job-state-reasons" attribute
         is intended to be extensible.

         The following standard values are defined.  For ease of understanding,
         the values are presented in the order in which the reasons are likely
         to occur (if implemented), starting with the 'job-incoming' value:

           'none':  There are no reasons for the job's current state.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
           'job-incoming':  The CreateJob operation has been accepted by the
              Printer, but the Printer is expecting additional Send-Document
              and/or Send-URI operations and/or is accessing/accepting document
              data.
           'submission-interrupted':  The job was not completely submitted for
              some unforeseen reason, such as: (1) the Printer has crashed
              before the job was closed by the client, (2) the Printer or the
              document transfer method has crashed in some non-recoverable way
              before the document data was entirely transferred to the Printer,
              (3) the client crashed or failed to close the job before the
              time-out period.
           'job-outgoing':  The Printer is transmitting the job to the output
              device.
           'job-hold-until-specified':  The value of the job's "job-hold-
              until" attribute was specified with a time period that is still
              in the future.  The job SHALL NOT be a candidate for processing
              until this reason is removed and there are no other reasons to
              hold the job.
           'resources-are-not-ready':  At least one of the resources needed by
              the job, such as media, fonts, resource objects, etc., is not
              ready on any of the physical printer's for which the job is a
              candidate.  This condition MAY be detected when the job is
              accepted, or subsequently while the job is pending or processing,
              depending on implementation.  The job may remain in its current
              state or be moved to the 'pending-held' state, depending on
              implementation and/or job scheduling policy.
           'printer-stopped-partly':  The value of the Printer's "printer-
              state-reasons" attribute contains the value 'stopped-partly'.
           'printer-stopped':  The value of the Printer's "printer-state"
              attribute is 'stopped'.
           'job-interpreting': Job is in the 'processing' state, but more
              specifically, the Printer is interpreting the document data.
           'job-queued': Job is in the 'processing' state, but more
              specifically, the Printer has queued the document data.
           'job-transforming': Job is in the 'processing' state, but more
              specifically, the Printer is interpreting document data and
              producing another electronic representation.
           'job-printing':  The output device is marking media. This value is
              useful for Printers which spend a great deal of time processing
              (1) when no marking is happening and then want to show that
              marking is now happening or (2) when the job is in the process of
              being canceled or aborted while the job remains in the
              'processing' state, but the marking has not yet stopped so that
              impression or sheet counts are still increasing for the job.
           'job-canceled-by-user':  The job was canceled by the owner of the
              job using the Cancel-Job request, i.e., by a user whose name
              authenticated identity is the same as the value of the job's "job-originating-user"
              attribute,
              originating user that created the Job object, or by some other

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              authorized end-user, such as a member of the job owner's security
              group.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           'job-canceled-by-operator':  The job was canceled by the operator
              using the Cancel-Job request, i.e., by a user who has been
              authenticated as having operator privileges (whether local or
              remote).  If the security policy is to allow anyone to cancel
              anyone's job, then this value may be used when the job is
              canceled by other than the owner of the job.  For such a security
              policy, in effect, everyone is an operator as far as canceling
              jobs with IPP is concerned.
           'job-canceled-at-device':  The job was canceled by an unidentified
              local user, i.e., a user at a console at the device.
           'aborted-by-system':  The job (1) is in the process of being
              aborted, (2) has been aborted by the system and placed in the
              'aborted' state, or (3) has been aborted by the system and placed
              in the 'pending-held' state, so that a user or operator can
              manually try the job again.
           'processing-to-stop-point':  The requester has issued a Cancel-job
              operation or the Printer object has aborted the job, but is still
              performing some actions on the job until a specified stop point
              occurs or job termination/cleanup is completed.

              This reason is recommended to be used in conjunction with the
              'processing' job state to indicate that the Printer object is
              still performing some actions on the job while the job remains in
              the 'processing' state.  After all the job's job description
              attributes have stopped incrementing, the Printer object moves
              the job from the 'processing' state to the 'canceled' or
              'aborted' job states.

           'service-off-line':  The Printer is off-line and accepting no jobs.
              All 'pending' jobs are put into the 'pending-held' state.  This
              situation could be true if the service's or document transform's
              input is impaired or broken.
           'job-completed-successfully':  The job completed successfully.
           'job-completed-with-warnings':  The job completed with warnings.
           'job-completed-with-errors':  The job completed with errors (and
              possibly warnings too).

         4.3.8 job-state-message (text)

         This attributes attribute specifies supplemental information about the Job State "job-state" and "job-
         state-reasons" attributes in human readable text. The  If the Printer
         object supports this attribute, the Printer object SHALL be able to
         generate this message in any of the natural languages identified by
         the Printer's "natural-language-supported" attribute (see the "attributes-
         natural-language"

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute specified in Section
         3.1.3.1).

         4.3.9 number-of-documents (integer(0:2**31 - 1)) (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute indicates the number of documents in the job, i.e, i.e., the
         number of Send-Document, Send-URI, Print-Job, or Print-URI operations
         that the Printer has accepted for this job, regardless of whether the
         document data has reached the Printer object or not.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         Implementations supporting the OPTIONAL Create-Job/Send-Document/Send-
         URI operations SHOULD support this attribute. attribute so that clients can query
         the number of documents in each job.

         4.3.10 containing-printer-uri (uri)

         This MANDATORY attribute identifies the Printer object that contains
         this Job object.  This attribute permits a client to query the Printer
         object to which the job was submitted given only the Job URI.

         4.3.11 output-device-assigned (name)

         This attribute identifies the Output Device output device to which the Printer
         object has assigned this job.  If an output device implements an
         embedded IPP
         Printer, Printer object, the Printer object NEED NOT set this
         attribute.  If a Print Server print server implements a Printer, Printer object, the value
         MAY be empty (zero-length string) or not returned until the Printer
         object assigns an output device to the job.

         4.3.11 time-of-creation (integer)  This attribute is
         particularly useful when a single Printer object support multiple
         devices (so called "fan-out").

         4.3.12 time-at-creation (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute indicates the point in time at which the Job object was
         created.  In order to populate this attribute, the Printer object uses
         the value in its "printer-up-time" attribute at the time the Job
         object is created.

         4.3.12

         4.3.13 time-at-processing (integer) (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute indicates the point in time at which the Job object
         began processing.  In order to populate this attribute, the Printer
         object uses the value in its "printer-up-time" attribute at the time

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         the Job object is moved into the 'processing' state for the first
         time.

         4.3.13

         4.3.14 time-at-completed (integer) (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute indicates the point in time at which the Job object
         completed (or was cancelled or aborted).  In order to populate this
         attribute, the Printer object uses the value in its "printer-up-time"
         attribute at the time the Job object is moved into the 'completed' or
         'canceled' or 'aborted' state.

         4.3.14

         4.3.15 number-of-intervening-jobs (integer(0:2**31 - 1)) (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute indicates the number of jobs that are "ahead" of this
         job in the relative chronological order of expected time to complete
         (i.e., the current scheduled order). For efficiency, it is only
         necessary to calculate this value when an operation is performed that
         requests this attribute.

         4.3.15

         4.3.16 job-message-from-operator (text)

         This attribute provides a message from an operator, system
         administrator or "intelligent" process to indicate to the end user the
         reasons for modification or other management action taken on a job.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         4.3.16

         4.3.17 job-k-octets-processed (integer(0:2**31 - 1)) (integer(0:MAX))

         This attribute specifies the number of octets processed in K octets,
         i.e., in units of 1024 octets.  The value SHALL be rounded up, so that
         a job between 1 and 1024 octets inclusive SHALL be indicated as being
         1, 1025 to 2048 inclusive SHALL be 2, etc.

         For implementations where multiple copies are produced by the
         interpreter with only a single pass over the data, the final value
         SHALL be equal to the value of the "job-k-octets" attribute.  For
         implementations where multiple copies are produced by the interpreter
         by processing the data for each copy, the final value SHALL be a
         multiple of the value of the "job-k-octets" attribute.

         Note: This attribute and the following two attributes ("job-
         impressions-completed" and "job-sheets-completed") are intended to be
         counters. That is, if the "job-state" is 'processing' or 'processing-
         stopped', this value is intended to contain the amount of the job that
         has been processed to the time at which the attributes are requested.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         For any of these three attributes, the Printer may choose to return
         the special value '-2' (which represents "unknown") of 'unknown' rather than choose to not support the
         attribute at all.

         4.3.17

         4.3.18 job-impressions-completed  (integer(0:2**31 - 1))  (integer(0:MAX))

         This job attribute specifies the number of impressions completed for
         the job so far.  For printing devices, the impressions completed
         includes interpreting, marking, and stacking the output. This
         attribute is intended to be a counter as in the Job Monitoring MIB.

         For implementations where multiple copies are produced by the
         interpreter with only a single pass over the data, the final value
         SHALL be equal to the value of the "job-impressions" attribute.  For
         implementations where multiple copies are produced by the interpreter
         by processing the data for each copy, the final value SHALL be a
         multiple of the value of the "job-impressions" attribute.

         4.3.18

         4.3.19 job-media-sheets-completed (integer(0:2**31 - 1)) (integer(0:MAX))

         This job attribute specifies the media-sheets completed marking and
         stacking for the entire job so far whether those sheets have been
         processed on one side or on both. This attribute is intended to be a
         counter as in the Job Monitoring MIB.

         4.3.19

         4.3.20 attributes-charset (charSet) (charset)

         This MANDATORY attribute is populated using the value in the client
         supplied "attributes-charset" attribute in the create request.  It
         identifies

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 the charset (coded character set and encoding method) used for
         by any Job attributes with attribute syntax 'text' and 'name' whether that
         were supplied by the client and/or returned by in the Printer object. create request.  See Section 3.1.3
         for a complete description of the "attributes-charset" operation
         attribute.

         4.3.20

         This attribute does not indicate the charset in which the 'text' and
         'name' values are stored internally in the Job object.  The internal
         charset is implementation-defined.  The IPP object SHALL convert from
         whatever the internal charset is to that being requested in an
         operation as specified in Section 3.1.3.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         4.3.21 attributes-natural-language (naturalLanguage)

         4.4

         This MANDATORY attribute is populated using the value in the client
         supplied "attributes-natural-language" attribute in the create
         request.  It identifies the natural language used for any Job
         attributes with attribute syntax 'text' and 'name' whether supplied by
         the client and/or returned by the Printer object.  See Section 3.1.3
         for a complete description of the "attributes-natural-language"
         operation attribute.  See Section 4.1.1 for how an exception natural languages a Natural Language
         Override may be supplied explicitly for each 'text' and 'name'
         attribute value that differs from the value identified by the "job-natural-language"
         attribute.Printer
         "attributes-natural-language" attribute.

         4.4 Printer Description Attributes

         These attributes form the attribute group called "printer-
         description".  A Printer object may be realized in either a print
         server or output device.  Note: How these attributes are set by an
         Administrator is outside the scope of this specification.  The following table summarizes these attributes, their
         syntax, and whether or not they are MANDATORY for a Printer object to
         support.  If they are not MANDATORY, they are OPTIONAL.

         Note: How these attributes are set by an Administrator is outside the
         scope of this specification.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         |      Attribute             |     Syntax           |   MANDATORY?   |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-uri                | uri                  |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-name               | name                 |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-location           | text                 |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-info               | text                 |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-more-info          | uri                  |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-driver-installer   | uri                  |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-make-and-model     | text                 |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-more-info-         | uri                  |                |
         | manufacturer               |                      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-state              | type1 enum           |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-state-reasons      | 1setOf type2 keyword |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-state-message printer-state-message      | text                 |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | operations-supported       | 1setOf type2 enum    |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | charset                    | text charset              |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | operations-supported charset-supported          | 1setOf operation charset       |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-charset natural-language           | charSet naturalLanguage      |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | charsets-supported natural-language-          | 1setOf charSet               |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-natural-language supported                  |   naturalLanguage    |  MANDATORY                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | natural-languages-supported| document-format            | mimeMediaType        |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | document-format-           | 1setOf               |  MANDATORY                |
         |   supported                |   naturalLanguage   mimeMediaType      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-is-accepting-jobs  | boolean              |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | queued-job-count           | integer (0:MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-message-from-      | text                 |                |
         | operator                   |                      |                |

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | color-supported            | boolean              |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | pdl-override               | type2 keyword        |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         | security-mechanisms-       | 1setOf keyword       |                |
         | supported                  |                      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-up-time            | integer (1:MAX)      |  MANDATORY     |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | printer-current-time       | dateTime             |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+
         | multiple-operation-time-out| integer (1:MAX)      |                |
         +----------------------------+----------------------+----------------+

         4.4.1 printer-uri (uri)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute contains the URI for the printer. Printer
         object.  An administrator determines a printer's URI and sets this
         attribute to that URI.  This MUST be an HTTP schemed URI, however the
         precise format of a printer URI is implementation dependent.

         4.4.2 printer-name (name)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute contains the name of the printer. Printer
         object.  It is a name that is more user friendly than the printer-URI. value of the
         "printer-uri" attribute.  An administrator determines a printer's name
         and sets this attribute to that name. This name may be the last part
         of the printer's URI or it may be unrelated.  In non-US-
         English non-US-English
         locales, a name may contain characters that are not allowed in a URI.

         4.4.3 printer-location (text)

         This Printer attribute identifies the location of this printer. the device. This
         could include things like: _in "in Room 123A, second floor of building XYZ_.
         XYZ".

         4.4.4 printer-info (text)

         This Printer attribute identifies the descriptive information about
         this
         Printer. Printer object.  This could include things like: "This printer
         can be used for printing color transparencies for HR presentations",
         or "Out of courtesy for others, please print only small (1-5 page)
         jobs at this printer", or even "This printer is going away on July 1,
         1997, please find a new printer".

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         4.4.5 printer-more-info (uri)

         This Printer attribute contains a URI used to obtain more information
         about this specific printer. Printer object.  For example, this could be an
         HTTP type URI referencing an HTML page accessible to a Web Browser.
         The information obtained from this URI is intended for end user
         consumption. Features outside the scope of IPP can be accessed from
         this URI.  The information is intended to be specific to this printer
         instance and

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 site specific services (e.g. job pricing, services
         offered, end user assistance). The device manufacturer may initially
         populate this attribute.

         4.4.6 printer-driver-installer (uri)

         This Printer attribute contains a URI to use to locate the driver
         installer for this printer. Printer object.   This attribute is intended for
         consumption by automata.  The mechanics of print driver installation
         is outside the scope of IPP.  The device manufacturer may initially
         populate this attribute.

         4.4.7 printer-make-and-model (text)

         This Printer attribute identifies the make and model of the printer. device.
         The device manufacturer may initially populate this attribute.

         4.4.8 printer-more-info-manufacturer (uri)

         This Printer attribute contains a URI used to obtain more information
         about this type of printer. device.  The information obtained from this URI is
         intended for end user consumption.  Features outside the scope of IPP
         can be accessed from this URI (e.g., latest firmware, upgrades, print
         drivers, optional features available).  The information is intended to
         be germane to this printer without regard to site specific
         modifications or services. The device manufacturer may initially
         populate this attribute.

         4.4.9 printer-state (type1 enum)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute identifies the current state of the printer.
         device.  The "printer-state reasons" attribute augments the "printer-state" "printer-
         state" attribute to give more detailed information about the Printer
         in the given printer state.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         A Printer object need only update this attribute before responding to
         an operation which requests the attribute; the Printer object NEED NOT
         update this attribute continually. continually, since asynchronous event
         notification is not part of IPP/1.0.  A Printer NEED NOT implement all
         values if they are not applicable to a given implementation.

         The following standard values are defined:

           'unknown'(2):  The Printer state is not known, or is indeterminate.
              A Printer SHALL use this state only if it cannot determine its
              actual state.

           'idle'(3):

           Value   Symbolic Name and Description

           '3'     'idle':  If a Printer receives a job (whose required
                        resources are ready) while in this state, such a job
                        SHALL transit into the processing state immediately.
                        If the printer-state-reasons

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 attribute contains any
                        reasons, they SHALL be reasons that would not prevent a
                        job from transiting into the processing state
                        immediately, e.g., toner-low. Note: if a Printer
                        controls more than one output device, the above
                        definition implies that a Printer is idle if at least
                        one output device is idle.

