draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature-02.txt   draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature-03.txt 
JOSE Working Group M. Jones JOSE Working Group M. Jones
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track J. Bradley Intended status: Standards Track J. Bradley
Expires: November 13, 2012 Ping Identity Expires: January 7, 2013 Ping Identity
N. Sakimura N. Sakimura
NRI NRI
May 12, 2012 July 6, 2012
JSON Web Signature (JWS) JSON Web Signature (JWS)
draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature-02 draft-ietf-jose-json-web-signature-03
Abstract Abstract
JSON Web Signature (JWS) is a means of representing content secured JSON Web Signature (JWS) is a means of representing content secured
with digital signatures or Message Authentication Codes (MACs) using with digital signatures or Message Authentication Codes (MACs) using
JSON data structures. Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers used JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) data structures. Cryptographic
with this specification are enumerated in the separate JSON Web algorithms and identifiers for use with this specification are
Algorithms (JWA) specification. Related encryption capabilities are described in the separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) specification.
described in the separate JSON Web Encryption (JWE) specification. Related encryption capabilities are described in the separate JSON
Web Encryption (JWE) specification.
Requirements Language
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 13, 2012. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 7, 2013.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. JSON Web Signature (JWS) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. JSON Web Signature (JWS) Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Example JWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Example JWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4. JWS Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. JWS Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1. Reserved Header Parameter Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1. Reserved Header Parameter Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.2. "jku" (JWK Set URL) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . 7 4.1.2. "jku" (JWK Set URL) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.3. "jwk" (JSON Web Key) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . 7 4.1.3. "jwk" (JSON Web Key) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.4. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1.4. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.5. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) Header 4.1.5. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) Header
Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.6. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Header Parameter . . . 8 4.1.6. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Header Parameter . . . 9
4.1.7. "kid" (Key ID) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.7. "kid" (Key ID) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1.8. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.8. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2. Public Header Parameter Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.1.9. "cty" (Content Type) Header Parameter . . . . . . . . 10
4.3. Private Header Parameter Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2. Public Header Parameter Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3. Private Header Parameter Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5. Rules for Creating and Validating a JWS . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. Rules for Creating and Validating a JWS . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6. Securing JWSs with Cryptographic Algorithms . . . . . . . . . 12 6. Securing JWSs with Cryptographic Algorithms . . . . . . . . . 12
7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7.1. Registration of application/jws MIME Media Type . . . . . 12 7.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters
7.2. Registration of "JWS" Type Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7.1.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8.1. Cryptographic Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 14 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8.2. JSON Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7.2. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values Registry . . 15
8.3. Unicode Comparison Security Considerations . . . . . . . . 15 7.2.1. Registration Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9. Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD) . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7.3. Media Type Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 7.3.1. Registry Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Appendix A. JWS Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8.1. Cryptographic Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . 17
A.1. JWS using HMAC SHA-256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8.2. JSON Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
A.1.1. Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8.3. Unicode Comparison Security Considerations . . . . . . . . 18
A.1.2. Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 9. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
A.1.3. Validating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
A.2. JWS using RSA SHA-256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix A. JWS Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
A.2.1. Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 A.1. JWS using HMAC SHA-256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
A.2.2. Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 A.1.1. Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
A.2.3. Validating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 A.1.2. Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.3. JWS using ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 A.1.3. Validating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.3.1. Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 A.2. JWS using RSA SHA-256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.3.2. Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A.2.1. Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
A.3.3. Validating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A.2.2. Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
A.4. Example Plaintext JWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A.2.3. Validating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Appendix B. Notes on implementing base64url encoding without A.3. JWS using ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
padding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 A.3.1. Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Appendix C. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 A.3.2. Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Appendix D. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 A.3.3. Validating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 A.4. JWS using ECDSA P-521 SHA-512 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
A.4.1. Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
A.4.2. Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
A.4.3. Validating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
A.5. Example Plaintext JWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Appendix B. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Example . . . . . . . 33
Appendix C. Notes on implementing base64url encoding without
padding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Appendix D. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Appendix E. Document History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
JSON Web Signature (JWS) is a compact format for representing content JSON Web Signature (JWS) is a compact format for representing content
secured with digital signatures or Message Authentication Codes secured with digital signatures or Message Authentication Codes
(MACs) intended for space constrained environments such as HTTP (MACs) intended for space constrained environments such as HTTP
Authorization headers and URI query parameters. It represents this Authorization headers and URI query parameters. It represents this
content using JSON [RFC4627] data structures. The JWS digital content using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627] data
signature and MAC mechanisms are independent of the type of content structures. The JWS cryptographic mechanisms provide integrity
being secured, allowing arbitrary content to be secured. protection for arbitrary sequences of bytes.
Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers used with this specification
are enumerated in the separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] Cryptographic algorithms and identifiers for use with this
specification. Related encryption capabilities are described in the specification are described in the separate JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)
separate JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specification. [JWA] specification. Related encryption capabilities are described
in the separate JSON Web Encryption (JWE) [JWE] specification.
1.1. Notational Conventions
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in Key words for use in
RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels [RFC2119].
2. Terminology 2. Terminology
JSON Web Signature (JWS) A data structure cryptographically securing JSON Web Signature (JWS) A data structure cryptographically securing
a JWS Header and a JWS Payload with a JWS Signature value. a JWS Header and a JWS Payload with a JWS Signature value.
JWS Header A string representing a JSON object that describes the JWS Header A string representing a JSON object that describes the
digital signature or MAC operation applied to create the JWS digital signature or MAC operation applied to create the JWS
Signature value. Signature value.
JWS Payload The bytes to be secured - a.k.a., the message. The JWS Payload The bytes to be secured - a.k.a., the message. The
payload can contain an arbitrary sequence of bytes. payload can contain an arbitrary sequence of bytes.
JWS Signature A byte array containing the cryptographic material JWS Signature A byte array containing the cryptographic material
that secures the contents of the JWS Header and the JWS Payload. that secures the JWS Header and the JWS Payload.
Encoded JWS Header Base64url encoding of the bytes of the UTF-8 RFC Encoded JWS Header Base64url encoding of the bytes of the UTF-8
3629 [RFC3629] representation of the JWS Header. [RFC3629] representation of the JWS Header.
Encoded JWS Payload Base64url encoding of the JWS Payload. Encoded JWS Payload Base64url encoding of the JWS Payload.
Encoded JWS Signature Base64url encoding of the JWS Signature. Encoded JWS Signature Base64url encoding of the JWS Signature.
JWS Secured Input The concatenation of the Encoded JWS Header, a JWS Secured Input The concatenation of the Encoded JWS Header, a
period ('.') character, and the Encoded JWS Payload. period ('.') character, and the Encoded JWS Payload.
Header Parameter Names The names of the members within the JSON Header Parameter Name The name of a member of the JSON object
object represented in a JWS Header. representing a JWS Header.
Header Parameter Values The values of the members within the JSON Header Parameter Value The value of a member of the JSON object
object represented in a JWS Header. representing a JWS Header.
JWS Compact Serialization A representation of the JWS as the JWS Compact Serialization A representation of the JWS as the
concatenation of the Encoded JWS Header, the Encoded JWS Payload, concatenation of the Encoded JWS Header, the Encoded JWS Payload,
and the Encoded JWS Signature in that order, with the three and the Encoded JWS Signature in that order, with the three
strings being separated by period ('.') characters. strings being separated by period ('.') characters.
Base64url Encoding For the purposes of this specification, this term Base64url Encoding For the purposes of this specification, this term
always refers to the URL- and filename-safe Base64 encoding always refers to the URL- and filename-safe Base64 encoding
described in RFC 4648 [RFC4648], Section 5, with the (non URL- described in RFC 4648 [RFC4648], Section 5, with the (non URL-
safe) '=' padding characters omitted, as permitted by Section 3.2. safe) '=' padding characters omitted, as permitted by Section 3.2.
(See Appendix B for notes on implementing base64url encoding (See Appendix C for notes on implementing base64url encoding
without padding.) without padding.)
Collision Resistant Namespace A namespace that allows names to be
allocated in a manner such that they are highly unlikely to
collide with other names. For instance, collision resistance can
be achieved through administrative delegation of portions of the
namespace or through use of collision-resistant name allocation
functions. Examples of Collision Resistant Namespaces include:
Domain Names, Object Identifiers (OIDs) as defined in the ITU-T
X.660 and X.670 Recommendation series, and Universally Unique
IDentifiers (UUIDs) [RFC4122]. When using an administratively
delegated namespace, the definer of a name needs to take
reasonable precautions to ensure they are in control of the
portion of the namespace they use to define the name.
StringOrURI A JSON string value, with the additional requirement StringOrURI A JSON string value, with the additional requirement
that while arbitrary string values MAY be used, any value that while arbitrary string values MAY be used, any value
containing a ":" character MUST be a URI as defined in RFC 3986 containing a ":" character MUST be a URI [RFC3986].
[RFC3986].
3. JSON Web Signature (JWS) Overview 3. JSON Web Signature (JWS) Overview
JWS represents digitally signed or MACed content using JSON data JWS represents digitally signed or MACed content using JSON data
structures and base64url encoding. The representation consists of structures and base64url encoding. The representation consists of
three parts: the JWS Header, the JWS Payload, and the JWS Signature. three parts: the JWS Header, the JWS Payload, and the JWS Signature.
In the Compact Serialization, the three parts are base64url-encoded In the Compact Serialization, the three parts are base64url-encoded
for transmission, and represented as the concatenation of the encoded for transmission, and represented as the concatenation of the encoded
strings in that order, with the three strings being separated by strings in that order, with the three strings being separated by
period ('.') characters. (A JSON Serialization for this information period ('.') characters. (A JSON Serialization for this information
skipping to change at page 6, line 16 skipping to change at page 6, line 37
{"iss":"joe", {"iss":"joe",
"exp":1300819380, "exp":1300819380,
"http://example.com/is_root":true} "http://example.com/is_root":true}
Base64url encoding the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JSON Base64url encoding the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JSON
object yields the following Encoded JWS Payload (with line breaks for object yields the following Encoded JWS Payload (with line breaks for
display purposes only): display purposes only):
eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt
cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ
Computing the HMAC of the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the Computing the HMAC of the bytes of the ASCII [USASCII] representation
JWS Secured Input (the concatenation of the Encoded JWS Header, a of the JWS Secured Input (the concatenation of the Encoded JWS
period ('.') character, and the Encoded JWS Payload) (which is the Header, a period ('.') character, and the Encoded JWS Payload) with
same as the ASCII representation) with the HMAC SHA-256 algorithm the HMAC SHA-256 algorithm using the key specified in Appendix A.1
using the key specified in Appendix A.1 and base64url encoding the and base64url encoding the result yields this Encoded JWS Signature
result yields this Encoded JWS Signature value: value:
dBjftJeZ4CVP-mB92K27uhbUJU1p1r_wW1gFWFOEjXk dBjftJeZ4CVP-mB92K27uhbUJU1p1r_wW1gFWFOEjXk
Concatenating these parts in the order Header.Payload.Signature with Concatenating these parts in the order Header.Payload.Signature with
period characters between the parts yields this complete JWS period characters between the parts yields this complete JWS
representation (with line breaks for display purposes only): representation (with line breaks for display purposes only):
eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLA0KICJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9 eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLA0KICJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9
. .
eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt
cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ
. .
dBjftJeZ4CVP-mB92K27uhbUJU1p1r_wW1gFWFOEjXk dBjftJeZ4CVP-mB92K27uhbUJU1p1r_wW1gFWFOEjXk
This computation is illustrated in more detail in Appendix A.1. This computation is illustrated in more detail in Appendix A.1.
