draft-ietf-isis-te-metric-extensions-04.txt   draft-ietf-isis-te-metric-extensions-05.txt 
Networking Working Group S. Previdi, Ed. Networking Working Group S. Previdi, Ed.
Internet-Draft Cisco Systems, Inc. Internet-Draft Cisco Systems, Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track S. Giacalone Intended status: Standards Track S. Giacalone
Expires: April 25, 2015 Thomson Reuters Expires: October 16, 2015 Unaffiliated
D. Ward D. Ward
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
J. Drake J. Drake
A. Atlas A. Atlas
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
C. Filsfils C. Filsfils
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
Q. Wu Q. Wu
Huawei Huawei
October 22, 2014 April 14, 2015
IS-IS Traffic Engineering (TE) Metric Extensions IS-IS Traffic Engineering (TE) Metric Extensions
draft-ietf-isis-te-metric-extensions-04 draft-ietf-isis-te-metric-extensions-05
Abstract Abstract
In certain networks, such as, but not limited to, financial In certain networks, such as, but not limited to, financial
information networks (e.g. stock market data providers), network information networks (e.g. stock market data providers), network
performance criteria (e.g. latency) are becoming as critical to data performance criteria (e.g. latency) are becoming as critical to data
path selection as other metrics. path selection as other metrics.
This document describes extensions to IS-IS Traffic Engineering This document describes extensions to IS-IS Traffic Engineering
Extensions (RFC5305) such that network performance information can be Extensions (RFC5305) such that network performance information can be
skipping to change at page 2, line 20 skipping to change at page 2, line 20
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 25, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on October 16, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
skipping to change at page 2, line 46 skipping to change at page 2, line 46
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. TE Metric Extensions to IS-IS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. TE Metric Extensions to IS-IS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Interface and Neighbor Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Interface and Neighbor Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Sub TLV Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Sub TLV Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. Unidirectional Link Delay Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Unidirectional Link Delay Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2. Min/Max Unidirectional Link Delay Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . 7 4.2. Min/Max Unidirectional Link Delay Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . 7
4.3. Unidirectional Delay Variation Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Unidirectional Delay Variation Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . 8
4.4. Unidirectional Link Loss Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.4. Unidirectional Link Loss Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.5. Unidirectional Residual Bandwidth Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . 10 4.5. Unidirectional Residual Bandwidth Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . 9
4.6. Unidirectional Available Bandwidth Sub-TLV . . . . . . . 11 4.6. Unidirectional Available Bandwidth Sub-TLV . . . . . . . 10
4.7. Unidirectional Utilized Bandwidth Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . 12 4.7. Unidirectional Utilized Bandwidth Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . 11
5. Announcement Thresholds and Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Announcement Thresholds and Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6. Announcement Suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6. Announcement Suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7. Network Stability and Announcement Periodicity . . . . . . . 14 7. Network Stability and Announcement Periodicity . . . . . . . 13
8. Enabling and Disabling Sub-TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Enabling and Disabling Sub-TLVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9. Static Metric Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. Static Metric Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10. Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 10. Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
In certain networks, such as, but not limited to, financial In certain networks, such as, but not limited to, financial
information networks (e.g. stock market data providers), network information networks (e.g. stock market data providers), network
skipping to change at page 3, line 43 skipping to change at page 3, line 43
as link delay, delay variation, packet loss, residual bandwidth, and as link delay, delay variation, packet loss, residual bandwidth, and
available bandwidth). available bandwidth).
The data distributed by the TE Metric Extensions proposed in this The data distributed by the TE Metric Extensions proposed in this
document is meant to be used as part of the operation of the routing document is meant to be used as part of the operation of the routing
protocol (e.g. by replacing cost with latency or considering protocol (e.g. by replacing cost with latency or considering
bandwidth as well as cost), by enhancing Constrained-SPF (CSPF), or bandwidth as well as cost), by enhancing Constrained-SPF (CSPF), or
for other uses such as supplementing the data used by an ALTO server for other uses such as supplementing the data used by an ALTO server
[RFC7285]. With respect to CSPF, the data distributed by ISIS TE [RFC7285]. With respect to CSPF, the data distributed by ISIS TE
Metric Extensions can be used to setup, fail over, and fail back data Metric Extensions can be used to setup, fail over, and fail back data
paths using protocols such as RSVP-TE [RFC3209]; paths using protocols such as RSVP-TE [RFC3209].
[I-D.atlas-mpls-te-express-path] describes some methods for using
this information to compute Label Switched Paths (LSPs) at the LSP
ingress.
