draft-fluhrer-qr-ikev2-03.txt   draft-fluhrer-qr-ikev2-04.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force S. Fluhrer Internet Engineering Task Force S. Fluhrer
Internet-Draft D. McGrew Internet-Draft D. McGrew
Intended status: Informational P. Kampanakis Intended status: Informational P. Kampanakis
Expires: May 1, 2017 Cisco Systems Expires: October 21, 2017 Cisco Systems
October 28, 2016 April 19, 2017
Postquantum Preshared Keys for IKEv2 Postquantum Preshared Keys for IKEv2
draft-fluhrer-qr-ikev2-03 draft-fluhrer-qr-ikev2-04
Abstract Abstract
This document describes an extension of IKEv2 to allow it to be The possibility of quantum computers pose a serious challenge to
resistant to a Quantum Computer, by using preshared keys cryptography algorithms widely today. IKEv2 is one example of a
cryptosystem that could be broken; someone storing VPN communications
today could decrypt them at a later time when a quantum computer is
available. It is anticipated that IKEv2 will be extended to support
quantum secure key exchange algorithms; however that is not likely to
happen in the near term. To address this problem before then, this
document describes an extension of IKEv2 to allow it to be resistant
to a Quantum Computer, by using preshared keys.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2. Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. Creating Child SA Keying Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. PPK ID format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. PPK Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Upgrade procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.2. Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Appendix A. Discussion and Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Appendix B. Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 8.2. Informational References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Appendix A. Discussion and Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Appendix B. Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
It is an open question whether or not it is feasible to build a It is an open question whether or not it is feasible to build a
quantum computer, but if it is, many of the cryptographic algorithms quantum computer (and if so, when might one be implemented), but if
and protocols currently in use would be insecure. A quantum computer it is, many of the cryptographic algorithms and protocols currently
would be able to solve DH and ECDH problems, and this would imply in use would be insecure. A quantum computer would be able to solve
that the security of existing IKEv2 systems would be compromised. DH and ECDH problems, and this would imply that the security of
IKEv1 when used with preshared keys does not share this existing IKEv2 systems would be compromised. IKEv1 when used with
vulnerability, because those keys are one of the inputs to the key strong preshared keys is not vulnerable to quantum attacks, because
derivation function. If the preshared key have sufficient entropy those keys are one of the inputs to the key derivation function. If
and the PRF and encryption and authentication transforms are the preshared key has sufficient entropy and the PRF, encryption and
postquantum secure, then the resulting system is believed to be authentication transforms are postquantum secure, then the resulting
quantum resistant, that is, believed to be invulnerable to an system is believed to be quantum resistant, that is, believed to be
attacker with a Quantum Computer. invulnerable to an attacker with a Quantum Computer.
This document describes a way to extend IKEv2 to have a similar This document describes a way to extend IKEv2 to have a similar
property; assuming that the two end systems share a long secret key, property; assuming that the two end systems share a long secret key,
then the resulting exchange is quantum resistant. By bringing then the resulting exchange is quantum resistant. By bringing
postquantum security to IKEv2, this note removes the need to use an postquantum security to IKEv2, this note removes the need to use an
obsolete version of the Internet Key Exchange in order to achieve obsolete version of the Internet Key Exchange in order to achieve
that security goal. that security goal.
The general idea is that we add an additional secret that is shared The general idea is that we add an additional secret that is shared
between the initiator and the responder; this secret is in addition between the initiator and the responder; this secret is in addition
to the authentication method that is already provided within IKEv2. to the authentication method that is already provided within IKEv2.
We stir in this secret when generating the key material (KEYMAT) keys We stir in this secret into the SK_d value, which is used to generate
for the child SAs (along with the parameters that IKEv2 normally the key material (KEYMAT) keys and the SKEYSEED for the child SAs;
uses); this secret provides quantum resistance to the IPsec SAs. this secret provides quantum resistance to the IPsec SAs (and any
child IKE SAs). We also stir in the secret into the SK_pi, SK_pr
values; this allows both sides to detect a secret mismatch cleanly.
