draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-07.txt   draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-08.txt 
Internationalized Resource Identifiers M. Duerst Internationalized Resource M. Duerst
(iri) Aoyama Gakuin University Identifiers (iri) Aoyama Gakuin University
Internet-Draft M. Suignard Internet-Draft M. Suignard
Obsoletes: 3987 (if approved) Unicode Consortium Obsoletes: 3987 (if approved) Unicode Consortium
Intended status: Standards Track L. Masinter Intended status: Standards Track L. Masinter
Expires: February 15, 2012 Adobe Expires: April 24, 2012 Adobe
August 14, 2011 October 22, 2011
Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs) Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)
draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-07 draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-08
Abstract Abstract
This document defines the Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) This document defines the Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI)
protocol element, as an extension of the Uniform Resource Identifier protocol element, as an extension of the Uniform Resource Identifier
(URI). An IRI is a sequence of characters from the Universal (URI). An IRI is a sequence of characters from the Universal
Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646). Grammar and processing rules are Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646). Grammar and processing rules are
given for IRIs and related syntactic forms. given for IRIs and related syntactic forms.
In addition, this document provides named additional rule sets for In addition, this document provides named additional rule sets for
skipping to change at page 2, line 4 skipping to change at page 2, line 4
3987, and also move towards IETF Draft Standard. For discussion and 3987, and also move towards IETF Draft Standard. For discussion and
comments on these drafts, please join the IETF IRI WG by subscribing comments on these drafts, please join the IETF IRI WG by subscribing
to the mailing list public-iri@w3.org, archives at to the mailing list public-iri@w3.org, archives at
http://lists.w3.org/archives/public/public-iri/. For a list of open http://lists.w3.org/archives/public/public-iri/. For a list of open
issues, please see the issue tracker of the WG at issues, please see the issue tracker of the WG at
http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/iri/trac/report/1. For a list of http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/iri/trac/report/1. For a list of
individual edits, please see the change history at individual edits, please see the change history at
http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/iri/trac/log/draft-ietf-iri-3987bis. http://trac.tools.ietf.org/wg/iri/trac/log/draft-ietf-iri-3987bis.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on February 15, 2012. The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt.
The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html.
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 24, 2012.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the BSD License.
This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
Contributions published or made publicly available before November Contributions published or made publicly available before November
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modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
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skipping to change at page 3, line 35 skipping to change at page 3, line 35
3.7. Converting URIs to IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.7. Converting URIs to IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.7.1. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.7.1. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4. Use of IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4. Use of IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.1. Limitations on UCS Characters Allowed in IRIs . . . . . . 19 4.1. Limitations on UCS Characters Allowed in IRIs . . . . . . 19
4.2. Software Interfaces and Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.2. Software Interfaces and Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.3. Format of URIs and IRIs in Documents and Protocols . . . 20 4.3. Format of URIs and IRIs in Documents and Protocols . . . 20
4.4. Use of UTF-8 for Encoding Original Characters . . . . . . 20 4.4. Use of UTF-8 for Encoding Original Characters . . . . . . 20
4.5. Relative IRI References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.5. Relative IRI References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5. Liberal Handling of Otherwise Invalid IRIs . . . . . . . . . . 22 5. Liberal Handling of Otherwise Invalid IRIs . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.1. LEIRI Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.1. LEIRI Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6. Characters Not Allowed in IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6. Characters Disallowed or Not Recommended in IRIs . . . . . . . 23
7. URI/IRI Processing Guidelines (Informative) . . . . . . . . . 25 7. URI/IRI Processing Guidelines (Informative) . . . . . . . . . 25
7.1. URI/IRI Software Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 7.1. URI/IRI Software Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.2. URI/IRI Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 7.2. URI/IRI Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.3. URI/IRI Transfer between Applications . . . . . . . . . . 26 7.3. URI/IRI Transfer between Applications . . . . . . . . . . 26
