draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-15.txt   draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-16.txt 
JOSE Working Group M. Jones JOSE Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track September 3, 2013 Intended status: Standards Track September 15, 2013
Expires: March 7, 2014 Expires: March 19, 2014
JSON Web Key (JWK) JSON Web Key (JWK)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-15 draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-16
Abstract Abstract
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data
structure that represents a cryptographic key. This specification structure that represents a cryptographic key. This specification
also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for
representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON
Web Algorithms (JWA) specification and IANA registries defined by Web Algorithms (JWA) specification and IANA registries defined by
that specification. that specification.
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This Internet-Draft will expire on March 7, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 19, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.5. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.5. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) Parameter . . . . . . 6 3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) Parameter . . . 7
3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter . . . . . . . . 6 3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter . . . . . . . . 7
4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. "keys" Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats . . . . . . . . . 7 6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats . . . . . . . . . 8
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.2. JSON Web Key Use Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.3. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values 7.3. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.3.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.3.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.4. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.4. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values
7.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.5. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.5.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Appendix A. Example JSON Web Key Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A.1. Example Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A.2. Example Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
A.3. Example Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Appendix A. Example JSON Web Key Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
A.1. Example Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
A.2. Example Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
A.3. Example Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix B. Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Appendix B. Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain)
Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627] A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627]
data structure that represents a cryptographic key. This data structure that represents a cryptographic key. This
specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data
structure for representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms structure for representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms
and identifiers for use with this specification are described in the and identifiers for use with this specification are described in the
separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification and IANA separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification and IANA
registries defined by that specification. registries defined by that specification.
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JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specifications. JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specifications.
Names defined by this specification are short because a core goal is Names defined by this specification are short because a core goal is
for the resulting representations to be compact. for the resulting representations to be compact.
1.1. Notational Conventions 1.1. Notational Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in
RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119]. RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119]. If these words are
used without being spelled in uppercase then they are to be
interpreted with their normal natural language meanings.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
JSON Web Key (JWK) A JSON object that represents a cryptographic JSON Web Key (JWK) A JSON object that represents a cryptographic
key. key.
JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) A JSON object that contains an array of JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) A JSON object that contains an array of
JWKs as the value of its "keys" member. JWKs as the value of its "keys" member.
Base64url Encoding Base64 encoding using the URL- and filename-safe Base64url Encoding Base64 encoding using the URL- and filename-safe
character set defined in Section 5 of RFC 4648 [RFC4648], with all character set defined in Section 5 of RFC 4648 [RFC4648], with all
trailing '=' characters omitted (as permitted by Section 3.2). trailing '=' characters omitted (as permitted by Section 3.2).
(See Appendix C of [JWS] for notes on implementing base64url (See Appendix C of [JWS] for notes on implementing base64url
encoding without padding.) encoding without padding.)
Collision Resistant Namespace A namespace that allows names to be Collision Resistant Name A name in a namespace that enables names to
allocated in a manner such that they are highly unlikely to be allocated in a manner such that they are highly unlikely to
collide with other names. Examples of Collision Resistant collide with other names. Examples of collision resistant
Namespaces include: Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as namespaces include: Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as
defined in the ITU-T X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and defined in the ITU-T X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and
Universally Unique IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an Universally Unique IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an
administratively delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs administratively delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs
to take reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of to take reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of
the portion of the namespace they use to define the name. the portion of the namespace they use to define the name.
3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format 3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object containing specific members, as A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object containing specific members, as
specified below. Those members that are common to multiple key types specified below. Those members that are common to multiple key types
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The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; recipients MUST either The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; recipients MUST either
reject JWKs with duplicate member names or use a JSON parser that reject JWKs with duplicate member names or use a JSON parser that
returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as specified returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as specified
in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1 [ECMAScript]. in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1 [ECMAScript].
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK. If not understood by Additional members MAY be present in the JWK. If not understood by
implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. Member implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. Member
names used for representing key parameters for different kinds of names used for representing key parameters for different kinds of
keys need not be distinct. Any new member name SHOULD either be keys need not be distinct. Any new member name SHOULD either be
registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 7.1 registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in
or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Namespace. Section 7.1 or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Name.
