draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-10.txt   draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-11.txt 
JOSE Working Group M. Jones JOSE Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track April 25, 2013 Intended status: Standards Track May 28, 2013
Expires: October 27, 2013 Expires: November 29, 2013
JSON Web Key (JWK) JSON Web Key (JWK)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-10 draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-11
Abstract Abstract
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data
structure that represents a cryptographic key. This specification structure that represents a cryptographic key. This specification
also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for
representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON
Web Algorithms (JWA) specification. Web Algorithms (JWA) specification.
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material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on October 27, 2013. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 29, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.5. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) Header Parameter . . 6
3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter . . . . . . . . 6
4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats . . . . . . . . . 7
6.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.3. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values
8.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.3.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Appendix A. Example JSON Web Key Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.4. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
A.1. Example Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
A.2. Example Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
A.3. Example Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Appendix B. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Appendix C. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Appendix A. Example JSON Web Key Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
A.1. Example Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
A.2. Example Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A.3. Example Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Appendix B. Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain)
Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627] A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627]
data structure that represents a cryptographic key. This data structure that represents a cryptographic key. This
specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data
structure for representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms structure for representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms
and identifiers for use with this specification are described in the and identifiers for use with this specification are described in the
separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.
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be achieved through administrative delegation of portions of the be achieved through administrative delegation of portions of the
namespace or through use of collision-resistant name allocation namespace or through use of collision-resistant name allocation
functions. Examples of Collision Resistant Namespaces include: functions. Examples of Collision Resistant Namespaces include:
Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as defined in the ITU-T Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as defined in the ITU-T
X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and Universally Unique X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and Universally Unique
IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an administratively IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an administratively
delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs to take delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs to take
reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of the reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of the
portion of the namespace they use to define the name. portion of the namespace they use to define the name.
Encrypted JWK A JWE with a JWK as its plaintext value.
Encrypted JWK Set A JWE with a JWK Set as its plaintext value.
3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format 3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object containing specific members, as A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object containing specific members, as
specified below. Those members that are common to all key types are specified below. Those members that are common to all key types are
defined below. defined below.
In addition to the common parameters, each JWK will have members that In addition to the common parameters, each JWK will have members that
are specific to the kind of key being represented. These members are specific to the kind of key being represented. These members
represent the parameters of the key. Section 5 of the JSON Web represent the parameters of the key. Section 5 of the JSON Web
Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification defines multiple kinds of Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification defines multiple kinds of
cryptographic keys and their associated members. cryptographic keys and their associated members.
The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; objects with duplicate The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; objects with duplicate
member names MUST be rejected. member names MUST be rejected.
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK. If not understood by Additional members MAY be present in the JWK. If not understood by
implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. Member implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. Member
names used for representing key parameters for different kinds of names used for representing key parameters for different kinds of
keys need not be distinct. Any new member name SHOULD either be keys need not be distinct. Any new member name SHOULD either be
registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 6.1 registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 7.1
or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Namespace. or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Namespace.
3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter 3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter
The "kty" (key type) member identifies the cryptographic algorithm The "kty" (key type) member identifies the cryptographic algorithm
family used with the key. "kty" values SHOULD either be registered in family used with the key. "kty" values SHOULD either be registered in
the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry [JWA] or be a value that the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry [JWA] or be a value that
contains a Collision Resistant Namespace. The "kty" value is a case contains a Collision Resistant Namespace. The "kty" value is a case
sensitive string. Use of this member is REQUIRED. sensitive string. Use of this member is REQUIRED.
A list of defined "kty" values can be found in the IANA JSON Web Key A list of defined "kty" values can be found in the IANA JSON Web Key
Types registry [JWA]; the initial contents of this registry are the Types registry [JWA]; the initial contents of this registry are the
values defined in Section 5.1 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] values defined in Section 5.1 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA]
specification. specification.
Additional members used with these "kty" values can be found in the Additional members used with these "kty" values can be found in the
IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 6.1; the initial IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 7.1; the initial
contents of this registry are the values defined in Sections 5.2 and contents of this registry are the values defined in Sections 5.2 and
5.3 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. 5.3 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.
3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter 3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter
The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key. The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key.
Values defined by this specification are: Values defined by this specification are:
o "sig" (signature or MAC operation) o "sig" (signature or MAC operation)
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those used in the JWS [JWS] and JWE [JWE] "alg" and "enc" header those used in the JWS [JWS] and JWE [JWE] "alg" and "enc" header
parameters; these values can be found in the JSON Web Signature and parameters; these values can be found in the JSON Web Signature and
Encryption Algorithms registry [JWA]. Use of this member is Encryption Algorithms registry [JWA]. Use of this member is
OPTIONAL. OPTIONAL.
