draft-ietf-ipsecme-tcp-encaps-10.txt   rfc8229.txt 
Network T. Pauly Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) T. Pauly
Internet-Draft Apple Inc. Request for Comments: 8229 Apple Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track S. Touati Category: Standards Track S. Touati
Expires: December 1, 2017 Ericsson ISSN: 2070-1721 Ericsson
R. Mantha R. Mantha
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
May 30, 2017 August 2017
TCP Encapsulation of IKE and IPsec Packets TCP Encapsulation of IKE and IPsec Packets
draft-ietf-ipsecme-tcp-encaps-10
Abstract Abstract
This document describes a method to transport IKE and IPsec packets This document describes a method to transport Internet Key Exchange
over a TCP connection for traversing network middleboxes that may Protocol (IKE) and IPsec packets over a TCP connection for traversing
block IKE negotiation over UDP. This method, referred to as TCP network middleboxes that may block IKE negotiation over UDP. This
encapsulation, involves sending both IKE packets for Security method, referred to as "TCP encapsulation", involves sending both IKE
Association establishment and ESP packets over a TCP connection. packets for Security Association establishment and Encapsulating
This method is intended to be used as a fallback option when IKE Security Payload (ESP) packets over a TCP connection. This method is
cannot be negotiated over UDP. intended to be used as a fallback option when IKE cannot be
negotiated over UDP.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on December 1, 2017. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8229.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction ....................................................3
1.1. Prior Work and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Prior Work and Motivation ..................................4
1.2. Terminology and Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2. Terminology and Notation ...................................5
2. Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Configuration ...................................................5
3. TCP-Encapsulated Header Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. TCP-Encapsulated Header Formats .................................6
3.1. TCP-Encapsulated IKE Header Format . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.1. TCP-Encapsulated IKE Header Format .........................6
3.2. TCP-Encapsulated ESP Header Format . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. TCP-Encapsulated ESP Header Format .........................7
4. TCP-Encapsulated Stream Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. TCP-Encapsulated Stream Prefix ..................................7
5. Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Applicability ...................................................8
5.1. Recommended Fallback from UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.1. Recommended Fallback from UDP ..............................8
6. Connection Establishment and Teardown . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6. Connection Establishment and Teardown ...........................9
7. Interaction with NAT Detection Payloads . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Interaction with NAT Detection Payloads ........................11
8. Using MOBIKE with TCP encapsulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8. Using MOBIKE with TCP Encapsulation ............................11
9. Using IKE Message Fragmentation with TCP encapsulation . . . 11 9. Using IKE Message Fragmentation with TCP Encapsulation .........12
10. Considerations for Keep-alives and DPD . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10. Considerations for Keep-Alives and Dead Peer Detection ........12
11. Middlebox Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11. Middlebox Considerations ......................................12
12. Performance Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12. Performance Considerations ....................................13
12.1. TCP-in-TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12.1. TCP-in-TCP ...............................................13
12.2. Added Reliability for Unreliable Protocols . . . . . . . 13 12.2. Added Reliability for Unreliable Protocols ...............14
12.3. Quality of Service Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12.3. Quality-of-Service Markings ..............................14
12.4. Maximum Segment Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12.4. Maximum Segment Size .....................................14
12.5. Tunnelling ECN in TCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 12.5. Tunneling ECN in TCP .....................................14
13. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 13. Security Considerations .......................................15
14. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 14. IANA Considerations ...........................................16
15. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15. References ....................................................16
16. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15.1. Normative References .....................................16
16.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15.2. Informative References ...................................17
16.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Appendix A. Using TCP encapsulation with TLS . . . . . . . . . . 17 Appendix A. Using TCP Encapsulation with TLS ......................18
Appendix B. Example exchanges of TCP Encapsulation with TLS . . 17 Appendix B. Example Exchanges of TCP Encapsulation with TLS .......19
B.1. Establishing an IKE session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 B.1. Establishing an IKE Session ................................19
B.2. Deleting an IKE session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B.2. Deleting an IKE Session ....................................21
B.3. Re-establishing an IKE session . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 B.3. Re-establishing an IKE Session .............................22
B.4. Using MOBIKE between UDP and TCP Encapsulation . . . . . 21 B.4. Using MOBIKE between UDP and TCP Encapsulation .............23
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Acknowledgments ...................................................25
Authors' Addresses ................................................25
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
IKEv2 [RFC7296] is a protocol for establishing IPsec Security The Internet Key Exchange Protocol version 2 (IKEv2) [RFC7296] is a
Associations (SAs), using IKE messages over UDP for control traffic, protocol for establishing IPsec Security Associations (SAs), using
and using Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) messages for encrypted IKE messages over UDP for control traffic, and using Encapsulating
data traffic. Many network middleboxes that filter traffic on public Security Payload (ESP) [RFC4303] messages for encrypted data traffic.
hotspots block all UDP traffic, including IKE and IPsec, but allow Many network middleboxes that filter traffic on public hotspots block
TCP connections through since they appear to be web traffic. Devices all UDP traffic, including IKE and IPsec, but allow TCP connections
on these networks that need to use IPsec (to access private through because they appear to be web traffic. Devices on these
enterprise networks, to route voice-over-IP calls to carrier networks that need to use IPsec (to access private enterprise
networks, or because of security policies) are unable to establish networks, to route Voice over IP calls to carrier networks, or
IPsec SAs. This document defines a method for encapsulating both the because of security policies) are unable to establish IPsec SAs.
IKE control messages as well as the IPsec data messages within a TCP This document defines a method for encapsulating IKE control messages
connection. as well as IPsec data messages within a TCP connection.
Using TCP as a transport for IPsec packets adds a third option to the Using TCP as a transport for IPsec packets adds a third option to the
list of traditional IPsec transports: list of traditional IPsec transports:
1. Direct. Currently, IKE negotiations begin over UDP port 500. 1. Direct. Currently, IKE negotiations begin over UDP port 500. If
If no NAT is detected between the Initiator and the Responder, no Network Address Translation (NAT) device is detected between
then subsequent IKE packets are sent over UDP port 500 and the Initiator and the Responder, then subsequent IKE packets are
IPsec data packets are sent using ESP [RFC4303]. sent over UDP port 500, and IPsec data packets are sent
using ESP.
2. UDP Encapsulation [RFC3948]. If a NAT is detected between the 2. UDP Encapsulation [RFC3948]. If a NAT is detected between the
Initiator and the Responder, then subsequent IKE packets are Initiator and the Responder, then subsequent IKE packets are sent
sent over UDP port 4500 with four bytes of zero at the start of over UDP port 4500 with four bytes of zero at the start of the
the UDP payload and ESP packets are sent out over UDP port UDP payload, and ESP packets are sent out over UDP port 4500.
4500. Some peers default to using UDP encapsulation even when Some peers default to using UDP encapsulation even when no NAT is
no NAT are detected on the path as some middleboxes do not detected on the path, as some middleboxes do not support IP
support IP protocols other than TCP and UDP. protocols other than TCP and UDP.
3. TCP Encapsulation. If both of the other two methods are not 3. TCP Encapsulation. If the other two methods are not available or
available or appropriate, both IKE negotiation packets as well appropriate, IKE negotiation packets as well as ESP packets can
as ESP packets can be sent over a single TCP connection to the be sent over a single TCP connection to the peer.
peer.
Direct use of ESP or UDP Encapsulation should be preferred by IKE Direct use of ESP or UDP encapsulation should be preferred by
implementations due to performance concerns when using TCP IKE implementations due to performance concerns when using
Encapsulation Section 12. Most implementations should use TCP TCP encapsulation (Section 12). Most implementations should use
Encapsulation only on networks where negotiation over UDP has been TCP encapsulation only on networks where negotiation over UDP has
attempted without receiving responses from the peer, or if a network been attempted without receiving responses from the peer or if a
is known to not support UDP. network is known to not support UDP.
1.1. Prior Work and Motivation 1.1. Prior Work and Motivation
Encapsulating IKE connections within TCP streams is a common approach Encapsulating IKE connections within TCP streams is a common approach
to solve the problem of UDP packets being blocked by network to solve the problem of UDP packets being blocked by network
middleboxes. The goal of this document is to promote middleboxes. The specific goals of this document are as follows:
interoperability by providing a standard method of framing IKE and
ESP message within streams, and to provide guidelines for how to
configure and use TCP encapsulation.
Some previous alternatives include: o To promote interoperability by defining a standard method of
framing IKE and ESP messages within TCP streams.
Cellular Network Access Interworking Wireless LAN (IWLAN) uses IKEv2 o To be compatible with the current IKEv2 standard without requiring
to create secure connections to cellular carrier networks for modifications or extensions.
making voice calls and accessing other network services over
Wi-Fi networks. 3GPP has recommended that IKEv2 and ESP packets
be sent within a TLS connection to be able to establish
connections on restrictive networks.
