draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-08.txt   draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-09.txt 
JOSE Working Group M. Jones JOSE Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track December 27, 2012 Intended status: Standards Track April 23, 2013
Expires: June 30, 2013 Expires: October 25, 2013
JSON Web Key (JWK) JSON Web Key (JWK)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-08 draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-09
Abstract Abstract
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data
structure that represents a public key. This specification also structure that represents a cryptographic key. This specification
defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for
representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON
Web Algorithms (JWA) specification. Web Algorithms (JWA) specification.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on June 30, 2013. This Internet-Draft will expire on October 25, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Example JSON Web Key Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Appendix A. Example JSON Web Key Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Appendix A. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 A.1. Example Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Appendix B. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 A.2. Example Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Appendix C. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 A.3. Example Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Appendix B. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Appendix C. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627] A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627]
data structure that represents a public key. This specification also data structure that represents a cryptographic key. This
defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data
representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers structure for representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms
for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON and identifiers for use with this specification are described in the
Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.
Goals for this specification do not include representing private Goals for this specification do not include representing certificate
keys, representing symmetric keys, representing certificate chains, chains, representing certified keys, and replacing X.509
representing certified keys, and replacing X.509 certificates. certificates.
However the JSON Private and Symmetric Key [JPSK] specification does
extend this specification to define JSON representations of private
keys and symmetric keys.
JWKs and JWK Sets are used in the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] and JWKs and JWK Sets are used in the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] and
JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specifications. JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specifications.
1.1. Notational Conventions 1.1. Notational Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in
RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119]. RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119].
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
JSON Web Key (JWK) A JSON object that represents a public key. JSON Web Key (JWK) A JSON object that represents a cryptographic
key.
JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) A JSON object that contains an array of JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) A JSON object that contains an array of
JWKs as the value of its "keys" member. JWKs as the value of its "keys" member.
Base64url Encoding The URL- and filename-safe Base64 encoding Base64url Encoding The URL- and filename-safe Base64 encoding
described in RFC 4648 [RFC4648], Section 5, with the (non URL- described in RFC 4648 [RFC4648], Section 5, with the (non URL-
safe) '=' padding characters omitted, as permitted by Section 3.2. safe) '=' padding characters omitted, as permitted by Section 3.2.
(See Appendix C of [JWS] for notes on implementing base64url (See Appendix C of [JWS] for notes on implementing base64url
encoding without padding.) encoding without padding.)
skipping to change at page 4, line 9 skipping to change at page 4, line 7
be achieved through administrative delegation of portions of the be achieved through administrative delegation of portions of the
namespace or through use of collision-resistant name allocation namespace or through use of collision-resistant name allocation
functions. Examples of Collision Resistant Namespaces include: functions. Examples of Collision Resistant Namespaces include:
Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as defined in the ITU-T Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as defined in the ITU-T
X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and Universally Unique X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and Universally Unique
IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an administratively IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an administratively
delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs to take delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs to take
reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of the reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of the
portion of the namespace they use to define the name. portion of the namespace they use to define the name.
3. Example JSON Web Key Set 3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format
The following example JWK Set contains two public keys represented as
JWKs: one using an Elliptic Curve algorithm and a second one using an
RSA algorithm. The first specifies that the key is to be used for
encryption. The second specifies that the key is to be used with the
"RS256" algorithm. Both provide a Key ID for key matching purposes.
In both cases, integers are represented using the base64url encoding
of their big endian representations. (Long lines are broken are for
display purposes only.)