7.4. URI/IRI Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.4. URI/IRI Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7.5. URI/IRI Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 7.5. URI/IRI Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7.6. Display of URIs/IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.6. Display of URIs/IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.7. Interpretation of URIs and IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7.7. Interpretation of URIs and IRIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
7.8. Upgrading Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.8. Upgrading Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 10. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
11. Main Changes Since RFC 3987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 11. Main Changes Since RFC 3987 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
11.1. Split out Bidi, processing guidelines, comparison 11.1. Split out Bidi, processing guidelines, comparison
sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
11.2. Major restructuring of IRI processing model . . . . . . . 32 11.2. Major restructuring of IRI processing model . . . . . . . 32
11.2.1. OLD WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 11.2.1. OLD WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
11.2.2. NEW WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 11.2.2. NEW WAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
11.2.3. Extension of Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 11.2.3. Extension of Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
11.2.4. More to be added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 11.2.4. More to be added . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
11.3. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 11.3. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
11.3.1. Changes after draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-01 . . . . . . . 33 11.3.1. Changes after draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-01 . . . . . . . 33
11.3.2. Changes from draft-duerst-iri-bis-07 to 11.3.2. Changes from draft-duerst-iri-bis-07 to
draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 draft-ietf-iri-3987bis-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
11.3.3. Changes from -06 to -07 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . 33 11.3.3. Changes from -06 to -07 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . 33
11.4. Changes from -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 11.4. Changes from -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
11.5. Changes from -05 to -06 of draft-duerst-iri-bis-00 . . . 34 11.5. Changes from -05 to -06 of draft-duerst-iri-bis-00 . . . 34
11.6. Changes from -04 to -05 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 34 11.6. Changes from -04 to -05 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 34
11.7. Changes from -03 to -04 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 34 11.7. Changes from -03 to -04 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 34
11.8. Changes from -02 to -03 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 34 11.8. Changes from -02 to -03 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 34
11.9. Changes from -01 to -02 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 34 11.9. Changes from -01 to -02 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 34
11.10. Changes from -00 to -01 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 34 11.10. Changes from -00 to -01 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . . . . 35
11.11. Changes from RFC 3987 to -00 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . 35 11.11. Changes from RFC 3987 to -00 of draft-duerst-iri-bis . . 35
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
1.1. Overview and Motivation 1.1. Overview and Motivation
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is defined in [RFC3986] as a A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is defined in [RFC3986] as a
sequence of characters chosen from a limited subset of the repertoire sequence of characters chosen from a limited subset of the repertoire
of US-ASCII [ASCII] characters. of US-ASCII [ASCII] characters.
The characters in URIs are frequently used for representing words of The characters in URIs are frequently used for representing words of
skipping to change at page 14, line 52 skipping to change at page 14, line 52
"http://r%C3%A9sum%C3%A9.example.org". "http://r%C3%A9sum%C3%A9.example.org".
This conversion for ireg-name is in line with Section 3.2.2 of This conversion for ireg-name is in line with Section 3.2.2 of
[RFC3986], which does not mandate a particular registered name lookup [RFC3986], which does not mandate a particular registered name lookup
technology. For further background, see [RFC6055] and [Gettys]. technology. For further background, see [RFC6055] and [Gettys].
3.4.2. Mapping using Punycode 3.4.2. Mapping using Punycode
The ireg-name component MAY also be converted as follows: The ireg-name component MAY also be converted as follows:
If there are any sequences of <pct-encoded>, and their corresponding
octets all represent valid UTF-8 octet sequences, then convert these
back to Unicode character sequences. (If any <pct-encoded> sequences
are not valid UTF-8 octet sequences, then leave the entire field as
is without any change, since punycode encoding would not succeed.)
