draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-17.txt   draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-18.txt 
JOSE Working Group M. Jones JOSE Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track October 7, 2013 Intended status: Standards Track November 12, 2013
Expires: April 10, 2014 Expires: May 16, 2014
JSON Web Key (JWK) JSON Web Key (JWK)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-17 draft-ietf-jose-json-web-key-18
Abstract Abstract
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data
structure that represents a cryptographic key. This specification structure that represents a cryptographic key. This specification
also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data structure for
representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers
for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON for use with this specification are described in the separate JSON
Web Algorithms (JWA) specification and IANA registries defined by Web Algorithms (JWA) specification and IANA registries defined by
that specification. that specification.
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material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on April 10, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on May 16, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.5. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.5. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) Parameter . . . 7 3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) Parameter . . . 7
3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter . . . . . . . . 7 3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter . . . . . . . . 8
4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1. "keys" Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. "keys" Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5. String Comparison Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats . . . . . . . . . 8 6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats . . . . . . . . . 9
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7.1. JSON Web Key Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.2. JSON Web Key Use Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.2. JSON Web Key Use Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.3. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.3. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.3.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.3.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.4. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7.4. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7.4.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Appendix A. Example JSON Web Key Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Appendix A. Example JSON Web Key Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
A.1. Example Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A.1. Example Public Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
A.2. Example Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A.2. Example Private Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
A.3. Example Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 A.3. Example Symmetric Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix B. Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Appendix B. Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain)
Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Appendix C. Example Encrypted RSA Private Key . . . . . . . . . . 20 Appendix C. Example Encrypted RSA Private Key . . . . . . . . . . 22
C.1. Plaintext RSA Private Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 C.1. Plaintext RSA Private Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
C.2. JWE Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 C.2. JWE Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
C.3. Content Encryption Key (CEK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 C.3. Content Encryption Key (CEK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
C.4. Key Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 C.4. Key Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
C.5. Initialization Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 C.5. Initialization Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
C.6. Additional Authenticated Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 C.6. Additional Authenticated Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
C.7. Content Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 C.7. Content Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
C.8. Complete Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 C.8. Complete Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Appendix D. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Appendix D. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Appendix E. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Appendix E. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627] A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627]
data structure that represents a cryptographic key. This data structure that represents a cryptographic key. This
specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data specification also defines a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) JSON data
structure for representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms structure for representing a set of JWKs. Cryptographic algorithms
and identifiers for use with this specification are described in the and identifiers for use with this specification are described in the
separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification and IANA separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification and IANA
registries defined by that specification. registries defined by that specification.
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ASCII(STRING) denotes the octets of the ASCII [USASCII] ASCII(STRING) denotes the octets of the ASCII [USASCII]
representation of STRING. representation of STRING.
The concatenation of two values A and B is denoted as A || B. The concatenation of two values A and B is denoted as A || B.
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
These terms defined by the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS] These terms defined by the JSON Web Signature (JWS) [JWS]
specification are incorporated into this specification: "Base64url specification are incorporated into this specification: "Base64url
Encoding" and "Collision Resistant Name". Encoding" and "Collision-Resistant Name".
These terms are defined for use by this specification: These terms are defined for use by this specification:
JSON Web Key (JWK) A JSON object that represents a cryptographic JSON Web Key (JWK) A JSON object that represents a cryptographic
key. key.
JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) A JSON object that contains an array of JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) A JSON object that contains an array of
JWKs as the value of its "keys" member. JWKs as the value of its "keys" member.
3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format 3. JSON Web Key (JWK) Format
A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object containing specific members, as A JSON Web Key (JWK) is a JSON object. The members of the object
specified below. Those members that are common to multiple key types represent properties of the key, including its value. This document
are defined below. defines the key parameters that are not algorithm specific, and thus
common to many keys.
In addition to the common parameters, each JWK will have members that In addition to the common parameters, each JWK will have members that
are specific to the kind of key being represented. These members are specific to the kind of key being represented. These members
represent the parameters of the key. Section 5 of the JSON Web represent the parameters of the key. Section 6 of the JSON Web
Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification defines multiple kinds of Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification defines multiple kinds of
cryptographic keys and their associated members. cryptographic keys and their associated members.
The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; recipients MUST either The member names within a JWK MUST be unique; recipients MUST either
reject JWKs with duplicate member names or use a JSON parser that reject JWKs with duplicate member names or use a JSON parser that
returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as specified returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as specified
in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1 [ECMAScript]. in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1 [ECMAScript].