{"keys":
[
{"kty":"EC",
"crv":"P-256",
"x":"MKBCTNIcKUSDii11ySs3526iDZ8AiTo7Tu6KPAqv7D4",
"y":"4Etl6SRW2YiLUrN5vfvVHuhp7x8PxltmWWlbbM4IFyM",
"use":"enc",
"kid":"1"},
{"kty":"RSA",
"n": "0vx7agoebGcQSuuPiLJXZptN9nndrQmbXEps2aiAFbWhM78LhWx
4cbbfAAtVT86zwu1RK7aPFFxuhDR1L6tSoc_BJECPebWKRXjBZCiFV4n3oknjhMs
tn64tZ_2W-5JsGY4Hc5n9yBXArwl93lqt7_RN5w6Cf0h4QyQ5v-65YGjQR0_FDW2
QvzqY368QQMicAtaSqzs8KJZgnYb9c7d0zgdAZHzu6qMQvRL5hajrn1n91CbOpbI
SD08qNLyrdkt-bFTWhAI4vMQFh6WeZu0fM4lFd2NcRwr3XPksINHaQ-G_xBniIqb
w0Ls1jF44-csFCur-kEgU8awapJzKnqDKgw",
"e":"AQAB",
"alg":"RS256",
"kid":"2011-04-29"}
]
}
4. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object containing specific members, as A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object containing specific members, as
specified below. Those members that are common to all key types are specified below. Those members that are common to all key types are
defined below. defined below.
In addition to the common parameters, each JWK will have members that In addition to the common parameters, each JWK will have members that
are specific to the key being represented. These members represent are specific to the kind of key being represented. These members
the parameters of the key. Section 5 of the JSON Web Algorithms represent the parameters of the key. Section 5 of the JSON Web
(JWA) [JWA] specification defines multiple kinds of public keys and Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification defines multiple kinds of
their associated members. cryptographic keys and their associated members.
The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; objects with duplicate The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; objects with duplicate
member names MUST be rejected. member names MUST be rejected.
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK. If present, they MUST Additional members MAY be present in the JWK. If not understood by
be understood by implementations using them. Member names used for implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. Member
representing key parameters for different kinds of keys need not be names used for representing key parameters for different kinds of
distinct. Any new member name SHOULD either be registered in the keys need not be distinct. Any new member name SHOULD either be
IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 7.1 or be a value that registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 6.1
contains a Collision Resistant Namespace. or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Namespace.
4.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter 3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter
The "kty" (key type) member identifies the cryptographic algorithm The "kty" (key type) member identifies the cryptographic algorithm
family used with the key. "kty" values SHOULD either be registered in family used with the key. "kty" values SHOULD either be registered in
the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry [JWA] or be a value that the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry [JWA] or be a value that
contains a Collision Resistant Namespace. The "kty" value is a case contains a Collision Resistant Namespace. The "kty" value is a case
sensitive string. Use of this member is REQUIRED. sensitive string. Use of this member is REQUIRED.
A list of defined "kty" values can be found in the IANA JSON Web Key A list of defined "kty" values can be found in the IANA JSON Web Key
Types registry [JWA]; the initial contents of this registry are the Types registry [JWA]; the initial contents of this registry are the
values defined in Section 5.1 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] values defined in Section 5.1 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA]
specification. specification.
Additional members used with these "kty" values can be found in the Additional members used with these "kty" values can be found in the
IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 7.1; the initial IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 6.1; the initial
contents of this registry are the values defined in Sections 5.2 and contents of this registry are the values defined in Sections 5.2 and
5.3 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. 5.3 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.
4.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter 3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter
The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key. The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key.
Values defined by this specification are: Values defined by this specification are:
o "sig" (signature) o "sig" (signature or MAC operation)
o "enc" (encryption) o "enc" (encryption)
Other values MAY be used. The "use" value is a case sensitive Other values MAY be used. The "use" value is a case sensitive
string. Use of this member is OPTIONAL. string. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.
4.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter 3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter
The "alg" (algorithm) member identifies the algorithm intended for The "alg" (algorithm) member identifies the algorithm intended for
use with the key. The values used in this field are the same as use with the key. The values used in this field are the same as
those used in the JWS [JWS] and JWE [JWE] "alg" and "enc" header those used in the JWS [JWS] and JWE [JWE] "alg" and "enc" header
parameters; these values can be found in the JSON Web Signature and parameters; these values can be found in the JSON Web Signature and
Encryption Algorithms registry [JWA]. Use of this member is Encryption Algorithms registry [JWA]. Use of this member is
OPTIONAL. OPTIONAL.
