IPPM                                                          T. Mizrahi
Internet-Draft                                                    Huawei
Intended status: Standards Track                            F. Brockners
Expires: January 26, March 1, 2022                                             Cisco
                                                        S. Bhandari, Ed.
                                                             Thoughtspot
                                                          R. Sivakolundu
                                                            C. Pignataro
                                                                   Cisco
                                                                 A. Kfir
                                                                B. Gafni
                                                                  Nvidia
                                                              M. Spiegel
                                                       Barefoot Networks
                                                                J. Lemon
                                                                Broadcom
                                                           July 25,
                                                         August 28, 2021

                 In-situ OAM Loopback and Active Flags
                     draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-flags-05
                     draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-flags-06

Abstract

   In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (IOAM) records
   operational and telemetry information in the packet packets while the packet
   traverses they traverse
   a path between two points in the network.  This document
   presents defines two
   new flags in the IOAM Trace Option headers.  Specifically, headers, specifically the document defines the
   Loopback and Active flags.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 26, March 1, 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  New IOAM Trace Option Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Loopback in IOAM  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     4.1.  Loopback Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     4.2.  Loopback: Encapsulating Node Functionality  . . . . . . .   4
       4.2.1.  Overview  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       4.2.2.
       4.1.1.  Loopback Packet Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.3.
     4.2.  Receiving and Processing Loopback . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.4.   5
     4.3.  Loopback on the Return Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.5.
     4.4.  Terminating a Looped Back Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   5.  Active Measurement with IOAM  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7.  Performance Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10   9
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   IOAM [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data] is used for monitoring traffic in the
   network by incorporating IOAM data fields into in-flight data
   packets.

   IOAM data may be represented in one of four possible IOAM options:
   Pre-allocated Trace Option, Incremental Trace Option, Proof of
   Transit (POT) Option, and Edge-to-Edge Option.  This document defines
   two new flags in the Pre-allocated and Incremental Trace options: the
   Loopback and Active flags.

2.  Conventions

2.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.2.  Terminology

   Abbreviations used in this document:

   IOAM:      In-situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance

   OAM:       Operations, Administration, and Maintenance

3.  New IOAM Trace Option Flags

   This document defines two new flags in the Pre-allocated and
   Incremental Trace options:

   Bit 1  "Loopback" (L-bit).  When set, the Loopback mode is used to send flag triggers
      sending a copy of a packet back towards the source, as further
      described in Section 4.

   Bit 2  "Active" (A-bit).  When set, this the Active flag indicates that this a
      packet is an active IOAM measurement packet rather than a data packet,
      where "active" is used in the sense defined in
      [RFC7799], rather than a data packet. [RFC7799].  The
      packet may be an IOAM probe packet, or a replicated data packet
      (the second and third use cases of Section 5).

4.  Loopback in IOAM

4.1.  Loopback Overview

   The Loopback flag is used for triggering to request that each transit device along
   the path to
   loop loops back a copy of the data packet. packet to the sender.
   Loopback allows an IOAM encapsulating node to trace the path to a
   given destination, and to receive per-hop data about both the forward
   and the return path.  Loopback is intended to provide an accelerated
   alternative to Traceroute, that allows the encapsulating node to
   receive responses from multiple transit nodes along the path in less
   then one round-
   trip-time, round-trip-time, and by sending a single packet.

   As illustrated in Figure 1, an IOAM encapsulating node can push an
   IOAM encapsulation that includes the Loopback flag onto some or all
   of the packets it forwards.  The IOAM transit node and the
   decapsulating node both creates copies of the packet and loop them
   back to the encapsulating node.  The decapsulating node also
   terminates the IOAM encapsulation, and then forwards the packet
   towards the destination.  The two IOAM looped back copies are
   terminated by the encapsulating node.

 +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+
 |        |     |  IOAM  |.....|  IOAM  |.....|  IOAM  |     |        |
 +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+
 | L2/L3  |<===>| L2/L3  |<===>| L2/L3  |<===>| L2/L3  |<===>| L2/L3  |
 +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+
   Source      Encapsulating    Transit      Decapsulating   Destination
                   Node           Node           Node

                <------------  IOAM domain  ----------->

                     IOAM encap. with Loopback flag
 Data packet  ------->============================>----------->
                                   |             |
                  IOAM looped back |             |
                     <=============+             |
                                 IOAM looped back|
                     <===========================+

                        Figure 1: Loopback in IOAM.