3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter 3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter
The "kty" (key type) member identifies the cryptographic algorithm The "kty" (key type) member identifies the cryptographic algorithm
family used with the key. "kty" values SHOULD either be registered in family used with the key. "kty" values SHOULD either be registered in
the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry [JWA] or be a value that the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry defined in [JWA] or be a value
contains a Collision Resistant Namespace. The "kty" value is a case that contains a Collision Resistant Name. The "kty" value is a case
sensitive string. Use of this member is REQUIRED. sensitive string. Use of this member is REQUIRED.
A list of defined "kty" values can be found in the IANA JSON Web Key A list of defined "kty" values can be found in the IANA JSON Web Key
Types registry [JWA]; the initial contents of this registry are the Types registry defined in [JWA]; the initial contents of this
values defined in Section 5.1 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] registry are the values defined in Section 5.1 of the JSON Web
specification. Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.
Additional members used with these "kty" values can be found in the Additional members used with these "kty" values can be found in the
IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry Section 7.1; the initial IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in Section 7.1; the
contents of this registry are the values defined in Sections 5.2 and initial contents of this registry are the values defined in Sections
5.3 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. 5.2 and 5.3 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.
3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter 3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter
The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key. The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key.
Values defined by this specification are: Values defined by this specification are:
o "sig" (signature or MAC operation) o "sig" (signature or MAC operation)
o "enc" (encryption) o "enc" (encryption)
Other values MAY be used. The "use" value is a case sensitive Other values MAY be used. Key Use values can be registered in the
string. Use of this member is OPTIONAL. IANA JSON Web Key Use registry defined in Section 7.2. The "use"
value is a case sensitive string. A "use" member SHOULD be present,
unless the application uses another means or convention to determine
the intended key usage.
When a key is used to wrap another key and a key use designation for
the first key is desired, the "enc" (encryption) key use value SHOULD
be used, since key wrapping is a kind of encryption. (The "alg"
member can be used to specify the particular kind of encryption to be
performed, when desired.)
3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter 3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter
The "alg" (algorithm) member identifies the algorithm intended for The "alg" (algorithm) member identifies the algorithm intended for
use with the key. The values used in this field are the same as use with the key. The values used SHOULD either be registered in the
those used in the JWS [JWS] and JWE [JWE] "alg" and "enc" header IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms registry defined in
parameters; these values can be found in the JSON Web Signature and [JWA] or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Name. Use of
Encryption Algorithms registry [JWA]. Use of this member is this member is OPTIONAL.
OPTIONAL.
3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter 3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter
The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This
can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within a JWK can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within a JWK
Set during key rollover. The interpretation of the "kid" value is Set during key rollover. The interpretation of the "kid" value is
unspecified. When "kid" values are used within a JWK Set, different unspecified. When "kid" values are used within a JWK Set, different
keys within the JWK Set SHOULD use distinct "kid" values. The "kid" keys within the JWK Set SHOULD use distinct "kid" values. The "kid"
value is a case sensitive string. Use of this member is OPTIONAL. value is a case sensitive string. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.
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[RFC5280]. The identified resource MUST provide a representation of [RFC5280]. The identified resource MUST provide a representation of
the certificate or certificate chain that conforms to RFC 5280 the certificate or certificate chain that conforms to RFC 5280
[RFC5280] in PEM encoded form [RFC1421]. The key in the first [RFC5280] in PEM encoded form [RFC1421]. The key in the first
certificate MUST match the bare public key represented by other certificate MUST match the bare public key represented by other
members of the JWK. The protocol used to acquire the resource MUST members of the JWK. The protocol used to acquire the resource MUST
provide integrity protection; an HTTP GET request to retrieve the provide integrity protection; an HTTP GET request to retrieve the
certificate MUST use TLS [RFC2818] [RFC5246]; the identity of the certificate MUST use TLS [RFC2818] [RFC5246]; the identity of the
server MUST be validated, as per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS server MUST be validated, as per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS
[RFC2818]. Use of this member is OPTIONAL. [RFC2818]. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.