It was considered important to minimize the changes to IKEv2. The It was considered important to minimize the changes to IKEv2. The
existing mechanisms to do authentication and key exchange remain in existing mechanisms to do authentication and key exchange remain in
place (that is, we continue to do (EC)DH, and potentially a PKI place (that is, we continue to do (EC)DH, and potentially a PKI
authentication if configured). This does not replace the authentication if configured). This does not replace the
authentication checks that the protocol does; instead, it is done as authentication checks that the protocol does; instead, it is done as
a parallel check. a parallel check.
1.1. Changes 1.1. Changes
Changes in this draft from the previous versions Changes in this draft from the previous versions
draft-03
- Modified how we stir the PPK into the IKEv2 secret state
- Modified how the use of PPKs is negotiated
draft-02 draft-02
- Simplified the protocol by stirring in the preshared key into the - Simplified the protocol by stirring in the preshared key into the
child SAs; this avoids the problem of having the responder decide child SAs; this avoids the problem of having the responder decide
which preshared key to use (as it knows the initiator identity at which preshared key to use (as it knows the initiator identity at
that point); it does mean that someone with a Quantum Computer can that point); it does mean that someone with a Quantum Computer can
recover the initial IKE negotation. recover the initial IKE negotation.
- Removed positive endorsements of various algorithms. Retained - Removed positive endorsements of various algorithms. Retained
warnings about algorithms known to be weak against a Quantum Computer warnings about algorithms known to be weak against a Quantum Computer
skipping to change at page 4, line 7 skipping to change at page 4, line 22
transform the nonces during the KDF transform the nonces during the KDF
1.2. Requirements Language 1.2. Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
2. Assumptions 2. Assumptions
We assume that each IKE peer (both the initiator and the responder) We assume that each IKE peer has a list of Postquantum Preshared Keys
has an optional Postquantum Preshared Key (PPK) (potentially on a (PPK) along with their identifiers (PPK_id), and any potential IKE
per-peer basis, selected by peer identity), and also has a initiator has a selection of which PPK to use with with any specific
configurable flag that determines whether this postquantum preshared responder. In addition, the implementation has a configurable flag
key is mandatory. This preshared key is independent of the preshared that determines whether this postquantum preshared key is mandatory.
key (if any that the IKEv2 protocol uses to perform authentication. This PPK is independent of the preshared key (if any) that the IKEv2
protocol uses to perform authentication.
3. Exchanges 3. Exchanges
If the initiator has a configured postquantum preshared key (whether If the initiator is configured to use a postquantum preshared key
or not it is optional), then it will include a notify payload in its with the responder (whether or not the use of the PPK is optional),
initial encrypted exchange as follows: then it will include a notify payload in the initial exchange as
follows:
Initiator Responder Initiator Responder
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------
HDR, SK {IDi, [CERT,] [CERTREQ,] HDR, SAi1, KEi, Ni, N(PPK_SUPPORT) --->
[IDr,] AUTH, SAi2,
TS, TSr, N(PPK_NOTIFY)} --->
N(PPK_NOTIFY) is a status notification payload with the type [TBA]; N(PPK_SUPPORT) is a status notification payload with the type [TBA];
it has a protocol ID of 0, and no SPI and no notification data it has a protocol ID of 0, and no SPI and no notification data
associated with it. associated with it.
When the responder receives the initial encrypted exchange, it checks If the initiator needs to resend this initial message with a cookie
to see if it received a notify within that exchange, is configured to (because the responder response included a cookie notification), then
support PPK with the initiator's identity, and whether that use is the resend would include the PPK_SUPPORT notification if the original
mandatory. If the notify was received, and the responder does have a message did.
PPK for that identity, then it responds with the standard IKE
response with the PPK_NOTIFY notify message included, namely: When the responder receives this initial exchange with the notify,
then it MUST check if has a PPK configured. If it does, it MUST
reply with the IKE initial exchange including a notification in
response.
