draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-02.txt   draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-03.txt 
JOSE Working Group M. Jones JOSE Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track May 12, 2012 Intended status: Standards Track July 6, 2012
Expires: November 13, 2012 Expires: January 7, 2013
JSON Web Key (JWK) JSON Web Key (JWK)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-02 draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-03
Abstract Abstract
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON data structure that represents a A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data
public key. This specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK structure that represents a public key. This specification also
Set) JSON data structure for representing a set of JWKs. defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for
Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers used with this specification representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
are enumerated in the separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON
specification. Web Algorithms (JWA) specification.
Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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This Internet-Draft will expire on November 13, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 7, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Example JSON Web Key Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Example JSON Web Key Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1. "alg" (Algorithm Family) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.1. "alg" (Algorithm Family) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.3. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.3. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6.1. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8. Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD) . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Appendix A. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Appendix B. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Appendix A. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Appendix B. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON data structure that represents a A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627]
public key as a JSON object [RFC4627]. This specification also data structure that represents a public key. This specification also
defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for
representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
used with this specification are enumerated in the separate JSON Web for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON
Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.
Non-goals for this specification include representing private keys, Goals for this specification do not include representing private
representing symmetric keys, representing certificate chains, keys, representing symmetric keys, representing certificate chains,
representing certified keys, and replacing X.509 certificates. representing certified keys, and replacing X.509 certificates.
JWKs are used in the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] "jwk" (JSON Web JWKs and JWK Sets are used in the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] and
Key) header parameter and the JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] "jwk" JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specifications.
(JSON Web Key) and "epk" (Ephemeral Public Key) header parameters.
The resources referenced by the JWS "jku" (JWK Set URL) and JWE "jku" 1.1. Notational Conventions
(JWK Set URL) header parameters contain JWK Sets.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in
RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119].
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
JSON Web Key (JWK) A JSON data structure that represents a public JSON Web Key (JWK) A JSON data structure that represents a public
key. key.
JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) A JSON object that contains an array of JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) A JSON object that contains an array of
JWKs as a member. JWKs as a member.
Base64url Encoding For the purposes of this specification, this term Base64url Encoding For the purposes of this specification, this term
always refers to the URL- and filename-safe Base64 encoding always refers to the URL- and filename-safe Base64 encoding
described in RFC 4648 [RFC4648], Section 5, with the (non URL- described in RFC 4648 [RFC4648], Section 5, with the (non URL-
safe) '=' padding characters omitted, as permitted by Section 3.2. safe) '=' padding characters omitted, as permitted by Section 3.2.
(See Appendix B of [JWS] for notes on implementing base64url (See Appendix C of [JWS] for notes on implementing base64url
encoding without padding.) encoding without padding.)
Collision Resistant Namespace A namespace that allows names to be
allocated in a manner such that they are highly unlikely to
collide with other names. For instance, collision resistance can
be achieved through administrative delegation of portions of the
namespace or through use of collision-resistant name allocation
functions. Examples of Collision Resistant Namespaces include:
Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as defined in the ITU-T
X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and Universally Unique
IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an administratively
delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs to take
reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of the
portion of the namespace they use to define the name.
3. Example JSON Web Key Set 3. Example JSON Web Key Set
The following example JWK Set contains two public keys represented as The following example JWK Set contains two public keys represented as
JWKs: one using an Elliptic Curve algorithm and a second one using an JWKs: one using an Elliptic Curve algorithm and a second one using an
RSA algorithm. The first specifies that the key is to be used for RSA algorithm. The first specifies that the key is to be used for
encryption. Both provide a Key ID for key matching purposes. In encryption. Both provide a Key ID for key matching purposes. In
both cases, integers are represented using the base64url encoding of both cases, integers are represented using the base64url encoding of
their big endian representations. (Long lines are broken are for their big endian representations. (Long lines are broken are for
display purposes only.) display purposes only.)
{"keys": {"keys":
skipping to change at page 4, line 31 skipping to change at page 4, line 44
"kid":"2011-04-29"} "kid":"2011-04-29"}
] ]
} }
4. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format 4. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object containing specific members, as A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object containing specific members, as
specified below. Those members that are common to all key types are specified below. Those members that are common to all key types are
defined below. defined below.