   Loopback can be used only if a return path from transit nodes and
   destination nodes towards the source (encapsulating node) exists.
   Specifically, loopback is only applicable in encapsulations in which
   the identity of the encapsulating node is available in the
   encapsulation header.  If an encapsulating node receives a looped
   back packet that was not originated from the current encapsulating
   node, the packet is dropped.

4.2.

4.1.  Loopback: Encapsulating Node Functionality

4.2.1.  Overview

   The encapsulating node either generates synthetic packets with an
   IOAM trace option that has the loopback Loopback flag set, or sets the loopack
   flag in a subset of the in-transit data packets.  Loopback is used
   either proactively or on-demand, i.e., when a failure is detected.
   The encapsulating node also needs to ensure that sufficient space is
   available in the IOAM header for loopback operation, which includes
   transit nodes adding trace data on the original path and then again
   on the return path.

   An IOAM trace option that has the loopback bit Loopback flag set MUST have the
   value '1' in the most significant bit of IOAM-Trace-Type, and '0' in
   the rest of the bits of IOAM-Trace-Type.  Thus, every transit node
   that processes this trace option only adds a single data field, which
   is the Hop_Lim and node_id data field.  The reason for allowing a
   single data field per hop is to minimize the impact of amplification
   attacks.

   IOAM encapsulating nodes MUST NOT push an IOAM encapsulation with the
   Loopback flag onto data packets that already include an IOAM
   encapsulation.  This requirement is intended to prevent IOAM Loopback
   nesting, where looped back packets may be subject to loopback in a
   nested IOAM domain.

4.2.2.

4.1.1.  Loopback Packet Selection

   If an IOAM encapsulating node incorporates the Loopback flag into all
   the traffic it forwards it may lead to an excessive amount of looped
   back packets, which may overload the network and the encapsulating
   node.  Therefore, an IOAM encapsulating node that supports the
   Loopback flag MUST support the ability to incorporate the Loopback
   flag selectively into a subset of the packets that are forwarded by
   it.

   Various methods of packet selection and sampling have been previously
   defined, such as [RFC7014] and [RFC5475].  Similar techniques can be
   applied by an IOAM encapsulating node to apply Loopback to a subset
   of the forwarded traffic.

   The subset of traffic that is forwarded or transmitted with a
   Loopback flag SHOULD NOT exceed 1/N of the interface capacity on any
   of the IOAM encapsulating node's interfaces.  It is noted that this
   requirement applies to the total traffic that incorporates a Loopback
   flag, including traffic that is forwarded by the IOAM encapsulating
   node and probe packets that are generated by the IOAM encapsulating
   node.  In this context N is a parameter that can be configurable by
   network operators.  If there is an upper bound, M, on the number of
   IOAM transit nodes in any path in the network, then it is recommended
   to use an N such that N >> M.  The rationale is that a packet that
   includes the Loopback flag triggers a looped back packet from each
   IOAM transit node along the path for a total of M looped back
   packets.  Thus, if N >> M then the number of looped back packets is
   significantly lower than the number of data packets forwarded by the
   IOAM encapsulating node.  If there is no prior knowledge about the
   network topology or size, it is recommended to use N>100.

4.3.

4.2.  Receiving and Processing Loopback

   A loopback bit Loopback flag that is set indicates to the transit nodes processing
   this option that they are to create a copy of the received packet and
   send the copy back to the source of the packet.  In this context the
   source is the IOAM encapsulating node, and it is assumed that the
   source address is available in the encapsulation header.  Thus, the
   source address of the original packet is used as the destination
   address in the copied packet.  The address of the node performing the
   copy operation is used as the source address.  The IOAM transit node
   pushes the required data field *after* creating the copy of the
   packet, in order to allow any egress-dependent information to be set
   based on the egress of the copy rather than the original packet.  The
   copy is also truncated, i.e., any payload that resides after the IOAM
   option(s) is removed before transmitting the looped back packet back
   towards the encapsulating node.  The original packet continues
   towards its destination.  The L-bit MUST be cleared in the copy of
   the packet that a node sends back towards the source.

   An IOAM node that supports the reception and processing of the
   Loopback flag MUST support the ability to limit the rate of the
   looped back packets.  The rate of looped back packets SHOULD be
   limited so that the number of looped back packets is significantly
   lower than the number of packets that are forwarded by the device.
   The looped back data rate SHOULD NOT exceed 1/N of the interface
   capacity on any of the IOAM node's interfaces.  It is recommended to
   use N>100.  Depending on the IOAM node's architecture considerations,
   the loopback response rate may be limited to a lower number in order
   to avoid loading the IOAM node.