Initiator Responder Initiator Responder
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------
<--- HDR, SK {IDr, [CERT,] AUTH, <--- HDR, SAr1, KEr, Nr, [CERTREQ], N(PPK_SUPPORT)
SAr2, TSi, TSr, N(PPK_NOTIFY)}
If the responder is not configured to support PPK with that identity, If the responder does not have a PPK configured, then it continues
it continues with the standard IKE protocol, not including the with the IKE protocol as normal, not including the notify.
notification.
If the responder is configured to support PPK with that identity, and When the initiator receives this reply, it checks whether the
it does not receive the notification, then if the PPK usage is responder included the PPK_SUPPORT notify. If the responder did not,
configured as mandatory, it MUST abort the exchange. If the PPK then the initiator MUST either proceed with the standard IKE
usage is configured as optional, it continues with the standard IKE negotiation (without using a PPK), or abort the exchange (for
protocol, not including the notification. example, because the initiator has the PPK marked as mandatory). If
the responder did include the PPK_SUPPORT notify, then it selects a
PPK, along with its identifier PPK_id. Then, it computes this
modification of the standard IKE key derivation:
SKEYSEED = prf(Ni | Nr, g^ir)
{SK_d' | SK_ai | SK_ar | SK_ei | SK_er | SK_pi' | SK_pr' )
= prf+ (SKEYSEED, Ni | Nr | SPIi | SPIr }
SK_d = prf(PPK, SK_d')
SK_pi = prf(PPK, SK_pi')
SK_pr = prf(PPK, SK_pr')
That is, we use the standard IKE key derivation process except that
the three subkeys SK_d, SK_pi, SK_pr are run through the prf again,
this time using the PPK as the key.
The initiator then sends the initial encrypted message, including the
PPK_id value as follows:
Initiator Responder
------------------------------------------------------------------
HDR, SK {IDi, [CERT,] [CERTREQ,]
[IDr,] AUTH, SAi2,
TSi, TSr, N(PPK_IDENTITY)(PPK_id)} --->
N(PPK_IDENITY) is a status notification payload with the type [TBA];
it has a protocol ID of 0, and no SPI and has a notification data
that consists of the identifier PPK_id.
When the responder receives this encrypted exchange, it first
computes the values:
SKEYSEED = prf(Ni | Nr, g^ir)
{SK_d' | SK_ai | SK_ar | SK_ei | SK_er | SK_pi' | SK_pr' }
= prf+ (SKEYSEED, Ni | Nr | SPIi | SPIr )
It then uses the SK_ei value to decrypt the message; and then finds
the PPK_id value attached to the notify. It then scans through the
payload for the PPK_id attached to the N(PPK_IDENTITY); if it has no
such PPK, it fails the negotiation. If it does have a PPK with that
identity, it further computes:
SK_d = prf(PPK, SK_d')
SK_pi = prf(PPK, SK_pi')
SK_pr = prf(PPK, SK_pr')
And computes the enchange (validating the AUTH payload that the
initiator included) as standard.
This table summarizes the above logic by the responder This table summarizes the above logic by the responder
Received Nonce Have PPK PPK Mandatory Action Received PPK_SUPPORT Have PPK PPK Mandatory Action
------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------
No No * Standard IKE protocol No No * Standard IKE protocol
No Yes No Standard IKE protocol No Yes No Standard IKE protocol
No Yes Yes Abort negotiation No Yes Yes Abort negotiation
Yes No * Standard IKE protocol Yes No * Standard IKE protocol
Yes Yes * Include PPK_NOTIFY Nonce Yes Yes * Include PPK_SUPPORT
When the initiator receives the response, then (if it is configured When the initiator receives the response, then (if it is configured
to use a PPK with the responder), then it checks for the presense of to use a PPK with the responder), then it checks for the presense of
the notification. If it receives one, it marks the SA as using the the notification. If it receives one, it marks the SA as using the
configured PPK; if it does not receive one, it MUST either abort the configured PPK to generate SK_d, SK_pi, SK_pr (as shown above); if it
exchange (if the PPK was configured as mandatory), or it MUST does not receive one, it MUST either abort the exchange (if the PPK
continue without using the PPK (if the PPK was configured as was configured as mandatory), or it MUST continue without using the
optional). PPK (if the PPK was configured as optional).