ISAKMP over TCP Various non-standard extensions to ISAKMP have been o To use IKE over UDP by default to avoid the overhead of other
deployed that send IPsec traffic over TCP or TCP-like packets. alternatives that always rely on TCP or Transport Layer Security
(TLS) [RFC5246].
SSL VPNs Many proprietary VPN solutions use a combination of TLS and Some previous alternatives include:
IPsec in order to provide reliability. These often run on TCP
port 443.
IKEv2 over TCP IKEv2 over TCP as described in Cellular Network Access
[I-D.nir-ipsecme-ike-tcp] is used to avoid UDP fragmentation. Interworking Wireless LAN (IWLAN) uses IKEv2 to create secure
connections to cellular carrier networks for making voice calls
and accessing other network services over Wi-Fi networks. 3GPP has
recommended that IKEv2 and ESP packets be sent within a TLS
connection to be able to establish connections on restrictive
networks.
The goal of this specification is to provide a standardized method ISAKMP over TCP
for using TCP streams to transport IPsec that is compatible with the Various non-standard extensions to the Internet Security
current IKE standard, and avoids the overhead of other alternatives Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) have been
that always rely on TCP or TLS. deployed that send IPsec traffic over TCP or TCP-like packets.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) VPNs
Many proprietary VPN solutions use a combination of TLS and IPsec
in order to provide reliability. These often run on TCP port 443.
IKEv2 over TCP
IKEv2 over TCP as described in [IKE-over-TCP] is used to avoid UDP
fragmentation.
1.2. Terminology and Notation 1.2. Terminology and Notation
This document distinguishes between the IKE peer that initiates TCP This document distinguishes between the IKE peer that initiates TCP
connections to be used for TCP encapsulation and the roles of connections to be used for TCP encapsulation and the roles of
Initiator and Responder for particular IKE messages. During the Initiator and Responder for particular IKE messages. During the
course of IKE exchanges, the role of IKE Initiator and Responder may course of IKE exchanges, the role of IKE Initiator and Responder may
swap for a given SA (as with IKE SA Rekeys), while the initiator of swap for a given SA (as with IKE SA rekeys), while the Initiator of
the TCP connection is still responsible for tearing down the TCP the TCP connection is still responsible for tearing down the TCP
connection and re-establishing it if necessary. For this reason, connection and re-establishing it if necessary. For this reason,
this document will use the term "TCP Originator" to indicate the IKE this document will use the term "TCP Originator" to indicate the IKE
peer that initiates TCP connections. The peer that receives TCP peer that initiates TCP connections. The peer that receives TCP
connections will be referred to as the "TCP Responder". If an IKE SA connections will be referred to as the "TCP Responder". If an IKE SA
is rekeyed one or more times, the TCP Originator MUST remain the peer is rekeyed one or more times, the TCP Originator MUST remain the peer
that originally initiated the first IKE SA. that originally initiated the first IKE SA.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
capitals, as shown here.
2. Configuration 2. Configuration
One of the main reasons to use TCP encapsulation is that UDP traffic One of the main reasons to use TCP encapsulation is that UDP traffic
may be entirely blocked on a network. Because of this, support for may be entirely blocked on a network. Because of this, support for
TCP encapsulation is not specifically negotiated in the IKE exchange. TCP encapsulation is not specifically negotiated in the IKE exchange.
Instead, support for TCP encapsulation must be pre-configured on both Instead, support for TCP encapsulation must be pre-configured on both
the TCP Originator and the TCP Responder. the TCP Originator and the TCP Responder.
Implementations MUST support TCP encapsulation on TCP port 4500, Implementations MUST support TCP encapsulation on TCP port 4500,
which is reserved for IPsec NAT Traversal. which is reserved for IPsec NAT traversal.
Beyond a flag indicating support for TCP encapsulation, the Beyond a flag indicating support for TCP encapsulation, the
configuration for each peer can include the following optional configuration for each peer can include the following optional
parameters: parameters:
o Alternate TCP ports on which the specific TCP Responder listens o Alternate TCP ports on which the specific TCP Responder listens
for incoming connections. Note that the TCP Originator may for incoming connections. Note that the TCP Originator may
initiate TCP connections to the TCP Responder from any local port. initiate TCP connections to the TCP Responder from any local port.
o An extra framing protocol to use on top of TCP to further o An extra framing protocol to use on top of TCP to further
encapsulate the stream of IKE and IPsec packets. See Appendix A encapsulate the stream of IKE and IPsec packets. See Appendix A
for a detailed discussion. for a detailed discussion.
Since TCP encapsulation of IKE and IPsec packets adds overhead and Since TCP encapsulation of IKE and IPsec packets adds overhead and
has potential performance trade-offs compared to direct or UDP- has potential performance trade-offs compared to direct or
encapsulated SAs (as described in Performance Considerations, UDP-encapsulated SAs (as described in Section 12), implementations
Section 12), implementations SHOULD prefer ESP direct or UDP SHOULD prefer ESP direct or UDP-encapsulated SAs over
encapsulated SAs over TCP encapsulated SAs when possible. TCP-encapsulated SAs when possible.
3. TCP-Encapsulated Header Formats 3. TCP-Encapsulated Header Formats
Like UDP encapsulation, TCP encapsulation uses the first four bytes Like UDP encapsulation, TCP encapsulation uses the first four bytes
of a message to differentiate IKE and ESP messages. TCP of a message to differentiate IKE and ESP messages. TCP
encapsulation also adds a length field to define the boundaries of encapsulation also adds a Length field to define the boundaries of
messages within a stream. The message length is sent in a 16-bit messages within a stream. The message length is sent in a 16-bit
field that precedes every message. If the first 32-bits of the field that precedes every message. If the first 32 bits of the
message are zeros (a Non-ESP Marker), then the contents comprise an message are zeros (a non-ESP marker), then the contents comprise an
IKE message. Otherwise, the contents comprise an ESP message. IKE message. Otherwise, the contents comprise an ESP message.
Authentication Header (AH) messages are not supported for TCP Authentication Header (AH) messages are not supported for TCP
encapsulation. encapsulation.
Although a TCP stream may be able to send very long messages, Although a TCP stream may be able to send very long messages,
implementations SHOULD limit message lengths to typical UDP datagram implementations SHOULD limit message lengths to typical UDP datagram
ESP payload lengths. The maximum message length is used as the ESP payload lengths. The maximum message length is used as the
effective MTU for connections that are being encrypted using ESP, so effective MTU for connections that are being encrypted using ESP, so
the maximum message length will influence characteristics of inner the maximum message length will influence characteristics of inner
connections, such as the TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS). connections, such as the TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS).
Note that this method of encapsulation will also work for placing IKE Note that this method of encapsulation will also work for placing IKE
and ESP messages within any protocol that presents a stream and ESP messages within any protocol that presents a stream
abstraction, beyond TCP. abstraction, beyond TCP.
3.1. TCP-Encapsulated IKE Header Format 3.1. TCP-Encapsulated IKE Header Format
1 2 3 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Length | | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Non-ESP Marker | | Non-ESP Marker |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
~ IKE header [RFC7296] ~ ~ IKE header [RFC7296] ~
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 1 Figure 1
The IKE header is preceded by a 16-bit length field in network byte The IKE header is preceded by a 16-bit Length field in network byte
order that specifies the length of the IKE message (including the order that specifies the length of the IKE message (including the
Non-ESP marker) within the TCP stream. As with IKE over UDP port non-ESP marker) within the TCP stream. As with IKE over UDP
4500, a zeroed 32-bit Non-ESP Marker is inserted before the start of port 4500, a zeroed 32-bit non-ESP marker is inserted before the
the IKE header in order to differentiate the traffic from ESP traffic start of the IKE header in order to differentiate the traffic from
between the same addresses and ports. ESP traffic between the same addresses and ports.
o Length (2 octets, unsigned integer) - Length of the IKE packet o Length (2 octets, unsigned integer) - Length of the IKE packet,
including the Length Field and Non-ESP Marker. including the Length field and non-ESP marker.
3.2. TCP-Encapsulated ESP Header Format 3.2. TCP-Encapsulated ESP Header Format
1 2 3 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Length | | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| | | |
~ ESP header [RFC4303] ~ ~ ESP header [RFC4303] ~
| | | |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 2 Figure 2
The ESP header is preceded by a 16-bit length field in network byte The ESP header is preceded by a 16-bit Length field in network byte
order that specifies the length of the ESP packet within the TCP order that specifies the length of the ESP packet within the TCP
stream. stream.