4.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter 3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter
The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This
can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within a JWK can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within a JWK
Set during key rollover. The interpretation of the "kid" value is Set during key rollover. The interpretation of the "kid" value is
unspecified. Key ID values within a JWK Set need not be unique. The unspecified. Key ID values within a JWK Set need not be unique. The
"kid" value is a case sensitive string. Use of this member is "kid" value is a case sensitive string. Use of this member is
OPTIONAL. OPTIONAL.
When used with JWS or JWE, the "kid" value MAY be used to match a JWS When used with JWS or JWE, the "kid" value can be used to match a JWS
or JWE "kid" header parameter value. or JWE "kid" header parameter value.
In some contexts, different keys using the same Key ID value might be In some contexts, different keys using the same Key ID value might be
present, with the keys being disambiguated using other information, present, with the keys being disambiguated using other information,
such as the "kty" or "use" values. For example, imagine "kid" values such as the "kty" or "use" values. For example, imagine "kid" values
like "Current", "Upcoming", and "Deprecated", used for key rollover like "Current", "Upcoming", and "Deprecated", used for key rollover
guidance. One could apply a label to all keys where the guidance. One could apply a label to all keys where the
classification fits. If there are multiple "Current" keys, then in classification fits. If there are multiple "Current" keys, then in
this example, they might be differentiated either by having different this example, they might be differentiated either by having different
"kty" or "use" values, or some combination of both. As one example, "kty" or "use" values, or some combination of both. As one example,
there might only be one current RSA signing key and one current there might only be one current RSA signing key and one current
Elliptic Curve signing key, but both would be "Current". Elliptic Curve signing key, but both would be "Current".
5. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format 4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format
A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object that contains an array A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object that contains an array
of JSON Web Key values as the value of its "keys" member. of JSON Web Key values as the value of its "keys" member.
The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; objects with The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; objects with
duplicate member names MUST be rejected. duplicate member names MUST be rejected.
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK Set. If present, they Additional members MAY be present in the JWK Set. If not understood
MUST be understood by implementations using them. Parameters for by implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored.
representing additional properties of JWK Sets SHOULD either be Parameters for representing additional properties of JWK Sets SHOULD
registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry
Section 7.2 or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Section 6.2 or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant
Namespace. Namespace.
5.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter 4.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter
The value of the "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) member is an array of JSON The value of the "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) member is an array of JSON
Web Key (JWK) values. Use of this member is REQUIRED. Web Key (JWK) values. Use of this member is REQUIRED.
6. String Comparison Rules 5. String Comparison Rules
Processing a JWK inevitably requires comparing known strings to Processing a JWK inevitably requires comparing known strings to
values in JSON objects. For example, in checking what the key type values in JSON objects. For example, in checking what the key type
is, the Unicode string encoding "kty" will be checked against the is, the Unicode string encoding "kty" will be checked against the
member names in the JWK to see if there is a matching name. member names in the JWK to see if there is a matching name.
Comparisons between JSON strings and other Unicode strings MUST be Comparisons between JSON strings and other Unicode strings MUST be
performed by comparing Unicode code points without normalization as performed by comparing Unicode code points without normalization as
specified in the String Comparison Rules in Section 5.3 of [JWS]. specified in the String Comparison Rules in Section 5.3 of [JWS].
7. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
The following registration procedure is used for all the registries The following registration procedure is used for all the registries
established by this specification. established by this specification.
Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a
two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the
advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the
allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s) allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s)
may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a
specification will be published. specification will be published.
skipping to change at page 7, line 44 skipping to change at page 7, line 9
Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation
and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
successful. successful.
IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s) IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s)
and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
list. list.
7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry 6.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters
registry for reserved JWK parameter names. The registry records the registry for reserved JWK parameter names. The registry records the
reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that
defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined
in Section 4. The same JWK parameter name may be registered multiple in Section 3. The same JWK parameter name may be registered multiple
times, provided that duplicate parameter registrations are only for times, provided that duplicate parameter registrations are only for
algorithm-specific JWK parameters; in this case, the meaning of the algorithm-specific JWK parameters; in this case, the meaning of the
duplicate parameter name is disambiguated by the "kty" value of the duplicate parameter name is disambiguated by the "kty" value of the
JWK containing it. JWK containing it.