4. JWS Header 4. JWS Header
skipping to change at page 7, line 13 skipping to change at page 7, line 36
Parameter Names. Parameter Names.
4.1. Reserved Header Parameter Names 4.1. Reserved Header Parameter Names
The following header parameter names are reserved with meanings as The following header parameter names are reserved with meanings as
defined below. All the names are short because a core goal of JWSs defined below. All the names are short because a core goal of JWSs
is for the representations to be compact. is for the representations to be compact.
Additional reserved header parameter names MAY be defined via the Additional reserved header parameter names MAY be defined via the
IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters registry IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters registry
[JWA]. As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and JWEs share a Section 7.1. As indicated by the common registry, JWSs and JWEs
common header parameter space; when a parameter is used by both share a common header parameter space; when a parameter is used by
specifications, its usage must be compatible between the both specifications, its usage must be compatible between the
specifications. specifications.
4.1.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter 4.1.1. "alg" (Algorithm) Header Parameter
The "alg" (algorithm) header parameter identifies the cryptographic The "alg" (algorithm) header parameter identifies the cryptographic
algorithm used to secure the JWS. A list of defined "alg" values for algorithm used to secure the JWS. The algorithm specified by the
use with JWS is presented in Section 3.1 of the JSON Web Algorithms "alg" value MUST be supported by the implementation and there MUST be
(JWA) [JWA] specification. The processing of the "alg" header a key for use with that algorithm associated with the party that
parameter requires that the value MUST be one that is both supported digitally signed or MACed the content or the JWS MUST be rejected.
and for which there exists a key for use with that algorithm
associated with the party that digitally signed or MACed the content.
The "alg" value is case sensitive. Its value MUST be a string The "alg" value is case sensitive. Its value MUST be a string
containing a StringOrURI value. This header parameter is REQUIRED. containing a StringOrURI value. This header parameter is REQUIRED.
"alg" values SHOULD either be defined in the IANA JSON Web Signature A list of defined "alg" values for use with JWS is presented in
and Encryption Algorithms registry [JWA] or be a URI that contains a Section 3.1 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification.
collision resistant namespace. "alg" values SHOULD either be registered in the IANA JSON Web
Signature and Encryption Algorithms registry [JWA] or be a URI that
contains a Collision Resistant Namespace.
4.1.2. "jku" (JWK Set URL) Header Parameter 4.1.2. "jku" (JWK Set URL) Header Parameter
The "jku" (JWK Set URL) header parameter is an absolute URL that The "jku" (JWK Set URL) header parameter is a URI [RFC3986] that
refers to a resource for a set of JSON-encoded public keys, one of refers to a resource for a set of JSON-encoded public keys, one of
which corresponds to the key used to digitally sign the JWS. The which corresponds to the key used to digitally sign the JWS. The
keys MUST be encoded as a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) as defined in keys MUST be encoded as a JSON Web Key Set (JWK Set) [JWK]. The
the JSON Web Key (JWK) [JWK] specification. The protocol used to protocol used to acquire the resource MUST provide integrity
acquire the resource MUST provide integrity protection; an HTTP GET protection; an HTTP GET request to retrieve the certificate MUST use
request to retrieve the certificate MUST use TLS RFC 2818 [RFC2818] TLS [RFC2818] [RFC5246]; the identity of the server MUST be
RFC 5246 [RFC5246]; the identity of the server MUST be validated, as validated, as per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818]. This
per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818]. This header parameter is header parameter is OPTIONAL.
OPTIONAL.
4.1.3. "jwk" (JSON Web Key) Header Parameter 4.1.3. "jwk" (JSON Web Key) Header Parameter
The "jwk" (JSON Web Key) header parameter is a public key that The "jwk" (JSON Web Key) header parameter is a public key that
corresponds to the key used to digitally sign the JWS. This key is corresponds to the key used to digitally sign the JWS. This key is
represented as a JSON Web Key [JWK]. This header parameter is represented as a JSON Web Key [JWK]. This header parameter is
OPTIONAL. OPTIONAL.
4.1.4. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Header Parameter 4.1.4. "x5u" (X.509 URL) Header Parameter
The "x5u" (X.509 URL) header parameter is an absolute URL that refers The "x5u" (X.509 URL) header parameter is a URI [RFC3986] that refers
to a resource for the X.509 public key certificate or certificate to a resource for the X.509 public key certificate or certificate
chain corresponding to the key used to digitally sign the JWS. The chain [RFC5280] corresponding to the key used to digitally sign the
identified resource MUST provide a representation of the certificate JWS. The identified resource MUST provide a representation of the
or certificate chain that conforms to RFC 5280 [RFC5280] in PEM certificate or certificate chain that conforms to RFC 5280 [RFC5280]
encoded form RFC 1421 [RFC1421]. The certificate containing the in PEM encoded form [RFC1421]. The certificate containing the public
public key of the entity that digitally signed the JWS MUST be the key of the entity that digitally signed the JWS MUST be the first
first certificate. This MAY be followed by additional certificates, certificate. This MAY be followed by additional certificates, with
with each subsequent certificate being the one used to certify the each subsequent certificate being the one used to certify the
previous one. The protocol used to acquire the resource MUST provide previous one. The protocol used to acquire the resource MUST provide
integrity protection; an HTTP GET request to retrieve the certificate integrity protection; an HTTP GET request to retrieve the certificate
MUST use TLS RFC 2818 [RFC2818] RFC 5246 [RFC5246]; the identity of MUST use TLS [RFC2818] [RFC5246]; the identity of the server MUST be
the server MUST be validated, as per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS validated, as per Section 3.1 of HTTP Over TLS [RFC2818]. This
[RFC2818]. This header parameter is OPTIONAL. header parameter is OPTIONAL.
4.1.5. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) Header Parameter 4.1.5. "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) Header Parameter
The "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) header parameter provides a The "x5t" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint) header parameter provides a
base64url encoded SHA-1 thumbprint (a.k.a. digest) of the DER base64url encoded SHA-1 thumbprint (a.k.a. digest) of the DER
encoding of the X.509 certificate corresponding to the key used to encoding of the X.509 certificate [RFC5280] corresponding to the key
digitally sign the JWS. This header parameter is OPTIONAL. used to digitally sign the JWS. This header parameter is OPTIONAL.
If, in the future, certificate thumbprints need to be computed using If, in the future, certificate thumbprints need to be computed using
hash functions other than SHA-1, it is suggested that additional hash functions other than SHA-1, it is suggested that additional
related header parameters be defined for that purpose. For example, related header parameters be defined for that purpose. For example,
it is suggested that a new "x5t#S256" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint it is suggested that a new "x5t#S256" (X.509 Certificate Thumbprint
using SHA-256) header parameter could be defined by registering it in using SHA-256) header parameter could be defined by registering it in
the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters registry the IANA JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters registry
[JWA]. Section 7.1.
4.1.6. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Header Parameter 4.1.6. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Header Parameter
The "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) header parameter contains the The "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) header parameter contains the
X.509 public key certificate or certificate chain corresponding to X.509 public key certificate or certificate chain [RFC5280]
the key used to digitally sign the JWS. The certificate or corresponding to the key used to digitally sign the JWS. The
certificate chain is represented as an array of certificate values. certificate or certificate chain is represented as an array of
Each value is a base64-encoded (not base64url encoded) DER/BER PKIX certificate values. Each value is a base64 encoded ([RFC4648]
Section 4 - not base64url encoded) DER [ITU.X690.1994] PKIX
certificate value. The certificate containing the public key of the certificate value. The certificate containing the public key of the
entity that digitally signed the JWS MUST be the first certificate. entity that digitally signed the JWS MUST be the first certificate.
This MAY be followed by additional certificates, with each subsequent This MAY be followed by additional certificates, with each subsequent
certificate being the one used to certify the previous one. The certificate being the one used to certify the previous one. The
recipient MUST verify the certificate chain according to [RFC5280] recipient MUST verify the certificate chain according to [RFC5280]
and reject the JWS if any validation failure occurs. This header and reject the JWS if any validation failure occurs. This header
parameter is OPTIONAL. parameter is OPTIONAL.
See Appendix B for an example "x5c" value.
4.1.7. "kid" (Key ID) Header Parameter 4.1.7. "kid" (Key ID) Header Parameter
The "kid" (key ID) header parameter is a hint indicating which key The "kid" (key ID) header parameter is a hint indicating which key
was used to secure the JWS. This allows originators to explicitly was used to secure the JWS. This parameter allows originators to
signal a change of key to recipients. Should the recipient be unable explicitly signal a change of key to recipients. Should the
to locate a key corresponding to the "kid" value, they SHOULD treat recipient be unable to locate a key corresponding to the "kid" value,
that condition as an error. The interpretation of the contents of they SHOULD treat that condition as an error. The interpretation of
the "kid" parameter is unspecified. Its value MUST be a string. the "kid" value is unspecified. Its value MUST be a string. This
This header parameter is OPTIONAL. header parameter is OPTIONAL.
When used with a JWK, the "kid" value MAY be used to match a JWK
"kid" parameter value.
4.1.8. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter 4.1.8. "typ" (Type) Header Parameter
The "typ" (type) header parameter is used to declare the type of the The "typ" (type) header parameter is used to declare the type of this
secured content. The type value "JWS" MAY be used to indicate that object. The type value "JWS" MAY be used to indicate that this
the secured content is a JWS. The "typ" value is case sensitive. object is a JWS. The "typ" value is case sensitive. Its value MUST
Its value MUST be a string. This header parameter is OPTIONAL. be a string. This header parameter is OPTIONAL.