3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) Parameter 3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) Parameter
The "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) member is a base64url The "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) member is a base64url
encoded SHA-1 thumbprint (a.k.a. digest) of the DER encoding of an encoded SHA-1 thumbprint (a.k.a. digest) of the DER encoding of an
X.509 certificate [RFC5280]. The key in the certificate MUST match X.509 certificate [RFC5280]. The key in the certificate MUST match
the bare public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of the bare public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of
this member is OPTIONAL. this member is OPTIONAL.
If, in the future, certificate thumbprints need to be computed using
hash functions other than SHA-1, it is suggested that additional
related JWK parameters be defined for that purpose. For example, it
is suggested that a new "x5t#S256" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint
using SHA-256) JWK parameter could be defined by registering it in
the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in Section 7.1.
3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter 3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter
The "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) member contains a chain of one or The "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) member contains a chain of one or
more PKIX certificates [RFC5280]. The certificate chain is more PKIX certificates [RFC5280]. The certificate chain is
represented as a JSON array of certificate value strings. Each represented as a JSON array of certificate value strings. Each
string in the array is a base64 encoded ([RFC4648] Section 4 -- not string in the array is a base64 encoded ([RFC4648] Section 4 -- not
base64url encoded) DER [ITU.X690.1994] PKIX certificate value. The base64url encoded) DER [ITU.X690.1994] PKIX certificate value. The
PKIX certificate containing the key value MUST be the first PKIX certificate containing the key value MUST be the first
certificate. This MAY be followed by additional certificates, with certificate. This MAY be followed by additional certificates, with
each subsequent certificate being the one used to certify the each subsequent certificate being the one used to certify the
previous one. The key in the first certificate MUST match the bare previous one. The key in the first certificate MUST match the bare
public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of this public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of this
member is OPTIONAL. member is OPTIONAL.
4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format 4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format
A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object that contains an array A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object that contains an array
of JSON Web Key values as the value of its "keys" member. of JWK values as the value of its "keys" member.
The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; recipients MUST The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; recipients MUST
either reject JWK Sets with duplicate member names or use a JSON either reject JWK Sets with duplicate member names or use a JSON
parser that returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as parser that returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as
specified in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1 specified in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1
[ECMAScript]. [ECMAScript].
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK Set. If not understood Additional members MAY be present in the JWK Set. If not understood
by implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. by implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored.
Parameters for representing additional properties of JWK Sets SHOULD Parameters for representing additional properties of JWK Sets SHOULD
either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry
Section 7.2 or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant defined in Section 7.3 or be a value that contains a Collision
Namespace. Resistant Name.
4.1. "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) Parameter Implementations SHOULD ignore JWKs within a JWK Set that use "kty"
(key type) values that are not understood by them.
The value of the "keys" (JSON Web Key Set) member is an array of JSON 4.1. "keys" Parameter
Web Key (JWK) values. Use of this member is REQUIRED.
The value of the "keys" member is an array of JWK values. By
default, the order of the JWK values within the array does not imply
an order of preference among them, although applications of JWK Sets
can choose to assign a meaning to the order for their purposes, if
desired. Use of this member is REQUIRED.
5. String Comparison Rules 5. String Comparison Rules
Processing a JWK inevitably requires comparing known strings to Processing a JWK inevitably requires comparing known strings to
values in JSON objects. For example, in checking what the key type values in JSON objects. For example, in checking what the key type
is, the Unicode string encoding "kty" will be checked against the is, the Unicode string encoding "kty" will be checked against the
member names in the JWK to see if there is a matching name. member names in the JWK to see if there is a matching name.
Comparisons between JSON strings and other Unicode strings MUST be Comparisons between JSON strings and other Unicode strings MUST be
performed by comparing Unicode code points without normalization as performed by comparing Unicode code points without normalization as
specified in the String Comparison Rules in Section 5.3 of [JWS]. specified in the String Comparison Rules in Section 5.3 of [JWS].