           'processing'(4):

           '4'     'processing':  If a Printer receives a job (whose required
                        resources are ready) while in this state, such a job
                        SHALL transit into the pending state immediately. Such
                        a job SHALL transit into the processing state only
                        after jobs ahead of it complete.  If the printer-state-reasons printer-state-
                        reasons attribute contains any reasons, they SHALL be
                        reasons that do not prevent the current job from
                        printing, e.g. toner-low.  Note: if a Printer controls
                        more than one output device, the above definition
                        implies that a Printer is processing if at least one
                        output device is processing, and none is idle.

           'stopped'(5):

           '5'     'stopped':  If a Printer receives a job (whose required
                        resources are ready) while in this state, such a job
                        SHALL transit into the pending state immediately. Such
                        a job SHALL transit into the processing state only
                        after some human fixes the problem that stopped the
                        printer and after jobs ahead of it complete printing.
                        The "printer-state-reasons" attribute SHALL contain at
                        least one reason, e.g. media-jam, which prevents it
                        from either processing the current job or transiting transitioning
                        a pending job to the processing state.

           Note: if a Printer controls more than one output device, the above
                        definition implies that a Printer is stopped only if
                        all output devices are stopped.  Also, it is tempting
                        to define stopped as when a sufficient number of output

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
                        devices are stopped and leave it to an implementation
                        to define the sufficient number.  But such a rule
                        complicates the definition of stopped and processing.
                        For example, with this alternate definition of stopped,
                        a job can move from idle to processing without human
                        intervention, even though the Printer is stopped.

         4.4.10 printer-state-reasons (1setOf type2 keyword)

         This Printer attribute supplies additional detail about the printer's device's
         state.

         Each keyword value MAY have a suffix to indicate its level of
         severity.  The three levels are: report (least severe), warning, and
         error (most severe).

           - '-report':  This suffix indicates that the reason is a "report".
              An implementation may choose to omit some or all reports. Some
              reports specify finer granularity about the printer state; others

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
              serve as a precursor to a warning. A report SHALL contain nothing
              that could affect the printed output.
           - '-warning': This suffix indicates that the reason is a "warning".
              An implementation may choose to omit some or all warnings.
              Warnings serve as a precursor to an error. A warning SHALL
              contain nothing that prevents a job from completing, though in
              some cases the output may be of lower quality.
           - '-error': This suffix indicates that the reason is an "error".
              An implementation SHALL include all errors. If this attribute
              contains one or more errors, printer SHALL be in the stopped
              state.

         If the implementation does not add any one of the three suffixes, all
         parties SHALL assume that the reason is an "error".

         If a Printer object controls more than one output device, each value
         of this attribute MAY apply to one or more of the output devices.  An
         error on one output device that does not stop the Printer object as a
         whole MAY appear as a warning in the Printer's "printer-state-reasons
         attribute".  If the "printer-state" for such a Printer has a value of
         'stopped', then there MUST be an error reason among the values in the
         "printer-state-reasons" attribute.

         The following standard values are defined:

           'other': The printer device has detected an error other than one listed in
              this document.
           'unknown': The printer is unable to give additional detail about
              the state of the printer.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           'none': There are not reasons. This state reason is semantically
              equivalent to printer-state-reasons "printer-state-reasons" without any value.
           'media-needed': A tray has run out of media.
           'media-jam': The printer device has a media jam.
           'paused': Someone has paused the Printer. Printer object.  In this state, a
              Printer SHALL not produce printed output, but it SHALL perform
              other operations requested by a client.  If a Printer had been
              printing a job when the Printer was paused, the Printer SHALL
              resume printing that job when the Printer is no longer paused and
              leave no evidence in the printed output of such a pause.
           'shutdown': Someone has removed a Printer object from service, and it
              the device may be powered down or physical removed.  In this
              state, a Printer object SHALL not produce printed output, and
              unless the Printer object is realized by a print server that is
              still active, the Printer object SHALL perform no other
              operations requested by a client, including returning this value.
              If a Printer object had been printing a job when it was shutdown,
              the Printer need not resume printing that job when the Printer is
              no longer shutdown. If the Printer resumes printing such a job,
              it may leave evidence in the printed

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 output of such a shutdown,
              e.g. the part printed before the shutdown may be printed a second
              time after the shutdown.
           'connecting-to-device': The server Printer object has scheduled a job on
              the
              Printer output device and is in the process of connecting to a shared
              network output device (and might not be able to actually start
              printing the job for an arbitrarily long time depending on the
              usage of the output device by other servers on the network).
           'timed-out': The server was able to connect to the output device
              (or is always connected), but was unable to get a response from
              the output device.
           'stopping': The printer Printer object is in the process of stopping the
              device and will be stopping stopped in a while and while. When the device is
              stopped, the Printer object will change
              its reason the Printer object's
              state to printer-stopped. This 'stopped'.  The 'stopping-warning' reason is a non-critical, never an
              error, even for a Printer with a single output device.  When an output-
              device
              output-device ceases accepting jobs, the Printer will have this
              reason while the output device completes printing.
           'stopped-partly': When a Printer object controls more than one
              output device, this reason indicates that one or more output
              devices are stopped.  If the reason is a report, fewer than half
              of the output devices are stopped.  If the reason is a warning,
              fewer than all of the output devices are stopped.
           'toner-low': The Printer device is low on toner.
           'marker-supply-low': The Printer device is low on marker supply (ink,
              paint, etc.).
           'spool-area-full': The limit of persistent storage allocated for
              spooling has been reached.
           'cover-open': One or more covers on the printer is device are open.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           'interlock-open': One or more interlock devices on the printer is are
              unlocked.
           'door-open': One or more doors on the printer device are open.
           'input-tray-missing': One or more input trays are not in the
              printer.
              device.
           'media-low': At least one input tray is low on media.
           'media-empty': At least one input tray is empty.
           'output-tray-missing': One or more output trays are not in the
              printer
              device
           'output-area-almost-full': One or more output area is almost full
              (e.g. tray, stacker, collator).
           'output-area-full': One or more output area is full. (e.g. tray,
              stacker, collator)
           'marker-supply-low': The Printer device is low on at least one marker
              supply. (e.g. toner, ink, ribbon)
           'marker-supply-empty: The Printer device is out of at least one marker
              supply. (e.g. toner, ink, ribbon)
           'marker-waste-almost-full': The Printer device marker supply waste
              receptacle is almost full.
           'marker-waste-full': The Printer device marker supply waste receptacle is
              full.
           'fuser-over-temp': The fuser temperature is above normal.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           'fuser-under-temp': The fuser temperature is below normal.
           'opc-near-eol': The optical photo conductor is near end of life.
           'opc-life-over': The optical photo conductor is no longer
              functioning.
           'developer-low': The Printer device is low on developer.
           'developer-empty: The Printer device is out of developer.
           'interpreter-resource-unavailable': An interpreter resource is
              unavailable (i.e. font, form)

         4.4.11 printer-state-message (text)

         This Printer attribute specifies the additional information about the
         printer state and printer state reasons in human readable text.  The  If
         the Printer object supports this attribute, the Printer object SHALL
         be able to generate this message in any of the natural languages
         identified by the Printer's "natural-language-supported" attribute
         (see the "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute specified
         in Section 3.1.3.1).

         4.4.12 operations-supported (1setOf operation) type2 enum)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute specifies the set of supported
         operations for this
         Printer.  The syntax of type of "operation" is the same as "type2
         enum" except that the range of Printer object and contained Job objects.  No 32-

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         bit enum value for this attribute SHALL exceed 0x8FFF, since these
         values is 0x0000 to 0x8FFF. are passed in two octets in each Protocol request [IPP-PRO].

         The following standard values are defined:

           Value   Operation Name

           0x0000  reserved, not used
           0x0001  reserved, not used
           0x0002  Print-Job
           0x0003  Print-URI
           0x0004  Validate-Job
           0x0005  Create-Job
           0x0006  Send-Document
           0x0007  Send-URI
           0x0008  Cancel-Job
           0x000A  Get-Jobs
           0x0009  Get-Attributes
           0x000A-0x3FFF
           0x000A  Get-Jobs
           0x000B-0x3FFF          reserved for future operations
           0x4000-0x8FFF          reserved for private extensions

         This allows for certain vendors to implement private extensions that
         are guaranteed to not conflict with future registered extensions.
         However, there is no guarantee that two or more private extensions
         will not conflict.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         4.4.13 printer-charset (charSet) charset (charset)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute identifies the charset that the
         Printer object has been configured to represent 'text' and 'name'
         Printer attributes that are set by the operator, system administrator,
         or manufacturer, i.e., for "printer-name" (name), "printer-location"
         (text), "printer-info" (text), and "printer-make-and-model" (text).
         Therefore, the value of the "printer-charset" Printer object's "charset" attribute SHALL
         also be among the values of the Printer's Printer object's "charset-supported"
         attribute.

         4.4.14 charsets-supported charset-supported (1setOf charSet) charset)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute identifies the set of charsets that
         the Printer object supports and contained Job objects support in attributes with
         attribute syntax 'text' and
         'name', i.e., that the Printer object SHALL (1) accept in requests,
         (2) return in responses, and (3) send in notification messages. 'name'. At least the value 'utf-8' SHALL
         be present, since a Printer object SHALL IPP objects MUST support the UTF-8 [RFC2044]
         charset.  If a Printer object supports a charset, it means that for
         all attributes of syntax 'text' and 'name' the IPP object SHALL (1)

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         accept the charset in requests and return the charset in responses as
         needed.

         If more charsets than UTF-8 are supported, the Printer IPP object SHALL
         perform charset conversion between the charsets as described in
         Section 3.1.3.1. 3.2.1.2.

         4.4.15 printer-natural-language natural-language (naturalLanguage)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute identifies the natural language that
         the Printer object has been configured to represent 'text' and 'name'
         Printer attributes that are set by the operator, system administrator,
         or manufacturer, i.e., for "printer-name" (name), "printer-location"
         (text), "printer-info" (text), and "printer-make-and-model" (text).
         When returning these Printer attributes, the Printer object MAY return
         them in the configured natural language specified by this attribute,
         instead of the natural language requested by the client in the
         "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute.  See Section
         3.1.3.1 for the specification of the OPTIONAL multiple natural
         language support.  Therefore, the value of the "printer-natural-
         language" Printer object's
         "natural-language" attribute SHALL also be among the values of the Printer's
         Printer object's "natural-language-supported" attribute.

         4.4.16 natural-languages-supported natural-language-supported (1setOf naturalLanguage)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute identifies the natural language(s)
         that the Printer object supports and contained Job objects support in
         attributes with attribute syntax 'text' and
         'name', i.e., that the Printer object SHALL (1) accept in requests,
         (2) return in responses, and (3) send in notification messages. 'name'.  The natural
         language(s) supported depends on implementation and/or configuration.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         For
         Unlike charsets, IPP objects SHALL accept in requests any natural
         language or any Natural Language Override whether supported or not.

         If a Printer object supports a natural language, it means that for any
         of the attributes for which the Printer or Job object generates
         messages, i.e., for the "job-state-message" and "printer-state-message" "printer-state-
         message" attributes and Operation Messages (see Section 3.1.4) in
         operation responses, the Printer object and Job objects SHALL be able to
         generate messages in any of its the Printer's supported natural languages.
         See section 3.1.3.1 3.1.3 for the specification of 'text' and 'name'
         attributes in operation requests and responses.

         Note: A Printer object that supports multiple natural languages, often
         has separate catalogs of messages, one for each natural language
         supported.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         4.4.17 document-format (mimeMediaType)

         This Printer attribute identifies the document format that the Printer
         object has been configured to assume of the client does not supply a
         "document-format" operation attribute in any of the operation requests
         that supply document data.  The standard values for this attribute are
         Internet Media types (sometimes called MIME types).  For further
         details see the description of the 'mimeMediaType' attribute syntax in
         Section 4.1.9.

         4.4.18 document format-supported (1setOf mimeMediaType)

         This Printer attribute identifies the set of document formats that the
         Printer object and contained Job objects can support. For further
         details see the description of the 'mimeMediaType' attribute syntax in
         Section 4.1.9.

         4.4.19 printer-is-accepting-jobs (boolean)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute indicates whether the printer is
         currently accepting
         job. jobs, i.e., is accepting Print-Job, Print-URI, and
         Create-Job operations.  If the value is true, 'true', the printer is
         accepting jobs.  If the value is false, 'false', the printer is currently
         rejecting any jobs submitted to it.

         Note: This value is independent of the printer state "printer-state" and printer-
         state-reasons "printer-
         state-reasons" attributes because its value does not affect the
         current job; rather it affects future jobs.  This attribute may cause
         the Printer to reject jobs when the printer-state "printer-state" is idle 'idle' or it
         may cause the Printer to accepts jobs when the printer-state "printer-state" is stopped.

         4.4.18
         'stopped'.

         4.4.20 queued-job-count (integer(0:2**31 - 1)) (integer(0:MAX))

         This Printer attribute contains a count of the number of jobs that are
         either 'pending', 'processing', 'pending-held', or 'processing-stopped' 'processing-
         stopped' and is set by the Printer.

         4.4.19

         4.4.21 printer-message-from-operator (text)

         This Printer attribute provides a message from an operator, system
         administrator or "intelligent" process to indicate to the end user
         information or status of the printer, such as why it is unavailable or
         when it is expected to be available.

         4.4.20

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         4.4.22 color-supported (boolean)

         This Printer attribute identifies whether the Printer device is capable of any
         type of color printing at all.  All document instructions having to do
         with color are embedded within the document PDL (none are external IPP
         attributes).

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         4.4.21
         attributes in IPP/1.0).

         4.4.23 reference-uri-schemes-supported (1setOf uriScheme)

         This Printer attribute specifies which URI schemes are supported for
         use in the "document-uri" operation attribute of the Print-URI or
         Send-URI operation.  If a Printer object supports these optional
         operations, it MUST support URIs of the following type:

           'http':  The "reference-uri-schemes-supported"
         Printer object will perform an HTTP/1.1 GET operation attribute with at least the following schemed URI values:

           'ftp':  The Printer object will use an FTP 'get' operation.  If the
              URI does not indicate a name or password in the URI itself, the
              Printer object will use anonymous FTP generating (if prompted)
              some a
              password.  Since many FTP servers require that anonymous FTP
              logins supply a password in the form of an a valid Internet mail address. email
              address, the Printer object MUST be able to generate such a
              password (syntactically correct, yet perhaps semantically
              meaningless) if needed.

         The Printer object MAY OPTIONALLY supports support other URI schemes (see
         section 4.1.6).

         4.4.22

         4.4.24 pdl-override (type2 keyword)

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute expresses the ability for a
         particular Printer implementation to either attempt to override
         document data instructions with IPP attributes or not.

         This MANDATORY attribute takes on the following values:

           - 'attempted': This value indicates that the Printer object
              attempts to make sure that the IPP attribute values take precedence over
              embedded instructions in the document data, however there is no
              guarantee.
           - 'not-attempted': This value indicates that the Printer object
              makes no attempt to ensure that make the IPP attribute values take precedence
              over embedded instructions in the print document data.

         Section 15 contains a full description of how this attribute interacts
         with and affects other IPP attributes, especially the "ipp-attribute-
         fidelity" attribute.

         4.4.23 security-mechanisms-supported (1setOf keyword)

         This attribute indicates the security mechanisms supported.  Standard
         values are:

           'tls': Transport Layer Security (TLS)
           'ssl': Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
           'http-digest': HTTP/1.1 Digest Authentication
           'http-basic': HTTP/1.1 Basic Authentication

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         4.4.24
         4.4.25 printer-up-time (integer(1:MAX))

         This attribute is a MANDATORY attribute.  It Printer attribute indicates the amount of time (in
         seconds) that this instance of this Printer implementation has been up
         and running.  This value is used to populate the Job attributes "time-of-creation", "time-
         at-creation", "time-at-processing", and "time-at-
         completed". "time-at-completed".  These
         time values are all measured in seconds and all have meaning only
         relative to this attribute, "printer-up-time".  The value is a
         monotonically increasing value starting from 1 when the Printer object
         is started-up (initialized, booted, etc.).