3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter 3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter
The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This
can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within a JWK can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within a JWK
Set during key rollover. The interpretation of the "kid" value is Set during key rollover. The interpretation of the "kid" value is
unspecified. Key ID values within a JWK Set need not be unique. The unspecified. When "kid" values are used within a JWK Set, different
"kid" value is a case sensitive string. Use of this member is keys within the JWK Set SHOULD use distinct "kid" values. The "kid"
OPTIONAL. value is a case sensitive string. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.
When used with JWS or JWE, the "kid" value can be used to match a JWS When used with JWS or JWE, the "kid" value can be used to match a JWS
or JWE "kid" header parameter value. or JWE "kid" header parameter value.
In some contexts, different keys using the same Key ID value might be 3.5. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Header Parameter
present, with the keys being disambiguated using other information,
such as the "kty" or "use" values. For example, imagine "kid" values The "x5u" (X.509 URL) member is a URI [RFC3986] that refers to a
like "Current", "Upcoming", and "Deprecated", used for key rollover resource for an X.509 public key certificate or certificate chain
guidance. One could apply a label to all keys where the [RFC5280]. The identified resource MUST provide a representation of
classification fits. If there are multiple "Current" keys, then in the certificate or certificate chain that conforms to RFC 5280
this example, they might be differentiated either by having different [RFC5280] in PEM encoded form [RFC1421]. The key in the first
"kty" or "use" values, or some combination of both. As one example, certificate MUST match the bare public key represented by other
there might only be one current RSA signing key and one current members of the JWK. The protocol used to acquire the resource MUST
Elliptic Curve signing key, but both would be "Current". provide integrity protection; an HTTP GET request to retrieve the
certificate MUST use TLS [RFC2818] [RFC5246]; the identity of the
server MUST be validated, as per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS
[RFC2818]. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.
3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) Header Parameter
The "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) member is a base64url
encoded SHA-1 thumbprint (a.k.a. digest) of the DER encoding of an
X.509 certificate [RFC5280]. The key in the certificate MUST match
the bare public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of
this member is OPTIONAL.
3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter
x5c The "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) member contains a chain of
one or more PKIX certificates [RFC5280]. The certificate chain is
represented as a JSON array of certificate value strings. Each
string in the array is a base64 encoded ([RFC4648] Section 4 --
not base64url encoded) DER [ITU.X690.1994] PKIX certificate value.
The PKIX certificate containing the key value MUST be the first
certificate. This MAY be followed by additional certificates,
with each subsequent certificate being the one used to certify the
previous one. The key in the first certificate MUST match the
bare public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of
this member is OPTIONAL.
4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format 4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format
A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object that contains an array A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object that contains an array
of JSON Web Key values as the value of its "keys" member. of JSON Web Key values as the value of its "keys" member.
The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; objects with The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; objects with
duplicate member names MUST be rejected. duplicate member names MUST be rejected.
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK Set. If not understood Additional members MAY be present in the JWK Set. If not understood
by implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. by implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored.
Parameters for representing additional properties of JWK Sets SHOULD Parameters for representing additional properties of JWK Sets SHOULD
either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry
Section 6.2 or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Section 7.2 or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant
Namespace. Namespace.
4.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter 4.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter
The value of the "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) member is an array of JSON The value of the "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) member is an array of JSON
Web Key (JWK) values. Use of this member is REQUIRED. Web Key (JWK) values. Use of this member is REQUIRED.
5. String Comparison Rules 5. String Comparison Rules
Processing a JWK inevitably requires comparing known strings to Processing a JWK inevitably requires comparing known strings to
values in JSON objects. For example, in checking what the key type values in JSON objects. For example, in checking what the key type
is, the Unicode string encoding "kty" will be checked against the is, the Unicode string encoding "kty" will be checked against the
member names in the JWK to see if there is a matching name. member names in the JWK to see if there is a matching name.
Comparisons between JSON strings and other Unicode strings MUST be Comparisons between JSON strings and other Unicode strings MUST be
performed by comparing Unicode code points without normalization as performed by comparing Unicode code points without normalization as
specified in the String Comparison Rules in Section 5.3 of [JWS]. specified in the String Comparison Rules in Section 5.3 of [JWS].
6. IANA Considerations 6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats
JWKs containing non-public key material will need to be encrypted in
some contexts to prevent the disclosure of private or symmetric key
values to unintended parties. The use of an Encrypted JWK, which is
a JWE with a JWK as its plaintext value, is RECOMMENED for this
purpose. The processing of Encrypted JWKs is identical to the
processing of other JWEs. A "cty" (content type) header parameter
value of "JWK" can be used to indicate that the content of the JWE is
a JWK in contexts where this is useful.