The SPI field in the ESP header MUST NOT be a zero value. The Security Parameter Index (SPI) field [RFC7296] in the ESP header
MUST NOT be a zero value.
o Length (2 octets, unsigned integer) - Length of the ESP packet o Length (2 octets, unsigned integer) - Length of the ESP packet,
including the Length Field. including the Length field.
4. TCP-Encapsulated Stream Prefix 4. TCP-Encapsulated Stream Prefix
Each stream of bytes used for IKE and IPsec encapsulation MUST begin Each stream of bytes used for IKE and IPsec encapsulation MUST begin
with a fixed sequence of six bytes as a magic value, containing the with a fixed sequence of six bytes as a magic value, containing the
characters "IKETCP" as ASCII values. This value is intended to characters "IKETCP" as ASCII values. This value is intended to
identify and validate that the TCP connection is being used for TCP identify and validate that the TCP connection is being used for TCP
encapsulation as defined in this document, to avoid conflicts with encapsulation as defined in this document, to avoid conflicts with
the prevalence of previous non-standard protocols that used TCP port the prevalence of previous non-standard protocols that used TCP
4500. This value is only sent once, by the TCP Originator only, at port 4500. This value is only sent once, by the TCP Originator only,
the beginning of any stream of IKE and ESP messages. at the beginning of any stream of IKE and ESP messages.
If other framing protocols are used within TCP to further encapsulate If other framing protocols are used within TCP to further encapsulate
or encrypt the stream of IKE and ESP messages, the Stream Prefix must or encrypt the stream of IKE and ESP messages, the stream prefix must
be at the start of the TCP Originator's IKE and ESP message stream be at the start of the TCP Originator's IKE and ESP message stream
within the added protocol layer [Appendix A]. Although some framing within the added protocol layer (Appendix A). Although some framing
protocols do support negotiating inner protocols, the stream prefix protocols do support negotiating inner protocols, the stream prefix
should always be used in order for implementations to be as generic should always be used in order for implementations to be as generic
as possible and not rely on other framing protocols on top of TCP. as possible and not rely on other framing protocols on top of TCP.
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
+------+------+------+------+------+------+ +------+------+------+------+------+------+
| 0x49 | 0x4b | 0x45 | 0x54 | 0x43 | 0x50 | | 0x49 | 0x4b | 0x45 | 0x54 | 0x43 | 0x50 |
+------+------+------+------+------+------+ +------+------+------+------+------+------+
Figure 3 Figure 3
5. Applicability 5. Applicability
TCP encapsulation is applicable only when it has been configured to TCP encapsulation is applicable only when it has been configured to
be used with specific IKE peers. If a Responder is configured to use be used with specific IKE peers. If a Responder is configured to use
TCP encapsulation, it MUST listen on the configured port(s) in case TCP encapsulation, it MUST listen on the configured port(s) in case
any peers will initiate new IKE sessions. Initiators MAY use TCP any peers will initiate new IKE sessions. Initiators MAY use TCP
encapsulation for any IKE session to a peer that is configured to encapsulation for any IKE session to a peer that is configured to
support TCP encapsulation, although it is recommended that Initiators support TCP encapsulation, although it is recommended that Initiators
should only use TCP encapsulation when traffic over UDP is blocked. should only use TCP encapsulation when traffic over UDP is blocked.
Since the support of TCP encapsulation is a configured property, not Since the support of TCP encapsulation is a configured property, not
a negotiated one, it is recommended that if there are multiple IKE a negotiated one, it is recommended that if there are multiple IKE
endpoints representing a single peer (such as multiple machines with endpoints representing a single peer (such as multiple machines with
different IP addresses when connecting by Fully-Qualified Domain different IP addresses when connecting by Fully Qualified Domain
Name, or endpoints used with IKE redirection), all of the endpoints Name, or endpoints used with IKE redirection), all of the endpoints
equally support TCP encapsulation. equally support TCP encapsulation.
If TCP encapsulation is being used for a specific IKE SA, all If TCP encapsulation is being used for a specific IKE SA, all
messages for that IKE SA and its Child SAs MUST be sent over a TCP messages for that IKE SA and its Child SAs MUST be sent over a TCP
connection until the SA is deleted or MOBIKE is used to change the SA connection until the SA is deleted or IKEv2 Mobility and Multihoming
endpoints and/or encapsulation protocol. See Section 8 for more (MOBIKE) is used to change the SA endpoints and/or the encapsulation
details on using MOBIKE to transition between encapsulation modes. protocol. See Section 8 for more details on using MOBIKE to
transition between encapsulation modes.
5.1. Recommended Fallback from UDP 5.1. Recommended Fallback from UDP
Since UDP is the preferred method of transport for IKE messages, Since UDP is the preferred method of transport for IKE messages,
implementations that use TCP encapsulation should have an algorithm implementations that use TCP encapsulation should have an algorithm
for deciding when to use TCP after determining that UDP is unusable. for deciding when to use TCP after determining that UDP is unusable.
If an Initiator implementation has no prior knowledge about the If an Initiator implementation has no prior knowledge about the
network it is on and the status of UDP on that network, it SHOULD network it is on and the status of UDP on that network, it SHOULD
always attempt negotiate IKE over UDP first. IKEv2 defines how to always attempt to negotiate IKE over UDP first. IKEv2 defines how to
use retransmission timers with IKE messages, and IKE_SA_INIT messages use retransmission timers with IKE messages and, specifically,
specifically [RFC7296]. Generally, this means that the IKE_SA_INIT messages [RFC7296]. Generally, this means that the
implementation will define a frequency of retransmission, and the implementation will define a frequency of retransmission and the
maximum number of retransmissions allowed before marking the IKE SA maximum number of retransmissions allowed before marking the IKE SA
as failed. An implementation can attempt negotiation over TCP once as failed. An implementation can attempt negotiation over TCP once
it has hit the maximum retransmissions over UDP, or slightly before it has hit the maximum retransmissions over UDP, or slightly before
to reduce connection setup delays. It is recommended that the to reduce connection setup delays. It is recommended that the
initial message over UDP is retransmitted at least once before initial message over UDP be retransmitted at least once before
falling back to TCP, unless the Initiator knows beforehand that the falling back to TCP, unless the Initiator knows beforehand that the
network is likely to block UDP. network is likely to block UDP.
6. Connection Establishment and Teardown 6. Connection Establishment and Teardown
When the IKE Initiator uses TCP encapsulation, it will initiate a TCP When the IKE Initiator uses TCP encapsulation, it will initiate a TCP
connection to the Responder using the configured TCP port. The first connection to the Responder using the configured TCP port. The first
bytes sent on the stream MUST be the stream prefix value [Section 4]. bytes sent on the stream MUST be the stream prefix value (Section 4).
After this prefix, encapsulated IKE messages will negotiate the IKE After this prefix, encapsulated IKE messages will negotiate the IKE
SA and initial Child SA [RFC7296]. After this point, both SA and initial Child SA [RFC7296]. After this point, both
encapsulated IKE Figure 1 and ESP Figure 2 messages will be sent over encapsulated IKE (Figure 1) and ESP (Figure 2) messages will be sent
the TCP connection. The TCP Responder MUST wait for the entire over the TCP connection. The TCP Responder MUST wait for the entire
stream prefix to be received on the stream before trying to parse out stream prefix to be received on the stream before trying to parse out
any IKE or ESP messages. The stream prefix is sent only once, and any IKE or ESP messages. The stream prefix is sent only once, and
only by the TCP Originator. only by the TCP Originator.
In order to close an IKE session, either the Initiator or Responder In order to close an IKE session, either the Initiator or Responder
SHOULD gracefully tear down IKE SAs with DELETE payloads. Once the SHOULD gracefully tear down IKE SAs with DELETE payloads. Once the
SA has been deleted, the TCP Originator SHOULD close the TCP SA has been deleted, the TCP Originator SHOULD close the TCP
connection if it does not intend to use the connection for another connection if it does not intend to use the connection for another
IKE session to the TCP Responder. If the connection is left idle, IKE session to the TCP Responder. If the connection is left idle and
and the TCP Responder needs to clean up resources, the TCP Responder the TCP Responder needs to clean up resources, the TCP Responder MAY
MAY close the TCP connection. close the TCP connection.
An unexpected FIN or a RST on the TCP connection may indicate either An unexpected FIN or a TCP Reset on the TCP connection may indicate a
a loss of connectivity, an attack, or some other error. If a DELETE loss of connectivity, an attack, or some other error. If a DELETE
payload has not been sent, both sides SHOULD maintain the state for payload has not been sent, both sides SHOULD maintain the state for
their SAs for the standard lifetime or time-out period. The TCP their SAs for the standard lifetime or timeout period. The TCP
Originator is responsible for re-establishing the TCP connection if Originator is responsible for re-establishing the TCP connection if
it is torn down for any unexpected reason. Since new TCP connections it is torn down for any unexpected reason. Since new TCP connections
may use different ports due to NAT mappings or local port allocations may use different ports due to NAT mappings or local port allocations
changing, the TCP Responder MUST allow packets for existing SAs to be changing, the TCP Responder MUST allow packets for existing SAs to be
received from new source ports. received from new source ports.