4.4.

4.3.  Loopback on the Return Path

   On its way back towards the source, the copied packet is processed
   like any other packet with IOAM information, including adding any
   requested data at each transit node (assuming there is sufficient
   space).

4.5.

4.4.  Terminating a Looped Back Packet

   Once the return packet reaches the IOAM domain boundary, IOAM
   decapsulation occurs as with any other packet containing IOAM
   information.  Note that the looped back packet does not have the
   L-bit set.  The IOAM encapsulating node that initiated the original
   loopback packet recognizes a received packet as an IOAM looped-back
   packet by checking the Node ID in the Hop_Lim/node_id field that
   corresponds to the first hop.  If the Node ID matches the current
   IOAM node, it indicates that this is a looped back packet that was
   initiated by the current IOAM node, and processed accordingly.  If
   there is no match in the Node ID, the packet is processed like a
   conventional IOAM-encapsulated packet.

   Note that an IOAM encapsulating node may either be an endpoint (such
   as an IPv6 host), or a switch/router that pushes a tunnel
   encapsulation onto data packets.  In both cases, the functionality
   that was described above avoids IOAM data leaks from the IOAM domain.
   Specificallly, if an IOAM looped-back packet reaches an IOAM boundary
   node that is not the IOAM node that initiated the loopback, the node
   does not process the packet as a loopback; the IOAM encapsulation is
   removed, and since the packet does not have any payload it is
   terminated.  In either case, when the packet reaches the IOAM
   boundary its IOAM encapsulation is removed, preventing IOAM
   information from leaking out from the IOAM domain.

5.  Active Measurement with IOAM

   Active measurement methods [RFC7799] make use of synthetically
   generated packets in order to facilitate the measurement.  This section
   presents use cases of active measurement using the IOAM Active flag.

   The active Active flag indicates that a packet is used for active
   measurement.  An IOAM decapsulating node that receives a packet with
   the Active flag set in one of its Trace options must terminate the
   packet.  The active Active flag is intended to simplify the implementation
   of decapsulating nodes by indicating that the packet should not be
   forwarded further.  It is not intended as a replacement for existing
   active OAM protocols, which may run in higher layers and make use of
   the active Active flag.

   An example of an IOAM deployment scenario is illustrated in Figure 2.
   The figure depicts two endpoints, a source and a destination.  The
   data traffic from the source to the destination is forwarded through
   a set of network devices, including an IOAM encapsulating node, which
   incorporates one or more IOAM options, a decapsulating node, which
   removes the IOAM options, optionally one or more transit nodes.  The
   IOAM options are encapsulated in one of the IOAM encapsulation types,
   e.g., [I-D.ietf-sfc-ioam-nsh], or [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-ipv6-options].

 +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+
 |        |     |  IOAM  |.....|  IOAM  |.....|  IOAM  |     |        |
 +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+
 | L2/L3  |<===>| L2/L3  |<===>| L2/L3  |<===>| L2/L3  |<===>| L2/L3  |
 +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+     +--------+
   Source      Encapsulating    Transit      Decapsulating   Destination
                   Node           Node           Node

                <------------  IOAM domain  ----------->

                       Figure 2: Network using IOAM.

   This draft focuses on three possible use cases of active measurement
   using IOAM.  These use cases are described using the example of
   Figure 2.

   o  Endpoint active measurement: synthetic probe packets are sent
      between the source and destination, traversing the IOAM domain.
      Since the probe packets are sent between the endpoints, these
      packets are treated as data packets by the IOAM domain, and do not
      require special treatment at the IOAM layer.  Specifically, the
      active
      Active flag is not used in this case, and the IOAM layer needs not
      be aware that an active measurement mechanism is used at a higher
      layer.

   o  IOAM active measurement using probe packets within the IOAM
      domain: probe packets are generated and transmitted by the IOAM
      encapsulating node, and are expected to be terminated by the
      decapsulating node.  IOAM data related to probe packets may be
      exported by one or more nodes along its path, by an exporting
      protocol that is outside the scope of this document (e.g.,
      [I-D.spiegel-ippm-ioam-rawexport]).  Probe packets include a Trace
      Option which has its Active flag set, indicating that the
      decapsulating node must terminate them.