JWK Sets containing non-public key material will similarly need to be
encrypted. The use of an Encrypted JWK Set, which is a JWE with a
JWK Set as its plaintext value, is RECOMMENED for this purpose. The
processing of Encrypted JWK Sets is identical to the processing of
other JWEs. A "cty" (content type) header parameter value of
"JWK-SET" can be used to indicate that the content of the JWE is a
JWK Set in contexts where this is useful.
7. IANA Considerations
The following registration procedure is used for all the registries The following registration procedure is used for all the registries
established by this specification. established by this specification.
Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a
two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the
advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the
allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s) allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s)
may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a
specification will be published. specification will be published.
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Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation
and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
successful. successful.
IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s) IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s)
and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
list. list.
6.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry 7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters
registry for reserved JWK parameter names. The registry records the registry for reserved JWK parameter names. The registry records the
reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that
defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined defines it. It also records whether the parameter conveys public or
in Section 3. The same JWK parameter name may be registered multiple private information. This specification registers the parameter
times, provided that duplicate parameter registrations are only for names defined in Section 3. The same JWK parameter name may be
algorithm-specific JWK parameters; in this case, the meaning of the registered multiple times, provided that duplicate parameter
duplicate parameter name is disambiguated by the "kty" value of the registrations are only for algorithm-specific JWK parameters; in this
JWK containing it. case, the meaning of the duplicate parameter name is disambiguated by
the "kty" value of the JWK containing it.
6.1.1. Registration Template 7.1.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name: Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case
sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case
insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted. insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted.
Parameter Information Class:
Registers whether the parameter conveys public or private
information. Its value must be one the words Public or Private.
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required. be included but is not required.
6.1.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "kty" o Parameter Name: "kty"
o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "use" o Parameter Name: "use"
o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "alg" o Parameter Name: "alg"
o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "kid" o Parameter Name: "kid"
o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of [[ this document ]]
6.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry o Parameter Name: "x5u"
o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "x5t"
o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.6 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "x5c"
o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.7 of [[ this document ]]
7.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters
registry for reserved JWK Set parameter names. The registry records registry for reserved JWK Set parameter names. The registry records
the reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that the reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that
defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined
in Section 4. in Section 4.
6.2.1. Registration Template 7.2.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name: Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case
sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case
insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted. insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted.
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required. be included but is not required.
6.2.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "keys" o Parameter Name: "keys"
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
7. Security Considerations 7.3. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values Registration
7.3.1. Registry Contents
This specification registers the "JWK" and "JWK-SET" type values in
the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values registry
[JWS]:
o "typ" Header Parameter Value: "JWK"
o Abbreviation for MIME Type: application/jwk+json
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 3 of [[ this document ]]
o "typ" Header Parameter Value: "JWK-SET"
o Abbreviation for MIME Type: application/jwk-set+json
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4 of [[ this document ]]
7.4. Media Type Registration
7.4.1. Registry Contents
This specification registers the "application/jwk+json" and
"application/jwk-set+json" Media Types [RFC2046] in the MIME Media
Type registry [RFC4288] to indicate, respectively, that the content
is a JWK or a JWK Set.
o Type Name: application
o Subtype Name: jwk+json
o Required Parameters: n/a
o Optional Parameters: n/a
o Encoding considerations: application/jwk+json values are
represented as JSON object; UTF-8 encoding SHOULD be employed for
the JSON object.
o Security Considerations: See the Security Considerations section
of [[ this document ]]
o Interoperability Considerations: n/a
o Published Specification: [[ this document ]]
o Applications that use this media type: TBD
o Additional Information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s):
n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael
B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Intended Usage: COMMON
o Restrictions on Usage: none
o Author: Michael B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Change Controller: IETF
o Type Name: application
o Subtype Name: jwk-set+json
o Required Parameters: n/a
o Optional Parameters: n/a
o Encoding considerations: application/jwk-set+json values are
represented as a JSON Object; UTF-8 encoding SHOULD be employed
for the JSON object.
o Security Considerations: See the Security Considerations section
of [[ this document ]]
o Interoperability Considerations: n/a
o Published Specification: [[ this document ]]
o Applications that use this media type: TBD
o Additional Information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s):
n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael
B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Intended Usage: COMMON
o Restrictions on Usage: none
o Author: Michael B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Change Controller: IETF
8. Security Considerations
All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application
must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are
protecting the user's private and symmetric keys, preventing various protecting the user's private and symmetric keys, preventing various
attacks, and helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently attacks, and helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently
encrypting a message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of encrypting a message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of
security considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but security considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but
some significant considerations are listed here. some significant considerations are listed here.