6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats 6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats
JWKs containing non-public key material will need to be encrypted in JWKs containing non-public key material will need to be encrypted in
some contexts to prevent the disclosure of private or symmetric key some contexts to prevent the disclosure of private or symmetric key
values to unintended parties. The use of an Encrypted JWK, which is values to unintended parties. The use of an Encrypted JWK, which is
a JWE with a JWK as its plaintext value, is RECOMMENED for this a JWE with a JWK as its plaintext value, is RECOMMENED for this
purpose. The processing of Encrypted JWKs is identical to the purpose. The processing of Encrypted JWKs is identical to the
processing of other JWEs. A "cty" (content type) header parameter processing of other JWEs. A "cty" (content type) header parameter
value of "JWK" can be used to indicate that the content of the JWE is value of "JWK" MUST be used to indicate that the content of the JWE
a JWK in contexts where this is useful. is a JWK, unless the application knows that the encrypted content is
a JWK by another means or convention.
JWK Sets containing non-public key material will similarly need to be JWK Sets containing non-public key material will similarly need to be
encrypted. The use of an Encrypted JWK Set, which is a JWE with a encrypted. The use of an Encrypted JWK Set, which is a JWE with a
JWK Set as its plaintext value, is RECOMMENED for this purpose. The JWK Set as its plaintext value, is RECOMMENED for this purpose. The
processing of Encrypted JWK Sets is identical to the processing of processing of Encrypted JWK Sets is identical to the processing of
other JWEs. A "cty" (content type) header parameter value of other JWEs. A "cty" (content type) header parameter value of
"JWK-SET" can be used to indicate that the content of the JWE is a "JWK-SET" MUST be used to indicate that the content of the JWE is a
JWK Set in contexts where this is useful. JWK Set, unless the application knows that the encrypted content is a
JWK Set by another means or convention.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
The following registration procedure is used for all the registries The following registration procedure is used for all the registries
established by this specification. established by this specification.
Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a
two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the
advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the
allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s) allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s)
may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a
specification will be published. specification will be published.
Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
for access token type: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name of for access token type: example"). [[ Note to the RFC Editor: The name
the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG of the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the
and IANA. Suggested name: jose-reg-review. ]] IESG and IANA. Suggested name: jose-reg-review. ]]
Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation
and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
successful. successful. Registration requests that are undetermined for a period
longer than 21 days can be brought to the IESG's attention (using the
iesg@iesg.org mailing list) for resolution.
Criteria that should be applied by the Designated Expert(s) includes
determining whether the proposed registration duplicates existing
functionality, determining whether it is likely to be of general
applicability or whether it is useful only for a single application,
and whether the registration makes sense.
IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s) IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s)
and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
list. list.
It is suggested that multiple Designated Experts be appointed who are
able to represent the perspectives of different applications using
this specification, in order to enable broadly-informed review of
registration decisions. In cases where a registration decision could
be perceived as creating a conflict of interest for a particular
Expert, that Expert should defer to the judgment of the other
Expert(s).
7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry 7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters
registry for reserved JWK parameter names. The registry records the registry for JWK parameter names. The registry records the parameter
reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that name, the key type(s) that the parameter is used with, and a
defines it. It also records whether the parameter conveys public or reference to the specification that defines it. It also records
private information. This specification registers the parameter whether the parameter conveys public or private information. This
names defined in Section 3. The same JWK parameter name may be specification registers the parameter names defined in Section 3.
registered multiple times, provided that duplicate parameter The same JWK parameter name may be registered multiple times,
registrations are only for algorithm-specific JWK parameters; in this provided that duplicate parameter registrations are only for key type
case, the meaning of the duplicate parameter name is disambiguated by specific JWK parameters; in this case, the meaning of the duplicate
the "kty" value of the JWK containing it. parameter name is disambiguated by the "kty" value of the JWK
containing it.
7.1.1. Registration Template 7.1.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name: Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this
sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted. it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case.
Used with "kty" Value(s):
The key type parameter value(s) that the parameter name is to be
used with, or the value "*" if the parameter value is used with
all key types.