         If the Printer object goes down at some value 'n', and comes back up,
         the implementation MAY:

           1. Know how long it has been down, and resume at some value greater
              than 'n', or
           2. Restart from 1.

         In the first case, the Printer SHOULD not tweak any existing related
         Job attributes ("time-of-creation", ("time-at-creation", "time-at-processing", and "time-
         at-completed").  In the second case, the Printer object SHOULD be reset
         those attributes to 0.  If a client queries a time-related Job
         attribute and finds the value to be 0, the client MUST assume that the
         Job was submitted in some life other than the Printer's current life.

         4.4.25

         4.4.26 printer-current-time (dateTime)

         This Printer attribute is an OPTIONAL attribute.  It indicates the current absolute wall-clock time.
         If an implementation supports this attribute, then a client could
         calculate the absolute wall-clock time each Job's "time-of-creation", "time-at-creation",
         "time-at-processing", and "time-at-
         completed" "time-at-completed" attributes by using both
         "printer-up-time" and this attribute, "printer-current-time".  If an
         implementation does not support this attribute, a client can only
         calculate the relative time of certain events based on the MANDATORY
         "printer-up-time" attribute.

         4.4.26

         4.4.27 multiple-operation-time-out (integer) (integer(1:MAX))

         This Printer attributes identifies how long (in seconds) the Printer
         object waits for additional Send-Document or Send-URI operations to
         follow a still-open multi-document Job object. object before taking one of the
         actions indicated in section 3.3.1.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         5. Conformance

         This section describes conformance issues and requirements. This
         document introduces model entities such as objects, operations,

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         attributes, and attribute values.  These conformance sections describe
         the conformance requirements which apply to these model entities.

         5.1 Client Conformance Requirements

         A conforming client SHALL send support all MANDATORY operations that conform to the protocol as defined
         in _Internet Printing Protocol/1.0: Protocol Specification_
         [IPP-PRO]. this document.  For each attribute included in an operation
         request, a conforming client SHALL send supply a value whose type and value
         syntax conforms to the requirement requirements of this the Model document as specified
         in Sections 3 and 4.  A conforming client MAY supply any registered
         extensions and/or private extensions in an operation request, as long
         as they meet the requirements in Section 6.

         Otherwise, there are no conformance requirements placed on the user
         interfaces provided by IPP clients or their applications.  For
         example, one application might not allow an end user to submit
         multiple documents per job, while another does.  One application might
         first query a Printer object in order to supply a graphical user
         interface (GUI) dialogue box with supported and default values whereas
         a different implementation might not.  For presentation purposes,
         truncation of long attribute values is not recommended.  A recommended
         approach would be for the client implementation to allow the user to
         scroll through long attribute values.

         When sending a Get-Attributes or create request, an IPP client NEED
         NOT supply any OPTIONAL attributes. attributes that can OPTIONALLY be supplied by the
         client.

         A client SHALL be able to accept any of the attribute syntaxes defined
         in Section 4.1, including their full range, that may be returned to it
         in a response from a Printer object.  For presentation purposes,
         truncation of long attribute values is not recommended.  A recommended
         approach would be for the client implementation to allow the user to
         scroll through long attribute values.

         A query response may contain attributes and values that the client
         does not expect.  Therefore, a client implementation MUST gracefully
         handle such responses and not refuse to inter-operate with a
         conforming Printer that is returning extended registered or private
         attributes and/or attribute values that conform to Section 6.  Clients
         may choose to ignore any parameters, attributes, or values that it
         does not understand.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         5.2 Printer IPP Object Conformance Requirements

         This section specifies the conformance requirements for conforming
         Printer object
         implementations with respect to objects, operations, and attributes.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         5.2.1 Objects

         Conforming Printer implementations SHALL implement all of the model objects as
         defined in this specification in the indicated sections:

           Section 2.1 - Printer Object
           Section 2.2 - Job Object

         5.2.2 Operations

         Conforming Printer implementations SHALL implement all of the
         MANDATORY model operations, including mandatory responses, as defined
         in this specification in the indicated sections:

           For a Printer object:
              Print-Job (section 3.2.1)               MANDATORY
              Print-URI (section 3.2.2)               OPTIONAL
              Validate-Job (section 3.2.3)            MANDATORY
              Create-Job (section 3.2.4)              OPTIONAL
              Get-Attributes (section 3.2.5)          MANDATORY
              Get-Jobs (section 3.2.6)                MANDATORY

           For a Job object:
              Send-Document (section 3.3.1)           OPTIONAL
              Send-URI (section 3.3.2)                OPTIONAL
              Cancel-Job (section 3.3.3)              MANDATORY
              Get-Attributes (section 3.3.4)          MANDATORY

         Conforming Printer implementations IPP objects SHALL support all operation attributes and all
         values of such attributes, except for attributes
         that are collections of attributes. The following section on object attributes
         specifies the support required for object attributes.

         5.2.3 IPP Object Attributes

         Conforming Printer implementations IPP objects SHALL support all of the MANDATORY object
         attributes, as defined in this specification in the indicated
         sections.

         If a Printer an object supports an attribute, it SHALL support only those values
         specified in this document or through the extension mechanism

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         described in the next section. section 5.2.4. It MAY support any non-empty subset of
         these values. That is, it SHALL support at least one of the specified
         values and at most all of them.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         5.2.4 Printer extensions Extensions

         A conforming Printer may IPP object MAY support registered extensions and private
         extensions, as long as they meet the requirements specified in Section
         6.

         A conforming Printer SHALL send responses that conform to the protocol
         defined in _Internet Printing Protocol/1.0: Protocol Specification_
         [IPP-PRO].

         For each attribute included in an operation response, a conforming printer IPP
         object SHALL send return a value whose type and value syntax conforms to
         the requirement of this the Model document as specified in Sections 3 and
         4.

         5.2.5 Attribute Syntaxes

         A Printer

         An IPP object SHALL be able to accept any of the attribute syntaxes
         defined in Section 4.1, including their full range, in any operation
         in which a client may supply attributes.  Furthermore, a Printer an IPP object
         SHALL return attributes to the client in operation responses that
         conform to the syntax specified in Section 4.1, including their full
         range if supplied previously by a client.

         5.3 charset and Natural Language Requirements

         All clients and IPP objects SHALL support the 'utf-8' charset as
         defined in section 4.1.7.

         IPP objects MUST be able to accept any client request which correctly
         uses the "attributes-natural-language" operation attribute or the
         Natural Language Override method on any individual attribute whether
         or not the natural language is supported by the IPP object.  If an IPP
         object supports a natural language, then it MUST be able to translate
         (perhaps by table lookup) all generated 'text' or 'name' attribute
         values into one of the supported languages (see section 3.1.3).  That
         is, the IPP object that supports a natural language NEED NOT be a
         general purpose translator of any arbitrary 'text' or 'name' value
         supplied by the client into that natural language, however the object
         MUST be able to translate (automatically generate) any of its own
         attribute values and messages into that natural language.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         5.4 Security Conformance Requirements

         All clients and IPP objects (that support the HTTP/1.1 mapping as
         defined in the IPP/1.0 Protocol Specification [IPP-PRO]) SHALL support
         the two authentication mechanisms for HTTP/1.1 as defined in RFC 2068
         [RFC2068] and RFC 2069 [RFC2069].

         Clients and

         If a client or an IPP objects object supports secure communication channels,
         then that need mutual authentication and/or
         encryption SHOULD also client or IPP object MUST support a secure connection protocol. For this
         purpose it is the intention SSL3.  SSL3 allows for
         clients and objects to define standardization of IPP in
         combination with negotiate the required security level..  Since
         Transport Layer Security (TLS), when the (TLS) plans to support backwards
         compatibility with SSL3, then all implementations that support SSL3
         will be conformant with TLS
         specifications are agreed and on the as soon as TLS becomes an IETF standards track.
         track specification.

         For a detailed discussion of security considerations, see section 8.

         6. IANA Considerations (registered and private extensions)

         During the development of this standard, the IPP working group
         (working with IANA) will register additional keywords and enums while
         the standard is in the proposed and draft states according to the
         procedures described in this section.  IANA will handle registration
         of additional enums after this standard is approved in cooperation
         with an IANA-appointed registration editor from the

         This section describes how IPP working group
         according to the procedures described in this section.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 can be extended.

         6.1 Typed Extensions

         This document uses prefixes to the "keyword" and "enum" basic syntax
         type in order to communicate extra information to the reader through
         its name. This extra information need not be represented in an
         implementation because it is unimportant to a client or Printer.  The
         list below describes the prefixes and their meaning.

           "type1":  The IPP standard must be revised to add a new keyword or
              a new enum.  No private keywords or enums are allowed.

           "type2":  Implementers can, at any time, add new keyword or enum
              values by proposing the specification to to:

              - the IPP working group
              for registration (or an IANA-appointed registry advisor while it is still chartered, or
              - the Printer Working Group [PWG] after the IPP working group is no longer certified) where they are reviewed
              for approval.
              disbanded

              who will review the proposal and work with IANA keeps to register the registry
              additional keywords and assigned enums.   IANA assigns the number for enum
              values and keeps the registry of keywords and enums.

           "type3":  Implementers can, at any time, add new keyword and enum
              values by submitting the complete specification directly to IANA,

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              no IPP working group or IANA-appointed registry advisor Printer Working Group review is required.
              IANA keeps the registry and assigned assigns the number for enum values and keeps the registry of
              keywords and enums.  IANA is responsible for ensuring new
              keywords are unique.

           "type4":  Anyone (system administrators, system integrators, site
              managers, etc.) can, at any time, add new installation-defined
              values (keywords or new (keywords, but not enum values) to a local system. Care
              SHOULD be taken by the implementers to see that keywords do not
              conflict with other keywords defined by the standard or as
              defined by the implementing product. There is no registration or
              approval procedure for type 4 keywords.

              Note: Attributes with type 4 keywords also allow the 'name'
              attribute syntax for administrator defined names.  Such names are
              not registered.

         By definition, each of the four types above assert some sort of
         registry or review process in order for extensions to be considered
         valid.  Each higher level (1, 2, 3, 4) tends to be decreasingly less
         stringent than the previous level.   Therefore, any typeN value MAY be
         registered using a process for some typeM where M is less than N,
         however such registration is NOT REQUIRED.  For example, a type4 value
         MAY be registered in a type 1 manner (by being included in a future
         version of an IPP specification) however it is NOT REQUIRED.

         This specification defines keyword and enum values for all of the
         above types, including type4 keywords.

         For private (unregistered) keyword extensions, implementers SHOULD use
         keywords with a suitable distinguishing prefix, such as "xxx-" where
         xxx is the (lowercase) fully qualified company name registered with
         IANA for use in domain names [RFC1035].

                                 Expires April 14, 1998  For example, if the company
         XYZ Corp. had obtained the domain name "XYZ.com", then a private
         keyword 'abc' would be: 'xyz.com-abc'.

         Note: RFC 1035 [RFC1035] indicates that while upper and lower case
         letters are allowed in domain names, no significance is attached to
         the case.  That is, two names with the same spelling but different
         case are to be treated as if identical.  Also, the labels in a domain
         name must follow the rules for ARPANET host names:  They must start
         with a letter, end with a letter or digit, and have as interior
         characters only letters, digits, and hyphen.  Labels must be 63
         characters or less.  Labels are separated by the "." character.

         For private (unregistered) enum extension, implementers SHOULD SHALL use
         values in the reserved integer range which is 2**30 to 2**31-1.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         6.2 Registration of MIME types/sub-types for document-formats

         The "document-format" attribute's syntax is "mimeType". 'mimeMediaType'.  This
         means that valid values are Internet media types. Media Types.  RFC 2045 [RFC2045]
         defines the syntax for valid Internet media types.  Also,  IANA is the
         registry for all Internet media types.

         6.3 Attribute Extensibility

         Attribute names are considered to be set of type2 keywords.  Therefore, new attributes may be
         registered and have the same status as attributes in this document by
         following the type2 extension rules.

         6.4 Attribute Syntax Extensibility

         Attribute syntaxes are considered to be set of like type2 enums.  Therefore, new attribute
         syntaxes may be registered and have the same status as attribute
         syntaxes in this document by following the type2 extension rules.  The
         value codes that identify each of the attribute syntaxes are assigned
         in the protocol specification [IPP-PRO].

         7. Internationalization Considerations

         Some of the attributes have values that are text strings and names
         intended for human understanding rather than machine understanding.
         See understanding
         (see the 'text' and 'name' attribute syntaxes in Sections 4.1.1 0 and
         4.1.2.
         4.1.2.)

         In each operation request, the client SHALL identify the charset and
         natural language of the request which affects each supplied 'text' and
         'name' attribute value and requests the charset and natural language
         for attributes returned by the Printer object in operation responses
         and notifications as
         (as described in Section 3.1.3.1. 3.1.3.1). In addition, the

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 client MAY
         separately and individually identify the "exception"
         natural language Natural Language Override of
         a supplied 'text' or 'name' attribute using the technique described
         for the 'text' attribute syntax in Section 4.1.1.

         The Printer object SHALL support the UTF-8 [RFC2044] charset in all
         'text' and 'name' attributes supported.  If the Printer object
         supports more than the UTF-8 charset, the Printer object SHALL convert
         between them in order to return the requested charset to the client
         according to Section 3.1.3.2.  If the Printer object supports more
         than one natural language, the Printer object SHOULD return 'text' and

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         'name' values in the natural language requested for those that are
         generated by the Printer (see Section 3.1.3.1).

         For Printers that support multiple charsets and/or multiple natural
         languages in 'text' and 'name' attributes, different jobs may have
         been submitted in differing charsets and/or natural languages.  All
         responses SHALL be returned in the charset requested by the client.
         However, the Get-Jobs operation provides for a mechanism to identify
         the differing natural languages with each job returned.

         The Printer object also has a configured charset and natural language
         attribute that it uses when the requested charset or natural language
         are not supported.  The client can query the Printer object to
         determine the list of charsets and natural languages supported by the
         Printer object and what the Printer object's configured values are.
         See the "printer-charset", "charset", "charset-supported", "printer-natural-
         language", "natural-language", and
         "natural-language-supported" Printer description attributes.

         The 'text' and 'name' attributes specified in this version of this
         document (additional ones will be registered according to the
         procedures in Section 6) are:

           Operation Attributes:
              job-name (name)
              document-name (name)

           Job Attributes:
              job-name (name)
              job-originating-user
              job-originating-user-name (name)
              job-state-message (text)
              job-message-from-operator (text)

           Printer Attributes:
              printer-name (name)
              printer-location (text)

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
              printer-info (text)
              printer-make-and-model (text)
              printer-state-message (text)
              printer-message-from-operator (text)

         8. Security Considerations

         It is required that the IPP be able to operate within a secure
         environment.  IPP attempts to make use of existing security protocols
         and services, wherever possible. Examples of such services include the
         Digest Access Authentication in HTTP 1.1 [RFC2069] and the Transport

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         Layer Security (TLS) services, currently under development in the
         IETF.

         It is difficult to anticipate the security risks that might exist in
         any given IPP environment. For example, if IPP is used within a given
         corporation over a private network, the risks of exposing document
         data may be low enough that the corporation will choose not to use
         encryption on that data.  However, if the connection between the
         client and the IPP object is over a public network, the client may
         wish to protect the content of the information during transmission
         through the network with encryption.

         Furthermore, the value of the information being printed may vary from
         one use of the protocol to the next. Printing payroll checks, for
         example, would have a different value than printing public information
         from a file.  In addition, there is always the threat of a virus
         attack.  However, there are no known viruses or potential for viruses
         that are self-propagated throughout distributed printing environments.
         Therefore, IPP implementations may choose to implement protection
         against printer-damaging print jobs.