Note that the mechanisms described in this document only disseminate Note that the mechanisms described in this document only disseminate
performance information. The methods for initially gathering that performance information. The methods for initially gathering that
performance information, such as [RFC6375], or acting on it once it performance information, such as [RFC6375], or acting on it once it
is distributed are outside the scope of this document. Example is distributed are outside the scope of this document. Example
mechanisms to measure latency, delay variation, and loss in an MPLS mechanisms to measure latency, delay variation, and loss in an MPLS
network are given in [RFC6374]. While this document does not specify network are given in [RFC6374]. While this document does not specify
how the performance information should be obtained, the measurement how the performance information should be obtained, the measurement
of delay SHOULD NOT vary significantly based upon the offered traffic of delay SHOULD NOT vary significantly based upon the offered traffic
load. Thus, queuing delays SHOULD NOT be included in the delay load. Thus, queuing delays SHOULD NOT be included in the delay
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IS-IS Extended Reachability TLV 22 (defined in [RFC5305]), Inter-AS IS-IS Extended Reachability TLV 22 (defined in [RFC5305]), Inter-AS
reachability information TLV 141 (defined in [RFC5316]) and MT-ISN reachability information TLV 141 (defined in [RFC5316]) and MT-ISN
TLV 222 (defined in [RFC5120]) have nested sub-TLVs which permit the TLV 222 (defined in [RFC5120]) have nested sub-TLVs which permit the
TLVs to be readily extended. This document proposes several TLVs to be readily extended. This document proposes several
additional sub-TLVs: additional sub-TLVs:
Type Value Type Value
----------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------
TBA Unidirectional Link Delay TBA Unidirectional Link Delay
TBA Low/High Unidirectional Link Delay TBA Min/Max Unidirectional Link Delay
TBA Unidirectional Delay Variation TBA Unidirectional Delay Variation
TBA Unidirectional Packet Loss TBA Unidirectional Packet Loss
TBA Unidirectional Residual Bandwidth TBA Unidirectional Residual Bandwidth
TBA Unidirectional Available Bandwidth TBA Unidirectional Available Bandwidth
TBA Unidirectional Bandwidth Utilization TBA Unidirectional Bandwidth Utilization
skipping to change at page 5, line 35 skipping to change at page 5, line 33
(reuse threshold), that sub-TLV can be re-advertised with the (reuse threshold), that sub-TLV can be re-advertised with the
Anomalous bit cleared. In this case, a receiving node can Anomalous bit cleared. In this case, a receiving node can
conceivably do whatever re-optimization (or failback) it wishes to do conceivably do whatever re-optimization (or failback) it wishes to do
(including nothing). (including nothing).
Note that when a sub-TLV does not include the A bit, that sub-TLV Note that when a sub-TLV does not include the A bit, that sub-TLV
cannot be used for failover purposes. The A bit was intentionally cannot be used for failover purposes. The A bit was intentionally
omitted from some sub-TLVs to help mitigate oscillations. See omitted from some sub-TLVs to help mitigate oscillations. See
Section 5 for more information. Section 5 for more information.
Consistent with existing IS-IS TE specifications [RFC5305], the Consistent with existing IS-IS TE specification [RFC5305], the
bandwidth advertisements defined in this draft MUST be encoded as bandwidth advertisements defined in this draft MUST be encoded as
IEEE floating point values. The delay and delay variation IEEE floating point values. The delay and delay variation
advertisements defined in this draft MUST be encoded as integer advertisements defined in this draft MUST be encoded as integer
values. Delay values MUST be quantified in units of microseconds, values. Delay values MUST be quantified in units of microseconds,
packet loss MUST be quantified as a percentage of packets sent, and packet loss MUST be quantified as a percentage of packets sent, and
bandwidth MUST be sent as bytes per second. All values (except bandwidth MUST be sent as bytes per second. All values (except
residual bandwidth) MUST be calculated as rolling averages where the residual bandwidth) MUST be calculated as rolling averages where the
averaging period MUST be a configurable period of time. See averaging period MUST be a configurable period of time. See
Section 5 for more information. Section 5 for more information.