A key is no more trustworthy than the method by which it was A key is no more trustworthy than the method by which it was
skipping to change at page 9, line 21 skipping to change at page 12, line 25
the plaintext of a JWE. the plaintext of a JWE.
The security considerations in RFC 3447 [RFC3447] and RFC 6030 The security considerations in RFC 3447 [RFC3447] and RFC 6030
[RFC6030] about protecting private and symmetric keys also apply to [RFC6030] about protecting private and symmetric keys also apply to
this specification. this specification.
The security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0 The security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], about key representations also apply [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], about key representations also apply
to this specification, other than those that are XML specific. to this specification, other than those that are XML specific.
8. References 9. References
8.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[ITU.X690.1994]
International Telecommunications Union, "Information
Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic
Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and
Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ITU-T Recommendation
X.690, 1994.
[JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", [JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)",
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress), draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress),
April 2013. May 2013.
[JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web [JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web
Encryption (JWE)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption Encryption (JWE)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption
(work in progress), April 2013. (work in progress), May 2013.
[JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web [JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work
in progress), April 2013. in progress), May 2013.
[RFC1421] Linn, J., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic
Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication
Procedures", RFC 1421, February 1993.
[RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
November 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005.
[RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
Registration Procedures", RFC 4288, December 2005.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006. Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.
[RFC5280] Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
(CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, May 2008.
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124] [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124]
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Yiu, K., Solo, D., Datta, P., Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Yiu, K., Solo, D., Datta, P.,
Hirsch, F., Cantor, S., and T. Roessler, "XML Signature Hirsch, F., Cantor, S., and T. Roessler, "XML Signature
Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web
Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012, Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>.
8.2. Informative References 9.2. Informative References
[MagicSignatures] [MagicSignatures]
Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic
Signatures", January 2011. Signatures", January 2011.
[RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography [RFC3447] Jonsson, J. and B. Kaliski, "Public-Key Cryptography
Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Standards (PKCS) #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications
Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003. Version 2.1", RFC 3447, February 2003.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally [RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
skipping to change at page 13, line 25 skipping to change at page 17, line 25
"alg":"A128KW", "alg":"A128KW",
"k":"GawgguFyGrWKav7AX4VKUg"}, "k":"GawgguFyGrWKav7AX4VKUg"},
{"kty":"oct", {"kty":"oct",
"k":"AyM1SysPpbyDfgZld3umj1qzKObwVMkoqQ-EstJQLr_T-1qS0gZH75 "k":"AyM1SysPpbyDfgZld3umj1qzKObwVMkoqQ-EstJQLr_T-1qS0gZH75
aKtMN3Yj0iPS4hcgUuTwjAzZr1Z9CAow", aKtMN3Yj0iPS4hcgUuTwjAzZr1Z9CAow",
"kid":"HMAC key used in JWS A.1 example"} "kid":"HMAC key used in JWS A.1 example"}
] ]
} }
Appendix B. Acknowledgements Appendix B. Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter
The following is a non-normative example of a JWK with a RSA signing
key represented both as a bare public key and as an X.509 certificate
using the "x5c" parameter:
{"kty":"RSA",
"use":"sig",
"kid":"1b94c",