         Since the security levels or the specific threats that any given IPP
         print administrator may be concerned with cannot be anticipated, IPP
         MUST be capable of operating with different security mechanisms and
         security policies as required by the individual installation. Security
         policies might vary from very strong, to very weak, to none at all,
         and corresponding security mechanisms will be required.

         The initial security needs of IPP are derived from two primary
         considerations:

           - First, the printing environments envisioned for IPP include
              configurations where the client, the Printer, and the document(s)
              to be printed may all exist in different security domains. When
              objects are in different security domains the requirements for

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
              authentication and message protection are much stronger than when
              they are in the same domain.

           - Second, the sensitivity and value of the content being printed
              will vary. For example, a publicly available document does not
              require the same level of privacy that a payroll document
              requires. There are at least two parties that have an interest in
              the value of the information being printed, the person asking to
              have the information printed and the person who originated the
              information. This brings into the picture the need to worry about
              copyrights and protection of the content.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         The following sections describe specific security attacks for IPP
         environments.  Where examples are provided they should be considered
         illustrative of the environment and not an exhaustive set. Not all of
         these environments will necessarily be addressed in initial
         implementations of IPP.

         8.1 Client and Printer in the Same Security Domain

         This environment is typical of internal networks where traditional
         office workers print the output of personal productivity applications
         on shared work-group printers, or where batch applications print their
         output on large production printers. Although the identity of the user
         may be trusted in this environment, a user might want to protect the
         content of a document against such attacks as eavesdropping, replaying
         or tampering.

         8.2 Client and Printer in Different Security Domains

         Examples of this environment include printing a document created by
         the client on a publicly available printer, such as at a commercial
         print shop; or printing a document remotely on a business partner's
         printer. This latter operation is functionally equivalent to sending
         the document to the business partner as a facsimile. Printing
         sensitive information on a Printer in a different security domain
         requires strong security measures. In this environment authentication
         of the printer is required as well as protection against unauthorized
         use of print resources. Since the document crosses security domains,
         protection against eavesdropping and document tampering are also
         required. It will also be important in this environment to protect
         Printers against "spamming" and malicious document content code.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         8.3 Print by Reference

         When the document is not stored on the client, printing can be done by
         reference. That is, the print request can contain a reference, or
         pointer, to the document instead of the actual document itself. If the
         client physically gets the document before it prints it, then this
         defaults to one of the previous cases.

         8.3.1 Unprotected Documents

         In many cases, documents to be printed are literally available to
         anyone. Documents, such as this Internet Draft which are stored on

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         anonymous FTP sites, are good examples of this. unprotected documents. No
         security mechanisms are required to protect access to these documents.

         8.3.2 Protected Documents

         Clearly, there are cases where the nature of a document requires that
         access to it be protected by some authentication and/or authorization
         mechanism, or where the right to print the document must be paid for.
         This would be the case for sensitive or confidential information, or
         where documents are copyrighted or sold for profit. Unauthorized
         access to content is a major concern in this environment. Protection
         against eavesdropping, document tampering and unauthorized access to
         the document are also concerns if the content is sensitive.

         8.4 Common Security Scenarios

         As discussed earlier, we cannot anticipate the security levels or the
         specific threats that any given IPP print administrator may be
         concerned with.  Security policies might vary from very strong, to
         very weak, to none at all.  In this section we will describe what we
         believe to be four common usage scenarios.

           1) No security at all
           2) Message protection during transmission
           3) Client authentication and authorization
           4) Mutual authentication, authorization, and message protection

         8.4.1 No Security

         If the server printer requires no authorization and the client wants no
         message protection the client can send the print job, i.e., the job
         content and the job attributes without invoking any security
         mechanisms. The printer will print the job for the client. Print by

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         reference also works well in this environment as long as no security
         mechanisms are required to access the documents to be printed.

         8.4.2 Message Protection During Transmission

         There are two types of security that could be used to provide message
         protection. These are channel security and object security. In the
         first case, the channel can be made secure using the Transport Layer
         Security (TLS) protocol, currently under development in the IETF.  In
         the case of object security, each object is encrypted and sent over

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         either a secure or insecure channel.  The recipient has the
         corresponding key to decrypt the object and get the content. Several
         object security mechanisms are currently under study in the IETF.  IPP
         neither mandates the use of these object security mechanisms nor does
         it prohibit the use of them.  IPP will define a recommended mechanism
         for channel security, which is deemed more suitable to meet the IPP
         requirements.

         8.4.3 Client Authentication and Authorization

         This scenario requires client authentication. The authenticated user
         ID may be used for authorization purposes, and may be encrypted by the
         lower security layer.  TLS supports both one sided and mutual
         authentication.  IPP does not mandate the use of any specific
         authorization mechanism (see section 3.1.5.1).

         8.4.4 Mutual Authentication, Authorization and Message Protection

         This scenario requires mutual authentication and message protection.
         TLS can be used for this security feature in these configurations.

         8.5 Recommended Security Mechanisms

         IPP requires all IPP clients and Printers to support the
         authentication features in HTP 1.1 HTTP/1.1 and intends SSL3 with null security.  This
         allows all implementation to mandate be compliant with TLS as  TLS for
         scenarios requiring channel security, once these specifications have become
         stabilized.

         IPP implementations should provide a range of security options to meet
         the needs of different installations and user populations.  Many of
         the security services that are enabled at a given site will be done so
         by a site administrator. The mechanisms used to establish these
         services and to define user IDs and passwords to the system are
         implementation defined and outside the scope of IPP.

         The security protocol used by a particular IPP operation will depend
         upon the security services implemented on the Printer, the security

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         policy established by a site administrator, and the selection made by
         the client. This requires that the right correct handshake messages be
         passed to invoke the selected security  service. These are described
         in the references for each security mechanism and are normally invoked
         by the client. The "security-mechanisms-supported" and "printer-more-info" "printer-more-
         info" attributes can be queried to help the end user know what to
         expect in terms of security. These attributes should also appear in
         the directory entry for each Printer.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         Note: When utilizing HTTP/1.1 as a transport for IPP [IPP-PRO], the
         security considerations outlined in HTTP/1.1 apply. When set by an
         administrator, IPP servers objects MUST generate a 401 (Unauthorized) response
         code to request client authentication and IPP clients should correctly
         respond with the proper Authorization header. Both basic
         authentication and digest authentication flavors of authentication
         should be supported. The administrator chooses which type(s) of
         authentication to accept. Digest authentication is a more secure
         method and is always preferred to basic authentication.

         For secure communication (privacy in particular), IPP should be run
         using a secure communications channel. TLS provides secure
         communications channels and provides for mutual authentication. The
         secure communications channel must be initiated prior to running the
         IPP protocol. There is no mechanism for bootstrapping a secure
         communication channel from within the IPP protocol itself.

         It is possible to combine a secure communication channel with either
         Basic or Digest Authentication.

         For a Printer object that supports only non-secure access, the Printer
         object supports only the "printer-uri" attribute.  For a Printer
         object that supports only secure access, the Printer object supports
         only the "printer-tls-uri".  For a Printer object that supports both
         secure and non-secure access, the Printer object supports both the
         "printer-uri" and the "printer-tls-uri" attributes.

         9. References

          [ASCII]
              Coded Character Set - 7-bit American Standard Code for
              Information Interchange (ASCII), ANSI X3.4-1986. This standard is
              the specification of the 'US-ASCII' US-ASCII charset.

         [CS-POL]
              H. Alvestrand, "IETF Policy on Character Sets and Languages, work
              in progress <draft-alvestrand-charset-policy-01.txt>, August 29,
              1997.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         [HTPP]
              J. Barnett, K. Carter, R. DeBry,  "Initial Draft - Hypertext
              Printing Protocol - HTPP/1.0", October 1996,
              ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/historic/htpp/ overview.ps.gz

         [IANA-CS]
              IANA Registry of Coded Character Sets:  ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-
              notes/iana/assignments/character-sets

         [IANA-CSa]
              N. Freed, J. Postel:  IANA CharSet Registration Procedures, Work
              in Progress (draft-freed-charset-reg-02.txt).

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         [IANA-MT]
              IANA Registry of Media Types:  ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-
              notes/iana/assignments/media-types/

         [IPP-PRO]
              Herriot, R. (et al), R., Butler, S., Moore, P., Tuner, R., " Internet
              Printing Protocol/1.0: Protocol Specifications", draft-ipp-pro-03.txt, draft-ipp-pro-
              03.txt, November, 1997.

         [IPP-RAT]
              Zilles, S., "Rationale for the Structure and Model and Protocol
              for the Internet Printing Protocol", draft-ipp-rat-01.txt,
              November, 1997.

         [IPP-REQ]
              Wright, D., "Requirements for an Internet Printing Protocol",
              draft-ipp-req-01.txt, November, 1997.

         [ISO10646-1]
              ISO/IEC 10646-1:1993, "Information technology -- Universal
              Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set (UCS) - Part 1: Architecture
              and Basic Multilingual Plane, JTC1/SC2."

         [ISO8859-1]
              ISO/IEC 8859-1:1987, "Information technology -- 8-bit One-Byte
              Coded Character Set - Part 1: Latin Alphabet Nr 1", 1987,
              JTC1/SC2.

         [ISODPA]

         [ISO10175]
              ISO/IEC 10175 Document Printing Application (DPA), June 1996.

          [LDPA]
              T. Hastings,  S. Isaacson,  M. MacKay, C. Manros, D. Taylor, P.
              Zehler,  "LDPA - Lightweight Document Printing Application",
              October 1996,
              ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/historic/ldpa/ldpa8.pdf.gz

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         [P1387.4]
              Kirk, M. (editor), POSIX System Administration - Part 4: Printing
              Interfaces, POSIX 1387.4 D8, 1994.

         [PSIS]    Herriot, R. (editor), X/Open A Printing System
              Interoperability Specification (PSIS), August 1995.

         [PWG]
              Printer Working Group, http://www.pwg.org.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         [RFC1035]
              P. Mockapetris, "DOMAIN NAMES - IMPLEMENTATION AND
              SPECIFICATION", RFC 1035, November 1987.

         [RFC1179]
              McLaughlin, L. III, (editor), "Line Printer Daemon Protocol" RFC
              1179, August 1990.

         [RFC1514]
              ?, "  ", RFC 1514, ?.

          [RFC1521]
              Borenstein, N., and Freed, N., "MIME (Multi-purpose Internet Mail
              Extensions) Part One: Mechanism for Specifying and Describing the
              Format of Internet Message Bodies", RFC 1521, September, 1993.

          [RFC1630]
              T. Berners-Lee, "Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW: A
              Unifying Syntax for the Expression of Names and Addresses of
              Objects on the Network as used in the World-Wide Web", RFC 1630,
              June 1994.

         [RFC1738]
              Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., McCahill, M. , "Uniform Resource
              Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December, 1994.

         [RFC1759]
              Smith, R., Wright, F., Hastings, T., Zilles, S., and Gyllenskog,
              J., "Printer MIB", RFC 1759, March 1995.

         [RFC1766]
              H. Alvestrand, " Tags for the Identification of Languages", RFC
              1766, March 1995.

         [RFC1808]
              ?, "  ", RFC 1808, ?.

         [RFC1825]
              R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol",
              RFC 1825, August 1995

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         [RFC1903]
              ?, "  ", RFC 1903, ?.

          [RFC2044]
              F. Yergeau, "UTF-8, a transformation format of Unicode and ISO
              10646", RFC 2044, October 1996.

         [RFC2068]
              R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, T. Berners-Lee,
              "Hypertext Transfer Protocol - HTTP/1.1", RFC 2068, January 1997

         [RFC2069]
              J. Franks, P. Hallam-Baker, J. Hostetler, P. Leach, A. Luotonen,
              E. Sink, L. Stewart, "An Extension to HTTP: Digest Access
              Authentication", RFC-2069, Jan 1997.

         [RFC2119]
              S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
              Levels", RFC 2119 , March 1997

         [RFC2130]
              ?, "  ", RFC 2130, ?.

          [RFC2045]
              N. Fried, N. Borenstein, ", Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
              (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies " RFC 2045,
              November 1996.

         [RFC2046]
              Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media
              Types. N. Freed & N. Borenstein. November 1996. (Obsoletes
              RFC1521, RFC1522, RFC1590), RFC 2046.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         [RFC2048]
              Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME) Part Four:
              Registration Procedures. N. Freed, J. Klensin & J. Postel.
              November 1996. (Format: TXT=45033 bytes) (Obsoletes RFC1521,
              RFC1522, RFC1590) (Also BCP0013), RFC 2048.

         [RFC2184]
              N. Fried, K. Moore, "MIME Parameter Value and Encoded Word
              Extensions: Character Sets, Languages, and Continuations",

         [RFC2119]
              S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
              Levels", RFC
              2184, August 2119 , March 1997

         [SWP]
              P. Moore, B. Jahromi, S. Butler, "Simple Web Printing SWP/1.0",
              May 7, 1997, ftp://ftp.pwg.org/pub/pwg/ipp/new_PRO/swp9705.pdf

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         10. Copyright Notice

         Copyright (C) The Internet Society (date). All Rights Reserved.

         This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
         others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
         or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and
         distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind,
         provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
         included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
         document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
         the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
         Internet organizations, except as needed for the  purpose of
         developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
         copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be followed,
         or as required to translate it into languages other than English.

         The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
         revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

         This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
         "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
         TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT
         NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN
         WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
         MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

         11. Author's Address

              Scott A. Isaacson (Editor)
              Novell, Inc.
              122 E 1700 S

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              Provo, UT   84606

              Phone: 801-861-7366
              Fax:   801-861-4025   801-861-2517
              EMail: scott_isaacson@novell.com

              Tom Hastings
              Xerox Corporation
              701 S. Aviation Blvd.
              El Segundo, CA   90245

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

              Phone: 310-333-6413
              Fax:   310-333-5514
              EMail: hastings@cp10.es.xerox.com

              Robert Herriot
              Sun Microsystems Inc.
              901 San Antonio.Road, MPK-17
              Palo Alto, CA 94303

              Phone: 415-786-8995 (Area code change to 650 in August 1997) 650-786-8995
              Fax:  415-786-7077 (Area code change to 650 in August 1997)  650-786-7077
              Email: robert.herriot@eng.sun.com

              Roger deBry
              HUC/003G
              IBM Corporation
              P.O. Box 1900
              Boulder, CO 80301-9191

              Phone: (303) 924-4080
              Fax: (303) 924-9889
              Email: debry@vnet.ibm.com

              Patrick Powell
              San Diego State University
              9475 Chesapeake Dr., Suite D
              San Diego, CA  95123

              Phone: (619) 874-6543
              Fax: (619) 279-8424
              Email: papowell@sdsu.edu

              IPP Mailing List:  ipp@pwg.org
              IPP Mailing List Subscription:  ipp-request@pwg.org
              IPP Web Page:  http://www.pwg.org/ipp/

         Other Participants:

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              Chuck Adams - Tektronix
              Jeff Barnett - IBM
              Ron Bergman - Dataproducts Corp.
              Sylvan Butler, HP
              Keith Carter, IBM Corporation
              Jeff Copeland - QMS
              Andy Davidson - Tektronix
              Mabry Dozier - QMS
              Lee Farrell - Canon Information Systems
              Steve Gebert - IBM

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
              Babek Jahromi, Microsoft
              David Kellerman - Northlake Software
              Rick Landau - Digital
              Greg LeClair - Epson
              Harry Lewis - IBM
              Pete Loya - HP
              Ray Lutz - Cognisys
              Mike MacKay, Novell, Inc.
              Carl-Uno Manros, Xerox, Corp.
              Jay Martin - Underscore
              Stan McConnell - Xerox
              Ira McDonald, High North Inc.
              Paul Moore, Microsoft
              Tetsuya Morita - Ricoh
              Yuichi Niwa - Ricoh
              Pat Nogay - IBM
              Ron Norton - Printronics
              Bob Pentecost - HP
              Rob Rhoads - Intel
              David Roach - Unisys
              Stuart Rowley, Kyocera
              Hiroyuki Sato - Canon
              Bob Setterbo - Adobe
              Devon Taylor, Novell, Inc.
              Mike Timperman - Lexmark
              Randy Turner - Sharp
              Atsushi Yuki - Kyocera
              Lloyd Young - Lexmark
              Bill Wagner - DPI
              Jim Walker - DAZEL
              Chris Wellens - Interworking Labs
              Rob Whittle - Novell
              Don Wright - Lexmark
              Peter Zehler, Xerox, Corp.
              Steve Zilles, Adobe

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         12. APPENDIX A: Terminology

         This specification uses the terminology defined in this section.