skipping to change at page 6, line 19 skipping to change at page 6, line 19
4. Sub TLV Details 4. Sub TLV Details
4.1. Unidirectional Link Delay Sub-TLV 4.1. Unidirectional Link Delay Sub-TLV
This sub-TLV advertises the average link delay between two directly This sub-TLV advertises the average link delay between two directly
connected IS-IS neighbors. The delay advertised by this sub-TLV MUST connected IS-IS neighbors. The delay advertised by this sub-TLV MUST
be the delay from the local neighbor to the remote one (i.e. the be the delay from the local neighbor to the remote one (i.e. the
forward path latency). The format of this sub-TLV is shown in the forward path latency). The format of this sub-TLV is shown in the
following diagram: following diagram:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | | Type | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|A| RESERVED | Delay | |A| RESERVED | Delay |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
where: where:
Figure 1 Figure 1
Type: TBA Type: TBA
Length: 4 Length: 4
skipping to change at page 6, line 47 skipping to change at page 6, line 47
maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value
falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear, falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear,
the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance. the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance.
RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to
0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received. 0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received.
Delay. This 24-bit field carries the average link delay over a Delay. This 24-bit field carries the average link delay over a
configurable interval in micro-seconds, encoded as an integer value. configurable interval in micro-seconds, encoded as an integer value.
When set to the maximum value 16,777,215 (16.777215 sec), then the When set to the maximum value 16,777,215 (16.777215 sec), then the
delay is at least that value and may be larger. If there is no value delay is at least that value and may be larger.
to send (unmeasured and not statically specified), then the sub-TLV
should not be sent or be withdrawn.
4.2. Min/Max Unidirectional Link Delay Sub-TLV 4.2. Min/Max Unidirectional Link Delay Sub-TLV
This sub-TLV advertises the minimum and maximum delay values between This sub-TLV advertises the minimum and maximum delay values between
two directly connected IS-IS neighbors. The delay advertised by this two directly connected IS-IS neighbors. The delay advertised by this
sub-TLV MUST be the delay from the local neighbor to the remote one sub-TLV MUST be the delay from the local neighbor to the remote one
(i.e. the forward path latency). The format of this sub-TLV is shown (i.e. the forward path latency). The format of this sub-TLV is shown
in the following diagram: in the following diagram:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | | Type | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|A| RESERVED | Low Delay | |A| RESERVED | Min Delay |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| RESERVED | High Delay | | RESERVED | Max Delay |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
where: where:
Figure 2 Figure 2
Type: TBA Type: TBA
Length: 8 Length: 8
A-bit. The A-bit represents the Anomalous (A) bit. The A-bit is set A-bit. The A-bit represents the Anomalous (A) bit. The A-bit is set
when the measured value of this parameter exceeds its configured when the measured value of this parameter exceeds its configured
maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value
falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear, falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear,
the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance. the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance.
RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to
0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received. 0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received.
Low Delay. This 24-bit field carries minimum measured link delay Min Delay. This 24-bit field carries minimum measured link delay
value (in microseconds) over a configurable interval, encoded as an value (in microseconds) over a configurable interval, encoded as an
integer value. integer value.
High Delay. This 24-bit field carries the maximum measured link Max Delay. This 24-bit field carries the maximum measured link delay
delay value (in microseconds) over a configurable interval, encoded value (in microseconds) over a configurable interval, encoded as an
as an integer value. integer value.
Implementations MAY also permit the configuration of a static (non Implementations MAY also permit the configuration of an offset value
dynamic) offset value (in microseconds) to be added to the measured (in microseconds) to be added to the measured delay value, to
delay value, to facilitate the communication of operator specific facilitate the communication of operator specific delay constraints.
delay constraints.
It is possible for the high delay and low delay to be the same value. It is possible for the Min and Max delay to be the same value.
When the delay value (Low or High) is set to maximum value 16,777,215 When the delay value (Min or Max) is set to maximum value 16,777,215
(16.777215 sec), then the delay is at least that value and may be (16.777215 sec), then the delay is at least that value and may be
larger. larger.
4.3. Unidirectional Delay Variation Sub-TLV 4.3. Unidirectional Delay Variation Sub-TLV
This sub-TLV advertises the average link delay variation between two This sub-TLV advertises the average link delay variation between two
directly connected IS-IS neighbors. The delay variation advertised directly connected IS-IS neighbors. The delay variation advertised
by this sub-TLV MUST be the delay from the local neighbor to the by this sub-TLV MUST be the delay from the local neighbor to the
remote one (i.e. the forward path latency). The format of this sub- remote one (i.e. the forward path latency). The format of this sub-
TLV is shown in the following diagram: TLV is shown in the following diagram:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length | | Type | Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|A| RESERVED | Delay Variation | | RESERVED | Delay Variation |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
where: where:
Figure 3 Figure 3
Type: TBA. Type: TBA.