JWKs also require members that are specific to the particular key A JWK also requires members that are specific to the particular kind
algorithm family to represent the key parameters. These algorithm of key to represent the key parameters. See Section 5 of the JSON
specific members are defined in Section 5 of the JSON Web Algorithms Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification for definitions of the
(JWA) [JWA] specification. members specific to the kinds of keys defined there.
The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; objects with duplicate The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; objects with duplicate
member names MUST be rejected. member names MUST be rejected.
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK. If present, they MUST Additional members MAY be present in the JWK. If present, they MUST
be understood by implementations using them. Parameters for be understood by implementations using them. Member names for
representing keys for additional algorithm families or additional key representing specific kinds of keys SHOULD either be registered in
properties SHOULD either be defined in the IANA JSON Web Key the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 6.1 or be URIs that
Parameters registry [JWA] or be a URI that contains a collision contain a Collision Resistant Namespace.
resistant namespace.
4.1. "alg" (Algorithm Family) Parameter 4.1. "alg" (Algorithm Family) Parameter
The "alg" (algorithm family) member identifies the cryptographic The "alg" (algorithm family) member identifies the cryptographic
algorithm family used with the key. A list of defined "alg" values algorithm family used with the key. The "alg" value is case
is presented in Section 5.1 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] sensitive. Its value MUST be a string.
specification. Specific additional members are required to represent
the key, depending upon the algorithm family. These members are
specified in Section 5 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA]
specification. The "alg" value is case sensitive. Its value MUST be
a string.
"alg" values SHOULD either be defined in the IANA JSON Web Key A list of defined "alg" values is presented in Section 5.1 of the
Algorithm Families registry [JWA] or be a URI that contains a JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. Additional members
collision resistant namespace. used with these "alg" values are defined in Sections 5.2 and 5.3 of
the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. "alg" values
SHOULD either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Algorithm
Families registry [JWA] or be a URI that contains a Collision
Resistant Namespace.
4.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter 4.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter
The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key. The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key.
Values defined by this specification are "sig" (signature) and "enc" Values defined by this specification are:
(encryption). Other values MAY be used. The "use" value is case
sensitive. Its value MUST be a string. This member is OPTIONAL. o "sig" (signature)
o "enc" (encryption)
Other values MAY be used. The "use" value is case sensitive. Its
value MUST be a string. This member is OPTIONAL.
4.3. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter 4.3. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter
The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This
can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within the can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within the
JWK during key rollover. When used with JWS or JWE, the "kid" value JWK during key rollover. The interpretation of the "kid" value is
MAY be used to match a JWS or JWE "kid" header parameter value. The unspecified. Key ID values within a JWK Set need not be unique; for
interpretation of the "kid" value is unspecified. Its value MUST be instance, in some contexts different keys using the same Key ID value
a string. This member is OPTIONAL. might be present, with the keys being disambiguated using other
information, such as the "alg" or "use" values. The "kid" value is
case sensitive. Its value MUST be a string. This member is
OPTIONAL.
When used with JWS or JWE, the "kid" value MAY be used to match a JWS
or JWE "kid" header parameter value.
5. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format 5. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format
A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object that contains an array A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object that contains an array
of JSON Web Key values as the value of its "keys" member. of JSON Web Key values as the value of its "keys" member.
The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; objects with The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; objects with
duplicate member names MUST be rejected. duplicate member names MUST be rejected.
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK Set. If present, they Additional members MAY be present in the JWK Set. If present, they
MUST be understood by implementations using them. Parameters for MUST be understood by implementations using them. Parameters for
representing additional properties of JWK Sets SHOULD either be representing additional properties of JWK Sets SHOULD either be
defined in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry Section 6.1 registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry
or be a URI that contains a collision resistant namespace. Section 6.2 or be a URI that contains a Collision Resistant
Namespace.