   o  IOAM active measurement using replicated data packets: probe
      packets are created by the encapsulating node by selecting some or
      all of the en route data packets and replicating them.  A selected
      data packet that is replicated, and its (possibly truncated) copy
      is forwarded with one or more IOAM option, while the original
      packet is forwarded normally, without IOAM options.  To the extent
      possible, the original data packet and its replica are forwarded
      through the same path.  The replica includes a Trace Option that
      has its Active flag set, indicating that the decapsulating node
      should terminate it.  It should be noted that the current document
      defines the role of the active Active flag in allowing the decapsulating
      node to terminate the packet, but the replication functionality in
      this context is outside the scope of this document.

   If the volume of traffic that incorporates the Active flag is large,
   it may overload the network and the IOAM node(s) that process the
   active measurement packet.  Thus, the rate of the traffic that
   includes the Active flag rate SHOULD NOT exceed 1/N of the interface
   capacity on any of the IOAM node's interfaces.  It is recommended to
   use N>100.  Depending on the IOAM node's architecture considerations,
   the rate of Active-enabled IOAM packets may be limited to a lower
   number in order to avoid loading the IOAM node.

6.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to allocate the following bits in the "IOAM Trace
   Flags Registry" as follows:

   Bit 1  "Loopback" (L-bit)

   Bit 2  "Active" (A-bit)

   Note that bit 0 is the most significant bit in the Flags Registry.

7.  Performance Considerations

   Each of the flags that are defined in this document may have
   performance implications.  When using the loopback mechanism a copy
   of the data packet is sent back to the sender, thus generating more
   traffic than originally sent by the endpoints.  Using active
   measurement with the active Active flag requires the use of synthetic
   (overhead) traffic.

   Each of the mechanisms that use the flags above has a cost in terms
   of the network bandwidth, and may potentially load the node that
   analyzes the data.  Therefore, it MUST be possible to use each of the
   mechanisms on a subset of the data traffic; an encapsulating node
   needs to be able to set the Loopback and Active flag selectively, in
   a way that considers the effect on the network performance, as
   further discussed in Section 4.2.2 4.1.1 and Section 5.

   Transit and decapsulating nodes that support Loopback need to be able
   to limit the looped back packets (Section 4.3) 4.2) so as to ensure that
   the mechanisms are used at a rate that does not significantly affect
   the network bandwidth, and does not overload the source node in the
   case of loopback.

8.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations of IOAM in general are discussed in
   [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].  Specifically, an attacker may try to use
   the functionality that is defined in this document to attack the
   network.

   An attacker may attempt to overload network devices by injecting
   synthetic packets that include an IOAM Trace Option with one or more
   of the flags defined in this document.  Similarly, an on-path
   attacker may maliciously set one or more of the flags of transit
   packets.

   o  Loopback flag: an attacker that sets this flag, either in
      synthetic packets or transit packet, can potentially cause an
      amplification, since each device along the path creates a copy of
      the data packet and sends it back to the source.  The attacker can
      potentially leverage the loopback Loopback flag for a Distributed Denial of
      Service (DDoS) attack, as multiple devices send looped-back copies
      of a packet to a single source.

   o  Active flag: the impact of synthetic packets with the active Active flag
      is no worse than synthetic data packets in which the Active flag
      is not set.  By setting the active Active flag in en route packets an
      attacker can prevent these packets from reaching their
      destination, since the packet is terminated by the decapsulating
      device; however, note that an on-path attacker may achieve the
      same goal by changing the destination address of a packet.
      Another potential threat is amplification; if an attacker causes
      transit switches to replicate more packets than they are intended
      to replicate, either by setting the Active flag or by sending
      synthetic packets, then traffic is amplified, causing bandwidth
      degredation.  As mentioned in Section 5, the specification of the
      replication mechanism is not within the scope of this document.  A
      specification that defines the replication functionality should
      also address the security aspects of this mechanism.

   Some of the security threats that were discussed in this document may
   be worse in a wide area network in which there are nested IOAM
   domains.  For example, if there are two nested IOAM domains that use
   loopback, then a looped-back copy in the outer IOAM domain may be
   forwarded through another (inner) IOAM domain and may be subject to
   loopback in that (inner) IOAM domain, causing the amplification to be
   worse than in the conventional case.