"n":"vrjOfz9Ccdgx5nQudyhdoR17V-IubWMeOZCwX_jj0hgAsz2J_pqYW08
PLbK_PdiVGKPrqzmDIsLI7sA25VEnHU1uCLNwBuUiCO11_-7dYbsr4iJmG0Q
u2j8DsVyT1azpJC_NG84Ty5KKthuCaPod7iI7w0LK9orSMhBEwwZDCxTWq4a
YWAchc8t-emd9qOvWtVMDC2BXksRngh6X5bUYLy6AyHKvj-nUy1wgzjYQDwH
MTplCoLtU-o-8SNnZ1tmRoGE9uJkBLdh5gFENabWnU5m1ZqZPdwS-qo-meMv
VfJb6jJVWRpl2SUtCnYG2C32qvbWbjZ_jBPD5eunqsIo1vQ",
"e":"AQAB",
"x5c":
["MIIDQjCCAiqgAwIBAgIGATz/FuLiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAMGIxCzAJB
gNVBAYTAlVTMQswCQYDVQQIEwJDTzEPMA0GA1UEBxMGRGVudmVyMRwwGgYD
VQQKExNQaW5nIElkZW50aXR5IENvcnAuMRcwFQYDVQQDEw5CcmlhbiBDYW1
wYmVsbDAeFw0xMzAyMjEyMzI5MTVaFw0xODA4MTQyMjI5MTVaMGIxCzAJBg
NVBAYTAlVTMQswCQYDVQQIEwJDTzEPMA0GA1UEBxMGRGVudmVyMRwwGgYDV
QQKExNQaW5nIElkZW50aXR5IENvcnAuMRcwFQYDVQQDEw5CcmlhbiBDYW1w
YmVsbDCCASIwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADggEPADCCAQoCggEBAL64zn8/QnH
YMeZ0LncoXaEde1fiLm1jHjmQsF/449IYALM9if6amFtPDy2yvz3YlRij66
s5gyLCyO7ANuVRJx1NbgizcAblIgjtdf/u3WG7K+IiZhtELto/A7Fck9Ws6
SQvzRvOE8uSirYbgmj6He4iO8NCyvaK0jIQRMMGQwsU1quGmFgHIXPLfnpn
fajr1rVTAwtgV5LEZ4Iel+W1GC8ugMhyr4/p1MtcIM42EA8BzE6ZQqC7VPq
PvEjZ2dbZkaBhPbiZAS3YeYBRDWm1p1OZtWamT3cEvqqPpnjL1XyW+oyVVk
aZdklLQp2Btgt9qr21m42f4wTw+Xrp6rCKNb0CAwEAATANBgkqhkiG9w0BA
QUFAAOCAQEAh8zGlfSlcI0o3rYDPBB07aXNswb4ECNIKG0CETTUxmXl9KUL
+9gGlqCz5iWLOgWsnrcKcY0vXPG9J1r9AqBNTqNgHq2G03X09266X5CpOe1
zFo+Owb1zxtp3PehFdfQJ610CDLEaS9V9Rqp17hCyybEpOGVwe8fnk+fbEL
2Bo3UPGrpsHzUoaGpDftmWssZkhpBJKVMJyf/RuP2SmmaIzmnw9JiSlYhzo
4tpzd5rFXhjRbg4zW9C+2qok+2+qDM1iJ684gPHMIY8aLWrdgQTxkumGmTq
gawR+N5MDtdPTEQ0XfIBc2cJEUyMTY5MPvACWpkA6SdS4xSvdXK3IVfOWA=="]
}
Appendix C. Acknowledgements
A JSON representation for RSA public keys was previously introduced A JSON representation for RSA public keys was previously introduced
by John Panzer, Ben Laurie, and Dirk Balfanz in Magic Signatures by John Panzer, Ben Laurie, and Dirk Balfanz in Magic Signatures
[MagicSignatures]. [MagicSignatures].
This specification is the work of the JOSE Working Group, which This specification is the work of the JOSE Working Group, which
includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular, includes dozens of active and dedicated participants. In particular,
the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording the following individuals contributed ideas, feedback, and wording
that influenced this specification: that influenced this specification:
Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, John Bradley, Brian Campbell, Breno de Dirk Balfanz, Richard Barnes, John Bradley, Brian Campbell, Breno de
Medeiros, Joe Hildebrand, Edmund Jay, Ben Laurie, James Manger, Tony Medeiros, Joe Hildebrand, Edmund Jay, Ben Laurie, James Manger, Matt
Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Panzer, Eric Rescorla, Nat Sakimura, Jim Miller, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Panzer, Eric Rescorla, Nat
Schaad, Paul Tarjan, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Turner. Sakimura, Jim Schaad, Paul Tarjan, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean
Turner.
Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and
Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors
during the creation of this specification. during the creation of this specification.
Appendix C. Document History Appendix D. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-11
o Stated that when "kid" values are used within a JWK Set, different
keys within the JWK Set SHOULD use distinct "kid" values.
o Added optional "x5u" (X.509 URL), "x5t" (X.509 Certificate
Thumbprint), and "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) JWK parameters.
o Added section on Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats.
o Added a Parameter Information Class value to the JSON Web Key
Parameters registry, which registers whether the parameter conveys
public or private information.
o Registered "application/jwk+json" and "application/jwk-set+json"
MIME types and "JWK" and "JWK-SET" typ header parameter values,
addressing issue #21.
-10 -10
o No changes were made, other than to the version number and date. o No changes were made, other than to the version number and date.
-09 -09
o Expanded the scope of the JWK specification to include private and o Expanded the scope of the JWK specification to include private and
symmetric key representations, as specified by symmetric key representations, as specified by
draft-jones-jose-json-private-and-symmetric-key-00. draft-jones-jose-json-private-and-symmetric-key-00.
o Defined that members that are not understood must be ignored. o Defined that members that are not understood must be ignored.
 End of changes. 39 change blocks. 
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