The protocol continues as standard until it comes time to compute the If the initial exchange had PPK_SUPPORT sent by both the initiator
child SA keying material. and the responder, and the initiator does not include a PPK_NOTIFY
notification, then the responder SHOULD fail the exchange.
4. Creating Child SA Keying Material With this protocol, the computed SK_d is a function of the PPK, and
assuming that the PPK has sufficient entropy (for example, at least
2**256 possible values), then even if an attacker were able to
recover the rest of the inputs to the prf function, it would be
infeasible to use Grover's algorithm with a Quantum Computer to
recover the SK_d value. Similarly, every child SA key is a function
of SK_d, hence all the keys for all the child SAs are also quantum
resistant (assuming that the PPK was high entropy and secret, and
that all the subkeys are sufficiently long). However, this quantum
resistance does not extend to the initial SK_ei, SK_er keys; an
implementation MAY rekey the initial IKE SA immediately after
negotiating it; this would reduce the amount of data available to an
attacker with a Quantum Computer.
When it comes time to generate the keying material for a child SA, 4. PPK ID format
the implementation (both the initiator and the responder) checks to
see if they agreed to use a PPK. If they did, then they look up
(based on the peer's identity) the configured PPK, and then both
sides use one of these alternative formula (based on whether an
optional Diffie-Hellman was included):
Ni&apos; = prf(PPK, Ni) This standard requires that both the initiator and the responder have
Nr&apos; = prf(PPK, Nr) a secret PPK value, with the responder selecting the PPK based on the
KEYMAT = prf+(SK_d, Ni&apos; | Nr&apos;) PPK_ID that the initiator sends. In this initial standard, both the
initator and the responder are configured with fixed PPK and PPK_ID
values, and do the look up based on that. It is anticipated that
later standards will extend this technique to allow dynamically
changing PPK values. To facilitate such an extension, we specify
that the PPK_ID that the initiator sends will have its first octet be
the PPK ID Type value, which is encoded as follows:
or PPK ID Type Value
Ni&apos; = prf(PPK, Ni) PPK_ID_OPAQUE 0
Nr&apos; = prf(PPK, Nr) PPK_ID_FIXED 1
KEYMAT = prf+(SK_d, g^ir (new) | Ni&apos; | Nr&apos;) RESERVED TO IANA 2-127
Reserved for private use 128-255
where PPK is the configured postquantum preshared key, Ni, Nr are the For PPK_ID_OPAQUE, the format of the PPK ID (and the PPK itself) is
nonces from the IKE_SA_INIT exchange if this require is the first not specified by this document; it is assumed to be mutually
Child SA created or the fresh Ni and Nr from the CREATE_CHILD_SA intelligible by both by initiator and the responder. This PPK ID
exchange if this is a subsequent creation, and prf is the type is intended for those implementations that choose not to
pseudorandom function that was negotiated for this SA. disclose the type of PPK to active attackers.
This is the standard IKE KEYMAT generation, except that the nonces For PPK_ID_FIXED, the format of the PPK ID and the PPK are fixed
are transformed (via the negotiated PRF function) using the preshared octet strings; the remaining bytes of the PPK_ID are a configured
PPK value value. We assume that there is a fixed mapping between PPK_ID and
We use this negotiated PRF, rather than negotiating a separate one, PPK, which is configured locally to both the initiator and the
because this PRF is agreed by both sides to have sufficient security responder. The responder can use to do a look up the passed PPK_id
properties (otherwise, they would have negotiated something else), value to determine the corresponding PPK value. Not all
and so that we don't need to specify a separate negotiation implementations are able to configure arbitrary octet strings; to
procedure. improve the potential interoperability, it is recommended that, in
the PPK_ID_FIXED case, both the PPK and the PPK_ID strings be limited
to the base64 character set, namely the 64 characters 0-9, A-Z, a-z,
+ and /.