         12.1 Conformance Terminology

         The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
         "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and  "OPTIONAL" in this
         document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. The
         sections below reiterate these definitions and include some additional
         ones.

         12.1.1 MUST

         This word, or the terms "REQUIRED",  "SHALL" or "MANDATORY", means
         that the definition is an absolute requirement of the specification.

         12.1.2 MUST NOT

         This phrase, or the phrase "SHALL NOT", means that the definition is
         an absolute prohibition of the specification.

         12.1.3 SHOULD

         This word, or the adjective "RECOMMENDED", means that there may exist
         valid reasons in particular circumstances to ignore a particular item,
         but the full implications must be understood and carefully weighed
         before choosing a different course.

         12.1.4 SHOULD NOT

         This phrase, or the phrase "NOT RECOMMENDED" means that there may
         exist valid reasons in particular circumstances when the particular
         behavior is acceptable or even useful, but the full implications
         should be understood and the case carefully weighed before
         implementing any behavior described with this label.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         12.1.5 MAY

         This word, or the adjective "OPTIONAL", means that an item is truly
         optional.  One vendor may choose to include the item because a
         particular marketplace requires it or because the vendor feels that it
         enhances the product while another vendor may omit the same item.   An
         implementation which does not include a particular option MUST be
         prepared to interoperate inter-operate with another implementation which does
         include the option, though perhaps with reduced functionality. In the

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         same vein an implementation which does include a particular option
         MUST be prepared to interoperate inter-operate with another implementation which
         does not include the option (except, of course, for the feature the
         option provides.)

         12.1.6 NEED NOT

         The verb "NEED NOT" indicates an action that the subject of the
         sentence does not have to implement in order to claim conformance to
         the standard.  The verb "NEED NOT" is used instead of "MAY NOT" since
         "MAY NOT" sounds like a prohibition.

         12.2 Model Terminology

         12.2.1 Keyword

         Keywords are used within this document as identifiers of semantic
         entities within the abstract model. model (see section 4.1.3).  Attribute
         names, some attribute values, attribute syntaxes, and attribute group
         names are represented as keywords.  In this document, a keyword is a sequence of characters
         (length of 1 to 255) which consists of the following ASCII characters:
         lower-case letters ("a" - "z"), digits ("0" - "9"), hyphen ("-"),
         period ("."), and underscore ("_").  A keyword starts with a lower-
         case letter.

         12.2.2 Attributes

         An attribute is an item of information that is associated with an
         instance of an IPP object.  An attribute consists of an attribute name
         and an one or more attribute value(s). values.  Each attribute has a specific
         attribute syntax.  All object attributes are defined in section 4. 4 and
         all operation attributes are defined in section 3.

         Job Template Attributes described in section 4.2. The client
         optionally supplies Job Template attributes in a create request
         (operation requests that create Job objects).  The Printer object has
         associated attributes which define supported and default values for
         the Printer.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         12.2.2.1 Attribute Name

         Each attribute is uniquely identified in this document by its
         attribute name.  An attribute name is a keyword.  The keyword
         attribute name is given in the section header describing that
         attribute.  In running text in this document, attribute names are
         indicated inside double quotation marks (") where the quotation marks
         are not part of the keyword itself.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         12.2.2.2 Attribute Group Name

         Related attributes are grouped into named groups.  The name of the
         group is a keyword.  The group name may be used in place of naming all
         the attributes in the group explicitly.  Attribute groups are defined
         in section 3.

         12.2.2.3 Attribute Value

         Each attribute has one or more values.  Attribute values are
         represented in the syntax type specified for that attribute. In
         running text in this document, attribute values are indicated inside
         single quotation marks ('), whether their attribute syntax is keyword,
         integer, text, etc. where the quotation marks are not part of the
         value itself.

         12.2.2.4 Attribute Syntax

         Each attribute is defined using an explicit syntax type.  In this
         document, each syntax type is defined as a keyword with specific
         meaning.  The protocol specification document [IPP-PRO] indicates the
         actual "on-the-wire" encoding rules for each syntax type. Attribute
         syntax types are defined in section 4.1.

         12.2.3 Supports

         By definition, a Printer object supports an attribute only if that
         Printer object responds with the corresponding attribute populated
         with some value(s) in a response to a query for that attribute.  A
         Printer object supports an attribute value if the value is one of the
         Printer object's "supported values" attributes.  The device behind a
         Printer object may exhibit a behavior that corresponds to some IPP
         attribute, but if the Printer object, when queried for that attribute,
         doesn't respond with the attribute, then as far as IPP is concerned,
         that implementation does not support that feature. If the Printer
         object supports Job Template attribute "foo" then it supports both a
         "foo-default" default value attribute and a "foo-supported" supported
         values attribute.  If the Printer

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         object's "foo-supported" "xxx-supported" attribute is not populated with some a particular
         value (even if that value is a legal value for that attribute), then
         that Printer object does not support that particular value.

         A conforming implementation SHALL support all MANDATORY attributes.
         However, even for MANDATORY attributes, conformance to IPP does not
         mandate that all implementations support all possible values
         representing all possible job processing behaviors and features.  For
         example, if a given instance of a Printer supports only certain
         document formats, then that Printer responds with the "document-

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         format-supported" attribute populated with a set of values, possibly
         only one, taken from the entire set of possible values defined for
         that attribute. This limited set of values represents the Printer's
         set of supported document formats.  Supporting an attribute and some
         set of values for that attribute enables IPP end users to be aware of
         and make use of those features associated with that attribute and
         those values.  If an implementation chooses to not support an
         attribute or some specific value, then IPP end users would have no
         ability to make use of that feature within the context of IPP itself.
         However, due to existing practice and legacy systems which are not IPP
         aware, there might be some other mechanism outside the scope of IPP to
         control or request the "unsupported" feature (such as embedded
         instructions within the document data itself).

         For example, consider the "finishings-supported" attribute.

           1) If a Printer object is not physically capable of stapling, the "finishings-
         supported"
              "finishings-supported" attribute MUST NOT be populated with the
              value of 'staple'.
         If a
           2) A Printer object is physically capable of stapling, however an
              implementation MAY
         choose chooses not to support stapling in the "finishings-supported" attribute and the value
         of 'staple'.  Doing so, would enable end users to IPP
              "finishings" attribute.  In this case, 'staple' SHALL NOT be aware of and make
         use of a
              value in the stapling feature. "finishings-supported" Printer object attribute.
              Without support for the value 'staple', an IPP end user would
              have no means within the protocol itself to request that a Job be
              stapled.  However  However, an existing document data formatter might be
              able to request that the document be stapled directly with an
              embedded instruction within the document data itself. data.  In this case, the
              IPP implementation does not "support" stapling, however the end
              user is still able to have some control over the stapling of the
              completed job.
           3) A Printer object is physically capable of stapling, and an
              implementation chooses to support stapling in the IPP
              "finishings" attribute. In this case, 'staple' SHALL be a value
              in the "finishings-supported" Printer object attribute. Doing so,
              would enable end users to be aware of and make use of the
              stapling feature using IPP attributes.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         Even though support for Job Template attributes by a Printer object is
         OPTIONAL, it is RECOMMENDED that if the device behind a Printer object
         is capable of realizing any feature or function that corresponds to an
         IPP attribute and some associated value, then that implementation
         SHOULD support that IPP attribute and value.

         The set of values in any of the supported value attributes is set
         (populated) by some administrative process or automatic sensing
         mechanism that is outside the scope of IPP.  For administrative policy
         and control reasons, an administrator may choose to make only a subset
         of possible values visible to the end user.  In this case, the real
         output device behind the IPP Printer abstraction may be capable of a
         certain feature, however an administrator is specifying that access to
         that feature not flow back be exposed to the end user through the IPP protocol.
         Also, since a Printer object may represent a logical print device (not
         just a physical devices) device) the actual process for supporting a value is
         undefined and left up to the implementation.  However, if a Printer
         object supports a value, some manual human action may be needed to
         realize the semantic action associated with the value, but no end user

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         action is required.

         For example, if one of the values in the "finishings-supported"
         attribute is 'staple', the actual process might be an automatic staple
         action by a physical device controlled by some command sent to the
         device.  Or, the actual process of stapling might be a manual action
         by an operator at an operator attended Printer object.

         For another example of how supported attributes function, consider an
         system administrator that desire who desires to control all print jobs so that no cover
         job sheets are printed in order to conserve paper.  To force no job
         sheets, the system administrator sets the only supported value for the
         "job-sheets-supported" attribute to 'none'.  In this case, if a client
         requests anything except 'none', the create request is rejected or the
         "job-sheets" value is ignored (depending on the value of "ipp-attribute-fidelity" of
         course). "ipp-
         attribute-fidelity").  To force the use of banner pages job start/end sheets on all
         jobs, the administrator does not include the value 'none' in the "job-sheets-
         supported" "job-
         sheets-supported" attribute.  In this case, if a client requests
         'none', the create request is rejected or the "job-sheets" value is
         ignored (again depending on the value of "ipp-
         attribute-fidelity"). "ipp-attribute-fidelity").

         12.2.4 print-stream page

         A "print-stream page" is a page according to the definition of pages
         in the language used to express the document data.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         12.2.5 imposed page impression

         An "imposed page" "impression" is a page created by placing N the image (possibly many print-stream pages in
         different configurations) imposed onto a single media page.

         13. APPENDIX B:  Status Codes and Suggested Status Code Messages

         This section defines status code enum keywords and values that are
         used to provide semantic information on the results of an operation
         request.  Each operation response MUST include a status code.  For
         error type status codes, the response MAY also contain a status
         message that provides a short textual description of the status.  The
         status code is intended for use by automata, and the status message is
         intended for the human end user.  Since the status message is an
         OPTIONAL component of the operation response, an IPP application (i.e.
         (i.e., a browser, GUI, print driver or gateway) is NOT REQUIRED to
         examine or display the status
         message. message, since it MAY not be returned to
         the application.

         The prefix of the status keyword defines the class of response as
         follows:

           "informational" - Request received, continuing process
           "successful" - The action was successfully received, understood,
              and accepted

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           "redirection" - Further action must be taken in order to complete
              the request
           "client-error" - The request contains bad syntax or cannot be
              fulfilled
           "server-error" - The server IPP object  failed to fulfill an apparently
              valid request

         Since IPP status codes are type2 enums, they are extensible.  IPP
         applications
         clients are NOT REQUIRED to understand the meaning of all registered
         status codes, though such understanding is obviously desirable.
         However, applications SHALL understand the class of any status code,
         as indicated by the prefix, and treat any unrecognized response as
         being equivalent to the first status code of that class, with the
         exception that an unrecognized response shall not be cached.  For
         example, if an unrecognized status code of "client-error-foo-bar" "client-error-xxx-yyy" is
         received by the client, it can safely assume that there was something
         wrong with its request and treat the response as if it had received a
         "client-error-bad-request" status code.  In such cases, IPP
         applications SHOULD present the OPTIONAL message (if present) to the
         end user since the message is likely to contain human readable

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         information which will help to explain the unusual status.  The name
         of the enum is the suggested status message for US English.

         The status code values range from 0x0000 to 0x7FFF.  The value ranges
         for each status code class are as follows:

           "successful" - 0x0000 to 0x00FF
           "informational" - 0x0100 to 0x01FF
           "redirection" - 0x0200 to 0x02FF
           "client-error" - 0x0400 to 0x04FF
           "server-error" - 0x0500 to 0x05FF

         The top half (128 values) of each range (0x0n40 to 0x0nFF, for n = 0
         to 5) is reserved for private use within each status code class.
         Values 0x0600 to 0x7FFF are reserved for future assignment and SHALL
         not be used.

         13.1 Status Codes

         Each status code is described below. Section 13.2 contains a table
         that indicates which status codes apply to which operations.  Section
         15.3 describes the algorithm for processing IPP attributes for the
         create and Job-Validate operations, including returning status codes.

         13.1.1 Informational

         This class of status code indicates a provisional response and is to
         be used for informational purposes only.

         There are no status codes defined in IPP 1.0 IPP/1.0 for this class of status
         code.

         13.1.2 Successful Status Codes

         This class of status code indicates that the client's request was
         successfully received, understood, and accepted.

         13.1.2.1 successful-ok (0x0000)

         The request has succeeded.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         13.1.2.2 successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-attributes (0x0001)

         The create or Validate-Job request has succeeded, but since ignoring or substituting of
         values was requested ("ipp-attribute-fidelity" set to 'false' in the
         create request), some attributes
         were ignored or unsupported values were substituted with supported
         values in order to process the job without rejecting it.  See section
         3.2.1.2 that describes the Unsupported Attributes returned in a Print-
         Job Response and section  that describes the processing of attributes.

         13.1.2.3 successful-ok-conflicting-attributes (0x0002)

         The create or Validate-Job request has succeeded, but some attribute
         values conflicted with the values of other attributes.  These
         conflicting values were either (1) substituted with (supported) values
         or (2) the attributes were removed in order to process the job without
         rejecting it.  See section 3.2.1.2 that describes the Unsupported
         Attributes returned in a Print-Job Response.

         13.1.3 Redirection Status Codes

         This class of status code indicates that further action needs to be
         taken to fulfill the request.

         There are no status codes defined in IPP 1.0 IPP/1.0 for this class of status
         code.

         13.1.4 Client Error Status Codes

         This class of status code is intended for cases in which the client
         seems to have erred.  The server IPP object SHOULD return a message
         containing an explanation of the error situation and whether it is a
         temporary or permanent condition.

         13.1.4.1 client-error-bad-request (0x0400)

         The request could not be understood by the server IPP object due to malformed
         syntax.  The IPP application SHOULD NOT repeat the request without
         modifications.

         13.1.4.2 client-error-forbidden (0x0401)

         The server IPP object understood the request, but is refusing to fulfill it.
         Additional authentication information or authorization credentials
         will not help and the request SHOULD NOT be repeated.  This status

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         code is commonly used when the server IPP object does not wish to reveal
         exactly why the request has been refused or when no other response is
         applicable.

         13.1.4.3 client-error-not-authenticated (0x0402)

         The request requires user authentication.  The IPP client may repeat
         the request with suitable authentication information. If the request
         already included authentication information, then this status code
         indicates that authorization has been refused for those credentials.
         If this response contains the same challenge as the prior response,
         and the user agent has already attempted authentication at least once,
         then the response message may contain relevant diagnostic information.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         This status codes reveals more information than "client-error-
         forbidden" and "client-error-not-authenticated".
         forbidden".

         13.1.4.4 client-error-not-authorized (0x0403)

         The requester is not authorized to perform the request.  Additional
         authentication information or authorization credentials will not help
         and the request SHOULD NOT be repeated.  This status code is used when
         the server IPP object wishes to reveal that the authentication information is
         understandable, however, the requester is explicitly not authorized to
         perform the request.  This status codes reveals more information than
         "client-error-forbidden" and "client-error-not-authenticated".

         13.1.4.5 client-error-not-possible (0x0404)

         This status code is used when the request is for something that can
         not happen.  For example, there might be a request to cancel a job
         that has already been canceled or aborted by the system.  The IPP
         client SHOULD NOT repeat the request.