Parameter Information Class: Parameter Information Class:
Registers whether the parameter conveys public or private Registers whether the parameter conveys public or private
information. Its value must be one the words Public or Private. information. Its value must be one the words Public or Private.
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required. be included but is not required.
7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "kty" o Parameter Name: "kty"
o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "use" o Parameter Name: "use"
o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "alg" o Parameter Name: "alg"
o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "kid" o Parameter Name: "kid"
o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "x5u" o Parameter Name: "x5u"
o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "x5t" o Parameter Name: "x5t"
o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.6 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.6 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "x5c" o Parameter Name: "x5c"
o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.7 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.7 of [[ this document ]]
7.2. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry 7.2. JSON Web Key Use Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Use registry for
registry for reserved JWK Set parameter names. The registry records JWK "use" member values. The registry records the key use value and
the reserved parameter name and a reference to the specification that a reference to the specification that defines it. This specification
defines it. This specification registers the parameter names defined registers the parameter names defined in Section 3.2.
in Section 4.
7.2.1. Registration Template 7.2.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name: Use Member Value:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). This name is case The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this
sensitive. Names that match other registered names in a case specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
insensitive manner SHOULD NOT be accepted. it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case.
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required. be included but is not required.
7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Use Member Value: "sig"
o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Use Member Value: "enc"
o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]]
7.3. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters
registry for JWK Set parameter names. The registry records the
parameter name and a reference to the specification that defines it.
This specification registers the parameter names defined in
Section 4.
7.3.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case.
Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required.
7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "keys" o Parameter Name: "keys"
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
7.3. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values Registration 7.4. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values Registration
7.3.1. Registry Contents 7.4.1. Registry Contents
This specification registers the "JWK" and "JWK-SET" type values in This specification registers the "JWK" and "JWK-SET" type values in
the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values registry the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values registry
[JWS], which can be used to indicate, respectively, that the content defined in [JWS], which can be used to indicate, respectively, that
is a JWK or a JWK Set. the content is a JWK or a JWK Set.
o "typ" Header Parameter Value: "JWK" o "typ" Header Parameter Value: "JWK"
o Abbreviation for MIME Type: application/jwk+json o Abbreviation for MIME Type: application/jwk+json
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3 of [[ this document ]]
o "typ" Header Parameter Value: "JWK-SET" o "typ" Header Parameter Value: "JWK-SET"
o Abbreviation for MIME Type: application/jwk-set+json o Abbreviation for MIME Type: application/jwk-set+json
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4 of [[ this document ]]
7.4. Media Type Registration 7.5. Media Type Registration
7.4.1. Registry Contents
7.5.1. Registry Contents
This specification registers the "application/jwk+json" and This specification registers the "application/jwk+json" and
"application/jwk-set+json" Media Types [RFC2046] in the MIME Media "application/jwk-set+json" Media Types [RFC2046] in the MIME Media
Type registry [RFC4288], which can be used to indicate, respectively, Types registry [IANA.MediaTypes], which can be used to indicate,
that the content is a JWK or a JWK Set. respectively, that the content is a JWK or a JWK Set.
o Type Name: application o Type Name: application
o Subtype Name: jwk+json o Subtype Name: jwk+json
o Required Parameters: n/a o Required Parameters: n/a
o Optional Parameters: n/a o Optional Parameters: n/a
o Encoding considerations: application/jwk+json values are o Encoding considerations: 8bit; application/jwk+json values are
represented as JSON object; UTF-8 encoding SHOULD be employed for represented as JSON object; UTF-8 encoding SHOULD be employed for
the JSON object. the JSON object.
o Security Considerations: See the Security Considerations section o Security Considerations: See the Security Considerations section
of [[ this document ]] of [[ this document ]]
o Interoperability Considerations: n/a o Interoperability Considerations: n/a
o Published Specification: [[ this document ]] o Published Specification: [[ this document ]]
o Applications that use this media type: TBD o Applications that use this media type: TBD
o Additional Information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s): o Additional Information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s):
n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael
B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Intended Usage: COMMON o Intended Usage: COMMON
o Restrictions on Usage: none o Restrictions on Usage: none
o Author: Michael B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com o Author: Michael B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
o Type Name: application o Type Name: application
o Subtype Name: jwk-set+json o Subtype Name: jwk-set+json
o Required Parameters: n/a o Required Parameters: n/a
o Optional Parameters: n/a o Optional Parameters: n/a
o Encoding considerations: application/jwk-set+json values are o Encoding considerations: 8bit; application/jwk-set+json values are
represented as a JSON Object; UTF-8 encoding SHOULD be employed represented as a JSON Object; UTF-8 encoding SHOULD be employed
for the JSON object. for the JSON object.
