draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-00.txt   draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-01.txt 
Internationalized Resource M. Duerst Internationalized Resource M. Duerst
Identifiers (iri) Aoyama Gakuin University Identifiers (iri) Aoyama Gakuin University
Internet-Draft M. Suignard Internet-Draft M. Suignard
Obsoletes: RFC 3987 Unicode Consortium Obsoletes: RFC 3987 Unicode Consortium
(if approved) L. Masinter (if approved) L. Masinter
Intended status: Standards Track Adobe Intended status: Standards Track Adobe
Expires: August 2, 2010 January 29, 2010 Expires: January 27, 2011 July 26, 2010
Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs) Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)
draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-00 draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-01
Abstract Abstract
This document defines the Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) This document defines the Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI)
protocol element, as an extension of the Uniform Resource Identifier protocol element, as an extension of the Uniform Resource Identifier
(URI). An IRI is a sequence of characters from the Universal (URI). An IRI is a sequence of characters from the Universal
Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646). Grammar and processing rules are Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646). Grammar and processing rules are
given for IRIs and related syntactic forms. given for IRIs and related syntactic forms.
In addition, this document provides named additional rule sets for In addition, this document provides named additional rule sets for
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and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt. http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html. http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 2, 2010. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 27, 2011.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
than English. than English.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1. Overview and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Overview and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.2. Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4. Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.4. Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. IRI Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. IRI Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1. Summary of IRI Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1. Summary of IRI Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2. ABNF for IRI References and IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2. ABNF for IRI References and IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3. Processing IRIs and related protocol elements . . . . . . . . 13 3. Processing IRIs and related protocol elements . . . . . . . . 13
3.1. Converting to UCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.1. Converting to UCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.2. Parse the IRI into IRI components . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2. Parse the IRI into IRI components . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3. General percent-encoding of IRI components . . . . . . . . 15 3.3. General percent-encoding of IRI components . . . . . . . 15
3.4. Mapping ireg-name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.4. Mapping ireg-name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.5. Mapping query components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.5. Mapping query components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.6. Mapping IRIs to URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.6. Mapping IRIs to URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.7. Converting URIs to IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.7. Converting URIs to IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.7.1. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.7.1. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4. Bidirectional IRIs for Right-to-Left Languages . . . . . . . . 20 4. Bidirectional IRIs for Right-to-Left Languages . . . . . . . . 20
4.1. Logical Storage and Visual Presentation . . . . . . . . . 21 4.1. Logical Storage and Visual Presentation . . . . . . . . . 21
4.2. Bidi IRI Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.2. Bidi IRI Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.3. Input of Bidi IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3. Input of Bidi IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.4. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.4. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5. Normalization and Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5. Normalization and Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.1. Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.1. Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2. Preparation for Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.2. Preparation for Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.3. Comparison Ladder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.3. Comparison Ladder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.3.1. Simple String Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.3.1. Simple String Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.3.2. Syntax-Based Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.3.2. Syntax-Based Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.3.3. Scheme-Based Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.3.3. Scheme-Based Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3.4. Protocol-Based Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 5.3.4. Protocol-Based Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6. Use of IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6. Use of IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.1. Limitations on UCS Characters Allowed in IRIs . . . . . . 33 6.1. Limitations on UCS Characters Allowed in IRIs . . . . . . 33
6.2. Software Interfaces and Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.2. Software Interfaces and Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.3. Format of URIs and IRIs in Documents and Protocols . . . . 33 6.3. Format of URIs and IRIs in Documents and Protocols . . . 33
6.4. Use of UTF-8 for Encoding Original Characters . . . . . . 34 6.4. Use of UTF-8 for Encoding Original Characters . . . . . . 34
6.5. Relative IRI References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6.5. Relative IRI References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7. Liberal handling of otherwise invalid IRIs . . . . . . . . . . 36 7. Liberal handling of otherwise invalid IRIs . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.1. LEIRI processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.1. LEIRI processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.2. Web Address processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7.2. Web Address processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.3. Characters not allowed in IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 7.3. Characters not allowed in IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8. URI/IRI Processing Guidelines (Informative) . . . . . . . . . 40 8. URI/IRI Processing Guidelines (Informative) . . . . . . . . . 40