MIME Media Type RFC 2045 [RFC2045] values MAY be used as "typ" MIME Media Type [RFC2046] values MAY be used as "typ" values.
values.
"typ" values SHOULD either be defined in the IANA JSON Web Signature "typ" values SHOULD either be registered in the IANA JSON Web
and Encryption "typ" Values registry [JWA] or be a URI that contains Signature and Encryption Type Values registry Section 7.2 or be a URI
a collision resistant namespace. that contains a Collision Resistant Namespace.
4.1.9. "cty" (Content Type) Header Parameter
The "cty" (content type) header parameter is used to declare the type
of the secured content (the Payload). The "cty" value is case
sensitive. Its value MUST be a string. This header parameter is
OPTIONAL.
The values used for the "cty" header parameter come from the same
value space as the "typ" header parameter, with the same rules
applying.
4.2. Public Header Parameter Names 4.2. Public Header Parameter Names
Additional header parameter names can be defined by those using JWSs. Additional header parameter names can be defined by those using JWSs.
However, in order to prevent collisions, any new header parameter However, in order to prevent collisions, any new header parameter
name SHOULD either be defined in the IANA JSON Web Signature and name SHOULD either be registered in the IANA JSON Web Signature and
Encryption Header Parameters registry [JWA] or be a URI that contains Encryption Header Parameters registry Section 7.1 or be a URI that
a collision resistant namespace. In each case, the definer of the contains a Collision Resistant Namespace. In each case, the definer
name or value needs to take reasonable precautions to make sure they of the name or value needs to take reasonable precautions to make
are in control of the part of the namespace they use to define the sure they are in control of the part of the namespace they use to
header parameter name. define the header parameter name.
New header parameters should be introduced sparingly, as they can New header parameters should be introduced sparingly, as they can
result in non-interoperable JWSs. result in non-interoperable JWSs.
4.3. Private Header Parameter Names 4.3. Private Header Parameter Names
A producer and consumer of a JWS may agree to any header parameter A producer and consumer of a JWS may agree to any header parameter
name that is not a Reserved Name Section 4.1 or a Public Name name that is not a Reserved Name Section 4.1 or a Public Name
Section 4.2. Unlike Public Names, these private names are subject to Section 4.2. Unlike Public Names, these private names are subject to
collision and should be used with caution. collision and should be used with caution.
skipping to change at page 12, line 7 skipping to change at page 12, line 39
2. Unicode Normalization [USA15] MUST NOT be applied at any point to 2. Unicode Normalization [USA15] MUST NOT be applied at any point to
either the JSON string or to the string it is to be compared either the JSON string or to the string it is to be compared
against. against.
3. Comparisons between the two strings MUST be performed as a 3. Comparisons between the two strings MUST be performed as a
Unicode code point to code point equality comparison. Unicode code point to code point equality comparison.
6. Securing JWSs with Cryptographic Algorithms 6. Securing JWSs with Cryptographic Algorithms
JWS uses cryptographic algorithms to digitally sign or MAC the JWS uses cryptographic algorithms to digitally sign or MAC the JWS
contents of the JWS Header and the JWS Payload. The JSON Web Header and the JWS Payload. The JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA]
Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification enumerates a set of specification describes a set of cryptographic algorithms and
cryptographic algorithms and identifiers to be used with this identifiers to be used with this specification. Specifically,
specification. Specifically, Section 3.1 enumerates a set of "alg" Section 3.1 specifies a set of "alg" (algorithm) header parameter
(algorithm) header parameter values intended for use this values intended for use this specification. It also describes the
specification. It also describes the semantics and operations that semantics and operations that are specific to these algorithms and
are specific to these algorithms and algorithm families. algorithm families.
Public keys employed for digital signing can be identified using the Public keys employed for digital signing can be identified using the
Header Parameter methods described in Section 4.1 or can be Header Parameter methods described in Section 4.1 or can be
distributed using methods that are outside the scope of this distributed using methods that are outside the scope of this
specification. specification.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
7.1. Registration of application/jws MIME Media Type The following registration procedure is used for all the registries
established by this specification.
This specification registers the "application/jws" MIME Media Type Values are registered with a Specification Required [RFC5226] after a
RFC 2045 [RFC2045]. two week review period on the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list, on the
advice of one or more Designated Experts. However, to allow for the
allocation of values prior to publication, the Designated Expert(s)
may approve registration once they are satisfied that such a
specification will be published.
Type name: Registration requests must be sent to the [TBD]@ietf.org mailing list
application for review and comment, with an appropriate subject (e.g., "Request
for access token type: example"). [[ Note to RFC-EDITOR: The name of
the mailing list should be determined in consultation with the IESG
and IANA. Suggested name: jose-reg-review. ]]
Subtype name: Within the review period, the Designated Expert(s) will either
jws approve or deny the registration request, communicating this decision
to the review list and IANA. Denials should include an explanation
and, if applicable, suggestions as to how to make the request
successful.
Required parameters: IANA must only accept registry updates from the Designated Expert(s),
n/a and should direct all requests for registration to the review mailing
list.
Optional parameters: 7.1. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header Parameters Registry
n/a
Encoding considerations: This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Signature and
n/a Encryption Header Parameters registry for reserved JWS and JWE header
parameter names. The registry records the reserved header parameter
name and a reference to the specification that defines it. The same
Header Parameter Name may be registered multiple times, provided that
the parameter usage is compatible between the specifications.
Security considerations: 7.1.1. Registration Template
See the Security Considerations section of this document
Interoperability considerations: Header Parameter Name:
n/a The name requested (e.g., "example").
Published specification: Change Controller:
[[ this document ]] For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
Applications that use this media type: Specification Document(s):
OpenID Connect Reference to the document that specifies the parameter, preferably
including a URI that can be used to retrieve a copy of the
document. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
included, but is not required.
Additional information: 7.1.2. Initial Registry Contents
Magic number(s): n/a
File extension(s): n/a
Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
Person & email address to contact for further information: This specification registers the Header Parameter Names defined in
Michael B. Jones Section 4.1 in this registry.
mbj@microsoft.com
Intended usage: o Header Parameter Name: "alg"
COMMON
Restrictions on usage: o Change Controller: IETF
none
Author: o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.1 of [[ this document ]]
Michael B. Jones
mbj@microsoft.com
Change controller: o Header Parameter Name: "jku"
IETF
7.2. Registration of "JWS" Type Value o Change Controller: IETF
This specification registers the following "typ" header parameter o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.2 of [[ this document ]]
value in the JSON Web Signature and Encryption "typ" Values registry
established by the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] specification:
"typ" header parameter value: o Header Parameter Name: "jwk"
"JWS"
Abbreviation for MIME type: o Change Controller: IETF
application/jws
Change controller: o Specification document(s): Section 4.1.3 of [[ this document ]]
IETF
Description: o Header Parameter Name: "x5u"
[[ this document ]]
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.4 of [[ this document ]]
o Header Parameter Name: "x5t"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.5 of [[ this document ]]
o Header Parameter Name: "x5c"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.6 of [[ this document ]]
o Header Parameter Name: "kid"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.7 of [[ this document ]]
o Header Parameter Name: "typ"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.8 of [[ this document ]]
o Header Parameter Name: "cty"
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.9 of [[ this document ]]
7.2. JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values Registry
This specification establishes the IANA JSON Web Signature and
Encryption Type Values registry for values of the JWS and JWE "typ"
(type) header parameter. It is RECOMMENDED that all registered "typ"
values also include a MIME Media Type [RFC2046] value that the
registered value is a short name for. The registry records the "typ"
value, the MIME type value that it is an abbreviation for (if any),
and a reference to the specification that defines it.
MIME Media Type [RFC2046] values MUST NOT be directly registered as
new "typ" values; rather, new "typ" values MAY be registered as short
names for MIME types.
7.2.1. Registration Template
"typ" Header Parameter Value:
The name requested (e.g., "example").
Abbreviation for MIME Type:
The MIME type that this name is an abbreviation for (e.g.,
"application/example").
Change Controller:
For standards-track RFCs, state "IETF". For others, give the name
of the responsible party. Other details (e.g., postal address,
e-mail address, home page URI) may also be included.
Specification Document(s):
Reference to the document that specifies the parameter, preferably
including a URI that can be used to retrieve a copy of the
document. An indication of the relevant sections may also be
included, but is not required.
7.2.2. Initial Registry Contents
This specification registers the "JWS" type value in this registry:
o "typ" Header Parameter Value: "JWS"
o Abbreviation for MIME type: application/jws
o Change Controller: IETF
o Specification Document(s): Section 4.1.8 of [[ this document ]]
7.3. Media Type Registration
7.3.1. Registry Contents
This specification registers the "application/jws" Media Type
[RFC2046] in the MIME Media Type registry [RFC4288] to indicate that
the content is a JWS using the Compact Serialization.
o Type name: application
o Subtype name: jws
o Required parameters: n/a
o Optional parameters: n/a
o Encoding considerations: JWS values are encoded as a series of
base64url encoded values (some of which may be the empty string)
separated by period ('.') characters
o Security considerations: See the Security Considerations section
of this document
o Interoperability considerations: n/a
o Published specification: [[ this document ]]
o Applications that use this media type: OpenID Connect, Mozilla
Browser ID, Salesforce, Google, numerous others that use signed
JWTs
o Additional information: Magic number(s): n/a, File extension(s):
n/a, Macintosh file type code(s): n/a
o Person & email address to contact for further information: Michael
B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Intended usage: COMMON
o Restrictions on usage: none
o Author: Michael B. Jones, mbj@microsoft.com
o Change Controller: IETF
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
8.1. Cryptographic Security Considerations 8.1. Cryptographic Security Considerations
All of the security issues faced by any cryptographic application
must be faced by a JWS/JWE/JWK agent. Among these issues are
protecting the user's private key, preventing various attacks, and
helping the user avoid mistakes such as inadvertently encrypting a
message for the wrong recipient. The entire list of security
considerations is beyond the scope of this document, but some
significant concerns are listed here.
All the security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0 All the security considerations in XML DSIG 2.0
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], also apply to this specification, [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124], also apply to this specification,
other than those that are XML specific. Likewise, many of the best other than those that are XML specific. Likewise, many of the best
practices documented in XML Signature Best Practices practices documented in XML Signature Best Practices
[W3C.WD-xmldsig-bestpractices-20110809] also apply to this [W3C.WD-xmldsig-bestpractices-20110809] also apply to this
specification, other than those that are XML specific. specification, other than those that are XML specific.