   In order to mitigate the performance-related attacks described above,
   as described in Section 7 it should be possible for IOAM-enabled
   devices to selectively apply the mechanisms that use the flags
   defined in this document to a subset of the traffic, and to limit the
   performance of synthetically generated packets to a configurable
   rate.  Specifically, IOAM nodes should be able to:

   o  Limit the rate of IOAM packets with the Loopback flag (IOAM
      encapsulating nodes), as discussed in Section 4.2.2. 4.1.1.

   o  Limit the rate of looped back packets (IOAM transit and
      decapsulating nodes), as discussed in Section 4.3. 4.2.

   o  Limit the rate of IOAM packets with the Active flag (IOAM
      encapsulating nodes), as discussed in Section 5.

   As defined in Section 4, transit nodes that process a packet with the
   Loopback flag only add a single data field, and truncate any payload
   that follows the IOAM option(s), thus significanly limiting the
   possible impact of an amplification attack.

   IOAM is assumed to be deployed in a restricted administrative domain,
   thus limiting the scope of the threats above and their affect.  This
   is a fundamental assumtion with respect to the security aspects of
   IOAM, as further discussed in [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data].

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data]
              Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., and T. Mizrahi, "Data Fields
              for In-situ OAM", draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-data-14 (work in
              progress), June 2021.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5475]  Zseby, T., Molina, M., Duffield, N., Niccolini, S., and F.
              Raspall, "Sampling and Filtering Techniques for IP Packet
              Selection", RFC 5475, DOI 10.17487/RFC5475, March 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5475>.

   [RFC7014]  D'Antonio, S., Zseby, T., Henke, C., and L. Peluso, "Flow
              Selection Techniques", RFC 7014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7014,
              September 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7014>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-ipv6-options]
              Bhandari, S., Brockners, F., Pignataro, C., Gredler, H.,
              Leddy, J., Youell, S., Mizrahi, T., Kfir, A., Gafni, B.,
              Lapukhov, P., Spiegel, M., Krishnan, S., Asati, R., S. and M.
              Smith, F. Brockners, "In-situ OAM IPv6 Options", draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-
              ipv6-options-05
              draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-ipv6-options-06 (work in progress), February
              July 2021.

   [I-D.ietf-sfc-ioam-nsh]
              Brockners, F. and S. Bhandari, "Network Service Header
              (NSH) Encapsulation for In-situ OAM (IOAM) Data", draft-
              ietf-sfc-ioam-nsh-05
              ietf-sfc-ioam-nsh-06 (work in progress), December 2020. July 2021.

   [I-D.spiegel-ippm-ioam-rawexport]
              Spiegel, M., Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., and R.
              Sivakolundu, "In-situ OAM raw data export with IPFIX",
              draft-spiegel-ippm-ioam-rawexport-05 (work in progress),
              July 2021.

   [RFC7799]  Morton, A., "Active and Passive Metrics and Methods (with
              Hybrid Types In-Between)", RFC 7799, DOI 10.17487/RFC7799,
              May 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7799>.

Authors' Addresses

   Tal Mizrahi
   Huawei
   Israel

   Email: tal.mizrahi.phd@gmail.com

   Frank Brockners
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Hansaallee 249, 3rd Floor
   DUESSELDORF, NORDRHEIN-WESTFALEN  40549
   Germany

   Email: fbrockne@cisco.com

   Shwetha Bhandari (editor)
   Thoughtspot
   3rd Floor, Indiqube Orion, 24th Main Rd, Garden Layout, HSR Layout
   Bangalore, KARNATAKA 560 102
   India

   Email: shwetha.bhandari@thoughtspot.com

   Ramesh Sivakolundu
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 West Tasman Dr.
   SAN JOSE, CA 95134
   U.S.A.

   Email: sramesh@cisco.com
   Carlos Pignataro
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7200-11 Kit Creek Road
   Research Triangle Park, NC  27709
   United States

   Email: cpignata@cisco.com

   Aviv Kfir
   Nvidia

   Email: avivk@nvidia.com

   Barak Gafni
   Nvidia
   350 Oakmead Parkway, Suite 100
   Sunnyvale, CA  94085
   U.S.A.

   Email: gbarak@nvidia.com

   Mickey Spiegel
   Barefoot Networks
   4750 Patrick Henry Drive
   Santa Clara, CA  95054
   US

   Email: mspiegel@barefootnetworks.com

   Jennifer Lemon
   Broadcom
   270 Innovation Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134
   US

   Email: jennifer.lemon@broadcom.com