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK. If not understood by Additional members can be present in the JWK. If not understood by
implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. Member implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. Member
names used for representing key parameters for different kinds of names used for representing key parameters for different keys types
keys need not be distinct. Any new member name SHOULD either be need not be distinct. Any new member name should either be
registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in
Section 7.1 or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Name. Section 7.1 or be a value that contains a Collision-Resistant Name.
3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter 3.1. "kty" (Key Type) Parameter
The "kty" (key type) member identifies the cryptographic algorithm The "kty" (key type) member identifies the cryptographic algorithm
family used with the key. "kty" values SHOULD either be registered in family used with the key. "kty" values should either be registered in
the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry defined in [JWA] or be a value the IANA JSON Web Key Types registry defined in [JWA] or be a value
that contains a Collision Resistant Name. The "kty" value is a case that contains a Collision-Resistant Name. The "kty" value is a case-
sensitive string. Use of this member is REQUIRED. sensitive string. This member MUST be present in a JWK.
A list of defined "kty" values can be found in the IANA JSON Web Key A list of defined "kty" values can be found in the IANA JSON Web Key
Types registry defined in [JWA]; the initial contents of this Types registry defined in [JWA]; the initial contents of this
registry are the values defined in Section 5.1 of the JSON Web registry are the values defined in Section 6.1 of the JSON Web
Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.
Additional members used with these "kty" values can be found in the The key type definitions include specification of the members to be
IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in Section 7.1; the used for those key types. Additional members used with "kty" values
initial contents of this registry are the values defined in Sections can also be found in the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry
5.2 and 5.3 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification. defined in Section 7.1.
3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter 3.2. "use" (Key Use) Parameter
The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key. The "use" (key use) member identifies the intended use of the key.
Values defined by this specification are: Values defined by this specification are:
o "sig" (signature or MAC operation) o "sig" (signature or MAC)
o "enc" (encryption) o "enc" (encryption)
Other values MAY be used. Key Use values can be registered in the Other values MAY be used. Key Use values can be registered in the
IANA JSON Web Key Use registry defined in Section 7.2. The "use" IANA JSON Web Key Use registry defined in Section 7.2. The "use"
value is a case sensitive string. A "use" member SHOULD be present, value is a case-sensitive string. A "use" member SHOULD be present,
unless the application uses another means or convention to determine unless the application uses another means or convention to determine
the intended key usage. the intended key usage.
When a key is used to wrap another key and a key use designation for When a key is used to wrap another key and a key use designation for
the first key is desired, the "enc" (encryption) key use value SHOULD the first key is desired, the "enc" (encryption) key use value SHOULD
be used, since key wrapping is a kind of encryption. (The "alg" be used, since key wrapping is a kind of encryption. (The "alg"
member can be used to specify the particular kind of encryption to be member can be used to specify the particular kind of encryption to be
performed, when desired.) performed, when desired.)
3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter 3.3. "alg" (Algorithm) Parameter
The "alg" (algorithm) member identifies the algorithm intended for The "alg" (algorithm) member identifies the algorithm intended for
use with the key. The values used SHOULD either be registered in the use with the key. The values used should either be registered in the
IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms registry defined in IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Algorithms registry defined in
[JWA] or be a value that contains a Collision Resistant Name. Use of [JWA] or be a value that contains a Collision-Resistant Name. Use of
this member is OPTIONAL. this member is OPTIONAL.
3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter 3.4. "kid" (Key ID) Parameter
The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This The "kid" (key ID) member can be used to match a specific key. This
can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within a JWK can be used, for instance, to choose among a set of keys within a JWK
Set during key rollover. The interpretation of the "kid" value is Set during key rollover. The structure of the "kid" value is
unspecified. When "kid" values are used within a JWK Set, different unspecified. When "kid" values are used within a JWK Set, different
keys within the JWK Set SHOULD use distinct "kid" values. The "kid" keys within the JWK Set SHOULD use distinct "kid" values. (One
value is a case sensitive string. Use of this member is OPTIONAL. example in which different keys might use the same "kid" value is if
they have different "kty" (key type) values but are considered to be
equivalent alternatives by the application using them.) The "kid"
value is a case-sensitive string. Use of this member is OPTIONAL.