A peer MUST discard a partially received message due to a broken A peer MUST discard a partially received message due to a broken
connection. connection.
Whenever the TCP Originator opens a new TCP connection to be used for Whenever the TCP Originator opens a new TCP connection to be used for
an existing IKE SA, it MUST send the stream prefix first, before any an existing IKE SA, it MUST send the stream prefix first, before any
IKE or ESP messages. This follows the same behavior as the initial IKE or ESP messages. This follows the same behavior as the initial
TCP connection. TCP connection.
If a TCP connection is being used to resume a previous IKE session, If a TCP connection is being used to resume a previous IKE session,
the TCP Responder can recognize the session using either the IKE SPI the TCP Responder can recognize the session using either the IKE SPI
from an encapsulated IKE message or the ESP SPI from an encapsulated from an encapsulated IKE message or the ESP SPI from an encapsulated
ESP message. If the session had been fully established previously, ESP message. If the session had been fully established previously,
it is suggested that the TCP Originator send an UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES it is suggested that the TCP Originator send an UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES
message if MOBIKE is supported, or an INFORMATIONAL message (a message if MOBIKE is supported, or an informational message (a
keepalive) otherwise. keep-alive) otherwise.
The TCP Responder MUST NOT accept any messages for the existing IKE The TCP Responder MUST NOT accept any messages for the existing IKE
session on a new incoming connection unless that connection begins session on a new incoming connection, unless that connection begins
with the stream prefix. If either the TCP Originator or TCP with the stream prefix. If either the TCP Originator or TCP
Responder detects corruption on a connection that was started with a Responder detects corruption on a connection that was started with a
valid stream prefix, it SHOULD close the TCP connection. The valid stream prefix, it SHOULD close the TCP connection. The
connection can be determined as corrupted if there are too many connection can be determined to be corrupted if there are too many
subsequent messages that cannot be parsed as valid IKE messages or subsequent messages that cannot be parsed as valid IKE messages or
ESP messages with known SPIs, or if the authentication check for an ESP messages with known SPIs, or if the authentication check for an
ESP message with a known SPI fails. Implementations SHOULD NOT tear ESP message with a known SPI fails. Implementations SHOULD NOT
down a connection if only a single ESP message has an unknown SPI, tear down a connection if only a single ESP message has an unknown
since the SPI databases may be momentarily out of sync. If there is SPI, since the SPI databases may be momentarily out of sync. If
instead a syntax issue within an IKE message, an implementation MUST there is instead a syntax issue within an IKE message, an
send the INVALID_SYNTAX notify payload and tear down the IKE SA as implementation MUST send the INVALID_SYNTAX notify payload and
usual, rather than tearing down the TCP connection directly. tear down the IKE SA as usual, rather than tearing down the TCP
connection directly.
An TCP Originator SHOULD only open one TCP connection per IKE SA, A TCP Originator SHOULD only open one TCP connection per IKE SA, over
over which it sends all of the corresponding IKE and ESP messages. which it sends all of the corresponding IKE and ESP messages. This
This helps ensure that any firewall or NAT mappings allocated for the helps ensure that any firewall or NAT mappings allocated for the TCP
TCP connection apply to all of the traffic associated with the IKE SA connection apply to all of the traffic associated with the IKE SA
equally. equally.
Similarly, a TCP Responder SHOULD at any given time send packets for Similarly, a TCP Responder SHOULD at any given time send packets for
an IKE SA and its Child SAs over only one TCP connection. It SHOULD an IKE SA and its Child SAs over only one TCP connection. It SHOULD
choose the TCP connection on which it last received a valid and choose the TCP connection on which it last received a valid and
decryptable IKE or ESP message. In order to be considered valid for decryptable IKE or ESP message. In order to be considered valid for
choosing a TCP connection, an IKE message must be successfully choosing a TCP connection, an IKE message must be successfully
decrypted and authenticated, not be a retransmission of a previously decrypted and authenticated, not be a retransmission of a previously
received message, and be within the expected window for IKE message received message, and be within the expected window for IKE
IDs. Similarly, an ESP message must pass authentication checks and message IDs. Similarly, an ESP message must pass authentication
be decrypted, not be a replay of a previous message. checks and be decrypted, and must not be a replay of a previous
message.
Since a connection may be broken and a new connection re-established Since a connection may be broken and a new connection re-established
by the TCP Originator without the TCP Responder being aware, a TCP by the TCP Originator without the TCP Responder being aware, a TCP
Responder SHOULD accept receiving IKE and ESP messages on both old Responder SHOULD accept receiving IKE and ESP messages on both old
and new connections until the old connection is closed by the TCP and new connections until the old connection is closed by the TCP
Originator. A TCP Responder MAY close a TCP connection that it Originator. A TCP Responder MAY close a TCP connection that it
perceives as idle and extraneous (one previously used for IKE and ESP perceives as idle and extraneous (one previously used for IKE and ESP
messages that has been replaced by a new connection). messages that has been replaced by a new connection).
Multiple IKE SAs MUST NOT share a single TCP connection, unless one Multiple IKE SAs MUST NOT share a single TCP connection, unless one
skipping to change at page 10, line 31 skipping to change at page 11, line 17
temporarily be two IKE SAs on the same TCP connection. temporarily be two IKE SAs on the same TCP connection.
7. Interaction with NAT Detection Payloads 7. Interaction with NAT Detection Payloads
When negotiating over UDP port 500, IKE_SA_INIT packets include When negotiating over UDP port 500, IKE_SA_INIT packets include
NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP and NAT_DETECTION_DESTINATION_IP payloads to NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP and NAT_DETECTION_DESTINATION_IP payloads to
determine if UDP encapsulation of IPsec packets should be used. determine if UDP encapsulation of IPsec packets should be used.
These payloads contain SHA-1 digests of the SPIs, IP addresses, and These payloads contain SHA-1 digests of the SPIs, IP addresses, and
ports as defined in [RFC7296]. IKE_SA_INIT packets sent on a TCP ports as defined in [RFC7296]. IKE_SA_INIT packets sent on a TCP
connection SHOULD include these payloads with the same content as connection SHOULD include these payloads with the same content as
when sending over UDP, and SHOULD use the applicable TCP ports when when sending over UDP and SHOULD use the applicable TCP ports when
creating and checking the SHA-1 digests. creating and checking the SHA-1 digests.
If a NAT is detected due to the SHA-1 digests not matching the If a NAT is detected due to the SHA-1 digests not matching the
expected values, no change should be made for encapsulation of expected values, no change should be made for encapsulation of
subsequent IKE or ESP packets, since TCP encapsulation inherently subsequent IKE or ESP packets, since TCP encapsulation inherently
supports NAT traversal. Implementations MAY use the information that supports NAT traversal. Implementations MAY use the information that
a NAT is present to influence keep-alive timer values. a NAT is present to influence keep-alive timer values.
If a NAT is detected, implementations need to handle transport mode If a NAT is detected, implementations need to handle transport mode
TCP and UDP packet checksum fixup as defined for UDP encapsulation in TCP and UDP packet checksum fixup as defined for UDP encapsulation in
[RFC3948]. [RFC3948].
8. Using MOBIKE with TCP encapsulation 8. Using MOBIKE with TCP Encapsulation
When an IKE session that has negotiated MOBIKE [RFC4555] is When an IKE session that has negotiated MOBIKE [RFC4555] is
transitioning between networks, the Initiator of the transition may transitioning between networks, the Initiator of the transition may
switch between using TCP encapsulation, UDP encapsulation, or no switch between using TCP encapsulation, UDP encapsulation, or no
encapsulation. Implementations that implement both MOBIKE and TCP encapsulation. Implementations that implement both MOBIKE and TCP
encapsulation MUST support dynamically enabling and disabling TCP encapsulation MUST support dynamically enabling and disabling TCP
encapsulation as interfaces change. encapsulation as interfaces change.
When a MOBIKE-enabled Initiator changes networks, the When a MOBIKE-enabled Initiator changes networks, the
UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notification SHOULD be sent out first over UDP UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notification SHOULD be sent out first over UDP
before attempting over TCP. If there is a response to the before attempting over TCP. If there is a response to the
UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notification sent over UDP, then the ESP packets UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notification sent over UDP, then the ESP packets
should be sent directly over IP or over UDP port 4500 (depending on should be sent directly over IP or over UDP port 4500 (depending on
if a NAT was detected), regardless of if a connection on a previous if a NAT was detected), regardless of if a connection on a previous
network was using TCP encapsulation. Similarly, if the Responder network was using TCP encapsulation. Similarly, if the Responder
only responds to the UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notification over TCP, then only responds to the UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notification over TCP, then
the ESP packets should be sent over the TCP connection, regardless of the ESP packets should be sent over the TCP connection, regardless of
if a connection on a previous network did not use TCP encapsulation. if a connection on a previous network did not use TCP encapsulation.