Replace the ireg-name part of the IRI by the part converted using the Replace the ireg-name part of the IRI by the part converted using the
Domain Name Lookup procedure (Subsections 5.3 to 5.5) of [RFC5891]. Domain Name Lookup procedure (Subsections 5.3 to 5.5) of [RFC5891].
on each dot-separated label, and by using U+002E (FULL STOP) as a on each dot-separated label, and by using U+002E (FULL STOP) as a
label separator. This procedure may fail, but this would mean that label separator. This procedure may fail, but this would mean that
the IRI cannot be resolved. In such cases, if the domain name the IRI cannot be resolved. In such cases, if the domain name
conversion fails, then the entire IRI conversion fails. Processors conversion fails, then the entire IRI conversion fails. Processors
that have no mechanism for signalling a failure MAY instead that have no mechanism for signalling a failure MAY instead
substitute an otherwise invalid host name, although such processing substitute an otherwise invalid host name, although such processing
SHOULD be avoided. SHOULD be avoided.
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3.6. Mapping IRIs to URIs 3.6. Mapping IRIs to URIs
The mapping from an IRI to URI is accomplished by applying the The mapping from an IRI to URI is accomplished by applying the
mapping above (from IRI to URI components) and then reassembling a mapping above (from IRI to URI components) and then reassembling a
URI from the parsed URI components using the original punctuation URI from the parsed URI components using the original punctuation
that delimited the IRI components. that delimited the IRI components.
3.7. Converting URIs to IRIs 3.7. Converting URIs to IRIs
In some situations, for presentation and further processing, it is In some situations, for presentation and further processing, it is
desirable to convert a URI into an equivalent IRI in which natural desirable to convert a URI into an equivalent IRI without unnecessary
characters are represented directly rather than percent encoded. Of percent encoding. Of course, every URI is already an IRI in its own
course, every URI is already an IRI in its own right without any right without any conversion. This section gives one possible
conversion, and in general there This section gives one such procedure for URI to IRI mapping.
procedure for this conversion.
The conversion described in this section, if given a valid URI, will The conversion described in this section, if given a valid URI, will
result in an IRI that maps back to the URI used as an input for the result in an IRI that maps back to the URI used as an input for the
conversion (except for potential case differences in percent-encoding conversion (except for potential case differences in percent-encoding
and for potential percent-encoded unreserved characters). However, and for potential percent-encoded unreserved characters). However,
the IRI resulting from this conversion may differ from the original the IRI resulting from this conversion may differ from the original
IRI (if there ever was one). IRI (if there ever was one).
URI-to-IRI conversion removes percent-encodings, but not all percent- URI-to-IRI conversion removes percent-encodings, but not all percent-
encodings can be eliminated. There are several reasons for this: encodings can be eliminated. There are several reasons for this:
skipping to change at page 23, line 17 skipping to change at page 23, line 17
/ %xE000-FFFD / %x10000-10FFFF / %xE000-FFFD / %x10000-10FFFF
Among other extensions, processors based on this specification also Among other extensions, processors based on this specification also
did not enforce the restriction on bidirectional formatting did not enforce the restriction on bidirectional formatting
characters in [Bidi], and the iprivate production becomes redundant. characters in [Bidi], and the iprivate production becomes redundant.
To convert a string allowed as a LEIRI to an IRI, each character To convert a string allowed as a LEIRI to an IRI, each character
allowed in leiri-ucschar but not in ucschar must be percent-encoded allowed in leiri-ucschar but not in ucschar must be percent-encoded
using Section 3.3. using Section 3.3.
6. Characters Not Allowed in IRIs 6. Characters Disallowed or Not Recommended in IRIs
This section provides a list of the groups of characters and code This section provides a list of the groups of characters and code
points that are allowed in some contexts but are not allowed in IRIs points that are allowed in some contexts but are not allowed in IRIs
or are allowed in IRIs only in the query part. For each group of or are allowed in IRIs only in the query part. For each group of
characters, advice on the usage of these characters is also given, characters, advice on the usage of these characters is also given,
concentrating on the reasons for why they are excluded from IRI use. concentrating on the reasons for why they are excluded from IRI use.