Lenght: 4. Length: 4.
A-bit. The A-bit represents the Anomalous (A) bit. The A-bit is set
when the measured value of this parameter exceeds its configured
maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value
falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear,
the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance.
RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to
0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received. 0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received.
Delay Variation. This 24-bit field carries the average link delay Delay Variation. This 24-bit field carries the average link delay
variation over a configurable interval in micro-seconds, encoded as variation over a configurable interval in microseconds, encoded as an
an integer value. When set to 0, it has not been measured. When set integer value. When set to 0, it has not been measured. When set to
to the maximum value 16,777,215 (16.777215 sec), then the delay is at the maximum value 16,777,215 (16.777215 sec), then the delay is at
least that value and may be larger. least that value and may be larger.
4.4. Unidirectional Link Loss Sub-TLV 4.4. Unidirectional Link Loss Sub-TLV
This sub-TLV advertises the loss (as a packet percentage) between two This sub-TLV advertises the loss (as a packet percentage) between two
directly connected IS-IS neighbors. The link loss advertised by this directly connected IS-IS neighbors. The link loss advertised by this
sub-TLV MUST be the packet loss from the local neighbor to the remote sub-TLV MUST be the packet loss from the local neighbor to the remote
one (i.e. the forward path loss). The format of this sub-TLV is one (i.e. the forward path loss). The format of this sub-TLV is
shown in the following diagram: shown in the following diagram:
skipping to change at page 9, line 36 skipping to change at page 9, line 28
Type: TBA. Type: TBA.
Length: 4. Length: 4.
A-bit. The A-bit represents the Anomalous (A) bit. The A-bit is set A-bit. The A-bit represents the Anomalous (A) bit. The A-bit is set
when the measured value of this parameter exceeds its configured when the measured value of this parameter exceeds its configured
maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value
falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear, falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear,
the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance. the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance.
A-bit. The A-bit represents the Anomalous (A) bit. The A-bit is set
when the measured value of this parameter exceeds its configured
maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value
falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear,
the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance.
RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to
0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received. 0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received.
Link Loss. This 24-bit field carries link packet loss as a Link Loss. This 24-bit field carries link packet loss as a
percentage of the total traffic sent over a configurable interval. percentage of the total traffic sent over a configurable interval.
The basic unit is 0.000003%, where (2^24 - 2) is 50.331642%. This The basic unit is 0.000003%, where (2^24 - 2) is 50.331642%. This
value is the highest packet loss percentage that can be expressed value is the highest packet loss percentage that can be expressed
(the assumption being that precision is more important on high speed (the assumption being that precision is more important on high speed
links than the ability to advertise loss rates greater than this, and links than the ability to advertise loss rates greater than this, and
that high speed links with over 50% loss are unusable). Therefore, that high speed links with over 50% loss are unusable). Therefore,
measured values that are larger than the field maximum SHOULD be measured values that are larger than the field maximum SHOULD be
encoded as the maximum value. When set to a value of all 1s (2^24 - encoded as the maximum value.
1), the link packet loss has not been measured.
4.5. Unidirectional Residual Bandwidth Sub-TLV 4.5. Unidirectional Residual Bandwidth Sub-TLV
This TLV advertises the residual bandwidth between two directly This TLV advertises the residual bandwidth between two directly
connected IS-IS neighbors. The residual bandwidth advertised by this connected IS-IS neighbors. The residual bandwidth advertised by this
sub-TLV MUST be the residual bandwidth from the system originating sub-TLV MUST be the residual bandwidth from the system originating
the LSA to its neighbor. the LSA to its neighbor.
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length |A| RESERVED | | Type | Length | RESERVED |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Residual Bandwidth | | Residual Bandwidth |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
where: where:
Type: TBA. Type: TBA.
Length: 4. Length: 4.
A-bit. The A-bit represents the Anomalous (A) bit. The A-bit is set
when the measured value of this parameter exceeds its configured
maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value
falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear,
the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance.
RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to
0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received. 0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received.