8.1. URI/IRI Software Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8.1. URI/IRI Software Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.2. URI/IRI Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.2. URI/IRI Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.3. URI/IRI Transfer between Applications . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.3. URI/IRI Transfer between Applications . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.4. URI/IRI Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.4. URI/IRI Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.5. URI/IRI Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8.5. URI/IRI Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.6. Display of URIs/IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8.6. Display of URIs/IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.7. Interpretation of URIs and IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 8.7. Interpretation of URIs and IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
8.8. Upgrading Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 8.8. Upgrading Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 11. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
12. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 12. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
13. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 13. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13.1. Changes from draft-duerst-iri-bis-07 to 13.1. Changes from draft-duerst-iri-bis-07 to
draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13.2. Changes from -06 to -07 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 50 13.2. Changes from -06 to -07 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 50
13.2.1. OLD WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 13.2.1. OLD WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13.2.2. NEW WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 13.2.2. NEW WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
13.3. Changes from -05 to -06 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 51 13.3. Changes from -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
13.4. Changes from -04 to -05 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 51 13.4. Changes from -05 to -06 of draft-duerst-iri-bis-00 . . . 51
13.5. Changes from -03 to -04 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 51 13.5. Changes from -04 to -05 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 51
13.6. Changes from -02 to -03 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 52 13.6. Changes from -03 to -04 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 52
13.7. Changes from -01 to -02 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 52 13.7. Changes from -02 to -03 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 52
13.8. Changes from -00 to -01 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 52 13.8. Changes from -01 to -02 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 52
13.9. Changes from RFC 3987 to -00 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . 52 13.9. Changes from -00 to -01 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 52
13.10. Changes from RFC 3987 to -00 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . 52
14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Appendix A. Design Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Appendix A. Design Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
A.1. New Scheme(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 A.1. New Scheme(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
A.2. Character Encodings Other Than UTF-8 . . . . . . . . . . . 56 A.2. Character Encodings Other Than UTF-8 . . . . . . . . . . 56
A.3. New Encoding Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 A.3. New Encoding Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
A.4. Indicating Character Encodings in the URI/IRI . . . . . . 57 A.4. Indicating Character Encodings in the URI/IRI . . . . . . 57
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1. Overview and Motivation 1.1. Overview and Motivation
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is defined in [RFC3986] as a A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is defined in [RFC3986] as a
sequence of characters chosen from a limited subset of the repertoire sequence of characters chosen from a limited subset of the repertoire
of US-ASCII [ASCII] characters. of US-ASCII [ASCII] characters.
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(e.g., UTF-16), then use UTF-8 instead. (e.g., UTF-16), then use UTF-8 instead.
The syntax for Web Addresses is obtained by replacing the 'ucschar', The syntax for Web Addresses is obtained by replacing the 'ucschar',
pct-form, and path-sep rules with the href-ucschar, href-pct-form, pct-form, and path-sep rules with the href-ucschar, href-pct-form,
and href-path-sep rules below. In addition, some characters are and href-path-sep rules below. In addition, some characters are
stripped. stripped.
href-ucschar = " " / "<" / ">" / '"' / "{" / "}" / "|" href-ucschar = " " / "<" / ">" / '"' / "{" / "}" / "|"
/ "\" / "^" / "`" / %x0-1F / %x7F-D7FF / "\" / "^" / "`" / %x0-1F / %x7F-D7FF
/ %xE000-FFFD / %x10000-10FFFF / %xE000-FFFD / %x10000-10FFFF
href-pct-form = pct-encoded | "%" href-pct-form = pct-encoded / "%"
href-path-sep = "/" | "\" href-path-sep = "/" / "\"
href-strip = href-strip = <to be done>
(NOTE: NEED TO FIX THESE SETS TO MATCH HTML5; NOT SURE ABOUT NEXT (NOTE: NEED TO FIX THESE SETS TO MATCH HTML5; NOT SURE ABOUT NEXT
SENTENCE) browsers did not enforce the restriction on bidirectional SENTENCE) browsers did not enforce the restriction on bidirectional
formatting characters in Section 4.1, and the iprivate production formatting characters in Section 4.1, and the iprivate production
becomes redundant. becomes redundant.
'Web Address processing' requires the following additional 'Web Address processing' requires the following additional
preprocessing steps: preprocessing steps:
1. Leading and trailing instances of space (U+0020), CR (U+000A), LF 1. Leading and trailing instances of space (U+0020), CR (U+000A), LF
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1. Parse the IRI into IRI components using the generic syntax. (a) 1. Parse the IRI into IRI components using the generic syntax. (a)
if you want IRI components, stop here. if you want IRI components, stop here.
2. Encode each components, using pct-encoding, IDN encoding, or 2. Encode each components, using pct-encoding, IDN encoding, or
special query part encoding depending on the component scheme or special query part encoding depending on the component scheme or
context. (b) If you want URI components, stop here. context. (b) If you want URI components, stop here.
3. reassemble the a whole URI from URI components. (c) if you want a 3. reassemble the a whole URI from URI components. (c) if you want a
whole URI stop here. whole URI stop here.
13.3. Changes from -05 to -06 of draft-duerst-iri-bis 13.3. Changes from -00 to -01
o Removed 'mailto:' before mail addresses of authors.
o Added "<to be done>" as right side of 'href-strip' rule. Fixed
'|' to '/' for alternatives.
13.4. Changes from -05 to -06 of draft-duerst-iri-bis-00
o Add HyperText Reference, change abstract, acks and references for o Add HyperText Reference, change abstract, acks and references for
it it
o Add Masinter back as another editor. o Add Masinter back as another editor.
o Masinter integrates HRef material from HTML5 spec. o Masinter integrates HRef material from HTML5 spec.
o Rewrite introduction sections to modernize. o Rewrite introduction sections to modernize.
13.4. Changes from -04 to -05 of draft-duerst-iri-bis 13.5. Changes from -04 to -05 of draft-duerst-iri-bis
o Updated references. o Updated references.
o Changed IPR text to pre5378Trust200902. o Changed IPR text to pre5378Trust200902.