Keys are only as strong as the amount of entropy used to generate Keys are only as strong as the amount of entropy used to generate
them. A minimum of 128 bits of entropy should be used for all keys, them. A minimum of 128 bits of entropy should be used for all keys,
and depending upon the application context, more may be required. and depending upon the application context, more may be required.
skipping to change at page 14, line 30 skipping to change at page 18, line 11
When utilizing TLS to retrieve information, the authority providing When utilizing TLS to retrieve information, the authority providing
the resource MUST be authenticated and the information retrieved MUST the resource MUST be authenticated and the information retrieved MUST
be free from modification. be free from modification.
When cryptographic algorithms are implemented in such a way that When cryptographic algorithms are implemented in such a way that
successful operations take a different amount of time than successful operations take a different amount of time than
unsuccessful operations, attackers may be able to use the time unsuccessful operations, attackers may be able to use the time
difference to obtain information about the keys employed. Therefore, difference to obtain information about the keys employed. Therefore,
such timing differences must be avoided. such timing differences must be avoided.
TBD: We need to also put in text about: Importance of keeping secrets
secret. Rotating keys. Strengths and weaknesses of the different
algorithms.
TBD: Write security considerations about the implications of using a TBD: Write security considerations about the implications of using a
SHA-1 hash (for compatibility reasons) for the "x5t" (x.509 SHA-1 hash (for compatibility reasons) for the "x5t" (x.509
certificate thumbprint). certificate thumbprint).
TBD: We need a section on generating randomness in browsers; it's TBD: We need a section on generating randomness in browsers; it's
easy to screw up. easy to screw up.
8.2. JSON Security Considerations 8.2. JSON Security Considerations
TBD: We need to look into any issues relating to security and JSON TBD: We need to look into any issues relating to security and JSON
skipping to change at page 15, line 24 skipping to change at page 18, line 47
JSON strings MAY contain characters outside the Unicode Basic JSON strings MAY contain characters outside the Unicode Basic
Multilingual Plane. For instance, the G clef character (U+1D11E) may Multilingual Plane. For instance, the G clef character (U+1D11E) may
be represented in a JSON string as "\uD834\uDD1E". Ideally, JWS be represented in a JSON string as "\uD834\uDD1E". Ideally, JWS
implementations SHOULD ensure that characters outside the Basic implementations SHOULD ensure that characters outside the Basic
Multilingual Plane are preserved and compared correctly; Multilingual Plane are preserved and compared correctly;
alternatively, if this is not possible due to these characters alternatively, if this is not possible due to these characters
exercising limitations present in the underlying JSON implementation, exercising limitations present in the underlying JSON implementation,
then input containing them MUST be rejected. then input containing them MUST be rejected.
9. Open Issues and Things To Be Done (TBD) 9. Open Issues
The following items remain to be done in this draft: [[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
o Add an example in which the payload is not a base64url encoded The following items remain to be considered or done in this draft:
JSON object.
o Should we define an optional nonce and/or timestamp header
parameter? (Use of a nonce is an effective countermeasure to some
kinds of attacks.)
o Finish the Security Considerations section. o Finish the Security Considerations section.
10. References 10. References
10.1. Normative References 10.1. Normative References
[JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", May 2012. [ITU.X690.1994]
International Telecommunications Union, "Information
Technology - ASN.1 encoding rules: Specification of Basic
Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER) and
Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)", ITU-T Recommendation
X.690, 1994.
[JWK] Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", May 2012. [JWA] Jones, M., "JSON Web Algorithms (JWA)", July 2012.
[JWK] Jones, M., "JSON Web Key (JWK)", July 2012.
[RFC1421] Linn, J., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic [RFC1421] Linn, J., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic
Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication
Procedures", RFC 1421, February 1993. Procedures", RFC 1421, February 1993.
[RFC2045] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail [RFC2046] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996. November 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000. [RFC2818] Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818, May 2000.
[RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO [RFC3629] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003. 10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
[RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform [RFC3986] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
RFC 3986, January 2005. RFC 3986, January 2005.
[RFC4288] Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for [RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data [RFC4648] Josefsson, S., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006. Encodings", RFC 4648, October 2006.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008. (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.
[RFC5280] Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., [RFC5280] Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
(CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, May 2008. (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, May 2008.
[USA15] Davis, M., Whistler, K., and M. Duerst, "Unicode [USA15] Davis, M., Whistler, K., and M. Duerst, "Unicode
Normalization Forms", Unicode Standard Annex 15, 09 2009. Normalization Forms", Unicode Standard Annex 15, 09 2009.
[USASCII] American National Standards Institute, "Coded Character
Set -- 7-bit American Standard Code for Information
Interchange", ANSI X3.4, 1986.
10.2. Informative References 10.2. Informative References
[CanvasApp] [CanvasApp]
Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010. Facebook, "Canvas Applications", 2010.
[JSS] Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura (editor), "JSON Simple Sign", [JSS] Bradley, J. and N. Sakimura (editor), "JSON Simple Sign",
September 2010. September 2010.
[JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web [JWE] Jones, M., Rescorla, E., and J. Hildebrand, "JSON Web
Encryption (JWE)", May 2012. Encryption (JWE)", July 2012.
[JWS-JS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web [JWS-JS] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
Signature JSON Serialization (JWS-JS)", March 2012. Signature JSON Serialization (JWS-JS)", July 2012.
[JWT] Jones, M., Balfanz, D., Bradley, J., Goland, Y., Panzer, [JWT] Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web Token
J., Sakimura, N., and P. Tarjan, "JSON Web Token (JWT)", (JWT)", July 2012.
May 2012.
[MagicSignatures] [MagicSignatures]
Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic Panzer (editor), J., Laurie, B., and D. Balfanz, "Magic
Signatures", January 2011. Signatures", January 2011.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122,
July 2005.
[W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124] [W3C.CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124]
Eastlake, D., Reagle, J., Yiu, K., Solo, D., Datta, P., Reagle, J., Solo, D., Datta, P., Hirsch, F., Eastlake, D.,
Hirsch, F., Cantor, S., and T. Roessler, "XML Signature Roessler, T., Cantor, S., and K. Yiu, "XML Signature
Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web Syntax and Processing Version 2.0", World Wide Web
Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012, Consortium CR CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124, January 2012,
<http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>. <http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-xmldsig-core2-20120124>.
[W3C.WD-xmldsig-bestpractices-20110809] [W3C.WD-xmldsig-bestpractices-20110809]
Datta, P. and F. Hirsch, "XML Signature Best Practices", Datta, P. and F. Hirsch, "XML Signature Best Practices",
World Wide Web Consortium WD WD-xmldsig-bestpractices- World Wide Web Consortium WD WD-xmldsig-bestpractices-
20110809, August 2011, <http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/ 20110809, August 2011, <http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/
WD-xmldsig-bestpractices-20110809>. WD-xmldsig-bestpractices-20110809>.
skipping to change at page 18, line 25 skipping to change at page 22, line 24
cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ
Concatenating the Encoded JWS Header, a period character, and the Concatenating the Encoded JWS Header, a period character, and the
Encoded JWS Payload yields this JWS Secured Input value (with line Encoded JWS Payload yields this JWS Secured Input value (with line
breaks for display purposes only): breaks for display purposes only):
eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLA0KICJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9 eyJ0eXAiOiJKV1QiLA0KICJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9
. .
eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt
cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ
The UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same The ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input is the following
as the ASCII representation) is the following byte array: byte array:
[101, 121, 74, 48, 101, 88, 65, 105, 79, 105, 74, 75, 86, 49, 81, [101, 121, 74, 48, 101, 88, 65, 105, 79, 105, 74, 75, 86, 49, 81,
105, 76, 65, 48, 75, 73, 67, 74, 104, 98, 71, 99, 105, 79, 105, 74, 105, 76, 65, 48, 75, 73, 67, 74, 104, 98, 71, 99, 105, 79, 105, 74,
73, 85, 122, 73, 49, 78, 105, 74, 57, 46, 101, 121, 74, 112, 99, 51, 73, 85, 122, 73, 49, 78, 105, 74, 57, 46, 101, 121, 74, 112, 99, 51,
77, 105, 79, 105, 74, 113, 98, 50, 85, 105, 76, 65, 48, 75, 73, 67, 77, 105, 79, 105, 74, 113, 98, 50, 85, 105, 76, 65, 48, 75, 73, 67,
74, 108, 101, 72, 65, 105, 79, 106, 69, 122, 77, 68, 65, 52, 77, 84, 74, 108, 101, 72, 65, 105, 79, 106, 69, 122, 77, 68, 65, 52, 77, 84,
107, 122, 79, 68, 65, 115, 68, 81, 111, 103, 73, 109, 104, 48, 100, 107, 122, 79, 68, 65, 115, 68, 81, 111, 103, 73, 109, 104, 48, 100,
72, 65, 54, 76, 121, 57, 108, 101, 71, 70, 116, 99, 71, 120, 108, 76, 72, 65, 54, 76, 121, 57, 108, 101, 71, 70, 116, 99, 71, 120, 108, 76,
109, 78, 118, 98, 83, 57, 112, 99, 49, 57, 121, 98, 50, 57, 48, 73, 109, 78, 118, 98, 83, 57, 112, 99, 49, 57, 121, 98, 50, 57, 48, 73,
106, 112, 48, 99, 110, 86, 108, 102, 81] 106, 112, 48, 99, 110, 86, 108, 102, 81]
HMACs are generated using keys. This example uses the key HMACs are generated using keys. This example uses the key
represented by the following byte array: represented by the following byte array:
[3, 35, 53, 75, 43, 15, 165, 188, 131, 126, 6, 101, 119, 123, 166, [3, 35, 53, 75, 43, 15, 165, 188, 131, 126, 6, 101, 119, 123, 166,
143, 90, 179, 40, 230, 240, 84, 201, 40, 169, 15, 132, 178, 210, 80, 143, 90, 179, 40, 230, 240, 84, 201, 40, 169, 15, 132, 178, 210, 80,
46, 191, 211, 251, 90, 146, 210, 6, 71, 239, 150, 138, 180, 195, 119, 46, 191, 211, 251, 90, 146, 210, 6, 71, 239, 150, 138, 180, 195, 119,
98, 61, 34, 61, 46, 33, 114, 5, 46, 79, 8, 192, 205, 154, 245, 103, 98, 61, 34, 61, 46, 33, 114, 5, 46, 79, 8, 192, 205, 154, 245, 103,
208, 128, 163] 208, 128, 163]
Running the HMAC SHA-256 algorithm on the bytes of the UTF-8 Running the HMAC SHA-256 algorithm on the bytes of the ASCII
representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same as the representation of the JWS Secured Input with this key yields the
ASCII representation) with this key yields the following byte array: following byte array:
[116, 24, 223, 180, 151, 153, 224, 37, 79, 250, 96, 125, 216, 173, [116, 24, 223, 180, 151, 153, 224, 37, 79, 250, 96, 125, 216, 173,
187, 186, 22, 212, 37, 77, 105, 214, 191, 240, 91, 88, 5, 88, 83, 187, 186, 22, 212, 37, 77, 105, 214, 191, 240, 91, 88, 5, 88, 83,
132, 141, 121] 132, 141, 121]
Base64url encoding the above HMAC output yields the Encoded JWS Base64url encoding the above HMAC output yields the Encoded JWS
Signature value: Signature value:
dBjftJeZ4CVP-mB92K27uhbUJU1p1r_wW1gFWFOEjXk dBjftJeZ4CVP-mB92K27uhbUJU1p1r_wW1gFWFOEjXk
A.1.2. Decoding A.1.2. Decoding
Decoding the JWS first requires removing the base64url encoding from Decoding the JWS requires base64url decoding the Encoded JWS Header,
the Encoded JWS Header, the Encoded JWS Payload, and the Encoded JWS Encoded JWS Payload, and Encoded JWS Signature to produce the JWS
Signature. We base64url decode the inputs and turn them into the Header, JWS Payload, and JWS Signature byte arrays. The byte array
corresponding byte arrays. We decode the Encoded JWS Header byte containing the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Header is decoded into
array containing the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Header into the the JWS Header string.