9. Using IKE Message Fragmentation with TCP encapsulation 9. Using IKE Message Fragmentation with TCP Encapsulation
IKE Message Fragmentation [RFC7383] is not required when using TCP IKE message fragmentation [RFC7383] is not required when using TCP
encapsulation, since a TCP stream already handles the fragmentation encapsulation, since a TCP stream already handles the fragmentation
of its contents across packets. Since fragmentation is redundant in of its contents across packets. Since fragmentation is redundant in
this case, implementations might choose to not negotiate IKE this case, implementations might choose to not negotiate IKE
fragmentation. Even if fragmentation is negotiated, an fragmentation. Even if fragmentation is negotiated, an
implementation SHOULD NOT send fragments when going over a TCP implementation SHOULD NOT send fragments when going over a TCP
connection, although it MUST support receiving fragments. connection, although it MUST support receiving fragments.
If an implementation supports both MOBIKE and IKE fragmentation, it If an implementation supports both MOBIKE and IKE fragmentation, it
SHOULD negotiate IKE fragmentation over a TCP encapsulated session in SHOULD negotiate IKE fragmentation over a TCP-encapsulated session in
case the session switches to UDP encapsulation on another network. case the session switches to UDP encapsulation on another network.
10. Considerations for Keep-alives and DPD 10. Considerations for Keep-Alives and Dead Peer Detection
Encapsulating IKE and IPsec inside of a TCP connection can impact the Encapsulating IKE and IPsec inside of a TCP connection can impact the
strategy that implementations use to detect peer liveness and to strategy that implementations use to detect peer liveness and to
maintain middlebox port mappings. Peer liveness should be checked maintain middlebox port mappings. Peer liveness should be checked
using IKE Informational packets [RFC7296]. using IKE informational packets [RFC7296].
In general, TCP port mappings are maintained by NATs longer than UDP In general, TCP port mappings are maintained by NATs longer than UDP
port mappings, so IPsec ESP NAT keep-alives [RFC3948] SHOULD NOT be port mappings, so IPsec ESP NAT keep-alives [RFC3948] SHOULD NOT be
sent when using TCP encapsulation. Any implementation using TCP sent when using TCP encapsulation. Any implementation using TCP
encapsulation MUST silently drop incoming NAT keep-alive packets, and encapsulation MUST silently drop incoming NAT keep-alive packets
not treat them as errors. NAT keep-alive packets over a TCP and not treat them as errors. NAT keep-alive packets over a
encapsulated IPsec connection will be sent with a length value of 1 TCP-encapsulated IPsec connection will be sent as an ESP message with
byte, whose value is 0xFF Figure 2. a one-octet-long payload with the value 0xFF.
Note that depending on the configuration of TCP and TLS on the Note that, depending on the configuration of TCP and TLS on the
connection, TCP keep-alives [RFC1122] and TLS keep-alives [RFC6520] connection, TCP keep-alives [RFC1122] and TLS keep-alives [RFC6520]
may be used. These MUST NOT be used as indications of IKE peer may be used. These MUST NOT be used as indications of IKE peer
liveness. liveness.
11. Middlebox Considerations 11. Middlebox Considerations
Many security networking devices such as Firewalls or Intrusion Many security networking devices, such as firewalls or intrusion
Prevention Systems, network optimization/acceleration devices and prevention systems, network optimization/acceleration devices, and
Network Address Translation (NAT) devices keep the state of sessions NAT devices, keep the state of sessions that traverse through them.
that traverse through them.
These devices commonly track the transport layer and/or the These devices commonly track the transport-layer and/or application-
application layer data to drop traffic that is anomalous or malicious layer data to drop traffic that is anomalous or malicious in nature.
in nature. While many of these devices will be more likely to pass While many of these devices will be more likely to pass
TCP-encapsulated traffic as opposed to UDP-encapsulated traffic, some TCP-encapsulated traffic as opposed to UDP-encapsulated traffic, some
may still block or interfere with TCP-encapsulated IKE and IPsec. may still block or interfere with TCP-encapsulated IKE and IPsec
traffic.
A network device that monitors the transport layer will track the A network device that monitors the transport layer will track the
state of TCP sessions, such as TCP sequence numbers. TCP state of TCP sessions, such as TCP sequence numbers. TCP
encapsulation of IKE should therefore use standard TCP behaviors to encapsulation of IKE should therefore use standard TCP behaviors to
avoid being dropped by middleboxes. avoid being dropped by middleboxes.
12. Performance Considerations 12. Performance Considerations
Several aspects of TCP encapsulation for IKE and IPsec packets may Several aspects of TCP encapsulation for IKE and IPsec packets may
negatively impact the performance of connections within a tunnel-mode negatively impact the performance of connections within a tunnel-mode
IPsec SA. Implementations should be aware of these performance IPsec SA. Implementations should be aware of these performance
impacts and take these into consideration when determining when to impacts and take these into consideration when determining when to
use TCP encapsulation. Implementations SHOULD favor using direct ESP use TCP encapsulation. Implementations SHOULD favor using direct ESP
or UDP encapsulation over TCP encapsulation whenever possible. or UDP encapsulation over TCP encapsulation whenever possible.
12.1. TCP-in-TCP 12.1. TCP-in-TCP
If the outer connection between IKE peers is over TCP, inner TCP If the outer connection between IKE peers is over TCP, inner TCP
connections may suffer effects from using TCP within TCP. Running connections may suffer negative effects from using TCP within TCP.
TCP within TCP is discouraged, since the TCP algorithms generally Running TCP within TCP is discouraged, since the TCP algorithms
assume that they are running over an unreliable datagram layer. generally assume that they are running over an unreliable datagram
layer.
If the outer (tunnel) TCP connection experiences packet loss, this If the outer (tunnel) TCP connection experiences packet loss, this
loss will be hidden from any inner TCP connections, since the outer loss will be hidden from any inner TCP connections, since the outer
connection will retransmit to account for the losses. Since the connection will retransmit to account for the losses. Since the
outer TCP connection will deliver the inner messages in order, any outer TCP connection will deliver the inner messages in order, any
messages after a lost packet may have to wait until the loss is messages after a lost packet may have to wait until the loss is
recovered. This means that loss on the outer connection will be recovered. This means that loss on the outer connection will be
interpreted only as delay by inner connections. The burstiness of interpreted only as delay by inner connections. The burstiness of
inner traffic can increase, since a large number of inner packets may inner traffic can increase, since a large number of inner packets may
be delivered across the tunnel at once. The inner TCP connection may be delivered across the tunnel at once. The inner TCP connection may
skipping to change at page 13, line 14 skipping to change at page 14, line 7
The inner TCP connection's round-trip-time estimation will be The inner TCP connection's round-trip-time estimation will be
affected by the burstiness of the outer TCP connection if there are affected by the burstiness of the outer TCP connection if there are
long delays when packets are retransmitted by the outer TCP long delays when packets are retransmitted by the outer TCP
connection. This will make the congestion control loop of the inner connection. This will make the congestion control loop of the inner
TCP traffic less reactive, potentially permanently leading to a lower TCP traffic less reactive, potentially permanently leading to a lower
sending rate than the outer TCP would allow for. sending rate than the outer TCP would allow for.
TCP-in-TCP can also lead to increased buffering, or bufferbloat. TCP-in-TCP can also lead to increased buffering, or bufferbloat.
This can occur when the window size of the outer TCP connection is This can occur when the window size of the outer TCP connection is
reduced, and becomes smaller than the window sizes of the inner TCP reduced and becomes smaller than the window sizes of the inner TCP
connections. This can lead to packets backing up in the outer TCP connections. This can lead to packets backing up in the outer TCP
connection's send buffers. In order to limit this effect, the outer connection's send buffers. In order to limit this effect, the outer
TCP connection should have limits on its send buffer size, and on the TCP connection should have limits on its send buffer size and on the
rate at which it reduces its window size. rate at which it reduces its window size.
Note that any negative effects will be shared between all flows going Note that any negative effects will be shared between all flows going
through the outer TCP connection. This is of particular concern for through the outer TCP connection. This is of particular concern for
any latency-sensitive or real-time applications using the tunnel. If any latency-sensitive or real-time applications using the tunnel. If
such traffic is using a TCP encapsulated IPsec connection, it is such traffic is using a TCP-encapsulated IPsec connection, it is
recommended that the number of inner connections sharing the tunnel recommended that the number of inner connections sharing the tunnel
be limited as much as possible. be limited as much as possible.