13.5. Changes from -03 to -04 of draft-duerst-iri-bis 13.6. Changes from -03 to -04 of draft-duerst-iri-bis
o Added explicit abbreviation for LEIRIs. o Added explicit abbreviation for LEIRIs.
o Mentioned LEIRI references. o Mentioned LEIRI references.
o Completed text in LEIRI section about tag characters and about o Completed text in LEIRI section about tag characters and about
specials. specials.
13.6. Changes from -02 to -03 of draft-duerst-iri-bis 13.7. Changes from -02 to -03 of draft-duerst-iri-bis
o Updated some references. o Updated some references.
o Updated Michel Suginard's coordinates. o Updated Michel Suginard's coordinates.
13.7. Changes from -01 to -02 of draft-duerst-iri-bis 13.8. Changes from -01 to -02 of draft-duerst-iri-bis
o Added tag range to iprivate (issue private-include-tags-115). o Added tag range to iprivate (issue private-include-tags-115).
o Added Specials (U+FFF0-FFFD) to Legacy Extended IRIs. o Added Specials (U+FFF0-FFFD) to Legacy Extended IRIs.
13.8. Changes from -00 to -01 of draft-duerst-iri-bis 13.9. Changes from -00 to -01 of draft-duerst-iri-bis
o Changed from "IRIs with Spaces/Controls" to "Legacy Extended IRI" o Changed from "IRIs with Spaces/Controls" to "Legacy Extended IRI"
based on input from the W3C XML Core WG. Moved the relevant based on input from the W3C XML Core WG. Moved the relevant
subsections to the back and promoted them to a section. subsections to the back and promoted them to a section.
o Added some text re. Legacy Extended IRIs to the security section. o Added some text re. Legacy Extended IRIs to the security section.
o Added a IANA Consideration Section. o Added a IANA Consideration Section.
o Added this Change Log Section. o Added this Change Log Section.
o Added a section about "IRIs with Spaces/Controls" (converting from o Added a section about "IRIs with Spaces/Controls" (converting from
a Note in RFC 3987). a Note in RFC 3987).
13.9. Changes from RFC 3987 to -00 of draft-duerst-iri-bis 13.10. Changes from RFC 3987 to -00 of draft-duerst-iri-bis
Fixed errata (see Fixed errata (see
http://www.rfc-editor.org/cgi-bin/errataSearch.pl?rfc=3987). http://www.rfc-editor.org/cgi-bin/errataSearch.pl?rfc=3987).
14. References 14. References
14.1. Normative References 14.1. Normative References
[ASCII] American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character [ASCII] American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character
Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
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If UTF-8 is used exclusively, an upgrade to the URI syntax is not If UTF-8 is used exclusively, an upgrade to the URI syntax is not
needed. It avoids potentially multiple labels that have to be copied needed. It avoids potentially multiple labels that have to be copied
correctly in all cases, even on the side of a bus or on a napkin, correctly in all cases, even on the side of a bus or on a napkin,
leading to usability problems (and being prohibitively annoying). leading to usability problems (and being prohibitively annoying).
Exclusively using UTF-8 also reduces transcoding errors and Exclusively using UTF-8 also reduces transcoding errors and
confusion. confusion.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Martin Duerst (Note: Please write "Duerst" with u-umlaut wherever Martin Duerst (Note: Please write "Duerst" with u-umlaut wherever
possible, for example as "D&amp;#252;rst" in XML and HTML.) possible, for example as "D&#252;rst" in XML and HTML')
Aoyama Gakuin University Aoyama Gakuin University
5-10-1 Fuchinobe 5-10-1 Fuchinobe
Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558
Japan Japan
Phone: +81 42 759 6329 Phone: +81 42 759 6329
Fax: +81 42 759 6495 Fax: +81 42 759 6495
Email: mailto:duerst@it.aoyama.ac.jp Email: duerst@it.aoyama.ac.jp
URI: http://www.sw.it.aoyama.ac.jp/D%C3%BCrst/ URI: http://www.sw.it.aoyama.ac.jp/D%C3%BCrst/
(Note: This is the percent-encoded form of an IRI.) (Note: This is the percent-encoded form of an IRI)
Michel Suignard Michel Suignard
Unicode Consortium Unicode Consortium
P.O. Box 391476 P.O. Box 391476
Mountain View, CA 94039-1476 Mountain View, CA 94039-1476
U.S.A. U.S.A.
Phone: +1-650-693-3921 Phone: +1-650-693-3921
Email: mailto:michel@unicode.org Email: michel@unicode.org
URI: http://www.suignard.com URI: http://www.suignard.com
Larry Masinter Larry Masinter
Adobe Adobe
345 Park Ave 345 Park Ave
San Jose, CA 95110 San Jose, CA 95110
U.S.A. U.S.A.
Phone: +1-408-536-3024 Phone: +1-408-536-3024
Email: mailto:masinter@adobe.com Email: masinter@adobe.com
URI: http://larry.masinter.net URI: http://larry.masinter.net
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