7.1.1. Registration Template 6.1.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name: Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case
sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case
insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted. insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted.
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required. be included but is not required.
7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents 6.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "kty" o Parameter Name: "kty"
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "use" o Parameter Name: "use"
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "alg" o Parameter Name: "alg"
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.3 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "kid" o Parameter Name: "kid"
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.4 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of [[ this document ]]
7.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry 6.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters
registry for reserved JWK Set parameter names. The registry records registry for reserved JWK Set parameter names. The registry records
the reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that the reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that
defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined
in Section 5. in Section 4.
7.2.1. Registration Template 6.2.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name: Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case
sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case
insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted. insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted.
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required. be included but is not required.
7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents 6.2.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "keys" o Parameter Name: "keys"
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 5.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
8. Security Considerations 7. Security Considerations
All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application
must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are
protecting the user's private and symmetric keys, preventing various protecting the user's private and symmetric keys, preventing various
attacks, and helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently attacks, and helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently
encrypting a message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of encrypting a message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of
security considerations is beyond the scope of this document. security considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but
some significant considerations are listed here.
A key is no more trustworthy than the method by which it was A key is no more trustworthy than the method by which it was
received. received.
Per Section 4.4, applications should not assume that "kid" values are Private and symmetric keys must be protected from disclosure to
unique within a JWK Set. unintended parties. One recommended means of doing so is to encrypt
JWKs or JWK Sets containing them by using the JWK or JWK Set value as
the plaintext of a JWE.
The security considerations in RFC 3447 [RFC3447] and RFC 6030
[RFC6030] about protecting private and symmetric keys also apply to
this specification.
The security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0 The security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], about public key representations [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], about key representations also apply
also apply to this specification, other than those that are XML to this specification, other than those that are XML specific.
specific.
9. References 8. References
9.1. Normative References
8.1. Normative References
[JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", [JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)",
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress), draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress),
December 2012. April 2013.
[JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web [JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web
Encryption (JWE)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption Encryption (JWE)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption
(work in progress), December 2012. (work in progress), April 2013.
[JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web [JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work
in progress), December 2012. in progress), April 2013.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006. Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124] [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124]
Yiu, K., Solo, D., Eastlake, D., Datta, P., Hirsch, F., Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Yiu, K., Solo, D., Datta, P.,
Reagle, J., Cantor, S., and T. Roessler, "XML Signature Hirsch, F., Cantor, S., and T. Roessler, "XML Signature
Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web
Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012, Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>.
9.2. Informative References 8.2. Informative References
[JPSK] Jones, M., "JSON Private and Symmetric Key",
draft-ietf-jose-json-private-and-symmetric-key (work in
progress), December 2012.
[MagicSignatures] [MagicSignatures]
Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic
Signatures", January 2011. Signatures", January 2011.
[RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally [RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
July 2005. July 2005.
Appendix A. Acknowledgements [RFC6030] Hoyer, P., Pei, M., and S. Machani, "Portable Symmetric
Key Container (PSKC)", RFC 6030, October 2010.
Appendix A. Example JSON Web Key Sets
A.1. Example Public Keys
The following example JWK Set contains two public keys represented as
JWKs: one using an Elliptic Curve algorithm and a second one using an
RSA algorithm. The first specifies that the key is to be used for
encryption. The second specifies that the key is to be used with the
"RS256" algorithm. Both provide a Key ID for key matching purposes.
In both cases, integers are represented using the base64url encoding
of their big endian representations. (Long lines are broken are for
display purposes only.)