When you rekey an IKE SA (generating a fresh SKEYSEED), the initiator The PPK ID type values 2-127 are reserved for IANA; values 128-255
and the responder will transform the nonces using the same PPK as are for private use among mutually consenting parties.
they used during the original IKE SA negotiation. That is, they will
use the alternate derivation:
Ni&apos; = prf(PPK, Ni) 5. PPK Distribution
Nr&apos; = prf(PPK, Nr)
SKEYSEED = prf( SK_d (old), g^ir (new) | Ni&apos; | Nr&apos; )
(SK_d | SK_ai | SK_ar | SK_ei | SK_er | SK_pi | SK_pr) =
prf+(SKEYSEED, Ni&apos; | Nr&apos; | SPIi | SPIr)
An implementation MAY rekey the initial IKE SA immediately after PPK_id's of the type PPK_ID_FIXED (and the corresponding PPKs) are
negotiating it; this would reduce the amount of data available to an assumed to be configured within the IKE device in an out-of-band
attacker with a Quantum Computer fashion. While the method of distribution is a local matter, one
suggestion would be to reuse the format within [RFC6030], with the
Key Id field being the PPK_ID (without the 0x01 prefix for a
PPK_ID_FIXED), and with the PPK being the secret, and the algorithm
as PIN ("Algorithm=urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:keyprov:pskc:pin").
5. Security Considerations 6. Upgrade procedure
This algorithm was designed so that someone can introduce PPKs into
an existing IKE network without causing network disruption.
In the initial phase of the network upgrade, the network
administrator would visit each IKE node, and configure:
- The set of PPKs (and corresponding PPK_id's) that this node would
need to know
- For each peer that this node would initiate to, which PPK that we
would use
- That the use of PPK is currently optional
With this configuration, the node will continue to operate with nodes
that have not yet been upgraded. This is due to the PPK_SUPPORT
notify; if the initiator has not been upgraded, it will not send the
PPK_SUPPORT notify (and so the responder will know that we will not
use a PPK); if the responder has not been upgraded, it will not send
the PPK_SUPPORT notify (and so the initiator will know not to use a
PPK). And, if both peers have been upgraded, they will both realize
it, and in that case, the link will be quantum secure
As an optional second step, after all nodes have been upgraded, then
the administrator may then go back through the nodes, and mark the
use of PPK as mandatory. This will not affect the strength against a
passive attacker; it would mean that an attacker with a Quantum
Computer (which is sufficiently fast to be able to break the (EC)DH
in real time would not be able to perform a downgrade attack).
7. Security Considerations
Quantum computers are able to perform Grover's algorithm; that Quantum computers are able to perform Grover's algorithm; that
effectively halves the size of a symmetric key. Because of this, the effectively halves the size of a symmetric key. Because of this, the
user SHOULD ensure that the postquantum preshared key used has at user SHOULD ensure that the postquantum preshared key used has at
least 256 bits of entropy, in order to provide a 128 bit security least 256 bits of entropy, in order to provide a 128 bit security
level. level.
Although this protocol preserves all the security properties of IKE Although this protocol preserves all the security properties of IKE
against adversaries with conventional computers, this protocol allows against adversaries with conventional computers, this protocol allows
an adversary with a Quantum Computer to decrypt all traffic encrypted an adversary with a Quantum Computer to decrypt all traffic encrypted
with the initial IKE SA. In particular, it allows the adversary to with the initial IKE SA. In particular, it allows the adversary to
recover the identities of both sides. If there is IKE traffic other recover the identities of both sides. If there is IKE traffic other
than the identities that need to be protected against such an than the identities that need to be protected against such an
adversary, one suggestion would be to form an initial IKE SA (which adversary, one suggestion would be to form an initial IKE SA (which
is used to exchange identities), perhaps by using the protocol is used to exchange identities), perhaps by using the protocol
documented in RFC6023. Then, you would immediately create a child documented in RFC6023. Then, you would immediately create a child
IKE SA (which is used to exchange everything else). Because the IKE SA (which is used to exchange everything else). Because the
child IKE SA keys are a function of the PPK (among other things), child IKE SA keys are a function of SK_d, which is a function of the
traffic protected by that SA is secure against Quantum capable PPK (among other things), traffic protected by that SA is secure
adversaries. against Quantum capable adversaries.