JWS Header string.
A.1.3. Validating A.1.3. Validating
Next we validate the decoded results. Since the "alg" parameter in Next we validate the decoded results. Since the "alg" parameter in
the header is "HS256", we validate the HMAC SHA-256 value contained the header is "HS256", we validate the HMAC SHA-256 value contained
in the JWS Signature. If any of the validation steps fail, the JWS in the JWS Signature. If any of the validation steps fail, the JWS
MUST be rejected. MUST be rejected.
First, we validate that the JWS Header string is legal JSON. First, we validate that the JWS Header string is legal JSON.
To validate the HMAC value, we repeat the previous process of using To validate the HMAC value, we repeat the previous process of using
the correct key and the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input the correct key and the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input
(which is the same as the ASCII representation) as input to the HMAC as input to the HMAC SHA-256 function and then taking the output and
SHA-256 function and then taking the output and determining if it determining if it matches the JWS Signature. If it matches exactly,
matches the JWS Signature. If it matches exactly, the HMAC has been the HMAC has been validated.
validated.
A.2. JWS using RSA SHA-256 A.2. JWS using RSA SHA-256
A.2.1. Encoding A.2.1. Encoding
The JWS Header in this example is different from the previous example The JWS Header in this example is different from the previous example
in two ways: First, because a different algorithm is being used, the in two ways: First, because a different algorithm is being used, the
"alg" value is different. Second, for illustration purposes only, "alg" value is different. Second, for illustration purposes only,
the optional "typ" parameter is not used. (This difference is not the optional "typ" parameter is not used. (This difference is not
related to the algorithm employed.) The JWS Header used is: related to the algorithm employed.) The JWS Header used is:
skipping to change at page 20, line 22 skipping to change at page 24, line 17
"http://example.com/is_root":true} "http://example.com/is_root":true}
Concatenating the Encoded JWS Header, a period character, and the Concatenating the Encoded JWS Header, a period character, and the
Encoded JWS Payload yields this JWS Secured Input value (with line Encoded JWS Payload yields this JWS Secured Input value (with line
breaks for display purposes only): breaks for display purposes only):
eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiJ9 eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiJ9
. .
eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt
cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ
The UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same The ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input is the following
as the ASCII representation) is the following byte array: byte array:
[101, 121, 74, 104, 98, 71, 99, 105, 79, 105, 74, 83, 85, 122, 73, [101, 121, 74, 104, 98, 71, 99, 105, 79, 105, 74, 83, 85, 122, 73,
49, 78, 105, 74, 57, 46, 101, 121, 74, 112, 99, 51, 77, 105, 79, 105, 49, 78, 105, 74, 57, 46, 101, 121, 74, 112, 99, 51, 77, 105, 79, 105,
74, 113, 98, 50, 85, 105, 76, 65, 48, 75, 73, 67, 74, 108, 101, 72, 74, 113, 98, 50, 85, 105, 76, 65, 48, 75, 73, 67, 74, 108, 101, 72,
65, 105, 79, 106, 69, 122, 77, 68, 65, 52, 77, 84, 107, 122, 79, 68, 65, 105, 79, 106, 69, 122, 77, 68, 65, 52, 77, 84, 107, 122, 79, 68,
65, 115, 68, 81, 111, 103, 73, 109, 104, 48, 100, 72, 65, 54, 76, 65, 115, 68, 81, 111, 103, 73, 109, 104, 48, 100, 72, 65, 54, 76,
121, 57, 108, 101, 71, 70, 116, 99, 71, 120, 108, 76, 109, 78, 118, 121, 57, 108, 101, 71, 70, 116, 99, 71, 120, 108, 76, 109, 78, 118,
98, 83, 57, 112, 99, 49, 57, 121, 98, 50, 57, 48, 73, 106, 112, 48, 98, 83, 57, 112, 99, 49, 57, 121, 98, 50, 57, 48, 73, 106, 112, 48,
99, 110, 86, 108, 102, 81] 99, 110, 86, 108, 102, 81]
The RSA key consists of a public part (n, e), and a private exponent The RSA key consists of a public part (Modulus, Exponent), and a
d. The values of the RSA key used in this example, presented as the Private Exponent. The values of the RSA key used in this example,
byte arrays representing big endian integers are: presented as the byte arrays representing big endian integers are:
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| Parameter | Value | | Parameter | Value |
| Name | | | Name | |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| n | [161, 248, 22, 10, 226, 227, 201, 180, 101, 206, 141, | | Modulus | [161, 248, 22, 10, 226, 227, 201, 180, 101, 206, 141, |
| | 45, 101, 98, 99, 54, 43, 146, 125, 190, 41, 225, 240, | | | 45, 101, 98, 99, 54, 43, 146, 125, 190, 41, 225, 240, |
| | 36, 119, 252, 22, 37, 204, 144, 161, 54, 227, 139, | | | 36, 119, 252, 22, 37, 204, 144, 161, 54, 227, 139, |
| | 217, 52, 151, 197, 182, 234, 99, 221, 119, 17, 230, | | | 217, 52, 151, 197, 182, 234, 99, 221, 119, 17, 230, |
| | 124, 116, 41, 249, 86, 176, 251, 138, 143, 8, 154, | | | 124, 116, 41, 249, 86, 176, 251, 138, 143, 8, 154, |
| | 220, 75, 105, 137, 60, 193, 51, 63, 83, 237, 208, 25, | | | 220, 75, 105, 137, 60, 193, 51, 63, 83, 237, 208, 25, |
| | 184, 119, 132, 37, 47, 236, 145, 79, 228, 133, 119, | | | 184, 119, 132, 37, 47, 236, 145, 79, 228, 133, 119, |
| | 105, 89, 75, 234, 66, 128, 211, 44, 15, 85, 191, 98, | | | 105, 89, 75, 234, 66, 128, 211, 44, 15, 85, 191, 98, |
| | 148, 79, 19, 3, 150, 188, 110, 155, 223, 110, 189, | | | 148, 79, 19, 3, 150, 188, 110, 155, 223, 110, 189, |
| | 210, 189, 163, 103, 142, 236, 160, 198, 104, 247, 1, | | | 210, 189, 163, 103, 142, 236, 160, 198, 104, 247, 1, |
| | 179, 141, 191, 251, 56, 200, 52, 44, 226, 254, 109, | | | 179, 141, 191, 251, 56, 200, 52, 44, 226, 254, 109, |
skipping to change at page 21, line 32 skipping to change at page 25, line 32
| | 248, 165, 193, 117, 3, 146, 249, 68, 232, 237, 100, | | | 248, 165, 193, 117, 3, 146, 249, 68, 232, 237, 100, |
| | 193, 16, 198, 182, 71, 96, 154, 164, 120, 58, 235, | | | 193, 16, 198, 182, 71, 96, 154, 164, 120, 58, 235, |
| | 156, 108, 154, 215, 85, 49, 48, 80, 99, 139, 131, | | | 156, 108, 154, 215, 85, 49, 48, 80, 99, 139, 131, |
| | 102, 92, 111, 111, 122, 130, 163, 150, 112, 42, 31, | | | 102, 92, 111, 111, 122, 130, 163, 150, 112, 42, 31, |
| | 100, 27, 130, 211, 235, 242, 57, 34, 25, 73, 31, 182, | | | 100, 27, 130, 211, 235, 242, 57, 34, 25, 73, 31, 182, |
| | 134, 135, 44, 87, 22, 245, 10, 248, 53, 141, 154, | | | 134, 135, 44, 87, 22, 245, 10, 248, 53, 141, 154, |
| | 139, 157, 23, 195, 64, 114, 143, 127, 135, 216, 154, | | | 139, 157, 23, 195, 64, 114, 143, 127, 135, 216, 154, |
| | 24, 216, 252, 171, 103, 173, 132, 89, 12, 46, 207, | | | 24, 216, 252, 171, 103, 173, 132, 89, 12, 46, 207, |
| | 117, 147, 57, 54, 60, 7, 3, 77, 111, 96, 111, 158, | | | 117, 147, 57, 54, 60, 7, 3, 77, 111, 96, 111, 158, |
| | 33, 224, 84, 86, 202, 229, 233, 161] | | | 33, 224, 84, 86, 202, 229, 233, 161] |
| e | [1, 0, 1] | | Exponent | [1, 0, 1] |
| d | [18, 174, 113, 164, 105, 205, 10, 43, 195, 126, 82, | | Private | [18, 174, 113, 164, 105, 205, 10, 43, 195, 126, 82, |
| | 108, 69, 0, 87, 31, 29, 97, 117, 29, 100, 233, 73, | | Exponent | 108, 69, 0, 87, 31, 29, 97, 117, 29, 100, 233, 73, |