{"keys":
[
{"kty":"EC",
"crv":"P-256",
"x":"MKBCTNIcKUSDii11ySs3526iDZ8AiTo7Tu6KPAqv7D4",
"y":"4Etl6SRW2YiLUrN5vfvVHuhp7x8PxltmWWlbbM4IFyM",
"use":"enc",
"kid":"1"},
{"kty":"RSA",
"n": "0vx7agoebGcQSuuPiLJXZptN9nndrQmbXEps2aiAFbWhM78LhWx
4cbbfAAtVT86zwu1RK7aPFFxuhDR1L6tSoc_BJECPebWKRXjBZCiFV4n3oknjhMs
tn64tZ_2W-5JsGY4Hc5n9yBXArwl93lqt7_RN5w6Cf0h4QyQ5v-65YGjQR0_FDW2
QvzqY368QQMicAtaSqzs8KJZgnYb9c7d0zgdAZHzu6qMQvRL5hajrn1n91CbOpbI
SD08qNLyrdkt-bFTWhAI4vMQFh6WeZu0fM4lFd2NcRwr3XPksINHaQ-G_xBniIqb
w0Ls1jF44-csFCur-kEgU8awapJzKnqDKgw",
"e":"AQAB",
"alg":"RS256",
"kid":"2011-04-29"}
]
}
A.2. Example Private Keys
The following example JWK Set contains two keys represented as JWKs
containing both public and private key values: one using an Elliptic
Curve algorithm and a second one using an RSA algorithm. This
example extends the example in the previous section, adding private
key values. (Line breaks are for display purposes only.)
{"keys":
[
{"kty":"EC",
"crv":"P-256",
"x":"MKBCTNIcKUSDii11ySs3526iDZ8AiTo7Tu6KPAqv7D4",
"y":"4Etl6SRW2YiLUrN5vfvVHuhp7x8PxltmWWlbbM4IFyM",
"d":"870MB6gfuTJ4HtUnUvYMyJpr5eUZNP4Bk43bVdj3eAE",
"use":"enc",
"kid":"1"},
{"kty":"RSA",
"n":"0vx7agoebGcQSuuPiLJXZptN9nndrQmbXEps2aiAFbWhM78LhWx4
cbbfAAtVT86zwu1RK7aPFFxuhDR1L6tSoc_BJECPebWKRXjBZCiFV4n3oknjhMst
n64tZ_2W-5JsGY4Hc5n9yBXArwl93lqt7_RN5w6Cf0h4QyQ5v-65YGjQR0_FDW2Q
vzqY368QQMicAtaSqzs8KJZgnYb9c7d0zgdAZHzu6qMQvRL5hajrn1n91CbOpbIS
D08qNLyrdkt-bFTWhAI4vMQFh6WeZu0fM4lFd2NcRwr3XPksINHaQ-G_xBniIqbw
0Ls1jF44-csFCur-kEgU8awapJzKnqDKgw",
"e":"AQAB",
"d":"X4cTteJY_gn4FYPsXB8rdXix5vwsg1FLN5E3EaG6RJoVH-HLLKD9
M7dx5oo7GURknchnrRweUkC7hT5fJLM0WbFAKNLWY2vv7B6NqXSzUvxT0_YSfqij
wp3RTzlBaCxWp4doFk5N2o8Gy_nHNKroADIkJ46pRUohsXywbReAdYaMwFs9tv8d
_cPVY3i07a3t8MN6TNwm0dSawm9v47UiCl3Sk5ZiG7xojPLu4sbg1U2jx4IBTNBz
nbJSzFHK66jT8bgkuqsk0GjskDJk19Z4qwjwbsnn4j2WBii3RL-Us2lGVkY8fkFz
me1z0HbIkfz0Y6mqnOYtqc0X4jfcKoAC8Q",
"p":"83i-7IvMGXoMXCskv73TKr8637FiO7Z27zv8oj6pbWUQyLPQBQxtPV
nwD20R-60eTDmD2ujnMt5PoqMrm8RfmNhVWDtjjMmCMjOpSXicFHj7XOuVIYQyqV
WlWEh6dN36GVZYk93N8Bc9vY41xy8B9RzzOGVQzXvNEvn7O0nVbfs",
"q":"3dfOR9cuYq-0S-mkFLzgItgMEfFzB2q3hWehMuG0oCuqnb3vobLyum
qjVZQO1dIrdwgTnCdpYzBcOfW5r370AFXjiWft_NGEiovonizhKpo9VVS78TzFgx
kIdrecRezsZ-1kYd_s1qDbxtkDEgfAITAG9LUnADun4vIcb6yelxk",
"dp":"G4sPXkc6Ya9y8oJW9_ILj4xuppu0lzi_H7VTkS8xj5SdX3coE0oim
YwxIi2emTAue0UOa5dpgFGyBJ4c8tQ2VF402XRugKDTP8akYhFo5tAA77Qe_Nmtu
YZc3C3m3I24G2GvR5sSDxUyAN2zq8Lfn9EUms6rY3Ob8YeiKkTiBj0",
"dq":"s9lAH9fggBsoFR8Oac2R_E2gw282rT2kGOAhvIllETE1efrA6huUU
vMfBcMpn8lqeW6vzznYY5SSQF7pMdC_agI3nG8Ibp1BUb0JUiraRNqUfLhcQb_d9
GF4Dh7e74WbRsobRonujTYN1xCaP6TO61jvWrX-L18txXw494Q_cgk",
"qi":"GyM_p6JrXySiz1toFgKbWV-JdI3jQ4ypu9rbMWx3rQJBfmt0FoYzg
UIZEVFEcOqwemRN81zoDAaa-Bk0KWNGDjJHZDdDmFhW3AN7lI-puxk_mHZGJ11rx
yR8O55XLSe3SPmRfKwZI6yU24ZxvQKFYItdldUKGzO6Ia6zTKhAVRU",
"alg":"RS256",
"kid":"2011-04-29"}
]
}
A.3. Example Symmetric Keys
The following example JWK Set contains two symmetric keys represented
as JWKs: one designated as being for use with the AES Key Wrap