5.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter 5.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter
The value of the "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) member is an array of JSON The value of the "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) member is an array of JSON
Web Key (JWK) values. This member is REQUIRED. Web Key (JWK) values. This member is REQUIRED.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
6.1. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry The following registration procedure is used for all the registries
established by this specification.
Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a
two week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the
advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the
allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s)
may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a
specification will be published.
Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
for access token type: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name of
the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG
and IANA. Suggested name: jose-reg-review. ]]
Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation
and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
successful.
IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
list.
6.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters
registry for reserved JWK parameter names. The registry records the
reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that
defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined
in Section 4.
6.1.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example").
Change Controller:
For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document that specifies the parameter, preferably
including a URI that can be used to retrieve a copy of the
document. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
included, but is not required.
6.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "alg"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "use"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "kid"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.3 of [[ this document ]]
6.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters
registry for reserved JWK Set parameter names. Inclusion in the registry for reserved JWK Set parameter names. The registry records
registry is RFC Required in the RFC 5226 [RFC5226] sense. The the reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that
registry records the reserved parameter name and a reference to the defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined
RFC that defines it. This specification registers the parameter in Section 5.
names defined in Section 5.
6.2.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example").
Change Controller:
For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document that specifies the parameter, preferably
including a URI that can be used to retrieve a copy of the
document. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
included, but is not required.
6.2.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "keys"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]]
7. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application
must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are
protecting the user's private key, preventing various attacks, and
helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently encrypting a
message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of security
considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but some
significant concerns are listed here.
A key is no more trustworthy than the method by which it was A key is no more trustworthy than the method by which it was
received. received.
Per Section 4.3, applications should not assume that "kid" values are
unique within a JWK Set.
The security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0 The security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], about public key representations [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], about public key representations
also apply to this specification, other than those that are XML also apply to this specification, other than those that are XML
specific. specific.
8. Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD) 8. Open Issues
The following items remain to be done in this draft: [[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
The following items remain to be considered or done in this draft:
o (None at present) o (None at present)
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", May 2012. [JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", July 2012.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006. Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
9.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web [JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web
Encryption (JWE)", May 2012. Encryption (JWE)", July 2012.
[JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web [JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
Signature (JWS)", May 2012. Signature (JWS)", July 2012.
[MagicSignatures] [MagicSignatures]
Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic
Signatures", January 2011. Signatures", January 2011.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
July 2005.
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124] [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124]
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Yiu, K., Solo, D., Datta, P., Reagle, J., Solo, D., Datta, P., Hirsch, F., Eastlake, D.,
Hirsch, F., Cantor, S., and T. Roessler, "XML Signature Roessler, T., Cantor, S., and K. Yiu, "XML Signature
Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web
Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012, Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>.
Appendix A. Acknowledgements Appendix A. Acknowledgements
A JSON representation for RSA public keys was previously introduced A JSON representation for RSA public keys was previously introduced
in Magic Signatures [MagicSignatures]. by John Panzer, Ben Laurie, and Dirk Balfanz in Magic Signatures
[MagicSignatures].
Appendix B. Document History Appendix B. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-03
o Clarified that "kid" values need not be unique within a JWK Set.
o Moved JSON Web Key Parameters registry to the JWK specification.
o Added "Collision Resistant Namespace" to the terminology section.
o Changed registration requirements from RFC Required to
Specification Required with Expert Review.
o Added Registration Template sections for defined registries.
o Added Registry Contents sections to populate registry values.
o Numerous editorial improvements.
-02 -02
o Simplified JWK terminology to get replace the "JWK Key Object" and o Simplified JWK terminology to get replace the "JWK Key Object" and
"JWK Container Object" terms with simply "JSON Web Key (JWK)" and "JWK Container Object" terms with simply "JSON Web Key (JWK)" and
"JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set)" and to eliminate potential confusion "JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set)" and to eliminate potential confusion
between single keys and sets of keys. As part of this change, the between single keys and sets of keys. As part of this change, the
top-level member name for a set of keys was changed from "jwk" to top-level member name for a set of keys was changed from "jwk" to
"keys". "keys".
o Clarified that values with duplicate member names MUST be o Clarified that values with duplicate member names MUST be
 End of changes. 31 change blocks. 
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