12.2. Added Reliability for Unreliable Protocols 12.2. Added Reliability for Unreliable Protocols
Since ESP is an unreliable protocol, transmitting ESP packets over a Since ESP is an unreliable protocol, transmitting ESP packets over a
TCP connection will change the fundamental behavior of the packets. TCP connection will change the fundamental behavior of the packets.
Some application-level protocols that prefer packet loss to delay Some application-level protocols that prefer packet loss to delay
(such as Voice over IP or other real-time protocols) may be (such as Voice over IP or other real-time protocols) may be
negatively impacted if their packets are retransmitted by the TCP negatively impacted if their packets are retransmitted by the TCP
connection due to packet loss. connection due to packet loss.
12.3. Quality of Service Markings 12.3. Quality-of-Service Markings
Quality of Service (QoS) markings, such as DSCP and Traffic Class, Quality-of-Service (QoS) markings, such as the Differentiated
should be used with care on TCP connections used for encapsulation. Services Code Point (DSCP) and Traffic Class, should be used with
Individual packets SHOULD NOT use different markings than the rest of care on TCP connections used for encapsulation. Individual packets
the connection, since packets with different priorities may be routed SHOULD NOT use different markings than the rest of the connection,
differently and cause unnecessary delays in the connection. since packets with different priorities may be routed differently and
cause unnecessary delays in the connection.
12.4. Maximum Segment Size 12.4. Maximum Segment Size
A TCP connection used for IKE encapsulation SHOULD negotiate its A TCP connection used for IKE encapsulation SHOULD negotiate its MSS
maximum segment size (MSS) in order to avoid unnecessary in order to avoid unnecessary fragmentation of packets.
fragmentation of packets.
12.5. Tunnelling ECN in TCP 12.5. Tunneling ECN in TCP
Since there is not a one-to-one relationship between outer IP packets Since there is not a one-to-one relationship between outer IP packets
and inner ESP/IP messages when using TCP encapsulation, the markings and inner ESP/IP messages when using TCP encapsulation, the markings
for Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) [RFC3168] cannot be simply for Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) [RFC3168] cannot be simply
mapped. However, any ECN Congestion Experienced (CE) marking on mapped. However, any ECN Congestion Experienced (CE) marking on
inner messages should be preserved through the tunnel. inner headers should be preserved through the tunnel.
Implementations SHOULD follow the ECN compatibility mode as described Implementations SHOULD follow the ECN compatibility mode for tunnel
in [RFC6040]. In compatibility mode, the outer TCP connection SHOULD ingress as described in [RFC6040]. In compatibility mode, the outer
mark its packets as not ECN-capable, and MUST NOT clear any ECN tunnel TCP connection marks its packet headers as not ECN-capable.
markings on inner packets. Note that outer packets may be ECN marked If upon egress, the arriving outer header is marked with CE, the
even though the outer connection did not negotiate support for ECN. implementation will drop the inner packet, since there is not a
If an implementation receives such an outer packet, it MAY propagate distinct inner packet header onto which to translate the ECN
the markings as described in the Default Tunnel Egress Behaviour markings.
[RFC6040] for any inner packet contained within a single outer TCP
packet, or simply apply the rules as if the outer packet were Not-ECT
if the inner packet spans multiple outer packets.
13. Security Considerations 13. Security Considerations
IKE Responders that support TCP encapsulation may become vulnerable IKE Responders that support TCP encapsulation may become vulnerable
to new Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks that are specific to TCP, such to new Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks that are specific to TCP, such
as SYN-flooding attacks. TCP Responders should be aware of this as SYN-flooding attacks. TCP Responders should be aware of this
additional attack-surface. additional attack surface.
TCP Responders should be careful to ensure that the stream prefix TCP Responders should be careful to ensure that (1) the stream prefix
"IKETCP" uniquely identifies incoming streams as ones that use the "IKETCP" uniquely identifies incoming streams as streams that use the
TCP encapsulation protocol, and they are not running any other TCP encapsulation protocol and (2) they are not running any other
protocols on the same listening port that could conflict with this. protocols on the same listening port (to avoid potential conflicts).
Attackers may be able to disrupt the TCP connection by sending Attackers may be able to disrupt the TCP connection by sending
spurious RST packets. Due to this, implementations SHOULD make sure spurious TCP Reset packets. Therefore, implementations SHOULD make
that IKE session state persists even if the underlying TCP connection sure that IKE session state persists even if the underlying TCP
is torn down. connection is torn down.
If MOBIKE is being used, all of the security considerations outlined If MOBIKE is being used, all of the security considerations outlined
for MOBIKE apply [RFC4555]. for MOBIKE apply [RFC4555].
Similarly to MOBIKE, TCP encapsulation requires a TCP Responder to Similarly to MOBIKE, TCP encapsulation requires a TCP Responder to
handle changing of source address and port due to network or handle changes to source address and port due to network or
connection disruption. The successful delivery of valid IKE or ESP connection disruption. The successful delivery of valid IKE or ESP
messages over a new TCP connection is used by the TCP Responder to messages over a new TCP connection is used by the TCP Responder to
determine where to send subsequent responses. If an attacker is able determine where to send subsequent responses. If an attacker is able
to send packets on a new TCP connection that pass the validation to send packets on a new TCP connection that pass the validation
checks of the TCP Responder, it can influence which path future checks of the TCP Responder, it can influence which path future
packets take. For this reason, the validation of messages on the TCP packets will take. For this reason, the validation of messages on
Responder must include decryption, authentication, and replay checks. the TCP Responder must include decryption, authentication, and replay
checks.
Since TCP provides a reliable, in-order delivery of ESP messages, the Since TCP provides reliable, in-order delivery of ESP messages, the
ESP Anti-Replay Window size SHOULD be set to 1. See [RFC4303] for a ESP anti-replay window size SHOULD be set to 1. See [RFC4303] for a
complete description of the ESP Anti-Replay Window. This increases complete description of the ESP anti-replay window. This increases
the protection of implementations against replay attacks. the protection of implementations against replay attacks.
14. IANA Considerations 14. IANA Considerations
TCP port 4500 is already allocated to IPsec for NAT Traversal. This TCP port 4500 is already allocated to IPsec for NAT traversal. This
port SHOULD be used for TCP encapsulated IKE and ESP as described in port SHOULD be used for TCP-encapsulated IKE and ESP as described in
this document. this document.
This document updates the reference for TCP port 4500: This document updates the reference for TCP port 4500:
Keyword Decimal Description Reference Keyword Decimal Description Reference
------- ------- ----------- --------- ----------- -------- ------------------- ---------
ipsec-nat-t 4500/tcp IPsec NAT-Traversal [RFC-this-rfc] ipsec-nat-t 4500/tcp IPsec NAT-Traversal RFC 8229
Figure 4 Figure 4
15. Acknowledgments 15. References
The authors would like to acknowledge the input and advice of Stuart
Cheshire, Delziel Fernandes, Yoav Nir, Christoph Paasch, Yaron
Sheffer, David Schinazi, Graham Bartlett, Byju Pularikkal, March Wu,
Kingwel Xie, Valery Smyslov, Jun Hu, and Tero Kivinen. Special
thanks to Eric Kinnear for his implementation work.
16. References
16.1. Normative References 15.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3948] Huttunen, A., Swander, B., Volpe, V., DiBurro, L., and M. [RFC3948] Huttunen, A., Swander, B., Volpe, V., DiBurro, L., and M.
Stenberg, "UDP Encapsulation of IPsec ESP Packets", Stenberg, "UDP Encapsulation of IPsec ESP Packets",
RFC 3948, DOI 10.17487/RFC3948, January 2005, RFC 3948, DOI 10.17487/RFC3948, January 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3948>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3948>.
[RFC4303] Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)", [RFC4303] Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
RFC 4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005, RFC 4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4303>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4303>.
[RFC6040] Briscoe, B., "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion [RFC6040] Briscoe, B., "Tunnelling of Explicit Congestion
Notification", RFC 6040, DOI 10.17487/RFC6040, November Notification", RFC 6040, DOI 10.17487/RFC6040,
2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6040>. November 2010, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6040>.
[RFC7296] Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T. [RFC7296] Kaufman, C., Hoffman, P., Nir, Y., Eronen, P., and T.
Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 Kivinen, "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
(IKEv2)", STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296, October (IKEv2)", STD 79, RFC 7296, DOI 10.17487/RFC7296,
2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>. October 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7296>.
16.2. Informative References [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
May 2017, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.