In addition, the policy SHOULD be set to negotiate only quantum- In addition, the policy SHOULD be set to negotiate only quantum-
resistant symmetric algorithms; while this RFC doesn't claim to give resistant symmetric algorithms; while this RFC doesn't claim to give
advise as to what algorithms are secure (as that may change based on advise as to what algorithms are secure (as that may change based on
future cryptographical results), here is a list of defined IKEv2 and future cryptographical results), here is a list of defined IKEv2 and
IPsec algorithms that should NOT be used, as they are known not to be IPsec algorithms that should NOT be used, as they are known not to be
Quantum Resistant Quantum Resistant
Any IKE Encryption algorithm, PRF or Integrity algorithm with key Any IKE Encryption algorithm, PRF or Integrity algorithm with key
size <256 bits size <256 bits
Any ESP Transform with key size <256 bits Any ESP Transform with key size <256 bits
PRF_AES128_XCBC and PRF_AES128_CBC; even though they are defined to PRF_AES128_XCBC and PRF_AES128_CBC; even though they are defined to
be able to use an arbitrary key size, they convert it into a 128 bit be able to use an arbitrary key size, they convert it into a 128 bit
key internally key internally
6. References 8. References
6.1. Normative References 8.1. Normative References
[RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed- [RFC2104] Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2104, February 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2104, February 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2104>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2104>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC7296] Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T. [RFC7296] Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T.
Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
(IKEv2)", STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October (IKEv2)", STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October
2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>. 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>.
6.2. Informational References 8.2. Informational References
[RFC6023] Nir, Y., Tschofenig, H., Deng, H., and R. Singh, "A [RFC6023] Nir, Y., Tschofenig, H., Deng, H., and R. Singh, "A
Childless Initiation of the Internet Key Exchange Version Childless Initiation of the Internet Key Exchange Version
2 (IKEv2) Security Association (SA)", RFC 6023, 2 (IKEv2) Security Association (SA)", RFC 6023,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6023, October 2010, DOI 10.17487/RFC6023, October 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6023>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6023>.
[RFC6030] Hoyer, P., Pei, M., and S. Machani, "Portable Symmetric
Key Container (PSKC)", RFC 6030, DOI 10.17487/RFC6030,
October 2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6030>.
[SPDP] McGrew, D., "A Secure Peer Discovery Protocol (SPDP)", [SPDP] McGrew, D., "A Secure Peer Discovery Protocol (SPDP)",
2001, <http://www.mindspring.com/~dmcgrew/spdp.txt>. 2001, <http://www.mindspring.com/~dmcgrew/spdp.txt>.