| | 112, 123, 98, 89, 15, 157, 11, 165, 124, 150, 60, 64, | | | 112, 123, 98, 89, 15, 157, 11, 165, 124, 150, 60, 64, |
| | 30, 63, 207, 47, 44, 211, 189, 236, 136, 229, 3, 191, | | | 30, 63, 207, 47, 44, 211, 189, 236, 136, 229, 3, 191, |
| | 198, 67, 155, 11, 40, 200, 47, 125, 55, 151, 103, 31, | | | 198, 67, 155, 11, 40, 200, 47, 125, 55, 151, 103, 31, |
| | 82, 19, 238, 216, 193, 90, 37, 216, 213, 206, 160, 2, | | | 82, 19, 238, 216, 193, 90, 37, 216, 213, 206, 160, 2, |
| | 94, 227, 171, 46, 139, 127, 121, 33, 111, 198, 59, | | | 94, 227, 171, 46, 139, 127, 121, 33, 111, 198, 59, |
| | 234, 86, 39, 83, 180, 6, 68, 198, 161, 81, 39, 217, | | | 234, 86, 39, 83, 180, 6, 68, 198, 161, 81, 39, 217, |
| | 178, 149, 69, 64, 160, 187, 225, 163, 5, 86, 152, 45, | | | 178, 149, 69, 64, 160, 187, 225, 163, 5, 86, 152, 45, |
| | 78, 159, 222, 95, 100, 37, 241, 77, 75, 113, 52, 65, | | | 78, 159, 222, 95, 100, 37, 241, 77, 75, 113, 52, 65, |
| | 181, 93, 199, 59, 155, 74, 237, 204, 146, 172, 227, | | | 181, 93, 199, 59, 155, 74, 237, 204, 146, 172, 227, |
| | 146, 126, 55, 245, 125, 12, 253, 94, 117, 129, 250, | | | 146, 126, 55, 245, 125, 12, 253, 94, 117, 129, 250, |
skipping to change at page 22, line 29 skipping to change at page 26, line 29
| | 250, 92, 34, 208, 81, 40, 91, 214, 59, 148, 59, 86, | | | 250, 92, 34, 208, 81, 40, 91, 214, 59, 148, 59, 86, |
| | 93, 137, 138, 5, 104, 84, 19, 229, 60, 60, 108, 101, | | | 93, 137, 138, 5, 104, 84, 19, 229, 60, 60, 108, 101, |
| | 37, 255, 31, 227, 78, 61, 220, 112, 240, 213, 100, | | | 37, 255, 31, 227, 78, 61, 220, 112, 240, 213, 100, |
| | 80, 253, 164, 139, 161, 46, 16, 78, 157, 235, 159, | | | 80, 253, 164, 139, 161, 46, 16, 78, 157, 235, 159, |
| | 184, 24, 129, 225, 196, 189, 242, 93, 146, 71, 244, | | | 184, 24, 129, 225, 196, 189, 242, 93, 146, 71, 244, |
| | 80, 200, 101, 146, 121, 104, 231, 115, 52, 244, 65, | | | 80, 200, 101, 146, 121, 104, 231, 115, 52, 244, 65, |
| | 79, 117, 167, 80, 225, 57, 84, 110, 58, 138, 115, | | | 79, 117, 167, 80, 225, 57, 84, 110, 58, 138, 115, |
| | 157] | | | 157] |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
The RSA private key (n, d) is then passed to the RSA signing The RSA private key (Modulus, Private Exponent) is then passed to the
function, which also takes the hash type, SHA-256, and the bytes of RSA signing function, which also takes the hash type, SHA-256, and
the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same the bytes of the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input as
as the ASCII representation) as inputs. The result of the digital inputs. The result of the digital signature is a byte array, which
signature is a byte array S, which represents a big endian integer. represents a big endian integer. In this example, it is:
In this example, S is:
+--------+----------------------------------------------------------+ [112, 46, 33, 137, 67, 232, 143, 209, 30, 181, 216, 45, 191, 120, 69,
| Result | Value | 243, 65, 6, 174, 27, 129, 255, 247, 115, 17, 22, 173, 209, 113, 125,
| Name | | 131, 101, 109, 66, 10, 253, 60, 150, 238, 221, 115, 162, 102, 62, 81,
+--------+----------------------------------------------------------+ 102, 104, 123, 0, 11, 135, 34, 110, 1, 135, 237, 16, 115, 249, 69,
| S | [112, 46, 33, 137, 67, 232, 143, 209, 30, 181, 216, 45, | 229, 130, 173, 252, 239, 22, 216, 90, 121, 142, 232, 198, 109, 219,
| | 191, 120, 69, 243, 65, 6, 174, 27, 129, 255, 247, 115, | 61, 184, 151, 91, 23, 208, 148, 2, 190, 237, 213, 217, 217, 112, 7,
| | 17, 22, 173, 209, 113, 125, 131, 101, 109, 66, 10, 253, | 16, 141, 178, 129, 96, 213, 248, 4, 12, 167, 68, 87, 98, 184, 31,
| | 60, 150, 238, 221, 115, 162, 102, 62, 81, 102, 104, 123, | 190, 127, 249, 217, 46, 10, 231, 111, 36, 242, 91, 51, 187, 230, 244,
| | 0, 11, 135, 34, 110, 1, 135, 237, 16, 115, 249, 69, 229, | 74, 230, 30, 177, 4, 10, 203, 32, 4, 77, 62, 249, 18, 142, 212, 1,
| | 130, 173, 252, 239, 22, 216, 90, 121, 142, 232, 198, | 48, 121, 91, 212, 189, 59, 65, 238, 202, 208, 102, 171, 101, 25, 129,
| | 109, 219, 61, 184, 151, 91, 23, 208, 148, 2, 190, 237, | 253, 228, 141, 247, 127, 55, 45, 195, 139, 159, 175, 221, 59, 239,
| | 213, 217, 217, 112, 7, 16, 141, 178, 129, 96, 213, 248, | 177, 139, 93, 163, 204, 60, 46, 176, 47, 158, 58, 65, 214, 18, 202,
| | 4, 12, 167, 68, 87, 98, 184, 31, 190, 127, 249, 217, 46, | 173, 21, 145, 18, 115, 160, 95, 35, 185, 232, 56, 250, 175, 132, 157,
| | 10, 231, 111, 36, 242, 91, 51, 187, 230, 244, 74, 230, | 105, 132, 41, 239, 90, 30, 136, 121, 130, 54, 195, 212, 14, 96, 69,
| | 30, 177, 4, 10, 203, 32, 4, 77, 62, 249, 18, 142, 212, | 34, 165, 68, 200, 242, 122, 122, 45, 184, 6, 99, 209, 108, 247, 202,
| | 1, 48, 121, 91, 212, 189, 59, 65, 238, 202, 208, 102, | 234, 86, 222, 64, 92, 178, 33, 90, 69, 178, 194, 85, 102, 181, 90,
| | 171, 101, 25, 129, 253, 228, 141, 247, 127, 55, 45, 195, | 193, 167, 72, 160, 112, 223, 200, 163, 42, 70, 149, 67, 208, 25, 238,
| | 139, 159, 175, 221, 59, 239, 177, 139, 93, 163, 204, 60, | 251, 71]
| | 46, 176, 47, 158, 58, 65, 214, 18, 202, 173, 21, 145, |
| | 18, 115, 160, 95, 35, 185, 232, 56, 250, 175, 132, 157, |
| | 105, 132, 41, 239, 90, 30, 136, 121, 130, 54, 195, 212, |
| | 14, 96, 69, 34, 165, 68, 200, 242, 122, 122, 45, 184, 6, |
| | 99, 209, 108, 247, 202, 234, 86, 222, 64, 92, 178, 33, |
| | 90, 69, 178, 194, 85, 102, 181, 90, 193, 167, 72, 160, |
| | 112, 223, 200, 163, 42, 70, 149, 67, 208, 25, 238, 251, |
| | 71] |
+--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
Base64url encoding the digital signature produces this value for the Base64url encoding the digital signature produces this value for the
Encoded JWS Signature (with line breaks for display purposes only): Encoded JWS Signature (with line breaks for display purposes only):
cC4hiUPoj9Eetdgtv3hF80EGrhuB__dzERat0XF9g2VtQgr9PJbu3XOiZj5RZmh7 cC4hiUPoj9Eetdgtv3hF80EGrhuB__dzERat0XF9g2VtQgr9PJbu3XOiZj5RZmh7
AAuHIm4Bh-0Qc_lF5YKt_O8W2Fp5jujGbds9uJdbF9CUAr7t1dnZcAcQjbKBYNX4 AAuHIm4Bh-0Qc_lF5YKt_O8W2Fp5jujGbds9uJdbF9CUAr7t1dnZcAcQjbKBYNX4
BAynRFdiuB--f_nZLgrnbyTyWzO75vRK5h6xBArLIARNPvkSjtQBMHlb1L07Qe7K BAynRFdiuB--f_nZLgrnbyTyWzO75vRK5h6xBArLIARNPvkSjtQBMHlb1L07Qe7K
0GarZRmB_eSN9383LcOLn6_dO--xi12jzDwusC-eOkHWEsqtFZESc6BfI7noOPqv 0GarZRmB_eSN9383LcOLn6_dO--xi12jzDwusC-eOkHWEsqtFZESc6BfI7noOPqv
hJ1phCnvWh6IeYI2w9QOYEUipUTI8np6LbgGY9Fs98rqVt5AXLIhWkWywlVmtVrB hJ1phCnvWh6IeYI2w9QOYEUipUTI8np6LbgGY9Fs98rqVt5AXLIhWkWywlVmtVrB
p0igcN_IoypGlUPQGe77Rw p0igcN_IoypGlUPQGe77Rw
A.2.2. Decoding A.2.2. Decoding
Decoding the JWS from this example requires processing the Encoded Decoding the JWS requires base64url decoding the Encoded JWS Header,
JWS Header and Encoded JWS Payload exactly as done in the first Encoded JWS Payload, and Encoded JWS Signature to produce the JWS
example. Header, JWS Payload, and JWS Signature byte arrays. The byte array
containing the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Header is decoded into
the JWS Header string.
A.2.3. Validating A.2.3. Validating
Since the "alg" parameter in the header is "RS256", we validate the Since the "alg" parameter in the header is "RS256", we validate the
RSA SHA-256 digital signature contained in the JWS Signature. If any RSA SHA-256 digital signature contained in the JWS Signature. If any
of the validation steps fail, the JWS MUST be rejected. of the validation steps fail, the JWS MUST be rejected.