[I-D.nir-ipsecme-ike-tcp] 15.2. Informative References
[IKE-over-TCP]
Nir, Y., "A TCP transport for the Internet Key Exchange", Nir, Y., "A TCP transport for the Internet Key Exchange",
draft-nir-ipsecme-ike-tcp-01 (work in progress), July Work in Progress, draft-ietf-ipsecme-ike-tcp-01,
2012. December 2012.
[RFC1122] Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - [RFC1122] Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122, Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122,
DOI 10.17487/RFC1122, October 1989, DOI 10.17487/RFC1122, October 1989,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1122>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1122>.
[RFC2817] Khare, R. and S. Lawrence, "Upgrading to TLS Within [RFC2817] Khare, R. and S. Lawrence, "Upgrading to TLS Within
HTTP/1.1", RFC 2817, DOI 10.17487/RFC2817, May 2000, HTTP/1.1", RFC 2817, DOI 10.17487/RFC2817, May 2000,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2817>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2817>.
skipping to change at page 17, line 5 skipping to change at page 18, line 5
Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security
(DTLS) Heartbeat Extension", RFC 6520, (DTLS) Heartbeat Extension", RFC 6520,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6520, February 2012, DOI 10.17487/RFC6520, February 2012,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6520>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6520>.
[RFC7383] Smyslov, V., "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2 [RFC7383] Smyslov, V., "Internet Key Exchange Protocol Version 2
(IKEv2) Message Fragmentation", RFC 7383, (IKEv2) Message Fragmentation", RFC 7383,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7383, November 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7383, November 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7383>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7383>.
Appendix A. Using TCP encapsulation with TLS Appendix A. Using TCP Encapsulation with TLS
This section provides recommendations on how to use TLS in addition This section provides recommendations on how to use TLS in addition
to TCP encapsulation. to TCP encapsulation.
When using TCP encapsulation, implementations may choose to use TLS When using TCP encapsulation, implementations may choose to use TLS
[RFC5246] on the TCP connection to be able to traverse middle-boxes, [RFC5246] on the TCP connection to be able to traverse middleboxes,
which may otherwise block the traffic. which may otherwise block the traffic.
If a web proxy is applied to the ports used for the TCP connection, If a web proxy is applied to the ports used for the TCP connection
and TLS is being used, the TCP Originator can send an HTTP CONNECT and TLS is being used, the TCP Originator can send an HTTP CONNECT
message to establish an SA through the proxy [RFC2817]. message to establish an SA through the proxy [RFC2817].
The use of TLS should be configurable on the peers, and may be used The use of TLS should be configurable on the peers, and may be used
as the default when using TCP encapsulation, or else be a fallback as the default when using TCP encapsulation or may be used as a
when basic TCP encapsulation fails. The TCP Responder may expect to fallback when basic TCP encapsulation fails. The TCP Responder may
read encapsulated IKE and ESP packets directly from the TCP expect to read encapsulated IKE and ESP packets directly from the TCP
connection, or it may expect to read them from a stream of TLS data connection, or it may expect to read them from a stream of TLS data
packets. The TCP Originator should be pre-configured to use TLS or packets. The TCP Originator should be pre-configured to use TLS
not when communicating with a given port on the TCP Responder. or not when communicating with a given port on the TCP Responder.
When new TCP connections are re-established due to a broken When new TCP connections are re-established due to a broken
connection, TLS must be re-negotiated. TLS Session Resumption is connection, TLS must be renegotiated. TLS session resumption is
recommended to improve efficiency in this case. recommended to improve efficiency in this case.
The security of the IKE session is entirely derived from the IKE The security of the IKE session is entirely derived from the IKE
negotiation and key establishment and not from the TLS session (which negotiation and key establishment and not from the TLS session (which
in this context is only used for encapsulation purposes), therefore in this context is only used for encapsulation purposes); therefore,
when TLS is used on the TCP connection, both the TCP Originator and when TLS is used on the TCP connection, both the TCP Originator and
TCP Responder SHOULD allow the NULL cipher to be selected for the TCP Responder SHOULD allow the NULL cipher to be selected for
performance reasons. performance reasons.
Implementations should be aware that the use of TLS introduces Implementations should be aware that the use of TLS introduces
another layer of overhead requiring more bytes to transmit a given another layer of overhead requiring more bytes to transmit a given
IKE and IPsec packet. For this reason, direct ESP, UDP IKE and IPsec packet. For this reason, direct ESP, UDP
encapsulation, or TCP encapsulation without TLS should be preferred encapsulation, or TCP encapsulation without TLS should be preferred
in situations in which TLS is not required in order to traverse in situations in which TLS is not required in order to traverse
middle-boxes. middleboxes.
Appendix B. Example exchanges of TCP Encapsulation with TLS Appendix B. Example Exchanges of TCP Encapsulation with TLS
B.1. Establishing an IKE session B.1. Establishing an IKE Session
Client Server Client Server
---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
1) -------------------- TCP Connection ------------------- 1) -------------------- TCP Connection -------------------
(IP_I:Port_I -> IP_R:Port_R) (IP_I:Port_I -> IP_R:Port_R)
TcpSyn ----------> TcpSyn ---------->
<---------- TcpSyn,Ack <---------- TcpSyn,Ack
TcpAck ----------> TcpAck ---------->
2) --------------------- TLS Session --------------------- 2) --------------------- TLS Session ---------------------
skipping to change at page 19, line 4 skipping to change at page 20, line 17
repeat 1..N times repeat 1..N times
<------ Length + Non-ESP Marker <------ Length + Non-ESP Marker
IKE_AUTH + EAP IKE_AUTH + EAP
Length + Non-ESP Marker ----------> Length + Non-ESP Marker ---------->
final IKE_AUTH final IKE_AUTH
HDR, SK {AUTH} HDR, SK {AUTH}
<------ Length + Non-ESP Marker <------ Length + Non-ESP Marker
final IKE_AUTH final IKE_AUTH
HDR, SK {AUTH, CP(CFG_REPLY), HDR, SK {AUTH, CP(CFG_REPLY),
SA, TSi, TSr, ...} SA, TSi, TSr, ...}
-------------- IKE and IPsec SAs Established ------------ -------------- IKE and IPsec SAs Established ------------
Length + ESP frame ----------> Length + ESP Frame ---------->
Figure 5 Figure 5
1. Client establishes a TCP connection with the server on port 1. The client establishes a TCP connection with the server on
4500, or an alternate pre-configured port that the server is port 4500 or on an alternate pre-configured port that the server
listening on. is listening on.
2. If configured to use TLS, the client initiates a TLS handshake. 2. If configured to use TLS, the client initiates a TLS handshake.
During the TLS handshake, the server SHOULD NOT request the During the TLS handshake, the server SHOULD NOT request the
client's certificate, since authentication is handled as part client's certificate, since authentication is handled as part of
of IKE negotiation. IKE negotiation.
3. Client send the Stream Prefix for TCP encapsulated IKE 3. The client sends the stream prefix for TCP-encapsulated IKE
Section 4 traffic to signal the beginning of IKE negotiation. (Section 4) traffic to signal the beginning of IKE negotiation.
4. Client and server establish an IKE connection. This example 4. The client and server establish an IKE connection. This example
shows EAP-based authentication, although any authentication shows EAP-based authentication, although any authentication type
type may be used. may be used.
B.2. Deleting an IKE session B.2. Deleting an IKE Session
Client Server Client Server
---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
1) ----------------------- IKE Session --------------------- 1) ----------------------- IKE Session ---------------------
Length + Non-ESP Marker ----------> Length + Non-ESP Marker ---------->
INFORMATIONAL INFORMATIONAL
HDR, SK {[N,] [D,] HDR, SK {[N,] [D,]
[CP,] ...} [CP,] ...}
<------ Length + Non-ESP Marker <------ Length + Non-ESP Marker
INFORMATIONAL INFORMATIONAL
skipping to change at page 19, line 48 skipping to change at page 21, line 27
[CP], ...} [CP], ...}
2) --------------------- TLS Session --------------------- 2) --------------------- TLS Session ---------------------
close_notify ----------> close_notify ---------->
<---------- close_notify <---------- close_notify
3) -------------------- TCP Connection ------------------- 3) -------------------- TCP Connection -------------------
TcpFin ----------> TcpFin ---------->
<---------- Ack <---------- Ack
<---------- TcpFin <---------- TcpFin
Ack ----------> Ack ---------->
--------------------- IKE SA Deleted ------------------- -------------------- IKE SA Deleted -------------------
Figure 6 Figure 6
1. Client and server exchange INFORMATIONAL messages to notify IKE 1. The client and server exchange informational messages to notify
SA deletion. IKE SA deletion.
2. Client and server negotiate TLS session deletion using TLS 2. The client and server negotiate TLS session deletion using TLS
CLOSE_NOTIFY. CLOSE_NOTIFY.