Space (U+0020): Some formats and applications use space as a Space (U+0020): Some formats and applications use space as a
delimiter, e.g. for items in a list. Appendix C of [RFC3986] also delimiter, e.g. for items in a list. Appendix C of [RFC3986] also
mentions that white space may have to be added when displaying or mentions that white space may have to be added when displaying or
skipping to change at page 24, line 35 skipping to change at page 24, line 35
Specials (U+FFF0-FFFD): These code points provide functionality Specials (U+FFF0-FFFD): These code points provide functionality
beyond that useful in an IRI, for example byte order beyond that useful in an IRI, for example byte order
identification, annotation, and replacements for unknown identification, annotation, and replacements for unknown
characters and objects. Their use and interpretation in an IRI characters and objects. Their use and interpretation in an IRI
would serve no purpose and might lead to confusing display would serve no purpose and might lead to confusing display
variations. variations.
Private use code points (U+E000-F8FF, U+F0000-FFFFD, U+100000- Private use code points (U+E000-F8FF, U+F0000-FFFFD, U+100000-
10FFFD): Display and interpretation of these code points is by 10FFFD): Display and interpretation of these code points is by
definition undefined without private agreement. Therefore, these definition undefined without private agreement. In any case,
code points are not suited for use on the Internet. They are not these code points are not suited for use on the Internet. They
interoperable and may have unpredictable effects. are not interoperable and may have unpredictable effects.
Tags (U+E0000-E0FFF): These characters provide a way to language Tags (U+E0000-E0FFF): These characters were intended to provide a
tag in Unicode plain text. They are not appropriate for IRIs way to language tag in Unicode plain text. They are now
because language information in identifiers cannot reliably be deprecated [RFC6082]. In any case, they would not be appropriate
input, transmitted (e.g. on a visual medium such as paper), or for IRIs because language information in identifiers cannot
recognized. reliably be input, transmitted (e.g. on a visual medium such as
paper), or recognized.
Non-characters (U+FDD0-FDEF, U+1FFFE-1FFFF, U+2FFFE-2FFFF, Non-characters (U+FDD0-FDEF, U+1FFFE-1FFFF, U+2FFFE-2FFFF,
U+3FFFE-3FFFF, U+4FFFE-4FFFF, U+5FFFE-5FFFF, U+6FFFE-6FFFF, U+3FFFE-3FFFF, U+4FFFE-4FFFF, U+5FFFE-5FFFF, U+6FFFE-6FFFF,
U+7FFFE-7FFFF, U+8FFFE-8FFFF, U+9FFFE-9FFFF, U+AFFFE-AFFFF, U+7FFFE-7FFFF, U+8FFFE-8FFFF, U+9FFFE-9FFFF, U+AFFFE-AFFFF,
U+BFFFE-BFFFF, U+CFFFE-CFFFF, U+DFFFE-DFFFF, U+EFFFE-EFFFF, U+BFFFE-BFFFF, U+CFFFE-CFFFF, U+DFFFE-DFFFF, U+EFFFE-EFFFF,
U+FFFFE-FFFFF, U+10FFFE-10FFFF): These code points are defined as U+FFFFE-FFFFF, U+10FFFE-10FFFF): These code points are defined as
non-characters. Applications may use some of them internally, but non-characters. Applications may use some of them internally, but
are not prepared to interchange them. are not prepared to interchange them.
LEIRI preprocessing disallowed some code points and code units: LEIRI preprocessing disallowed some code points and code units:
skipping to change at page 35, line 29 skipping to change at page 35, line 35
12. References 12. References
12.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[ASCII] American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character [ASCII] American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character
Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
Interchange", ANSI X3.4, 1986. Interchange", ANSI X3.4, 1986.
[ISO10646] [ISO10646]
International Organization for Standardization, "ISO/IEC International Organization for Standardization, "ISO/IEC
10646:2003: Information Technology - Universal Multiple- 10646:2011: Information Technology - Universal Multiple-
Octet Coded Character Set (UCS)", ISO Standard 10646, Octet Coded Character Set (UCS)", ISO Standard 10646,
December 2003. March 20011, <http://standards.iso.org/ittf/
PubliclyAvailableStandards/
c051273_ISO_IEC_10646_2011(E).zip>.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3490] Faltstrom, P., Hoffman, P., and A. Costello,
"Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)",
RFC 3490, March 2003.