algorithm and a second one that is an HMAC key. (Line breaks are for
display purposes only.)
{"keys":
[
{"kty":"oct",
"alg":"A128KW",
"k":"GawgguFyGrWKav7AX4VKUg"},
{"kty":"oct",
"k":"AyM1SysPpbyDfgZld3umj1qzKObwVMkoqQ-EstJQLr_T-1qS0gZH75
aKtMN3Yj0iPS4hcgUuTwjAzZr1Z9CAow",
"kid":"HMAC key used in JWS A.1 example"}
]
}
Appendix B. Acknowledgements
A JSON representation for RSA public keys was previously introduced A JSON representation for RSA public keys was previously introduced
by John Panzer, Ben Laurie, and Dirk Balfanz in Magic Signatures by John Panzer, Ben Laurie, and Dirk Balfanz in Magic Signatures
[MagicSignatures]. [MagicSignatures].
This specification is the work of the JOSE Working Group, which This specification is the work of the JOSE Working Group, which
includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular, includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular,
the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
that influenced this specification: that influenced this specification:
Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, John Bradley, Brian Campbell, Breno de Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, John Bradley, Brian Campbell, Breno de
Medeiros, Joe Hildebrand, Edmund Jay, Ben Laurie, James Manger, Tony Medeiros, Joe Hildebrand, Edmund Jay, Ben Laurie, James Manger, Tony
Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Panzer, Eric Rescorla, Nat Sakimura, Jim Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Panzer, Eric Rescorla, Nat Sakimura, Jim
Schaad, Paul Tarjan, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner. Schaad, Paul Tarjan, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner.
Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and
Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors
during the creation of this specification. during the creation of this specification.
Appendix B. Open Issues Appendix C. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
The following items remain to be considered or done in this draft: -09
o Expanded the scope of the JWK specification to include private and
o No known open issues. symmetric key representations, as specified by
draft-jones-jose-json-private-and-symmetric-key-00.
Appendix C. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] o Defined that members that are not understood must be ignored.
-08 -08
o Changed the name of the JWK key type parameter from "alg" to "kty" o Changed the name of the JWK key type parameter from "alg" to "kty"
to enable use of "alg" to indicate the particular algorithm that to enable use of "alg" to indicate the particular algorithm that
the key is intended to be used with. the key is intended to be used with.
o Clarified statements of the form "This member is OPTIONAL" to "Use o Clarified statements of the form "This member is OPTIONAL" to "Use
of this member is OPTIONAL". of this member is OPTIONAL".
 End of changes. 52 change blocks. 
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