When used with JWS or JWE, the "kid" value can be used to match a JWS When used with JWS or JWE, the "kid" value is used to match a JWS or
or JWE "kid" Header Parameter value. JWE "kid" Header Parameter value.
3.5. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter 3.5. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Parameter
The "x5u" (X.509 URL) member is a URI [RFC3986] that refers to a The "x5u" (X.509 URL) member is a URI [RFC3986] that refers to a
resource for an X.509 public key certificate or certificate chain resource for an X.509 public key certificate or certificate chain
[RFC5280]. The identified resource MUST provide a representation of [RFC5280]. The identified resource MUST provide a representation of
the certificate or certificate chain that conforms to RFC 5280 the certificate or certificate chain that conforms to RFC 5280
[RFC5280] in PEM encoded form [RFC1421]. The key in the first [RFC5280] in PEM encoded form [RFC1421]. The key in the first
certificate MUST match the bare public key represented by other certificate MUST match the public key represented by other members of
members of the JWK. The protocol used to acquire the resource MUST the JWK. The protocol used to acquire the resource MUST provide
provide integrity protection; an HTTP GET request to retrieve the integrity protection; an HTTP GET request to retrieve the certificate
certificate MUST use TLS [RFC2818] [RFC5246]; the identity of the MUST use TLS [RFC2818] [RFC5246]; the identity of the server MUST be
server MUST be validated, as per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS validated, as per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818]. Use of
[RFC2818]. Use of this member is OPTIONAL. this member is OPTIONAL.
While there is no requirement that members other than those
representing the public key be populated when an "x5u" member is
present, doing so may improve interoperability for applications that
do not handle PKIX certificates. If other members are present, the
contents of those members MUST be semantically consistent with the
related fields in the first certificate. For instance, if the "use"
member is present, then it needs to allow for only a subset of the
usages that are permitted by the certificate. Similarly, if the
"alg" member is present, it should represent an algorithm that the
certificate allows.
3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) Parameter 3.6. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) Parameter
The "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) member is a base64url The "x5t" (X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint) member is a base64url
encoded SHA-1 thumbprint (a.k.a. digest) of the DER encoding of an encoded SHA-1 thumbprint (a.k.a. digest) of the DER encoding of an
X.509 certificate [RFC5280]. The key in the certificate MUST match X.509 certificate [RFC5280]. The key in the certificate MUST match
the bare public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of the public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of this
this member is OPTIONAL. member is OPTIONAL.
If, in the future, certificate thumbprints need to be computed using If, in the future, certificate thumbprints need to be computed using
hash functions other than SHA-1, it is suggested that additional hash functions other than SHA-1, it is suggested that additional
related JWK parameters be defined for that purpose. For example, it related JWK parameters be defined for that purpose. For example, it
is suggested that a new "x5t#S256" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint is suggested that a new "x5t#S256" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint
using SHA-256) JWK parameter could be defined by registering it in using SHA-256) JWK parameter could be defined by registering it in
the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in Section 7.1. the IANA JSON Web Key Parameters registry defined in Section 7.1.
As with the "x5u" member, members other than those representing the
public key may also be populated when an "x5t" member is present. If
other members are present, the contents of those members MUST be
semantically consistent with the related fields in the referenced
certificate. See the last paragraph of Section 3.5 for additional
guidance on this.
3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter 3.7. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter
The "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) member contains a chain of one or The "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) member contains a chain of one or
more PKIX certificates [RFC5280]. The certificate chain is more PKIX certificates [RFC5280]. The certificate chain is
represented as a JSON array of certificate value strings. Each represented as a JSON array of certificate value strings. Each
string in the array is a base64 encoded ([RFC4648] Section 4 -- not string in the array is a base64 encoded ([RFC4648] Section 4 -- not
base64url encoded) DER [ITU.X690.1994] PKIX certificate value. The base64url encoded) DER [ITU.X690.1994] PKIX certificate value. The
PKIX certificate containing the key value MUST be the first PKIX certificate containing the key value MUST be the first
certificate. This MAY be followed by additional certificates, with certificate. This MAY be followed by additional certificates, with
each subsequent certificate being the one used to certify the each subsequent certificate being the one used to certify the
previous one. The key in the first certificate MUST match the bare previous one. The key in the first certificate MUST match the public
public key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of this key represented by other members of the JWK. Use of this member is
member is OPTIONAL. OPTIONAL.