Residual Bandwidth. This field carries the residual bandwidth on a Residual Bandwidth. This field carries the residual bandwidth on a
link, forwarding adjacency [RFC4206], or bundled link in IEEE link, forwarding adjacency [RFC4206], or bundled link in IEEE
floating point format with units of bytes per second. For a link or floating point format with units of bytes per second. For a link or
forwarding adjacency, residual bandwidth is defined to be Maximum forwarding adjacency, residual bandwidth is defined to be Maximum
Bandwidth [RFC3630] minus the bandwidth currently allocated to RSVP- Bandwidth [RFC5305] minus the bandwidth currently allocated to RSVP-
TE LSPs. For a bundled link, residual bandwidth is defined to be the TE LSPs. For a bundled link, residual bandwidth is defined to be the
sum of the component link residual bandwidths. sum of the component link residual bandwidths.
The calculation of Residual Bandwidth is different than that of The calculation of Residual Bandwidth is different than that of
Unreserved Bandwidth [RFC3630]. Residual Bandwidth subtracts tunnel Unreserved Bandwidth [RFC5305]. Residual Bandwidth subtracts tunnel
reservations from Maximum Bandwidth (i.e. the link capacity) reservations from Maximum Bandwidth (i.e. the link capacity)
[RFC3630] and provides an aggregated remainder across QoS classes. [RFC5305] and provides an aggregated remainder across priorities.
Unreserved Bandwidth [RFC3630], on the other hand, is subtracted from Unreserved Bandwidth, on the other hand, is subtracted from the
the Maximum Reservable Bandwidth (the bandwidth that can Maximum Reservable Bandwidth (the bandwidth that can theoretically be
theoretically be reserved) [RFC3630] and provides per-QoS-class reserved) and provides per priority remainders. Residual Bandwidth
remainders. Residual Bandwidth and Unreserved Bandwidth [RFC3630] and Unreserved Bandwidth [RFC5305] can be used concurrently, and each
can be used concurrently, and each has a separate use case (e.g. the has a separate use case (e.g. the former can be used for applications
former can be used for applications like Weighted ECMP while the like Weighted ECMP while the latter can be used for call admission
latter can be used for call admission control). control).
4.6. Unidirectional Available Bandwidth Sub-TLV 4.6. Unidirectional Available Bandwidth Sub-TLV
This Sub-TLV advertises the available bandwidth between two directly This Sub-TLV advertises the available bandwidth between two directly
connected IS-IS neighbors. The available bandwidth advertised by connected IS-IS neighbors. The available bandwidth advertised by
this sub-TLV MUST be the available bandwidth from the system this sub-TLV MUST be the available bandwidth from the system
originating this Sub-TLV. The format of this Sub-TLV is shown in the originating this Sub-TLV. The format of this Sub-TLV is shown in the
following diagram: following diagram:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length |A| RESERVED | | Type | Length | RESERVED |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Available Bandwidth | | Available Bandwidth |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
where: where:
Figure 4 Figure 4
Type: TBA. Type: TBA.
Length: 4. Length: 4.
A-bit. The A-bit represents the Anomalous (A) bit. The A-bit is set
when the measured value of this parameter exceeds its configured
maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value
falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear,
the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance.
RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to
0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received. 0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received.
Available Bandwidth. This field carries the available bandwidth on a Available Bandwidth. This field carries the available bandwidth on a
link, forwarding adjacency, or bundled link in IEEE floating point link, forwarding adjacency, or bundled link in IEEE floating point
format with units of bytes per second. For a link or forwarding format with units of bytes per second. For a link or forwarding
adjacency, available bandwidth is defined to be residual bandwidth adjacency, available bandwidth is defined to be residual bandwidth
minus the measured bandwidth used for the actual forwarding of non- (see Section 4.5 minus the measured bandwidth used for the actual
RSVP-TE LSP packets. For a bundled link, available bandwidth is forwarding of non-RSVP-TE LSP packets. For a bundled link, available
defined to be the sum of the component link available bandwidths
minus the measured bandwidth used for the actual forwarding of non-
RSVP-TE Label Switched Paths packets. For a bundled link, available
bandwidth is defined to be the sum of the component link available bandwidth is defined to be the sum of the component link available
bandwidths. bandwidths minus the measured bandwidth used for the actual
forwarding of non-RSVP-TE Label Switched Paths packets. For a
bundled link, available bandwidth is defined to be the sum of the
component link available bandwidths.