         13.1.4.6 client-error-timeout (0x0405)

         The client did not produce a request within the time that the server IPP
         object was prepared to wait.  For example, a client issued a Create-Job Create-
         Job operation and then, after a long period of time, issued a Send-
         Document operation and this error status code was returned in response
         to the Send-Document request. request  (see section 3.3.1).  The server IPP object
         might have been forced to clean up resources that had been held for
         the waiting additional Documents.  The server IPP object was forced to close
         the Job since the client took too long.  The client SHOULD NOT repeat
         the request without modifications.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         13.1.4.7 client-error-not-found (0x0406)

         The server IPP object has not found anything matching the request URI.  No
         indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or
         permanent.  For example, a client with an old reference to a Job (a
         URI) tries to cancel the Job, however in the mean time the Job might
         have been completed and all record of it at the Printer has been
         deleted.  This status code, 'client-error-not-found' is returned
         indicating that the referenced Job can not be found.  This error
         status code is also used when a client supplies a URI as a reference
         to the document data in either a Print-URI or Send-URI operation
         however the document can not be found.

         In practice, an IPP application should avoid a not found situation by
         first querying and presenting a list of valid Printer URIs and Job
         URIs to the end-user.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         13.1.4.8 client-error-gone (0x0407)

         The requested object is no longer available at the server and no forwarding address
         is known.  This condition should be considered permanent.  Clients
         with link editing capabilities should delete references to the request
         URI after user approval.  If the server IPP object does not know or has no
         facility to determine, whether or not the condition is permanent, the
         status code "client-error-not-found" should be used instead.

         This response is primarily intended to assist the task of web maintenance
         by notifying the recipient that the resource is intentionally
         unavailable and that the server owners desire IPP object administrator desires that remote
         links to that resource be removed. It is not necessary to mark all
         permanently unavailable resources as "gone" or to keep the mark for
         any length of time -- that is left to the discretion of the server
         owner. IPP object
         administrator.

         13.1.4.9 client-error-request-entity-too-large (0x0408)

         The server IPP object is refusing to process a request because the request
         entity is larger than the server IPP object is willing or able to process.
         An IPP Printer returns this status code when it limits the size of
         print jobs and it receives a print job that exceeds that limit or when
         the attributes are so many that their encoding causes the request
         entity to exceed server IPP object capacity.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         13.1.4.10 client-error-request-URI-too-long client-error-request-uri-too-long (0x0409)

         The server IPP object is refusing to service the request because the request
         URI is longer than the server IPP object is willing to interpret.  This rare
         condition is only likely to occur when a client has improperly
         submitted a request with long query information (e.g. an IPP
         application allows an end-user to enter an invalid URI), when the
         client has descended into a URI "black hole" of redirection (e.g., a
         redirected URI prefix that points to a suffix of itself), or when the
         server
         IPP object is under attack by a client attempting to exploit security
         holes present in some servers IPP objects using fixed-length buffers for
         reading or manipulating the Request-URI.

         13.1.4.11 client-error-unsupported-document-format client-error-document-format-not-supported (0x040A)

         The server IPP object is refusing to service the request because the document
         data is in a format, as specified in the "document-format" input operation
         attribute, that is not supported by the Printer object.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998  This error is
         returned independent of the client-supplied "ipp-attribute-fidelity".
         The Printer object SHALL return this status code, even if there are
         other attributes that are not supported as well, since this error is a
         bigger problem than with Job Template attributes.

         13.1.4.12 client-error-attribute-not-supported (0x040B)

         For

         In a Create-Job, Print-Job or Validate-Job operation, create request, if the IPP Printer object does not support one or
         more attributes or attribute values supplied in the request, request and the
         client supplied the "ipp-attributes-fidelity" operation attribute with
         the 'true' value, the Printer object shall return this status. status code.
         For example, if the request indicates 'iso-a4' media, but that media
         type is not supported by the Printer. Printer object.  Or, if the client
         supplies an optional attribute and the attribute itself is not even
         supported by the Printer.  If the "ipp-attribute-fidelity" attribute
         is set to false, 'false', the Printer
         can SHALL ignore or substitute values for
         unsupported attributes and values rather than reject the request and
         return this status code.

         For any operation where a Get-Jobs operation, client requests attributes (such as a Get-
         Jobs or Get-Attributes operation), if the IPP Printer object does not support
         one or more of the requested attributes, the Printer shall return this status.

         In practice, an IPP application should avoid this situation by
         querying an IPP Printer for its valid object simply ignores
         the unsupported requested attributes and values before
         performing an operation on processes the Printer. request as if
         they had not been supplied, rather than returning this status code.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         13.1.4.13 client-error-uri-scheme-not-supported (0x040C)

         The type of the client supplied URI in a Print-URI or a Send-URI
         operation is not supported.

         13.1.4.14 client-error-charset-not-supported (0x040D)

         For any operation, if the IPP Printer does not support the charset
         supplied by the client in the "attributes-charset" operation
         attribute, the Printer SHALL reject the operation and return this
         status (see Section 3.1.3.1).

         13.1.4.15 client-error-natural-language-not-supported (0x040E)

         13.1.4.14 client-error-charset-not-supported (0x040D)

         For any operation, if the IPP Printer does not support the natural
         language charset
         supplied by the client in the "attributes-natural-language" "attributes-charset" operation attribute and the implementation has chosen to reject the
         operation,
         attribute, the Printer SHALL reject the operation and return this
         status (see Section 3.1.3.1).

         13.1.4.15 client-error-conflicting-attributes (0x040E)

         The create or Validate-Job request is rejected because some attribute
         values conflicted with the values of other attributes.  See section
         3.2.1.2 that describes the Unsupported Attributes returned in a Print-
         Job Response.

         13.1.5 Server Error Status Codes

         This class of status codes indicates cases in which the server IPP object is
         aware that it has erred or is incapable of performing the request.
         The server IPP object SHOULD include a message containing an explanation of
         the error situation, and whether it is a temporary or permanent
         condition.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         13.1.5.1 server-error-internal- error server-error-internal-error (0x0500)

         The server IPP object encountered an unexpected condition that prevented it
         from fulfilling the request.  This error status code differs from "server-
         error-temporary-error"
         "server-error-temporary-error" in that it implies a more permanent
         type of internal error.  It also differs from "server-error-device-error" "server-error-device-
         error" in that it implies an unexpected condition (unlike a paper-jam
         or out-of-
         toner out-of-toner problem which is undesirable but expected).  This
         error status code indicates that probably some knowledgeable human
         intervention is required.

         13.1.5.2 server-error-operation-not-supported (0x0501)

         The server IPP object does not support the functionality required to fulfill
         the request. This is the appropriate response when the server IPP object does
         not recognize an operation or is not capable of supporting it.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         13.1.5.3 server-error-service-unavailable (0x0502)

         The server IPP object is currently unable to handle the request due to a
         temporary overloading or maintenance of the server. IPP object.  The
         implication is that this is a temporary condition which will be
         alleviated after some delay. If known, the length of the delay may be
         indicated in the message.  If no delay is given, the IPP application
         should handle the response as it would for a "server-error-temporary-internal-error" "server-error-temporary-
         internal-error" response.  If the condition is more permanent, the
         error status codes "client-error-gone" or "client-error-not-found"
         could be used.

         13.1.5.4 server-error-version-not-supported (0x0503)

         The server IPP object does not support, or refuses to support, the IPP
         protocol version that was used in the request message.  The server IPP object
         is indicating that it is unable or unwilling to complete the request
         using the same version as supplied in the request other than with this
         error message. The response should contain a Message describing why
         that version is not supported and what other versions are supported by
         that server. IPP object.

         A conforming IPP IPP/1.0 client shall SHALL specify the valid version (IPP 1.0)on ('1.0') on
         each request.  A conforming IPP server (IPP 1.0) IPP/1.0 object  SHALL NOT return this
         status code to a conforming IPP 1.0 IPP/1.0 client.  An IPP server shall object SHALL
         return this status code to a non-conforming IPP client.

         13.1.5.5 server-error-device-error (0x0504)

         A printer error, such as a paper jam, occurs while the IPP Printer object
         processes a Print or Send operation.  The response contains the true
         Job Status (the values of the "job-state" and "job-state-reasons"

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
         attributes).  Additional information can be returned in the optional
         "job-state-message" attribute value or in the OPTIONAL status message
         that describes the error in more detail.  This error status code is
         only returned in situations where the Printer is unable to accept the
         create request because of such a device error.  For example, if the
         Printer is unable to spool, and can only accept one job at a time, the
         reason it might reject a create request is that the printer currently
         has a paper jam.  In many cases however, where the Printer object can
         accept the request even though the Printer has some error condition,
         the 'successful-ok' status code will be returned.  In such a case, the
         client would look at the returned Job Object Attributes or later query
         the Printer to determine its state and state reasons.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         13.1.5.6 server-error-temporary-error (0x0505)

         A temporary error such as a buffer full write error, a memory overflow
         (i.e. the document data exceeds the memory of the Printer), or a disk
         full condition, occurs while the IPP Printer processes an operation.
         The client MAY try the unmodified request again at some later point in
         time with an expectation that the temporary internal error condition
         may have been cleared.  Alternatively, as an implementation option, a
         Printer object MAY delay the response until the temporary condition is
         cleared so that no error is returned.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
         13.2 Status Codes for IPP Operations

         PJ = Print-Job, PU = Print-URI, CJ = Create-Job, SD = Send-Document
         SU = Send-URI, V = Validate-Job, GA = Get-Attributes, GJ = Get-Jobs
         C = Cancel-Job

                                                        IPP Operations
         IPP Status Keyword                       PJ PU CJ SD SU V GA GJ C
         ------------------                       -- -- -- -- -- - -- -- -
         successful-OK
         successful-ok                            x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-    x  x  x  x  x  x
              attributes
         successful-ok-conflicting-attributes     x  x  x  x  x  x
         client-error-bad-request                 x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-not-authenticated
         client-error-forbidden                   x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-not-authorized
         client-error-not-authenticated           x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-forbidden
         client-error-not-authorized              x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-not-possible                x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-not-found
         client-error-timeout                     x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-timeout
         client-error-not-found                   x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-gone                        x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-request-entity-too-large    x  X  X  X  X  X X  X X
         client-error-request-URI-too-long  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-request-uri-too-long        x  x
         client-error-unsupported-document-format  x  x  x  x
         client-error-attribute-value-not- x  x x
         client-error-document-format-not-        x  x     x  x
              supported
         server-error-internal-error
         client-error-attribute-not-              x  x  x        x
              supported
         client-error-uri-scheme-not-supported       x        x
         client-error-charset-not-supported       x  x  x
         server-error-service-unavailable  x  x  x x  x x
         client-error-conflicting-attributes      x  x  x  x  x  x
         server-error-internal-error              x  x  x  x
         server-error-timeout  x  x x  x x
         server-error-operation-not-supported        x  x  x  x
         server-error-HTTP-version-not-supported
         server-error-service-unavailable         x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         server-error-IPP-version-not-supported
         server-error-version-not-supported       x  x  x  x  x  x x  x x
         server-error-device-error                x  x  x  x  x
         server-error-temporary-error             x  x  x  x  x

         14. APPENDIX C:  "media" keyword values

         Standard keyword values are taken from several sources.

         Standard values are defined (taken from DPA[ISODPA] DPA[ISO10175] and the Printer
         MIB[RFC1759]):

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           'default': The default medium for the output device
           'iso-a4-white': Specifies the ISO A4 white medium
           'iso-a4-colored': Specifies the ISO A4 colored medium
           'iso-a4-transparent' Specifies the ISO A4 transparent medium
           'iso-a3-white': Specifies the ISO A3 white medium
           'iso-a3-colored': Specifies the ISO A3 colored medium
           'iso-a5-white': Specifies the ISO A5 white medium

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           'iso-a5-colored': Specifies the ISO A5 colored medium
           'iso-b4-white': Specifies the ISO B4 white medium
           'iso-b4-colored': Specifies the ISO B4 colored medium
           'iso-b5-white': Specifies the ISO B5 white medium
           'iso-b5-colored': Specifies the ISO B5 colored medium
           'jis-b4-white': Specifies the JIS B4 white medium
           'jis-b4-colored': Specifies the JIS B4 colored medium
           'jis-b5-white': Specifies the JIS B5 white medium
           'jis-b5-colored': Specifies the JIS B5 colored medium

         The following standard values are defined for North American media:

           'na-letter-white': Specifies the North American letter white medium
           'na-letter-colored': Specifies the North American letter colored
              medium
           'na-letter-transparent': Specifies the North American letter
              transparent medium
           'na-legal-white': Specifies the North American legal white medium
           'na-legal-colored': Specifies the North American legal colored
              medium

         The following standard values are defined for envelopes:

           'iso-b4-envelope': Specifies the ISO B4 envelope medium
           'iso-b5-envelope': Specifies the ISO B5 envelope medium
           'iso-c3-envelope': Specifies the ISO C3 envelope medium
           'iso-c4-envelope': Specifies the ISO C4 envelope medium
           'iso-c5-envelope': Specifies the ISO C5 envelope medium
           'iso-c6-envelope': Specifies the ISO C6 envelope medium
           'iso-designated-long-envelope': Specifies the ISO Designated Long
              envelope medium
           'na-10x13-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x13 envelope
              medium
           'na-9x12-envelope': Specifies the North American 9x12 envelope
              medium
           'monarch-envelope': Specifies the Monarch envelope
           'na-number-10-envelope': Specifies the North American number 10
              business envelope medium
           'na-7x9-envelope': Specifies the North American 7x9 inch envelope

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           'na-9x11-envelope': Specifies the North American 9x11 inch envelope
           'na-10x14-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x14 inch
              envelope
           'na-number-9-envelope': Specifies the North American number 9
              business envelope
           'na-6x9-envelope': Specifies the North American 6x9 inch envelope

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           'na-10x15-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x15 inch
              envelope

         The following standard values are defined for the less commonly used
         media (white-only):

           'executive-white': Specifies the white executive medium
           'folio-white': Specifies the folio white medium
           'invoice-white': Specifies the white invoice medium
           'ledger-white': Specifies the white ledger medium
           'quarto-white': Specified the white quarto medium
           'iso-a0-white': Specifies the ISO A0 white medium
           'iso-a1-white': Specifies the ISO A1 white medium
           'iso-a2-white': Specifies the ISO A2 white medium
           'iso-a6-white': Specifies the ISO A6 white medium
           'iso-a7-white': Specifies the ISO A7 white medium
           'iso-a8-white': Specifies the ISO A8 white medium
           'iso-a9-white': Specifies the ISO A9 white medium
           'iso-10-white': Specifies the ISO A10 white medium
           'iso-b0-white': Specifies the ISO B0 white medium
           'iso-b1-white': Specifies the ISO B1 white medium
           'iso-b2-white': Specifies the ISO B2 white medium
           'iso-b3-white': Specifies the ISO B3 white medium
           'iso-b6-white': Specifies the ISO B6 white medium
           'iso-b7-white': Specifies the ISO B7 white medium
           'iso-b8-white': Specifies the ISO B8 white medium
           'iso-b9-white': Specifies the ISO B9 white medium
           'iso-b10-white': Specifies the ISO B10 white medium
           'jis-b0-white': Specifies the JIS B0 white medium
           'jis-b1-white': Specifies the JIS B1 white medium
           'jis-b2-white': Specifies the JIS B2 white medium
           'jis-b3-white': Specifies the JIS B3 white medium
           'jis-b6-white': Specifies the JIS B6 white medium
           'jis-b7-white': Specifies the JIS B7 white medium
           'jis-b8-white': Specifies the JIS B8 white medium
           'jis-b9-white': Specifies the JIS B9 white medium
           'jis-b10-white': Specifies the JIS B10 white medium

         The following standard values are defined for engineering media:

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           'a': Specifies the engineering A size medium
           'b': Specifies the engineering B size medium
           'c': Specifies the engineering C size medium
           'd': Specifies the engineering D size medium
           'e': Specifies the engineering E size medium

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         The following standard values are defined for input-trays (from ISO
         DPA and the Printer MIB):

           'top': The top input tray in the printer.
           'middle': The middle input tray in the printer.
           'bottom': The bottom input tray in the printer.
           'envelope': The envelope input tray in the printer.
           'manual': The manual feed input tray in the printer.
           'large-capacity': The large capacity input tray in the printer.
           'main': The main input tray
           'side': The side input tray

         The following standard values are defined for media sizes (from ISO
         DPA):