As with the "x5u" member, members other than those representing the
public key may also be populated when an "x5c" member is present. If
other members are present, the contents of those members MUST be
semantically consistent with the related fields in the first
certificate. See the last paragraph of Section 3.5 for additional
guidance on this.
4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format 4. JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) Format
A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object that contains an array A JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) is a JSON object representing a set of
of JWK values as the value of its "keys" member. JWKs. The JSON object MUST have a "keys" member, which is an array
of JWK objects.
The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; recipients MUST The member names within a JWK Set MUST be unique; recipients MUST
either reject JWK Sets with duplicate member names or use a JSON either reject JWK Sets with duplicate member names or use a JSON
parser that returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as parser that returns only the lexically last duplicate member name, as
specified in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1 specified in Section 15.12 (The JSON Object) of ECMAScript 5.1
[ECMAScript]. [ECMAScript].
Additional members MAY be present in the JWK Set. If not understood Additional members can be present in the JWK Set. If not understood
by implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored. by implementations encountering them, they MUST be ignored.
Parameters for representing additional properties of JWK Sets SHOULD Parameters for representing additional properties of JWK Sets should
either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters registry
defined in Section 7.3 or be a value that contains a Collision defined in Section 7.3 or be a value that contains a Collision-
Resistant Name. Resistant Name.
Implementations SHOULD ignore JWKs within a JWK Set that use "kty" Implementations SHOULD ignore JWKs within a JWK Set that use "kty"
(key type) values that are not understood by them. (key type) values that are not understood by them, are missing
required members, or for which values are out of the supported
ranges.
4.1. "keys" Parameter 4.1. "keys" Parameter
The value of the "keys" member is an array of JWK values. By The value of the "keys" member is an array of JWK values. By
default, the order of the JWK values within the array does not imply default, the order of the JWK values within the array does not imply
an order of preference among them, although applications of JWK Sets an order of preference among them, although applications of JWK Sets
can choose to assign a meaning to the order for their purposes, if can choose to assign a meaning to the order for their purposes, if
desired. Use of this member is REQUIRED. desired. This member MUST be present in a JWK Set.
5. String Comparison Rules 5. String Comparison Rules
The string comparison rules for this specification are the same as The string comparison rules for this specification are the same as
those defined in Section 5.3 of [JWS]. those defined in Section 5.3 of [JWS].
6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats 6. Encrypted JWK and Encrypted JWK Set Formats
JWKs containing non-public key material will need to be encrypted in JWKs containing non-public key material will need to be encrypted in
some contexts to prevent the disclosure of private or symmetric key some contexts to prevent the disclosure of private or symmetric key
values to unintended parties. The use of an Encrypted JWK, which is values to unintended parties. The use of an Encrypted JWK, which is
a JWE with a JWK as its plaintext value, is RECOMMENED for this a JWE with the UTF-8 encoding of a JWK as its plaintext value, is
purpose. The processing of Encrypted JWKs is identical to the recommended for this purpose. The processing of Encrypted JWKs is
processing of other JWEs. A "cty" (content type) Header Parameter identical to the processing of other JWEs. A "cty" (content type)
value of "jwk+json" MUST be used to indicate that the content of the Header Parameter value of "jwk+json" MUST be used to indicate that
JWE is a JWK, unless the application knows that the encrypted content the content of the JWE is a JWK, unless the application knows that
is a JWK by another means or convention. the encrypted content is a JWK by another means or convention.
JWK Sets containing non-public key material will similarly need to be JWK Sets containing non-public key material will similarly need to be
encrypted. The use of an Encrypted JWK Set, which is a JWE with a encrypted. The use of an Encrypted JWK Set, which is a JWE with the
JWK Set as its plaintext value, is RECOMMENED for this purpose. The UTF-8 encoding of a JWK Set as its plaintext value, is recommended
processing of Encrypted JWK Sets is identical to the processing of for this purpose. The processing of Encrypted JWK Sets is identical
other JWEs. A "cty" (content type) Header Parameter value of to the processing of other JWEs. A "cty" (content type) Header
"jwk-set+json" MUST be used to indicate that the content of the JWE Parameter value of "jwk-set+json" MUST be used to indicate that the
is a JWK Set, unless the application knows that the encrypted content content of the JWE is a JWK Set, unless the application knows that
is a JWK Set by another means or convention. the encrypted content is a JWK Set by another means or convention.