4.7. Unidirectional Utilized Bandwidth Sub-TLV 4.7. Unidirectional Utilized Bandwidth Sub-TLV
This Sub-TLV advertises the bandwidth utilization between two This Sub-TLV advertises the bandwidth utilization between two
directly connected IS-IS neighbors. The bandwidth utilization directly connected IS-IS neighbors. The bandwidth utilization
advertised by this sub-TLV MUST be the bandwidth from the system advertised by this sub-TLV MUST be the bandwidth from the system
originating this Sub-TLV. The format of this Sub-TLV is shown in the originating this Sub-TLV. The format of this Sub-TLV is shown in the
following diagram: following diagram:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type | Length |A| RESERVED | | Type | Length | RESERVED |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Bandwidth Utilization | | Bandwidth Utilization |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
where: where:
Figure 5 Figure 5
Type: TBA. Type: TBA.
Length: 4. Length: 4.
A-bit. The A-bit represents the Anomalous (A) bit. The A-bit is set
when the measured value of this parameter exceeds its configured
maximum threshold. The A bit is cleared when the measured value
falls below its configured reuse threshold. If the A-bit is clear,
the sub-TLV represents steady state link performance.
RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to RESERVED. This field is reserved for future use. It MUST be set to
0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received. 0 when sent and MUST be ignored when received.
Bandwidth Utilization. This field carries the bandwidth utilization This field carries the bandwidth utilization on a link, forwarding
on a link, forwarding adjacency, or bundled link in IEEE floating adjacency, or bundled link in IEEE floating-point format with units
point format with units of bytes per second. For a link or of bytes per second. For a link or forwarding adjacency, bandwidth
forwarding adjacency, bandwidth utilization represent the actual utilization represents the actual utilization of the link (i.e., as
utilization of the link (i.e.: as measured in the router). For a measured by the advertising node). For a bundled link, bandwidth
bundled link, bandwidth utilization is defined to be the sum of the utilization is defined to be the sum of the component link bandwidth
component link bandwidth utilization. utilizations.
5. Announcement Thresholds and Filters 5. Announcement Thresholds and Filters
The values advertised in all sub-TLVs (except Low/High delay and The values advertised in all sub-TLVs (except Min/Max delay and
residual bandwidth) MUST represent an average over a period or be residual bandwidth) MUST represent an average over a period or be
obtained by a filter that is reasonably representative of an average. obtained by a filter that is reasonably representative of an average.
For example, a rolling average is one such filter. For example, a rolling average is one such filter.
Low or High delay MAY be the lowest and/or highest measured value Min and max delay MAY be the lowest and/or highest measured value
over a measurement interval or MAY make use of a filter, or other over a measurement interval or MAY make use of a filter, or other
technique to obtain a reasonable representation of a low and high technique, to obtain a reasonable representation of a min and max
value representative of the interval with compensation for outliers. value representative of the interval with compensation for outliers.
The measurement interval, any filter coefficients, and any The measurement interval, any filter coefficients, and any
advertisement intervals MUST be configurable per sub-TLV. advertisement intervals MUST be configurable per sub-TLV.
In addition to the measurement intervals governing re-advertisement, In addition to the measurement intervals governing re-advertisement,
implementations SHOULD provide per sub-TLV configurable accelerated implementations SHOULD provide per sub-TLV configurable accelerated
advertisement thresholds, such that: advertisement thresholds, such that:
1. If the measured parameter falls outside a configured upper 1. If the measured parameter falls outside a configured upper
bound for all but the low delay metric (or lower bound for bound for all but the min delay metric (or lower bound for
low-delay metric only) and the advertised sub-TLV is not min delay metric only) and the advertised sub-TLV is not
already outside that bound or, already outside that bound or,
2. If the difference between the last advertised value and 2. If the difference between the last advertised value and
current measured value exceed a configured threshold then, current measured value exceed a configured threshold then,
3. The advertisement is made immediately. 3. The advertisement is made immediately.
4. For sub-TLVs which include an A-bit (except low/high 4. For sub-TLVs which include an A-bit (except min/max
delay), an additional threshold SHOULD be included delay), an additional threshold SHOULD be included
corresponding to the threshold for which the performance corresponding to the threshold for which the performance
is considered anomalous (and sub-TLVs with the A-bit are is considered anomalous (and sub-TLVs with the A-bit are
sent). The A-bit is cleared when the sub-TLV's performance sent). The A-bit is cleared when the sub-TLV's performance
has been below (or re-crosses) this threshold for an has been below (or re-crosses) this threshold for an
advertisement interval(s) to permit fail back. advertisement interval(s) to permit fail back.