First, we validate that the JWS Header string is legal JSON. First, we validate that the JWS Header string is legal JSON.
Validating the JWS Signature is a little different from the previous Validating the JWS Signature is a little different from the previous
example. First, we base64url decode the Encoded JWS Signature to example. First, we base64url decode the Encoded JWS Signature to
produce a digital signature S to check. We then pass (n, e), S and produce a digital signature S to check. We then pass (n, e), S and
the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input (which the bytes of the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input to an
is the same as the ASCII representation) to an RSA signature verifier RSA signature verifier that has been configured to use the SHA-256
that has been configured to use the SHA-256 hash function. hash function.
A.3. JWS using ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 A.3. JWS using ECDSA P-256 SHA-256
A.3.1. Encoding A.3.1. Encoding
The JWS Header for this example differs from the previous example The JWS Header for this example differs from the previous example
because a different algorithm is being used. The JWS Header used is: because a different algorithm is being used. The JWS Header used is:
{"alg":"ES256"} {"alg":"ES256"}
The following byte array contains the UTF-8 representation of the JWS The following byte array contains the UTF-8 representation of the JWS
skipping to change at page 24, line 45 skipping to change at page 28, line 22
"http://example.com/is_root":true} "http://example.com/is_root":true}
Concatenating the Encoded JWS Header, a period character, and the Concatenating the Encoded JWS Header, a period character, and the
Encoded JWS Payload yields this JWS Secured Input value (with line Encoded JWS Payload yields this JWS Secured Input value (with line
breaks for display purposes only): breaks for display purposes only):
eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiJ9 eyJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiJ9
. .
eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt
cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ
The UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same The ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input is the following
as the ASCII representation) is the following byte array: byte array:
[101, 121, 74, 104, 98, 71, 99, 105, 79, 105, 74, 70, 85, 122, 73, [101, 121, 74, 104, 98, 71, 99, 105, 79, 105, 74, 70, 85, 122, 73,
49, 78, 105, 74, 57, 46, 101, 121, 74, 112, 99, 51, 77, 105, 79, 105, 49, 78, 105, 74, 57, 46, 101, 121, 74, 112, 99, 51, 77, 105, 79, 105,
74, 113, 98, 50, 85, 105, 76, 65, 48, 75, 73, 67, 74, 108, 101, 72, 74, 113, 98, 50, 85, 105, 76, 65, 48, 75, 73, 67, 74, 108, 101, 72,
65, 105, 79, 106, 69, 122, 77, 68, 65, 52, 77, 84, 107, 122, 79, 68, 65, 105, 79, 106, 69, 122, 77, 68, 65, 52, 77, 84, 107, 122, 79, 68,
65, 115, 68, 81, 111, 103, 73, 109, 104, 48, 100, 72, 65, 54, 76, 65, 115, 68, 81, 111, 103, 73, 109, 104, 48, 100, 72, 65, 54, 76,
121, 57, 108, 101, 71, 70, 116, 99, 71, 120, 108, 76, 109, 78, 118, 121, 57, 108, 101, 71, 70, 116, 99, 71, 120, 108, 76, 109, 78, 118,
98, 83, 57, 112, 99, 49, 57, 121, 98, 50, 57, 48, 73, 106, 112, 48, 98, 83, 57, 112, 99, 49, 57, 121, 98, 50, 57, 48, 73, 106, 112, 48,
99, 110, 86, 108, 102, 81] 99, 110, 86, 108, 102, 81]
The ECDSA key consists of a public part, the EC point (x, y), and a The ECDSA key consists of a public part, the EC point (x, y), and a
private part d. The values of the ECDSA key used in this example, private part d. The values of the ECDSA key used in this example,
presented as the byte arrays representing big endian integers are: presented as the byte arrays representing three 256 bit big endian
integers are:
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| Parameter | Value | | Parameter | Value |
| Name | | | Name | |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| x | [127, 205, 206, 39, 112, 246, 196, 93, 65, 131, 203, | | x | [127, 205, 206, 39, 112, 246, 196, 93, 65, 131, 203, |
| | 238, 111, 219, 75, 123, 88, 7, 51, 53, 123, 233, 239, | | | 238, 111, 219, 75, 123, 88, 7, 51, 53, 123, 233, 239, |
| | 19, 186, 207, 110, 60, 123, 209, 84, 69] | | | 19, 186, 207, 110, 60, 123, 209, 84, 69] |
| y | [199, 241, 68, 205, 27, 189, 155, 126, 135, 44, 223, | | y | [199, 241, 68, 205, 27, 189, 155, 126, 135, 44, 223, |
| | 237, 185, 238, 185, 244, 179, 105, 93, 110, 169, 11, | | | 237, 185, 238, 185, 244, 179, 105, 93, 110, 169, 11, |
skipping to change at page 25, line 26 skipping to change at page 29, line 4
| x | [127, 205, 206, 39, 112, 246, 196, 93, 65, 131, 203, | | x | [127, 205, 206, 39, 112, 246, 196, 93, 65, 131, 203, |
| | 238, 111, 219, 75, 123, 88, 7, 51, 53, 123, 233, 239, | | | 238, 111, 219, 75, 123, 88, 7, 51, 53, 123, 233, 239, |
| | 19, 186, 207, 110, 60, 123, 209, 84, 69] | | | 19, 186, 207, 110, 60, 123, 209, 84, 69] |
| y | [199, 241, 68, 205, 27, 189, 155, 126, 135, 44, 223, | | y | [199, 241, 68, 205, 27, 189, 155, 126, 135, 44, 223, |
| | 237, 185, 238, 185, 244, 179, 105, 93, 110, 169, 11, | | | 237, 185, 238, 185, 244, 179, 105, 93, 110, 169, 11, |
| | 36, 173, 138, 70, 35, 40, 133, 136, 229, 173] | | | 36, 173, 138, 70, 35, 40, 133, 136, 229, 173] |
| d | [142, 155, 16, 158, 113, 144, 152, 191, 152, 4, 135, | | d | [142, 155, 16, 158, 113, 144, 152, 191, 152, 4, 135, |
| | 223, 31, 93, 119, 233, 203, 41, 96, 110, 190, 210, | | | 223, 31, 93, 119, 233, 203, 41, 96, 110, 190, 210, |
| | 38, 59, 95, 87, 194, 19, 223, 132, 244, 178] | | | 38, 59, 95, 87, 194, 19, 223, 132, 244, 178] |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+ +-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
The ECDSA private part d is then passed to an ECDSA signing function, The ECDSA private part d is then passed to an ECDSA signing function,
which also takes the curve type, P-256, the hash type, SHA-256, and which also takes the curve type, P-256, the hash type, SHA-256, and
the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input (which the bytes of the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input as
is the same as the ASCII representation) as inputs. The result of inputs. The result of the digital signature is the EC point (R, S),
the digital signature is the EC point (R, S), where R and S are where R and S are unsigned integers. In this example, the R and S
unsigned integers. In this example, the R and S values, given as values, given as byte arrays representing big endian integers are:
byte arrays representing big endian integers are:
+--------+----------------------------------------------------------+ +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| Result | Value | | Result | Value |
| Name | | | Name | |
+--------+----------------------------------------------------------+ +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| R | [14, 209, 33, 83, 121, 99, 108, 72, 60, 47, 127, 21, 88, | | R | [14, 209, 33, 83, 121, 99, 108, 72, 60, 47, 127, 21, 88, |
| | 7, 212, 2, 163, 178, 40, 3, 58, 249, 124, 126, 23, 129, | | | 7, 212, 2, 163, 178, 40, 3, 58, 249, 124, 126, 23, 129, |
| | 154, 195, 22, 158, 166, 101] | | | 154, 195, 22, 158, 166, 101] |
| S | [197, 10, 7, 211, 140, 60, 112, 229, 216, 241, 45, 175, | | S | [197, 10, 7, 211, 140, 60, 112, 229, 216, 241, 45, 175, |
| | 8, 74, 84, 128, 166, 101, 144, 197, 242, 147, 80, 154, | | | 8, 74, 84, 128, 166, 101, 144, 197, 242, 147, 80, 154, |
skipping to change at page 26, line 7 skipping to change at page 29, line 31
+--------+----------------------------------------------------------+ +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
Concatenating the S array to the end of the R array and base64url Concatenating the S array to the end of the R array and base64url
encoding the result produces this value for the Encoded JWS Signature encoding the result produces this value for the Encoded JWS Signature
(with line breaks for display purposes only): (with line breaks for display purposes only):
DtEhU3ljbEg8L38VWAfUAqOyKAM6-Xx-F4GawxaepmXFCgfTjDxw5djxLa8ISlSA DtEhU3ljbEg8L38VWAfUAqOyKAM6-Xx-F4GawxaepmXFCgfTjDxw5djxLa8ISlSA
pmWQxfKTUJqPP3-Kg6NU1Q pmWQxfKTUJqPP3-Kg6NU1Q
A.3.2. Decoding A.3.2. Decoding
Decoding the JWS from this example requires processing the Encoded Decoding the JWS requires base64url decoding the Encoded JWS Header,
JWS Header and Encoded JWS Payload exactly as done in the first Encoded JWS Payload, and Encoded JWS Signature to produce the JWS
example. Header, JWS Payload, and JWS Signature byte arrays. The byte array
containing the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Header is decoded into
the JWS Header string.
A.3.3. Validating A.3.3. Validating
Since the "alg" parameter in the header is "ES256", we validate the Since the "alg" parameter in the header is "ES256", we validate the
ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature contained in the JWS Signature. ECDSA P-256 SHA-256 digital signature contained in the JWS Signature.
If any of the validation steps fail, the JWS MUST be rejected. If any of the validation steps fail, the JWS MUST be rejected.
First, we validate that the JWS Header string is legal JSON. First, we validate that the JWS Header string is legal JSON.
Validating the JWS Signature is a little different from the first Validating the JWS Signature is a little different from the first
example. First, we base64url decode the Encoded JWS Signature as in example. First, we base64url decode the Encoded JWS Signature as in
the previous examples but we then need to split the 64 member byte the previous examples but we then need to split the 64 member byte
array that must result into two 32 byte arrays, the first R and the array that must result into two 32 byte arrays, the first R and the
second S. We then pass (x, y), (R, S) and the bytes of the UTF-8 second S. We then pass (x, y), (R, S) and the bytes of the ASCII
representation of the JWS Secured Input (which is the same as the representation of the JWS Secured Input to an ECDSA signature
ASCII representation) to an ECDSA signature verifier that has been verifier that has been configured to use the P-256 curve with the
configured to use the P-256 curve with the SHA-256 hash function. SHA-256 hash function.