See Appendix C for an example encrypted JWK. See Appendix C for an example encrypted JWK.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
The following registration procedure is used for all the registries The following registration procedure is used for all the registries
established by this specification. established by this specification.
Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a
two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the two-week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the
skipping to change at page 10, line 21 skipping to change at page 11, line 12
parameter name is disambiguated by the "kty" value of the JWK parameter name is disambiguated by the "kty" value of the JWK
containing it. containing it.
7.1.1. Registration Template 7.1.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name: Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case. particular case. However, matching names may be registered,
provided that the accompanying sets of "kty" values that the
Parameter Name is used with are disjoint; for the purposes of
matching "kty" values, "*" matches all values.
Parameter Description:
Brief description of the parameter (e.g., "Example description").
Used with "kty" Value(s): Used with "kty" Value(s):
The key type parameter value(s) that the parameter name is to be The key type parameter value(s) that the parameter name is to be
used with, or the value "*" if the parameter value is used with used with, or the value "*" if the parameter value is used with
all key types. all key types. Values may not match other registered "kty" values
in a case-insensitive manner when the registered Parameter Name is
the same (including when the Parameter Name matches in a case-
insensitive manner) unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case.
Parameter Information Class: Parameter Information Class:
Registers whether the parameter conveys public or private Registers whether the parameter conveys public or private
information. Its value must be one the words Public or Private. information. Its value must be one the words Public or Private.
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required. be included but is not required.
7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "kty" o Parameter Name: "kty"
o Parameter Description: Key Type
o Used with "kty" Value(s): * o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.1 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "use" o Parameter Name: "use"
o Parameter Description: Key Use
o Used with "kty" Value(s): * o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "alg" o Parameter Name: "alg"
o Parameter Description: Algorithm
o Used with "kty" Value(s): * o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.3 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "kid" o Parameter Name: "kid"
o Parameter Description: Key ID
o Used with "kty" Value(s): * o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.4 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "x5u" o Parameter Name: "x5u"
o Parameter Description: X.509 URL
o Used with "kty" Value(s): * o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.5 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "x5t" o Parameter Name: "x5t"
o Parameter Description: X.509 Certificate SHA-1 Thumbprint
o Used with "kty" Value(s): * o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.6 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.6 of [[ this document ]]
o Parameter Name: "x5c" o Parameter Name: "x5c"
o Parameter Description: X.509 Certificate Chain
o Used with "kty" Value(s): * o Used with "kty" Value(s): *
o Parameter Information Class: Public o Parameter Information Class: Public
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.7 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.7 of [[ this document ]]
7.2. JSON Web Key Use Registry 7.2. JSON Web Key Use Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Use registry for This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Use registry for
JWK "use" member values. The registry records the key use value and JWK "use" member values. The registry records the key use value and
a reference to the specification that defines it. This specification a reference to the specification that defines it. This specification
registers the parameter names defined in Section 3.2. registers the parameter names defined in Section 3.2.
7.2.1. Registration Template 7.2.1. Registration Template
Use Member Value: Use Member Value:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case. particular case.
Use Description:
Brief description of the use (e.g., "Example description").
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required. be included but is not required.
7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Use Member Value: "sig" o Use Member Value: "sig"
o Use Description: Signature or MAC
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]]
o Use Member Value: "enc" o Use Member Value: "enc"
o Use Description: Encryption
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 3.2 of [[ this document ]]
7.3. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry 7.3. JSON Web Key Set Parameters Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Key Set Parameters
registry for JWK Set parameter names. The registry records the registry for JWK Set parameter names. The registry records the
parameter name and a reference to the specification that defines it. parameter name and a reference to the specification that defines it.
This specification registers the parameter names defined in This specification registers the parameter names defined in
Section 4. Section 4.
7.3.1. Registration Template 7.3.1. Registration Template
Parameter Name: Parameter Name:
The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this The name requested (e.g., "example"). Because a core goal of this
specification is for the resulting representations to be compact, specification is for the resulting representations to be compact,
it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8 it is RECOMMENDED that the name be short -- not to exceed 8
characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is characters without a compelling reason to do so. This name is
case sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a case-sensitive. Names may not match other registered names in a
case insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that case-insensitive manner unless the Designated Expert(s) state that
there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this there is a compelling reason to allow an exception in this
particular case. particular case.
Parameter Description:
Brief description of the parameter (e.g., "Example description").