Appendix A. Discussion and Rationale Appendix A. Discussion and Rationale
The idea behind this is that while a Quantum Computer can easily The idea behind this is that while a Quantum Computer can easily
reconstruct the shared secret of an (EC)DH exchange, they cannot as reconstruct the shared secret of an (EC)DH exchange, they cannot as
easily recover a secret from a symmetric exchange this makes the easily recover a secret from a symmetric exchange this makes the
IPsec KEYMAT and any child SA's SKEYSEED depend on both the symmetric SK_d, and hence the IPsec KEYMAT and any child SA's SKEYSEED, depend
PPK, and also the Diffie-Hellman exchange. If we assume that the on both the symmetric PPK, and also the Diffie-Hellman exchange. If
attacker knows everything except the PPK during the key exchange, and we assume that the attacker knows everything except the PPK during
there are 2**n plausible PPK's, then a Quantum Computer (using the key exchange, and there are 2**n plausible PPK's, then a Quantum
Grover's algorithm) would take O(2**(n/2)) time to recover the PPK. Computer (using Grover's algorithm) would take O(2**(n/2)) time to
So, even if the (EC)DH can be trivially solved, the attacker still recover the PPK. So, even if the (EC)DH can be trivially solved, the
can't recover any key material (except for the SK values for the attacker still can't recover any key material (except for the SK_ei,
initial IKE exchange) unless they can find the PPK, and that's too SK_er, SK_ai, SK_ar values for the initial IKE exchange) unless they
difficult if the PPK has enough entropy (say, 256 bits). Note that can find the PPK, and that's too difficult if the PPK has enough
we do allow an attacker with a Quantum Computer to rederive the entropy (for example, 256 bits). Note that we do allow an attacker
keying material for the initial IKE SA; this was a compromise to with a Quantum Computer to rederive the keying material for the
allow the responder to select the correct PPK quickly. initial IKE SA; this was a compromise to allow the responder to
select the correct PPK quickly.
Another goal of this protocol is to minimize the number of changes Another goal of this protocol is to minimize the number of changes
within the IKEv2 protocol, and in particular, within the cryptography within the IKEv2 protocol, and in particular, within the cryptography
of IKEv2. By limiting our changes to notifications, and translating of IKEv2. By limiting our changes to notifications, and translating
the nonces, it is hoped that this would be implementable, even on the nonces, it is hoped that this would be implementable, even on
systems that perform much of the IKEv2 processing is in hardware. systems that perform much of the IKEv2 processing is in hardware.
A third goal was to be friendly to incremental deployment in A third goal was to be friendly to incremental deployment in
operational networks, for which we might not want to have a global operational networks, for which we might not want to have a global
shared key, and also if we're rolling this out incrementally. This shared key, and also if we're rolling this out incrementally. This
is why we specifically try to allow the PPK to be dependent on the is why we specifically try to allow the PPK to be dependent on the
peer, and why we allow the PPK to be configured as optional. peer, and why we allow the PPK to be configured as optional.
A fourth goal was to avoid violating any of the security goals of A fourth goal was to avoid violating any of the security goals of
IKEv2. IKEv2.
The third and fourth goals are in partial conflict. In order to
achieve postquantum security, we need to stir in the PPK when the
keys are computed, however the keys are computed before we know who
we're talking to (and so which PPK we should use). And, we can't
just tell the other side which PPK to use, as we might use different
PPK's for different peers, and so that would violate the anonymity
goal. If we just (for example) included a hash of the PPK, someone
listening in could easily tell when we're using the same PPK for
different exchanges, and thus deduce that the systems are related.
The compromise we selected was to stir in the PPK in all the derived
keys except the initial IKE SA keys, While this allows an attacker
with a Quantum Computer to recover the identities, a poll on the
IPsecME mailing list indicated that the majority of the people on the
list did not think anonymity was an important property within IKE.
We stir in the shared secret within the Child SA keying material;
this allows an implementation that wants to protect the other IKE-
based traffic to create an initial IKE SA to exchange identities, and
then immediately create a Child SA, and use that Child SA to exchange
the rest of the negotiation.
In addition, when we stir in the PPK, we always use it to modify a
nonce (using the negotiated PRF). We modify the nonce (rather than,
say, including the PPK in with the prf or prf+ computation directly)
so that this would be easier to implement on an hardware-based IKE
implementation; the prf computations might be built-in, but the
nonces would be external inputs, and so modifying those would
minimize the changes.
Appendix B. Acknowledgement Appendix B. Acknowledgement
The idea of stirring in the PPK into the IPsec key generation process We would like to thank Tero Kivine, Valery Smyslov, Paul Wouters and
was originally suggested on the list by Tero Kivinen. the rest of the ipsecme working group for their feedback and
suggestions for the scheme
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Scott Fluhrer Scott Fluhrer
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
Email: sfluhrer@cisco.com Email: sfluhrer@cisco.com
David McGrew David McGrew
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
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