           'iso-a0': Specifies the ISO A0 size: 841 mm by 1189 mm as defined
              in ISO 216
           'iso-a1': Specifies the ISO A1 size: 594 mm by 841 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-a2': Specifies the ISO A2 size: 420 mm by 594 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-a3': Specifies the ISO A3 size: 297 mm by 420 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-a4': Specifies the ISO A4 size: 210 mm by 297 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-a5': Specifies the ISO A5 size: 148 mm by 210 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-a6': Specifies the ISO A6 size: 105 mm by 148 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-a7': Specifies the ISO A7 size: 74 mm by 105 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-a8': Specifies the ISO A8 size: 52 mm by 74 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-a9': Specifies the ISO A9 size: 37 mm by 52 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-a10': Specifies the ISO A10 size: 26 mm by 37 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-b0': Specifies the ISO B0 size: 1000 mm by 1414 mm as defined
              in ISO 216

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           'iso-b1': Specifies the ISO B1 size: 707 mm by 1000 mm as defined
              in ISO 216
           'iso-b2': Specifies the ISO B2 size: 500 mm by 707 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-b3': Specifies the ISO B3 size: 353 mm by 500 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-b4': Specifies the ISO B4 size: 250 mm by 353 mm as defined in
              ISO 216

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           'iso-b5': Specifies the ISO B5 size: 176 mm by 250 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-b6': Specifies the ISO B6 size: 125 mm by 176 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-b7': Specifies the ISO B7 size: 88 mm by 125 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-b8': Specifies the ISO B8 size: 62 mm by 88 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-b9': Specifies the ISO B9 size: 44 mm by 62 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'iso-b10': Specifies the ISO B10 size: 31 mm by 44 mm as defined in
              ISO 216
           'na-letter': Specifies the North American letter size: 8.5 inches
              by 11 inches
           'na-legal': Specifies the North American legal size: 8.5 inches by
              14 inches
           'executive': Specifies the executive size (7.25 X 10.5 in)
           'folio': Specifies the folio size (8.5 X 13 in)
           'invoice': Specifies the invoice size (5.5 X 8.5 in)
           'ledger': Specifies the ledger size (11 X 17 in)
           'quarto': Specifies the quarto size (8.5 X 10.83 in)
           'iso-c3': Specifies the ISO C3 size: 324 mm by 458 mm as defined in
              ISO 269
           'iso-c4': Specifies the ISO C4 size: 229 mm by 324 mm as defined in
              ISO 269
           'iso-c5': Specifies the ISO C5 size: 162 mm by 229 mm as defined in
              ISO 269
           'iso-c6': Specifies the ISO C6 size: 114 mm by 162 mm as defined in
              ISO 269
           'iso-designated-long': Specifies the ISO Designated Long size: 110
              mm by 220 mm as defined in ISO 269
           'na-10x13-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x13 size: 10
              inches by 13 inches
           'na-9x12-envelope': Specifies the North American 9x12 size: 9
              inches by 12 inches
           'na-number-10-envelope': Specifies the North American number 10
              business envelope size: 4.125 inches by 9.5 inches
           'na-7x9-envelope': Specifies the North American 7x9 inch envelope
              size

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           'na-9x11-envelope': Specifies the North American 9x11 inch envelope
              size
           'na-10x14-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x14 inch
              envelope size
           'na-number-9-envelope': Specifies the North American number 9
              business envelope size
           'na-6x9-envelope': Specifies the North American 6x9 envelope size
           'na-10x15-envelope': Specifies the North American 10x15 envelope
              size

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           'monarch-envelope': Specifies the Monarch envelope size (3.87 x 7.5
              in)
           'jis-b0': Specifies the JIS B0 size: 1030mm x 1456mm
           'jis-b1': Specifies the JIS B1 size: 728mm x 1030mm
           'jis-b2': Specifies the JIS B2 size: 515mm x 728mm
           'jis-b3': Specifies the JIS B3 size: 364mm x 515mm
           'jis-b4': Specifies the JIS B4 size: 257mm x 364mm
           'jis-b5': Specifies the JIS B5 size: 182mm x 257mm
           'jis-b6': Specifies the JIS B6 size: 128mm x 182mm
           'jis-b7': Specifies the JIS B7 size: 91mm x 128mm
           'jis-b8': Specifies the JIS B8 size: 64mm x 91mm
           'jis-b9': Specifies the JIS B9 size: 45mm x 64mm
           'jis-b10': Specifies the JIS B10 size: 32mm x 45mm

         15. APPENDIX D: Processing IPP Attributes

         When submitting a print job to a Printer object, the IPP model allows
         a client to supply operation and Job Template attributes along with
         the document data.  These Job Template attributes in the create
         request affect the rendering, production and finishing of the
         documents in the job.  Similar types of instructions may also be
         contained in the document to be printed, that is, embedded within the
         print data itself.  In addition, the Printer has a set of attributes
         that describe what rendering and finishing options which are supported
         by that Printer.  This model, which allows for flexibility and power,
         also introduces the potential that at job submission time, these
         client-supplied attributes may conflict with either:

           - what the implementation is capable of realizing (i.e., what the
              Printer supports), as well as
           - the instructions embedded within the print data itself.

         The following sections describe how these two types of conflicts are
         handled in the IPP model.

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         15.1 Fidelity

         If there is a conflict between what the client requests and what a
         Printer object supports, the client may request one of two possible
         conflict handling mechanisms:

           1) either reject the job since the job can not be processed exactly
              as specified, or
           2) allow the Printer to make any changes necessary to proceed with
              processing the Job the best it can.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998

         In the first case the client is indicating to the Printer: Printer object:
         "Print the job exactly as specified with no exceptions, and if that
         can't be done, don't even bother printing the job at all." In the
         second case, the client is indicating to the Printer: Printer object: "It is
         more important to make sure the job is printed rather than be
         processed exactly as specified; just make sure the job is printed even
         if client supplied attributes need to be changed or ignored."

         The IPP model accounts for this situation by introducing an "ipp-
         attribute-fidelity" attribute.

         In a create request, "ipp-attribute-fidelity" is a boolean operation
         attribute that is OPTIONALLY supplied by the client.  The value 'true'
         indicates that total fidelity to client supplied attributes and values
         is required.  The client is requesting that the Job be printed exactly
         as specified, and if that is not possible then the job must MUST be
         rejected rather than processed incorrectly.  The value 'false'
         indicates that a reasonable attempt to print the Job is acceptable.
         If a Printer does not support some of the client supplied Job Template
         attributes or values, the Printer may SHALL ignore them or substitute any
         supported value for unsupported values. values, respectively.  The Printer may
         choose to substitute the default value associated with that attribute,
         or use some other supported value that is similar to the unsupported
         requested value.  For example, if a client supplies a "media" value of
         'na-letter', the Printer may choose to substitute 'iso-a4' rather than
         a default value of 'envelope'.  Since this is an OPTIONAL attribute, if If the client does not supply a value, the "ipp-
         attribute-fidelity" attribute, the Printer assumes a value of 'false'.

         Each Printer implementation MUST support both types of "fidelity"
         printing (that is whether the client supplies a value of 'true' or
         'false').  This is possible across all types of implementations, since
         there is a broad range of acceptable actions when substituting or
         ignoring unsupported attributes and values.  Also, even if
         'false'):

           - If the client supplies a value of 'false', a 'false' or does not supply the attribute,
              the Printer might still reject object SHALL always accept the Job for
         any reason including an request by ignoring
              unsupported attributes and/or and by substituting unsupported values of
              supported attributes with supported values.  In the
         other case, where

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           - If the client requests a value of supplies 'true', it is
         expected that the Printer support this type of printing since object SHALL reject
              the
         Printer is already indicating functional support corresponding to all
         advertised supported attributes and values. request if the client supplies unsupported attributes.

         Since a client can always query a Printer to find out exactly what is
         and is not supported, "ipp-attribute-fidelity" set to 'false' is
         useful when:

           1) The End-User uses a command line interface to request attributes
              that might not be supported.

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           2) In a GUI context, if the End User expects the job might be moved
              to another printer and prefers a sub-optimal result to nothing at
              all.
           3) The End User just wants something reasonable in lieu of nothing
              at all.

         15.2 Page Description Language (PDL) Override

         If there is a conflict between the value of an IPP Job Template
         attribute and a corresponding instruction in the document data, the
         value of the IPP attribute SHOULD take precedence over the document
         instruction.  Consider the case where a previously formatted file of
         document data is sent to an IPP Printer.  In this case, if the client
         supplies any attributes at job submission time, the client desires
         that those attributes override the embedded instructions.  Consider
         the case were a previously formatted document has embedded in it
         commands to load 'iso-a4' media.  However, the document is passed to
         an end user that only has access to a printer with 'na-letter' media
         loaded.  That end user most likely wants to submit that document to an
         that IPP Printer with the "media" Job Template attribute set to 'na-
         letter'.  The job submission attribute should take precedence over the
         embedded PDL instruction.  However, until companies that supply
         document data interpreters allow a way for external IPP attributes to
         take precedence over embedded job production instructions, a Printer
         might not be able to support the semantics that IPP attributes
         override the embedded instructions.

         The IPP model accounts for this situation by introducing a "pdl-
         override-supported" attribute. attribute that describes the Printer objects
         capabilities to override instructions embedded in the PDL data stream.
         The value of the "pdl-override-supported" attribute is configured by
         means outside IPP/1.0.

         This MANDATORY Printer attribute takes on the following values:

           - 'attempted': This value indicates that the Printer object
              attempts to make sure that the IPP attribute values take precedence over

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              embedded instructions in the document data, however there is no
              guarantee.
           - 'not-attempted': This value indicates that the Printer object
              makes not no attempt to ensure that make the IPP attribute values take precedence
              over embedded instructions in the document data.

         At job processing time, an implementation that supports the value of
         'attempted' might try to do one of several different actions:

           1) generate an output device specific command sequence to realize
              the feature represented by the IPP attribute value
           2) parse the document data itself and replace the conflicting
              embedded instruction with a new embedded instruction that matches
              the intent of the IPP attribute value

                                 Expires April 14, 1998
           3) indicate to the Printer that external supplied attributes take
              precedence over embedded instructions and then pass the external
              IPP attribute values to the document data interpreter
           4) anything else that allows for the semantics that IPP attributes
              override embedded document data instructions.

         Since 'attempted' does not offer any type of guarantee, even though a
         given implementation Printer object might not do a very "good" job of attempting to
         ensure that IPP attributes take a higher precedence over instructions
         embedded in the document data, it would still be a conforming
         implementation.

         At job processing time, an implementation that supports the value of
         'not-attempted' might do one of the following actions:

           1) Simply pre-pend the document data with the PDL instruction that
              corresponds to the client-supplied PDL attribute, such that if
              the document data also has the same PDL instruction, it will
              override what the Printer object pre-pended.  In other words,
              this implementation is using the same implementation semantics
              for the client-supplied IPP attributes as for the Printer object
              defaults.
           2) Actually modify the embedded instructions to correspond to the
              semantics of the client-supplied IPP attributes.

         Note:  The "ipp-attribute-fidelity" attribute applies to the Printer's
         ability to either accept or reject other unsupported attributes.  In
         other words, if "ipp-attribute-fidelity" is set to 'true', a Job is
         accepted if and only if the client supplied attributes and values are
         supported by the Printer.  Whether these attributes actually affect
         the processing of the Job when the document data contains embedded
         instructions depends on the ability of the Printer to override the
         instructions embedded in the document data with the semantics of the
         IPP attributes.  If the document data attributes can be overridden

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
         ("pdl-override-supported" set to 'attempted'), the Printer makes an
         attempt to use the IPP attributes when processing the Job. If the
         document data attributes can not be overridden ("pdl-
         override-supported" ("pdl-override-
         supported" set to 'not-attempted'), the Printer makes no attempt to use
         override the embedded document data instructions with the IPP
         attributes when processing the Job, and hence, the IPP attributes may
         fail to affect the Job processing and output when the corresponding
         instruction is embedded in
         any manner whatsoever. the document data.

         15.3 Suggested Operation Processing Algorithm for Create and Validate-
         Job operations

         When a Printer object receives a create request, the Printer object
         either accepts or rejects the request. The Printer accepts the create request and
         creates  When a Job Printer object if receives
         a Validate-Job request it is able to accept all Job Template and
         Document attributes in the request.  The Printer rejects performs the request same validation and does not create a Job object if returns the Printer rejects any Job
         Template or Document attribute in
         same results as for the request. Print-Job operation.  In order to determine
         whether or not to accept or reject the request, the Printer SHOULD use
         the following algorithm: algorithm or an equivalent one that produces the same
         results, including the status code precedence.

         In the following algorithm, processing continues step by step until a
         "rejects the request _" is encountered or the last step is reached.
         Each error return to the client SHOULD be made before the entire
         Document Content data stream is accepted, so that the client need not
         send all of the data for a request that is being rejected.:

           1. The implementation Printer object checks to see if the operation requested major and minor
              version number is supported.  If not, the Printer object rejects
              the request and sets by returning the appropriate 'server-error-version-not-supported'
              status code in the response.

           2.  The checking of the minor version
              number is implementation dependent.  Some implementations MAY
              accept all minor version numbers, while others MAY only accept
              ones that are equal to or lower than the highest one that they
              support.

           2. The Printer object checks to see if the requested major version
              number operation is supported. supported as
              indicated in the Printer object's "printer-operations-supported"
              attribute.  If not, the Printer rejects the request and
              sets returns
              the appropriate 'server-error-operation-not-supported' status code in the
              response.  Differences in

           3. The Printer object checks to see if the minor version number requested versus what is client-supplied
              "attributes-charset" Operation attribute contains a supported
              charset value, i.e., the value is OK contained in the Printer
              object's "charset-supported" attribute.  If not, the Printer
              object rejects the request and returns the 'client-error-charset-
              not-supported' status code.

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998
           4. The Printer object checks to see if  a.) the requested version number has client-supplied
              "attributes-natural-language" Operation attribute contains a
              supported natural language, i.e., the same Major version
              number and value is contained in the minor version number
              Printer object's "natural-language-supported" attribute.  If not,
              the Printer object flags the value as not supported, but does not
              reject the request (even if "ipp-attribute-fidelity" is higher than 'true').

           5. For the Print-URI and Send-URI operations, the IPP object checks
              to see if the client-supplied "document-uri" Operation attribute
              contains a supported by scheme, i.e., the value is contained in the
              Printer object, and b.) any attributes that are object's "reference-uri-schemes-supported" attribute.  If
              it is not known to supported, the recipient Printer object rejects the request and
              returns the 'client-error'-uri-scheme-not-supported' status code.
              The Printer object checks the length of the operation can be ignored (i.e., "document-uri" value.
              If it exceed the implementation-defined maximum length, the
              Printer object rejects the request and returns the 'client-error-
              request-uri-too-long' status code.

           6. The Printer object checks to see if the "ipp-
              attribute-fidelity" attribute has client-supplied
              "document-format" operation attribute, if supplied, contains a
              supported document format value, i.e., the value 'false'.)

           3. is contained in
              the Printer object's "document-format-supported" attribute.  If
              it is not supported, the Printer object rejects the request and
              returns the 'client-error-document-format-not-supported' status
              code.  If the client did not supply a "document-format" operation
              attribute, the Printer object assumes that the document format is
              that specified by the Printer's "document-format " attribute.

           7. The implementation Printer object checks to see if the client supplied an "ipp-
              attribute-fidelity" Operation attribute.  If the attribute is
              missing (not supplied by the client), the Printer assumes that
              the value is 'false'.

           4.

           8. The Printer object loops through all other the client-supplied Job
              Template attributes, checking to see if the requested supplied attribute
              and values are supported (e.g., supported, e.g., the value of "foo" the "xxx" attribute
              in the request is one of the values in the Printer's "foo- "xxx-
              supported" attribute). attribute.  If an attribute is not supported, i.e.,
              there is no corresponding Printer object "xxx-supported"
              attribute, the Printer object flags the attribute or its as unsupported.
              If an attribute value is
              unsupported, not supported, i.e., there is no
              corresponding value in the Printer object's "xxx-supported"
              attribute, the Printer object flags it the value as unsupported.