To prevent oscillations, only the high threshold or the low threshold To prevent oscillations, only the high threshold or the low threshold
(but not both) may be used to trigger any given sub-TLV that supports (but not both) may be used to trigger any given sub-TLV that supports
both. both.
skipping to change at page 14, line 12 skipping to change at page 13, line 38
readvertisement of a measurement within the bounds would remain readvertisement of a measurement within the bounds would remain
governed solely by the measurement interval for that sub-TLV. governed solely by the measurement interval for that sub-TLV.
6. Announcement Suppression 6. Announcement Suppression
When link performance values change by small amounts that fall under When link performance values change by small amounts that fall under
thresholds that would cause the announcement of a sub-TLV, thresholds that would cause the announcement of a sub-TLV,
implementations SHOULD suppress sub-TLV readvertisement and/or implementations SHOULD suppress sub-TLV readvertisement and/or
lengthen the period within which they are refreshed. lengthen the period within which they are refreshed.
Only the accelerated advertisement threshold mechanism may shorten Only the accelerated advertisement threshold mechanism described in
the re-advertisement interval. All suppression and re-advertisement Section 5 may shorten the re-advertisement interval. All suppression
interval backoff timer features SHOULD be configurable. and re-advertisement interval backoff timer features SHOULD be
configurable.
7. Network Stability and Announcement Periodicity 7. Network Stability and Announcement Periodicity
Section 5 and Section 6 provide configurable mechanisms to bound the Section 5 and Section 6 provide configurable mechanisms to bound the
number of re-advertisements. Instability might occur in very large number of re-advertisements. Instability might occur in very large
networks if measurement intervals are set low enough to overwhelm the networks if measurement intervals are set low enough to overwhelm the
processing of flooded information at some of the routers in the processing of flooded information at some of the routers in the
topology. Therefore care SHOULD be taken in setting these values. topology. Therefore care should be taken in setting these values.
Additionally, the default measurement interval for all sub-TLVs Additionally, the default measurement interval for all sub-TLVs
SHOULD be 30 seconds. SHOULD be 30 seconds.
Announcements MUST also be able to be throttled using configurable Announcements MUST also be able to be throttled using configurable
inter-update throttle timers. The minimum announcement periodicity inter-update throttle timers. The minimum announcement periodicity
is 1 announcement per second. The default value SHOULD be set to 120 is 1 announcement per second. The default value SHOULD be set to 120
seconds. seconds.
Implementations SHOULD NOT permit the inter-update timer to be lower Implementations SHOULD NOT permit the inter-update timer to be lower
skipping to change at page 14, line 48 skipping to change at page 14, line 26
due to buffer overflow or due to active queue management. due to buffer overflow or due to active queue management.
8. Enabling and Disabling Sub-TLVs 8. Enabling and Disabling Sub-TLVs
Implementations MUST make it possible to individually enable or Implementations MUST make it possible to individually enable or
disable each sub-TLV based on configuration. disable each sub-TLV based on configuration.
9. Static Metric Override 9. Static Metric Override
Implementations SHOULD permit the static configuration and/or manual Implementations SHOULD permit the static configuration and/or manual
override of dynamic measurements data on a per sub-TLV, per metric override of dynamic measurements for each sub-TLV in order to
basis in order to simplify migrations and to mitigate scenarios where simplify migration and to mitigate scenarios where dynamic
measurements are not possible across an entire network. measurements are not possible.
10. Compatibility 10. Compatibility
As per [RFC5305], unrecognized Sub-TLVs should be silently ignored As per [RFC5305], unrecognized Sub-TLVs should be silently ignored.
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
This document does not introduce security issues beyond those This document does not introduce security issues beyond those
discussed in [RFC3630] and [RFC5329]. discussed in [RFC5305] and [RFC5329].
12. IANA Considerations 12. IANA Considerations
IANA maintains the registry for the sub-TLVs. IS-IS TE Metric IANA maintains the registry for the sub-TLVs. IS-IS TE Metric
Extensions will require one new type code per sub-TLV defined in this Extensions will require one new type code per sub-TLV defined in this
document. document.
Type Value
----------------------------------------------------
TBA Unidirectional Link Delay
TBA Min/Max Unidirectional Link Delay
TBA Unidirectional Delay Variation
TBA Unidirectional Packet Loss
TBA Unidirectional Residual Bandwidth
TBA Unidirectional Available Bandwidth
TBA Unidirectional Bandwidth Utilization
13. Acknowledgements 13. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to recognize Ayman Soliman, Nabil Bitar, David The authors would like to recognize Ayman Soliman, Nabil Bitar, David
McDysan, Les Ginsberg, Edward Crabbe, Don Fedyk and Hannes Gredler McDysan, Les Ginsberg, Edward Crabbe, Don Fedyk and Hannes Gredler
for their contributions. for their contributions.