o Security Considerations: See the Security Considerations section o Security Considerations: See the Security Considerations section
of [[ this document ]] of [[ this document ]]
o Interoperability Considerations: n/a o Interoperability Considerations: n/a
o Published Specification: [[ this document ]] o Published Specification: [[ this document ]]
o Applications that use this media type: TBD o Applications that use this media type: TBD
o Additional Information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s): o Additional Information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s):
n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael
skipping to change at page 11, line 48 skipping to change at page 15, line 4
for the JSON object. for the JSON object.
o Security Considerations: See the Security Considerations section o Security Considerations: See the Security Considerations section
of [[ this document ]] of [[ this document ]]
o Interoperability Considerations: n/a o Interoperability Considerations: n/a
o Published Specification: [[ this document ]] o Published Specification: [[ this document ]]
o Applications that use this media type: TBD o Applications that use this media type: TBD
o Additional Information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s): o Additional Information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s):
n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael
B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Intended Usage: COMMON o Intended Usage: COMMON
o Restrictions on Usage: none o Restrictions on Usage: none
o Author: Michael B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com o Author: Michael B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Change Controller: IETF o Change Controller: IESG
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application
must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are
protecting the user's private and symmetric keys, preventing various protecting the user's private and symmetric keys, preventing various
attacks, and helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently attacks, and helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently
encrypting a message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of encrypting a message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of
security considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but security considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but
some significant considerations are listed here. some significant considerations are listed here.
skipping to change at page 12, line 43 skipping to change at page 15, line 46
The TLS Requirements in [JWS] also apply to this specification. The TLS Requirements in [JWS] also apply to this specification.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
[ECMAScript] [ECMAScript]
Ecma International, "ECMAScript Language Specification, Ecma International, "ECMAScript Language Specification,
5.1 Edition", ECMA 262, June 2011. 5.1 Edition", ECMA 262, June 2011.
[IANA.MediaTypes]
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), "MIME Media
Types", 2005.
[ITU.X690.1994] [ITU.X690.1994]
International Telecommunications Union, "Information International Telecommunications Union, "Information
Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic
Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and
Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ITU-T Recommendation Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ITU-T Recommendation
X.690, 1994. X.690, 1994.
[JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", [JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)",
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress), draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress),
September 2013. September 2013.
skipping to change at page 13, line 34 skipping to change at page 16, line 39
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000. [RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
[RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
Registration Procedures", RFC 4288, December 2005.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006. Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008. May 2008.
skipping to change at page 19, line 17 skipping to change at page 22, line 17
Miller, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Panzer, Eric Rescorla, Nat Miller, Tony Nadalin, Axel Nennker, John Panzer, Eric Rescorla, Nat
Sakimura, Jim Schaad, Paul Tarjan, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean Sakimura, Jim Schaad, Paul Tarjan, Hannes Tschofenig, and Sean
Turner. Turner.
Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and
Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors
during the creation of this specification. during the creation of this specification.
Appendix D. Document History Appendix D. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-16
o Changes to address editorial and minor issues #41, #42, #43, #47,
#51, #67, #71, #76, #80, #83, #84, #85, #86, #87, and #88.
-15 -15
o Changes to address editorial issues #48, #64, #65, #66, and #91. o Changes to address editorial issues #48, #64, #65, #66, and #91.
-14 -14
o Relaxed language introducing key parameters since some parameters o Relaxed language introducing key parameters since some parameters
are applicable to multiple, but not all, key types. are applicable to multiple, but not all, key types.
 End of changes. 63 change blocks. 
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