           5.  If
              the attribute contains more than one value, each value is checked
              and each unsupported value is separately flagged as unsupported.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
           9. Once all the Operation and Job Template attributes have been
              checked individually, the Printer
              checks object SHOULD check for any inconsistent
              conflicting values among all the supported
              values. values supplied by the
              client.  For example example, a Printer object might be able to staple
              and to print on transparencies, however due to physical stapling
              limitations,
              constraints, the Printer object might not be able to staple
              transparencies.  Any inconsistent values are  Each attribute value involved in a  cross-
              attribute conflict is flagged as
              unsupported.

           6.  Once all attributes have been checked and validated, if "ipp-
              attribute-fidelity" is set to true and a conflicting.

           10. If there are any attributes or attribute values flagged as unsupported,
              unsupported or conflicting, the Printer rejects object:
              (1) copies the request and
              returns all unsupported attributes and values in to the Unsupported
              Attributes response group and sets the appropriate status code.

           7. If "ipp-attribute-fidelity" is set their value to 'false' (or it was not
              supplied by 'unsupported'.
              (2) copies the client) supported attributes and there are their unsupported
              attribute values to the Unsupported Attributes response group. If
              any attributes that are
              flagged as unsupported, multi-valued, only the Printer, chooses unsupported values of
              the attributes are copied.
              (3) copies the supported attributes and their conflicting
              attribute values to either ignore the
              unsupported Unsupported Attributes response group.
              The Printer object only copies over those attributes or change that the requested value
              Printer object either ignores or substitutes in order to some
              supported value.  If, for some reason, resolve
              the conflict, and it is returns the original values which were
              supplied by the client.  For example suppose the client supplies
              "finishings" equals 'staple' and "media" equals 'transparency',
              but the Printer object does not possible for support stapling transparencies.
              If the
              implementation Printer chooses to ignore or substitute values and is unable the stapling request in order to
              "just print
              resolve the job", conflict, the Printer objects returns "finishings"
              equal to 'staple' in the Unsupported Attributes response group.
              If any attributes are multi-valued, only the conflicting values
              of the attributes are copied.
              (4) If "ipp-attribute-fidelity" is still able set to reject 'true', the Printer
              object rejects the request and return all unsupported attributes and values in returns the
              response.  In doing so, 'client-error-
              conflicting-attributes' status code, if there were any conflicts.
              Otherwise, the Printer sets object  returns the appropriate 'client-error-
              attribute-not-supported' status code.

           8a.

           11. If the requested operation is the Validate-Job operation and a
              "document-uri" operation,
              the Printer object returns:
              (1) the "successful-ok" status code, if there are no unsupported
              or conflicting attributes or values.
              (2) the "successful-ok-conflicting-attributes, if there are any
              conflicting attribute or values.
              (3) the "successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-attributes, if
              there are only unsupported attributes or values.

           12. If "ipp-attribute-fidelity" is set to 'false' (or it was not
              supplied in by the client), the Printer object:
              (1) removes all unsupported attributes from the Job object.

                                  Expires May 7, 1998
              (2) for each unsupported value, removes either the unsupported
              value or substitutes the unsupported attribute value with some
              supported value.  If an attribute has no values after removing
              unsupported values from it, the attribute is removed from the Job
              object (so that the normal default behavior at job processing
              time will take place for that attribute).
              (3) for each conflicting value, removes either the conflicting
              value or substitutes the conflicting attribute value with some
              other supported value.  If an attribute has no values after
              removing conflicting values from it, the attribute is removed
              from the Job object (so that the request, then normal default behavior at job
              processing time will take place for that attribute).

           13.  Once the
              "document-uri" is validated as specified in section 3.2.3,
              Validate-Job Operation. If Job object has been created, the Printer is able to accept object
              accepts the request and returns to the validation of client:
              (1) the 'successful-ok' status code, if there are no unsupported
              or conflicting attributes or values.
              (2) the 'successful-ok-conflicting-attributes' status code, if
              there are any "document-uri" succeeded, then conflicting attribute or values.
              (3) the 'successful-ok-ignored-or-substituted-attributes' status
              code, if there are only unsupported attributes or values.

              The Printer object also returns the Job status code "successful-ok".

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              Otherwise, it returns a set of unsupported attributes and/or the
              appropriate error status code. In either case that
              indicate the processing initial state of the operation is completed and no objects are created.

           8b. Job ('pending', 'pending-held',
              'processing', etc.), etc.  See Print-Job Response, section
              3.2.1.2.

           14. The operation is a create request. Printer object accepts the appended Document Content
              data and either starts it printing, or spools it for later
              processing.

           15. If there were no attributes or values flagged as
              unsupported, or the value of 'ipp-attribute-fidelity" was
              'false', the Printer object is able to accept the create request (either as is or  the "ipp-attribute-
              fidelity" attribute is set to 'false'
              and some of the requested
              attributes can be ignored or have their values substituted), then
              the Printer creates create a new Job object . The Job object is
              populated with those Job Template attributes from the create
              request that the Printer object can honor. object.  If the "ipp-attribute-
              fidelity" "ipp-attribute-fidelity"
              attribute is set to 'true', the Job Template attributes
              associated with that
              populate the new Job object are necessarily all the Job Template
              attributes supplied in the accepted create request.  If the "ipp-
              attribute-fidelity" attribute is set to 'false', the Job Template
              attributes associated with that populate the new Job object are all the client
              supplied Job Template attributes that are not ignored and/or supported or that have
              no
              value substitution.  Thus, some of the requested Job Template
              attributes may not appear in the Job object because the IPP
              processor was Printer
              object did not able to honor support those attributes.  The attributes that were honored
              populate the Job object are persistently stored with the Job
              object for that Job.  A Get-Attributes operation on that Job

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              object will return only those attributes that a are persistently
              stored with the Job object.

              Note: All Job Template attributes that are persistently stored
              with the Job object are intended to be "override values"; that
              is, they that take precedence over whatever other embedded
              instructions might be in the document data itself.  However, it
              is not possible for all implementations Printer objects to realize the semantics
              of "override".  End users may query the Printer's "pdl-override"
              attribute to determine if the Printer either attempts or does not
              attempt to override document data instructions with IPP
              attributes.

           9.

           16.  There are some cases, where a Printer supports a Job
              Template attribute and has an associated default value set for
              that attribute.  In the case where a client does not supply the
              corresponding attribute, the Printer does not use its default
              values to populate Job attributes when creating the new Job
              object; only Job Template attributes actually in the create
              request are used to populate the Job object. The Printer's
              default values are only used at Job processing time if no other
              IPP attribute or instruction embedded in the document data is
              present.

              Note: If the default values associated with un-requested Job Template
              attributes that the client did not supply were to be used to
              populate the Job object, then

                                 Expires April 14, 1998 these values would become "override
              values" rather than defaults. If the Printer supports the
              'attempted' value of the "pdl-
              override" "pdl-override" attribute, then these
              override values could replace values specified within the
              document data.  This is not the intent of the default value
              mechanism. A default value for an attrbute
              SHALL be attribute is used only if the
              create request did not specify that attribute (or it was ignored
              when allowed by "ipp-attribute-
              fidelity" "ipp-attribute-fidelity" being 'false') and no
              value was provided within the content of the document data.

           10.

           17.  If the client does not supply a value for some Job Template
              attribute, and the Printer does not support that attribute, as
              far as IPP is concerned, the result of processing that Job (with
              respect to the missing attribute) is undefined.

           11. Once the Job object has been created, the Printer responds back
              to the client with a successful response including Job status
              attributes that indicate the initial state of the Job ('pending',
              'processing', etc.).

           18.  The Printer object uses its own configuration and
              implementation specific algorithms for scheduling the Job in the
              correct processing order.  Once the Printer object begins
              processing the Job, the Printer changes the Job's state to
              'processing'. If the Printer object supports PDL override (the
              "pdl-override" attribute set to 'attempted'), the implementation

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              does its best to see that IPP attributes take precedence over
              embedded instructions in the document data.

           12.

           19.  The implementation of the Printer object continues to process the Job until it can
              move the Job into the 'completed' state.  If an Cancel-Job
              operation is received, the implementation eventually moves the
              Job into the 'cancelled' 'canceled' state.  If the system encounters errors
              during processing that do not allow it to progress the Job into a
              completed state, the implementation halts all processing, cleans
              up any resources, and moves the Job into the 'aborted' state.

           13.

           20.  Once the Job moves to the 'completed', 'aborted', or
              'canceled' state, it is an implementation decision as to when to
              destroy the Job object and release all associated resources.
              Once the Job has been destroyed, the Printer would return either
              the "not-
              found" "client-error-not-found" or "gone" "client-error-gone" status codes
              for operations directed at that Job.

         Some Printer object implementations may support "ipp-attribute-fidelity" "ipp-attribute-
         fidelity" set to 'true' and "pdl-override" set to 'attempted' and yet
         still not be able to realize exactly what the client specifies in the
         create request.  This is due to legacy decisions and assumptions that
         have been made about the role of job instructions embedded within the

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         document data and external job instructions that accompany the
         document data and how to handle conflicts between such instructions.
         The inability to be 100% precise about how a given implementation will
         behave is also compounded by the fact that the two special attributes,
         "ipp-attribute-fidelity" and "pdl-override", apply to the whole job
         rather than specific values for each attribute. For example, some
         implementations may be able to override almost all Job Template
         attributes except for "number-up".

         15.4 Using Job Template Attributes During Document Processing.

         The Printer object uses some of the Job object's Job Template
         attributes during the processing of the document data associated with
         that job.  These include, but are not limited to, "orientation",
         "number-up", "sides", "media", and "copies".  The processing of each
         document in a Job Object SHALL follow the algorithm below. This
         algorithm is intended only to identify when and how attributes are to
         be used in processing document data and any algorithm that
         accomplishes the same effect can be used to implement this
         specification.

           1. Using the client supplied "document-format" attribute or some
              form of format detection algorithm (if the value of "document-format" "document-
              format" is not specific enough), determine whether or not the

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              document data has already been formatted for printing. If the
              document data has been formatted, then goto go to step 2. Otherwise,
              the document data SHALL be formatted. The formatting algorithm is
              implementation defined and is not specified by this
              specification. The formatting of the document data uses the
              "orientation" attribute to determine how the formatted print data
              is place placed on a print-
              stream print-stream page, see section 4.2.15 for the
              details.

           2. The document data is in the form of a print-stream in a known
              media type. The "page-range" attribute is used to select, as
              specified in section 4.2.14, a sub-sequence of the pages in the
              print-stream that are to be processed and images.

           3. The input to this step is a sequence of print-stream pages. This
              step is controlled by the "number-up" attribute. If the value of
              "number-up" is N, then during the processing of the print-stream
              pages, each N print-stream pages are positioned, as specified in
              section 4.2.8, to create a single imposed page. impression. If a given
              Document Object document
              does not have N more print-stream pages, then the completion of
              the imposed page impression is controlled by the "multiple-
              document-handling" "multiple-document-handling"
              attribute as described in section 4.2.6; when the value of this
              attribute is 'separate-documents-collated-

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              copies', 'single-document', the print-stream pages of
              document data from subsequent Document Objects documents is used to complete the imposed page.
              impression.

              The size(scaling), position(translation) and rotation of the print-
              stream
              print-stream pages on the imposed page impression is implementation defined.
              Note that during this process the print-stream pages may be
              rendered to a form suitable for placing on the imposed page; impression; this
              rendering is controlled by the values of the "printer-resolution"
              and "print-quality" attributes as described in sections 4.2.10
              and 4.2.11. In the case N=1, the imposed pages are impression is nearly the same as
              the print-stream pages; page; the differences would only be in the size,
              position and rotation of the print-stream page and/or any
              decoration, such as a frame to the page, that is added by the
              implementation.

           4. The collection of imposed pages impressions is placed, in sequence, onto sides
              of the print media. media sheets. This placement is controlled by the "sides"
              attribute and the orientation of the print-stream page, as
              described in section 4.2.9. The orientation of the page is defined by print-stream
              pages affects the orientation of the imposed pages; impression; for example, if
              "number-up" equals 2, then, typically, two portrait print-stream
              pages become one landscape imposed page. impression. Note that the placement of imposed
              pages
              impressions onto media instances sheets is also controlled by the "multiple-
              document-handling"
              "multiple-document-handling" attribute as described in section
              4.2.6.

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           5. The "copies" and "multiple-document-handling" attributes are
              used to determine how many copies of each media instance are
              created and in what order. See sections 4.2.6 and 4.2.13 for the
              details.

           6. When the correct number of copies are created, the media
              instances are finished according to the values of the
              "finishings" attribute as described in 4.2.12. Note that
              sometimes finishing operations may require manual intervention to
              perform the finishing operations on the copies, especially
              uncollated copies. This specification allows any or all of the
              processing steps to be performed automatically or manually at the
              discretion of the Printer object.

         16. APPENDIX E: Generic Directory Schema

         This section defines a generic schema for an entry in a directory
         service.  A directory service is a means by which service users can
         locate service providers.  In IPP environments, this means that IPP
         Printers can be registered (either automatically or with the help of
         an administrator) as entries of type printer in the directory.  IPP
         clients can search or browse for entries of type printer.  Clients use
         the directory service to find entries based on naming, organizational

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         contexts, or filtered searches on attribute values of entries.  For
         example, a client can find all printers in the "Local Department"
         context. Authentication and authorization are also often part of a
         directory service so that an administrator can place limits on end
         users so that they are only allowed to find entries to which they have
         certain access rights.  IPP itself does not require any specific
         directory service protocol or provider.

         Note: Some directory implementations allow for the notion of
         "aliasing".  That is, one directory entry object can appear as
         multiple directory entry object with different names for each object.
         In each case, each alias refers to the same directory entry object
         which refers to a single IPP Printer object.

         The generic schema is a subset of IPP Printer Job Template and Printer
         Description attributes (section (sections 4.2 and 4.4).  These attributes are
         identified as either MANDATORY or OPTIONAL for the directory entry
         itself.  This conformance labeling is NOT the same conformance
         labeling applied to the attributes of IPP Printers themselves.
         MANDATORY attributes MUST be associated with each directory entry.
         OPTIONAL attributes SHOULD be associated with the directory entry (if
         known or supported).  In addition, all directory entry attributes

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         SHOULD reflect the current attribute values for the corresponding
         Printer object.

         In order to bridge between the directory service protocol and IPP, one
         of the MANDATORY attributes is the "printer-uri" attribute.  The IPP
         client addresses an IPP Printer using its URI and so the directory
         entry's "printer-uri" becomes the link between the directory entry and
         the corresponding IPP Printer.

         The following attributes define the generic schema for directory
         entries of type printer:

           printer-uri                      MANDATORY      Section 4.4.1
           printer-tls-uri                  OPTIONAL       Section
           printer-name                     OPTIONAL       Section 4.4.2
           printer-location                 OPTIONAL       Section 4.4.3
           printer-info                     OPTIONAL       Section 4.4.4
           printer-more-info                OPTIONAL       Section 4.4.5
           printer-make-and-model           OPTIONAL       Section 4.4.7
           security-mechanisms-supported    MANDATORY      Section 4.4.23
           media-supported
           color-supported                  OPTIONAL       Section 4.2.5
           number-up-supported 4.4.22

           finishings-supported             OPTIONAL       Section 4.2.6
           sides-supported
           number-up-supported              OPTIONAL       Section 4.2.7
           printer-resolution-supported
           sides-supported                  OPTIONAL       Section 4.2.8
           print-quality-supported
           media-supported                  OPTIONAL       Section 4.2.9
           color-supported 4.2.11
           printer-resolution-supported     OPTIONAL       Section 4.4.20
           finishings-supported 4.2.12
           print-quality-supported          OPTIONAL       Section 4.2.10
           document-formats-supported       OPTAIONL 4.2.13
           document-format-supported        OPTIONAL       Section 4.2.14 4.4.18

                                  Expires April 14, May 7, 1998