The authors also recognize Curtis Villamizar for significant comments The authors also recognize Curtis Villamizar for significant comments
and direct content collaboration. and direct content collaboration.
14. References 14. References
14.1. Normative References 14.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3209] Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V., [RFC3209] Awduche, D., Berger, L., Gan, D., Li, T., Srinivasan, V.,
and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP and G. Swallow, "RSVP-TE: Extensions to RSVP for LSP
Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001. Tunnels", RFC 3209, December 2001.
[RFC3630] Katz, D., Kompella, K., and D. Yeung, "Traffic Engineering
(TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2", RFC 3630, September
2003.
[RFC4203] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "OSPF Extensions in Support [RFC4203] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "OSPF Extensions in Support
of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)", of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)",
RFC 4203, October 2005. RFC 4203, October 2005.
[RFC4206] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "Label Switched Paths (LSP) [RFC4206] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "Label Switched Paths (LSP)
Hierarchy with Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching Hierarchy with Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching
(GMPLS) Traffic Engineering (TE)", RFC 4206, October 2005. (GMPLS) Traffic Engineering (TE)", RFC 4206, October 2005.
[RFC5120] Przygienda, T., Shen, N., and N. Sheth, "M-ISIS: Multi [RFC5120] Przygienda, T., Shen, N., and N. Sheth, "M-ISIS: Multi
Topology (MT) Routing in Intermediate System to Topology (MT) Routing in Intermediate System to
skipping to change at page 16, line 28 skipping to change at page 16, line 24
5329, September 2008. 5329, September 2008.
[RFC6119] Harrison, J., Berger, J., and M. Bartlett, "IPv6 Traffic [RFC6119] Harrison, J., Berger, J., and M. Bartlett, "IPv6 Traffic
Engineering in IS-IS", RFC 6119, February 2011. Engineering in IS-IS", RFC 6119, February 2011.
[RFC6374] Frost, D. and S. Bryant, "Packet Loss and Delay [RFC6374] Frost, D. and S. Bryant, "Packet Loss and Delay
Measurement for MPLS Networks", RFC 6374, September 2011. Measurement for MPLS Networks", RFC 6374, September 2011.
14.2. Informative References 14.2. Informative References
[I-D.atlas-mpls-te-express-path]
Atlas, A., Drake, J., Giacalone, S., Ward, D., Previdi,
S., and C. Filsfils, "Performance-based Path Selection for
Explicitly Routed LSPs using TE Metric Extensions", draft-
atlas-mpls-te-express-path-04 (work in progress),
September 2013.
[RFC6375] Frost, D. and S. Bryant, "A Packet Loss and Delay [RFC6375] Frost, D. and S. Bryant, "A Packet Loss and Delay
Measurement Profile for MPLS-Based Transport Networks", Measurement Profile for MPLS-Based Transport Networks",
RFC 6375, September 2011. RFC 6375, September 2011.
[RFC7285] Alimi, R., Penno, R., Yang, Y., Kiesel, S., Previdi, S., [RFC7285] Alimi, R., Penno, R., Yang, Y., Kiesel, S., Previdi, S.,
Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy, "Application-Layer Roome, W., Shalunov, S., and R. Woundy, "Application-Layer
Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol", RFC 7285, September Traffic Optimization (ALTO) Protocol", RFC 7285, September
2014. 2014.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Stefano Previdi (editor) Stefano Previdi (editor)
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
Via Del Serafico 200 Via Del Serafico 200
Rome 00191 Rome 00191
IT IT
Email: sprevidi@cisco.com Email: sprevidi@cisco.com
Spencer Giacalone
Thomson Reuters
195 Broadway
New York, NY 10007
USA
Email: Spencer.giacalone@thomsonreuters.com Spencer Giacalone
Unaffiliated
Email: spencer.giacalone@gmail.com
Dave Ward Dave Ward
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
3700 Cisco Way 3700 Cisco Way
SAN JOSE, CA 95134 SAN JOSE, CA 95134
US US
Email: wardd@cisco.com Email: wardd@cisco.com
John Drake John Drake
Juniper Networks Juniper Networks
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