Change Controller: Change Controller:
For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name For Standards Track RFCs, state "IESG". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address, of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
email address, home page URI) may also be included. email address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s): Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter, Reference to the document(s) that specify the parameter,
preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of preferably including URI(s) that can be used to retrieve copies of
the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also the document(s). An indication of the relevant sections may also
be included but is not required. be included but is not required.
7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents 7.3.2. Initial Registry Contents
o Parameter Name: "keys" o Parameter Name: "keys"
o Parameter Description: Array of JWK values
o Change Controller: IESG o Change Controller: IESG
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]] o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1 of [[ this document ]]
7.4. Media Type Registration 7.4. Media Type Registration
7.4.1. Registry Contents 7.4.1. Registry Contents
This specification registers the "application/jwk+json" and This specification registers the "application/jwk+json" and
"application/jwk-set+json" Media Types [RFC2046] in the MIME Media "application/jwk-set+json" Media Types [RFC2046] in the MIME Media
Types registry [IANA.MediaTypes], which can be used to indicate, Types registry [IANA.MediaTypes], which can be used to indicate,
skipping to change at page 14, line 41 skipping to change at page 16, line 11
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application
must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are
protecting the user's private and symmetric keys, preventing various protecting the user's private and symmetric keys, preventing various
attacks, and helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently attacks, and helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently
encrypting a message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of encrypting a message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of
security considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but security considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but
some significant considerations are listed here. some significant considerations are listed here.
A key is no more trustworthy than the method by which it was One should place no more trust in the data associated with a key than
received. in than the method by which it was obtained and in the
trustworthiness of the entity asserting an association with the key.
Any data associated with a key that is obtained in an untrusted
manner should be treated with skepticism.
Private and symmetric keys MUST be protected from disclosure to Private and symmetric keys MUST be protected from disclosure to
unintended parties. One recommended means of doing so is to encrypt unintended parties. One recommended means of doing so is to encrypt
JWKs or JWK Sets containing them by using the JWK or JWK Set value as JWKs or JWK Sets containing them by using the JWK or JWK Set value as
the plaintext of a JWE. the plaintext of a JWE.
The security considerations in RFC 3447 [RFC3447] and RFC 6030 The security considerations in RFC 3447 [RFC3447] and RFC 6030
[RFC6030] about protecting private and symmetric keys also apply to [RFC6030] about protecting private and symmetric keys, key usage, and
this specification. information leakage also apply to this specification.
The security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0 The security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], about key representations also apply [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], about key representations also apply
to this specification, other than those that are XML specific. to this specification, other than those that are XML specific.
The TLS Requirements in [JWS] also apply to this specification. The TLS Requirements in [JWS] also apply to this specification.
9. References 9. References
9.1. Normative References 9.1. Normative References
skipping to change at page 15, line 32 skipping to change at page 17, line 7
[ITU.X690.1994] [ITU.X690.1994]
International Telecommunications Union, "Information International Telecommunications Union, "Information
Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic
Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and
Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ITU-T Recommendation Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ITU-T Recommendation
X.690, 1994. X.690, 1994.
[JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", [JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)",
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress), draft-ietf-jose-json-web-algorithms (work in progress),
October 2013. November 2013.
[JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web [JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web
Encryption (JWE)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption Encryption (JWE)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-encryption
(work in progress), October 2013. (work in progress), November 2013.
[JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web [JWS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work Signature (JWS)", draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature (work
in progress), October 2013. in progress), November 2013.
[RFC1421] Linn, J., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic [RFC1421] Linn, J., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic
Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication
Procedures", RFC 1421, February 1993. Procedures", RFC 1421, February 1993.
[RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail [RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046, Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
November 1996. November 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
skipping to change at page 20, line 5 skipping to change at page 22, line 5
{"kty":"oct", {"kty":"oct",
"k":"AyM1SysPpbyDfgZld3umj1qzKObwVMkoqQ-EstJQLr_T-1qS0gZH75 "k":"AyM1SysPpbyDfgZld3umj1qzKObwVMkoqQ-EstJQLr_T-1qS0gZH75
aKtMN3Yj0iPS4hcgUuTwjAzZr1Z9CAow", aKtMN3Yj0iPS4hcgUuTwjAzZr1Z9CAow",
"kid":"HMAC key used in JWS A.1 example"} "kid":"HMAC key used in JWS A.1 example"}
] ]
} }
Appendix B. Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter Appendix B. Example Use of "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Parameter
The following is an example of a JWK with a RSA signing key The following is an example of a JWK with a RSA signing key
represented both as a bare public key and as an X.509 certificate represented both as an RSA public key and as an X.509 certificate
using the "x5c" parameter: using the "x5c" parameter:
{"kty":"RSA", {"kty":"RSA",
"use":"sig", "use":"sig",
"kid":"1b94c", "kid":"1b94c",
"n":"vrjOfz9Ccdgx5nQudyhdoR17V-IubWMeOZCwX_jj0hgAsz2J_pqYW08 "n":"vrjOfz9Ccdgx5nQudyhdoR17V-IubWMeOZCwX_jj0hgAsz2J_pqYW08
PLbK_PdiVGKPrqzmDIsLI7sA25VEnHU1uCLNwBuUiCO11_-7dYbsr4iJmG0Q PLbK_PdiVGKPrqzmDIsLI7sA25VEnHU1uCLNwBuUiCO11_-7dYbsr4iJmG0Q
u2j8DsVyT1azpJC_NG84Ty5KKthuCaPod7iI7w0LK9orSMhBEwwZDCxTWq4a u2j8DsVyT1azpJC_NG84Ty5KKthuCaPod7iI7w0LK9orSMhBEwwZDCxTWq4a
YWAchc8t-emd9qOvWtVMDC2BXksRngh6X5bUYLy6AyHKvj-nUy1wgzjYQDwH YWAchc8t-emd9qOvWtVMDC2BXksRngh6X5bUYLy6AyHKvj-nUy1wgzjYQDwH
MTplCoLtU-o-8SNnZ1tmRoGE9uJkBLdh5gFENabWnU5m1ZqZPdwS-qo-meMv MTplCoLtU-o-8SNnZ1tmRoGE9uJkBLdh5gFENabWnU5m1ZqZPdwS-qo-meMv
skipping to change at page 31, line 26 skipping to change at page 33, line 26
Turner. Turner.
Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and Jim Schaad and Karen O'Donoghue chaired the JOSE working group and
Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors Sean Turner and Stephen Farrell served as Security area directors
during the creation of this specification. during the creation of this specification.
Appendix E. Document History Appendix E. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]] [[ to be removed by the RFC Editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-18
o Changes to address editorial and minor issues #68, #69, #73, #74,
#76, #77, #78, #79, #82, #85, #89, and #135.
o Added and used Description registry fields.
-17 -17
o Refined the "typ" and "cty" definitions to always be MIME Media o Refined the "typ" and "cty" definitions to always be MIME Media
Types, with the omission of "application/" prefixes recommended Types, with the omission of "application/" prefixes recommended
for brevity, addressing issue #50. for brevity, addressing issue #50.
o Added an example encrypting an RSA private key with o Added an example encrypting an RSA private key with
"PBES2-HS256+A128KW" and "A128CBC-HS256". Thanks to Matt Miller "PBES2-HS256+A128KW" and "A128CBC-HS256". Thanks to Matt Miller
for producing this! for producing this!
skipping to change at page 32, line 46 skipping to change at page 35, line 4
addressing issue #21. addressing issue #21.
-10 -10
o No changes were made, other than to the version number and date. o No changes were made, other than to the version number and date.
-09 -09
o Expanded the scope of the JWK specification to include private and o Expanded the scope of the JWK specification to include private and
symmetric key representations, as specified by symmetric key representations, as specified by
draft-jones-jose-json-private-and-symmetric-key-00.
o Defined that members that are not understood must be ignored. o Defined that members that are not understood must be ignored.
-08 -08
o Changed the name of the JWK key type parameter from "alg" to "kty" o Changed the name of the JWK key type parameter from "alg" to "kty"
to enable use of "alg" to indicate the particular algorithm that to enable use of "alg" to indicate the particular algorithm that
the key is intended to be used with. the key is intended to be used with.
o Clarified statements of the form "This member is OPTIONAL" to "Use o Clarified statements of the form "This member is OPTIONAL" to "Use
of this member is OPTIONAL". of this member is OPTIONAL".
o Referenced String Comparison Rules in JWS. o Referenced String Comparison Rules in JWS.
o Added seriesInfo information to Internet Draft references. o Added seriesInfo information to Internet Draft references.
 End of changes. 62 change blocks. 
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