[RFC3491] Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Nameprep: A Stringprep [RFC3491] Hoffman, P. and M. Blanchet, "Nameprep: A Stringprep
Profile for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)", Profile for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)",
RFC 3491, March 2003. RFC 3491, March 2003.
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO [RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003. 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
skipping to change at page 38, line 12 skipping to change at page 38, line 16
[RFC4395bis] [RFC4395bis]
Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and Hansen, T., Hardie, T., and L. Masinter, "Guidelines and
Registration Procedures for New URI/IRI Schemes", Registration Procedures for New URI/IRI Schemes",
draft-ietf-iri-4395bis-irireg-03 (work in progress), draft-ietf-iri-4395bis-irireg-03 (work in progress),
July 2011. July 2011.
[RFC6055] Thaler, D., Klensin, J., and S. Cheshire, "IAB Thoughts on [RFC6055] Thaler, D., Klensin, J., and S. Cheshire, "IAB Thoughts on
Encodings for Internationalized Domain Names", RFC 6055, Encodings for Internationalized Domain Names", RFC 6055,
February 2011. February 2011.
[RFC6082] Whistler, K., Adams, G., Duerst, M., Presuhn, R., and J.
Klensin, "Deprecating Unicode Language Tag Characters: RFC
2482 is Historic", RFC 6082, November 2010.
[UNIXML] Duerst, M. and A. Freytag, "Unicode in XML and other [UNIXML] Duerst, M. and A. Freytag, "Unicode in XML and other
Markup Languages", Unicode Technical Report #20, World Markup Languages", Unicode Technical Report #20, World
Wide Web Consortium Note, June 2003, Wide Web Consortium Note, June 2003,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/unicode-xml/>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/unicode-xml/>.
[UTR36] Davis, M. and M. Suignard, "Unicode Security [UTR36] Davis, M. and M. Suignard, "Unicode Security
Considerations", Unicode Technical Report #36, Considerations", Unicode Technical Report #36,
August 2010, <http://unicode.org/reports/tr36/>. August 2010, <http://unicode.org/reports/tr36/>.
[XLink] DeRose, S., Maler, E., and D. Orchard, "XML Linking [XLink] DeRose, S., Maler, E., and D. Orchard, "XML Linking
skipping to change at page 39, line 7 skipping to change at page 39, line 10
<http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/#anyURI>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-2/#anyURI>.
[XPointer] [XPointer]
Grosso, P., Maler, E., Marsh, J., and N. Walsh, "XPointer Grosso, P., Maler, E., Marsh, J., and N. Walsh, "XPointer
Framework", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation, Framework", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation,
March 2003, March 2003,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-framework/#escaping>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/xptr-framework/#escaping>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Martin Duerst Martin Duerst (Note: Please write "Duerst" with u-umlaut wherever
possible, for example as "D&#252;rst" in XML and HTML)
Aoyama Gakuin University Aoyama Gakuin University
5-10-1 Fuchinobe 5-10-1 Fuchinobe
Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558 Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8558
Japan Japan
Phone: +81 42 759 6329 Phone: +81 42 759 6329
Fax: +81 42 759 6495 Fax: +81 42 759 6495
Email: duerst@it.aoyama.ac.jp Email: duerst@it.aoyama.ac.jp
URI: http://www.sw.it.aoyama.ac.jp/D%C3%BCrst/ URI: http://www.sw.it.aoyama.ac.jp/D%C3%BCrst/
(Note: This is the percent-encoded form of an IRI)
Michel Suignard Michel Suignard
Unicode Consortium Unicode Consortium
P.O. Box 391476 P.O. Box 391476
Mountain View, CA 94039-1476 Mountain View, CA 94039-1476
U.S.A. U.S.A.
Phone: +1-650-693-3921 Phone: +1-650-693-3921
Email: michel@unicode.org Email: michel@unicode.org
URI: http://www.suignard.com URI: http://www.suignard.com
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