3. The TCP connection is torn down. 3. The TCP connection is torn down.
The deletion of the IKE SA should lead to the disposal of the The deletion of the IKE SA should lead to the disposal of the
underlying TLS and TCP state. underlying TLS and TCP state.
B.3. Re-establishing an IKE session B.3. Re-establishing an IKE Session
Client Server Client Server
---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
1) -------------------- TCP Connection ------------------- 1) -------------------- TCP Connection -------------------
(IP_I:Port_I -> IP_R:Port_R) (IP_I:Port_I -> IP_R:Port_R)
TcpSyn ----------> TcpSyn ---------->
<---------- TcpSyn,Ack <---------- TcpSyn,Ack
TcpAck ----------> TcpAck ---------->
2) --------------------- TLS Session --------------------- 2) --------------------- TLS Session ---------------------
ClientHello ----------> ClientHello ---------->
<---------- ServerHello <---------- ServerHello
[ChangeCipherSpec] [ChangeCipherSpec]
Finished Finished
[ChangeCipherSpec] ----------> [ChangeCipherSpec] ---------->
Finished Finished
3) ---------------------- Stream Prefix -------------------- 3) ---------------------- Stream Prefix --------------------
"IKETCP" ----------> "IKETCP" ---------->
4) <---------------------> IKE/ESP flow <------------------> 4) <---------------------> IKE/ESP Flow <------------------>
Length + ESP frame ----------> Length + ESP Frame ---------->
Figure 7 Figure 7
1. If a previous TCP connection was broken (for example, due to a 1. If a previous TCP connection was broken (for example, due to a
RST), the client is responsible for re-initiating the TCP TCP Reset), the client is responsible for re-initiating the TCP
connection. The TCP Originator's address and port (IP_I and connection. The TCP Originator's address and port (IP_I and
Port_I) may be different from the previous connection's address Port_I) may be different from the previous connection's address
and port. and port.
2. In ClientHello TLS message, the client SHOULD send the Session 2. In the ClientHello TLS message, the client SHOULD send the
ID it received in the previous TLS handshake if available. It session ID it received in the previous TLS handshake if
is up to the server to perform either an abbreviated handshake available. It is up to the server to perform either an
or full handshake based on the session ID match. abbreviated handshake or a full handshake based on the session ID
match.
3. After TCP and TLS are complete, the client sends the Stream 3. After TCP and TLS are complete, the client sends the stream
Prefix for TCP encapsulated IKE traffic Section 4. prefix for TCP-encapsulated IKE traffic (Section 4).
4. The IKE and ESP packet flow can resume. If MOBIKE is being 4. The IKE and ESP packet flow can resume. If MOBIKE is being used,
used, the Initiator SHOULD send UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES. the Initiator SHOULD send an UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES message.
B.4. Using MOBIKE between UDP and TCP Encapsulation B.4. Using MOBIKE between UDP and TCP Encapsulation
Client Server Client Server
---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
(IP_I1:UDP500 -> IP_R:UDP500) (IP_I1:UDP500 -> IP_R:UDP500)
1) ----------------- IKE_SA_INIT Exchange ----------------- 1) ----------------- IKE_SA_INIT Exchange -----------------
(IP_I1:UDP4500 -> IP_R:UDP4500) (IP_I1:UDP4500 -> IP_R:UDP4500)
Non-ESP Marker -----------> Non-ESP Marker ----------->
Initial IKE_AUTH Initial IKE_AUTH
HDR, SK { IDi, CERT, AUTH, HDR, SK { IDi, CERT, AUTH,
CP(CFG_REQUEST), CP(CFG_REQUEST),
SAi2, TSi, TSr, SAi2, TSi, TSr,
N(MOBIKE_SUPPORTED) } N(MOBIKE_SUPPORTED) }
<----------- Non-ESP Marker <----------- Non-ESP Marker
Initial IKE_AUTH Initial IKE_AUTH
HDR, SK { IDr, CERT, AUTH, HDR, SK { IDr, CERT, AUTH,
EAP, SAr2, TSi, TSr, EAP, SAr2, TSi, TSr,
N(MOBIKE_SUPPORTED) } N(MOBIKE_SUPPORTED) }
<------------------ IKE SA establishment ---------------> <------------------ IKE SA Establishment --------------->
2) ------------ MOBIKE Attempt on new network -------------- 2) ------------ MOBIKE Attempt on New Network --------------
(IP_I2:UDP4500 -> IP_R:UDP4500) (IP_I2:UDP4500 -> IP_R:UDP4500)
Non-ESP Marker -----------> Non-ESP Marker ----------->
INFORMATIONAL INFORMATIONAL
HDR, SK { N(UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES), HDR, SK { N(UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES),
N(NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP), N(NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP),
N(NAT_DETECTION_DESTINATION_IP) } N(NAT_DETECTION_DESTINATION_IP) }
3) -------------------- TCP Connection ------------------- 3) -------------------- TCP Connection -------------------
(IP_I2:Port_I -> IP_R:Port_R) (IP_I2:Port_I -> IP_R:Port_R)
TcpSyn -----------> TcpSyn ----------->
skipping to change at page 22, line 24 skipping to change at page 24, line 18
6) ----------------------- IKE Session --------------------- 6) ----------------------- IKE Session ---------------------
Length + Non-ESP Marker -----------> Length + Non-ESP Marker ----------->
INFORMATIONAL (Same as step 2) INFORMATIONAL (Same as step 2)
HDR, SK { N(UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES), HDR, SK { N(UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES),
N(NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP), N(NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP),
N(NAT_DETECTION_DESTINATION_IP) } N(NAT_DETECTION_DESTINATION_IP) }
<------- Length + Non-ESP Marker <------- Length + Non-ESP Marker
HDR, SK { N(NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP), HDR, SK { N(NAT_DETECTION_SOURCE_IP),
N(NAT_DETECTION_DESTINATION_IP) } N(NAT_DETECTION_DESTINATION_IP) }
7) <----------------- IKE/ESP data flow -------------------> 7) <----------------- IKE/ESP Data Flow ------------------->
Figure 8 Figure 8
1. During the IKE_SA_INIT exchange, the client and server exchange 1. During the IKE_SA_INIT exchange, the client and server exchange
MOBIKE_SUPPORTED notify payloads to indicate support for MOBIKE_SUPPORTED notify payloads to indicate support for MOBIKE.
MOBIKE.
2. The client changes its point of attachment to the network, and 2. The client changes its point of attachment to the network and
receives a new IP address. The client attempts to re-establish receives a new IP address. The client attempts to re-establish
the IKE session using the UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notify payload, the IKE session using the UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notify payload, but
but the server does not respond because the network blocks UDP the server does not respond because the network blocks UDP
traffic. traffic.
3. The client brings up a TCP connection to the server in order to 3. The client brings up a TCP connection to the server in order to
use TCP encapsulation. use TCP encapsulation.
4. The client initiates and TLS handshake with the server. 4. The client initiates a TLS handshake with the server.
5. The client sends the Stream Prefix for TCP encapsulated IKE 5. The client sends the stream prefix for TCP-encapsulated IKE
traffic Section 4. traffic (Section 4).
6. The client sends the UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notify payload on the 6. The client sends the UPDATE_SA_ADDRESSES notify payload on the
TCP encapsulated connection. Note that this IKE message is the TCP-encapsulated connection. Note that this IKE message is the
same as the one sent over UDP in step 2, and should have the same as the one sent over UDP in step 2; it should have the same
same message ID and contents. message ID and contents.
7. The IKE and ESP packet flow can resume. 7. The IKE and ESP packet flow can resume.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to acknowledge the input and advice of Stuart
Cheshire, Delziel Fernandes, Yoav Nir, Christoph Paasch, Yaron
Sheffer, David Schinazi, Graham Bartlett, Byju Pularikkal, March Wu,
Kingwel Xie, Valery Smyslov, Jun Hu, and Tero Kivinen. Special
thanks to Eric Kinnear for his implementation work.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Tommy Pauly Tommy Pauly
Apple Inc. Apple Inc.
1 Infinite Loop 1 Infinite Loop
Cupertino, California 95014 Cupertino, California 95014
US United States of America
Email: tpauly@apple.com Email: tpauly@apple.com
Samy Touati Samy Touati
Ericsson Ericsson
2755 Augustine 2755 Augustine
Santa Clara, California 95054 Santa Clara, California 95054
US United States of America
Email: samy.touati@ericsson.com Email: samy.touati@ericsson.com
Ravi Mantha Ravi Mantha
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
SEZ, Embassy Tech Village SEZ, Embassy Tech Village
Panathur, Bangalore 560 037 Panathur, Bangalore 560 037
India India
Email: ramantha@cisco.com Email: ramantha@cisco.com
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