As explained in Section 3.4 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA] As explained in Section 3.4 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA]
specification, the use of the k value in ECDSA means that we cannot specification, the use of the K value in ECDSA means that we cannot
validate the correctness of the digital signature in the same way we validate the correctness of the digital signature in the same way we
validated the correctness of the HMAC. Instead, implementations MUST validated the correctness of the HMAC. Instead, implementations MUST
use an ECDSA validator to validate the digital signature. use an ECDSA validator to validate the digital signature.
A.4. Example Plaintext JWS A.4. JWS using ECDSA P-521 SHA-512
A.4.1. Encoding
The JWS Header for this example differs from the previous example
because a different ECDSA curve and hash function are used. The JWS
Header used is:
{"alg":"ES512"}
The following byte array contains the UTF-8 representation of the JWS
Header:
[123, 34, 97, 108, 103, 34, 58, 34, 69, 83, 53, 49, 50, 34, 125]
Base64url encoding these bytes yields this Encoded JWS Header value:
eyJhbGciOiJFUzUxMiJ9
The JWS Payload used in this example, is the ASCII string "Payload".
The representation of this string is the byte array:
[80, 97, 121, 108, 111, 97, 100]
Base64url encoding these bytes yields the Encoded JWS Payload value:
UGF5bG9hZA
Concatenating the Encoded JWS Header, a period character, and the
Encoded JWS Payload yields this JWS Secured Input value:
eyJhbGciOiJFUzUxMiJ9.UGF5bG9hZA
The ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input is the following
byte array:
[101, 121, 74, 104, 98, 71, 99, 105, 79, 105, 74, 70, 85, 122, 85,
120, 77, 105, 74, 57, 46, 85, 71, 70, 53, 98, 71, 57, 104, 90, 65]
The ECDSA key consists of a public part, the EC point (x, y), and a
private part d. The values of the ECDSA key used in this example,
presented as the byte arrays representing three 521 bit big endian
integers are:
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| Parameter | Value |
| Name | |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| x | [1, 233, 41, 5, 15, 18, 79, 198, 188, 85, 199, 213, |
| | 57, 51, 101, 223, 157, 239, 74, 176, 194, 44, 178, |
| | 87, 152, 249, 52, 235, 4, 227, 198, 186, 227, 112, |
| | 26, 87, 167, 145, 14, 157, 129, 191, 54, 49, 89, 232, |
| | 235, 203, 21, 93, 99, 73, 244, 189, 182, 204, 248, |
| | 169, 76, 92, 89, 199, 170, 193, 1, 164] |
| y | [0, 52, 166, 68, 14, 55, 103, 80, 210, 55, 31, 209, |
| | 189, 194, 200, 243, 183, 29, 47, 78, 229, 234, 52, |
| | 50, 200, 21, 204, 163, 21, 96, 254, 93, 147, 135, |
| | 236, 119, 75, 85, 131, 134, 48, 229, 203, 191, 90, |
| | 140, 190, 10, 145, 221, 0, 100, 198, 153, 154, 31, |
| | 110, 110, 103, 250, 221, 237, 228, 200, 200, 246] |
| d | [1, 142, 105, 111, 176, 52, 80, 88, 129, 221, 17, 11, |
| | 72, 62, 184, 125, 50, 206, 73, 95, 227, 107, 55, 69, |
| | 237, 242, 216, 202, 228, 240, 242, 83, 159, 70, 21, |
| | 160, 233, 142, 171, 82, 179, 192, 197, 234, 196, 206, |
| | 7, 81, 133, 168, 231, 187, 71, 222, 172, 29, 29, 231, |
| | 123, 204, 246, 97, 53, 230, 61, 130] |
+-----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
The ECDSA private part d is then passed to an ECDSA signing function,
which also takes the curve type, P-521, the hash type, SHA-512, and
the bytes of the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input as
inputs. The result of the digital signature is the EC point (R, S),
where R and S are unsigned integers. In this example, the R and S
values, given as byte arrays representing big endian integers are:
+--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| Result | Value |
| Name | |
+--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| R | [1, 220, 12, 129, 231, 171, 194, 209, 232, 135, 233, |
| | 117, 247, 105, 122, 210, 26, 125, 192, 1, 217, 21, 82, |
| | 91, 45, 240, 255, 83, 19, 34, 239, 71, 48, 157, 147, |
| | 152, 105, 18, 53, 108, 163, 214, 68, 231, 62, 153, 150, |
| | 106, 194, 164, 246, 72, 143, 138, 24, 50, 129, 223, 133, |
| | 206, 209, 172, 63, 237, 119, 109] |
| S | [0, 111, 6, 105, 44, 5, 41, 208, 128, 61, 152, 40, 92, |
| | 61, 152, 4, 150, 66, 60, 69, 247, 196, 170, 81, 193, |
| | 199, 78, 59, 194, 169, 16, 124, 9, 143, 42, 142, 131, |
| | 48, 206, 238, 34, 175, 83, 203, 220, 159, 3, 107, 155, |
| | 22, 27, 73, 111, 68, 68, 21, 238, 144, 229, 232, 148, |
| | 188, 222, 59, 242, 103] |
+--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
Concatenating the S array to the end of the R array and base64url
encoding the result produces this value for the Encoded JWS Signature
(with line breaks for display purposes only):
AdwMgeerwtHoh-l192l60hp9wAHZFVJbLfD_UxMi70cwnZOYaRI1bKPWROc-mZZq
wqT2SI-KGDKB34XO0aw_7XdtAG8GaSwFKdCAPZgoXD2YBJZCPEX3xKpRwcdOO8Kp
EHwJjyqOgzDO7iKvU8vcnwNrmxYbSW9ERBXukOXolLzeO_Jn
A.4.2. Decoding
Decoding the JWS requires base64url decoding the Encoded JWS Header,
Encoded JWS Payload, and Encoded JWS Signature to produce the JWS
Header, JWS Payload, and JWS Signature byte arrays. The byte array
containing the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Header is decoded into
the JWS Header string.
A.4.3. Validating
Since the "alg" parameter in the header is "ES512", we validate the
ECDSA P-521 SHA-512 digital signature contained in the JWS Signature.
If any of the validation steps fail, the JWS MUST be rejected.
First, we validate that the JWS Header string is legal JSON.
Validating the JWS Signature is similar to the previous example.
First, we base64url decode the Encoded JWS Signature as in the
previous examples but we then need to split the 132 member byte array
that must result into two 66 byte arrays, the first R and the second
S. We then pass (x, y), (R, S) and the bytes of the ASCII
representation of the JWS Secured Input to an ECDSA signature
verifier that has been configured to use the P-521 curve with the
SHA-512 hash function.
As explained in Section 3.4 of the JSON Web Algorithms (JWA) [JWA]
specification, the use of the K value in ECDSA means that we cannot
validate the correctness of the digital signature in the same way we
validated the correctness of the HMAC. Instead, implementations MUST
use an ECDSA validator to validate the digital signature.
A.5. Example Plaintext JWS
The following example JWS Header declares that the encoded object is The following example JWS Header declares that the encoded object is
a Plaintext JWS: a Plaintext JWS:
{"alg":"none"} {"alg":"none"}
Base64url encoding the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Base64url encoding the bytes of the UTF-8 representation of the JWS
Header yields this Encoded JWS Header: Header yields this Encoded JWS Header:
eyJhbGciOiJub25lIn0 eyJhbGciOiJub25lIn0
The JWS Payload used in this example, which follows, is the same as The JWS Payload used in this example, which follows, is the same as
in the previous examples. Since the Encoded JWS Payload will in the previous examples. Since the Encoded JWS Payload will
therefore be the same, its computation is not repeated here. therefore be the same, its computation is not repeated here.
{"iss":"joe", {"iss":"joe",
"exp":1300819380, "exp":1300819380,
"http://example.com/is_root":true} "http://example.com/is_root":true}
The Encoded JWS Signature is the empty string. The Encoded JWS Signature is the empty string.
Concatenating these parts in the order Header.Payload.Signature with Concatenating these parts in the order Header.Payload.Signature with
skipping to change at page 27, line 14 skipping to change at page 33, line 22
Concatenating these parts in the order Header.Payload.Signature with Concatenating these parts in the order Header.Payload.Signature with
period characters between the parts yields this complete JWS (with period characters between the parts yields this complete JWS (with
line breaks for display purposes only): line breaks for display purposes only):
eyJhbGciOiJub25lIn0 eyJhbGciOiJub25lIn0
. .
eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt eyJpc3MiOiJqb2UiLA0KICJleHAiOjEzMDA4MTkzODAsDQogImh0dHA6Ly9leGFt
cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ cGxlLmNvbS9pc19yb290Ijp0cnVlfQ
. .
Appendix B. Notes on implementing base64url encoding without padding Appendix B. "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) Example
The string below is an example of a certificate chain that could be
used as the value of an "x5c" (X.509 Certificate Chain) header
parameter, per Section 4.1.6.
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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-----END CERTIFICATE-----
Appendix C. Notes on implementing base64url encoding without padding
This appendix describes how to implement base64url encoding and This appendix describes how to implement base64url encoding and
decoding functions without padding based upon standard base64 decoding functions without padding based upon standard base64
encoding and decoding functions that do use padding. encoding and decoding functions that do use padding.
To be concrete, example C# code implementing these functions is shown To be concrete, example C# code implementing these functions is shown
below. Similar code could be used in other languages. below. Similar code could be used in other languages.
static string base64urlencode(byte [] arg) static string base64urlencode(byte [] arg)
{ {
string s = Convert.ToBase64String(arg); // Standard base64 encoder string s = Convert.ToBase64String(arg); // Standard base64 encoder
skipping to change at page 28, line 14 skipping to change at page 36, line 11
'=' padding characters are added; if the length mod 4 is 3, one '=' '=' padding characters are added; if the length mod 4 is 3, one '='
padding character is added; if the length mod 4 is 1, the input is padding character is added; if the length mod 4 is 1, the input is
malformed. malformed.
An example correspondence between unencoded and encoded values An example correspondence between unencoded and encoded values
follows. The byte sequence below encodes into the string below, follows. The byte sequence below encodes into the string below,
which when decoded, reproduces the byte sequence. which when decoded, reproduces the byte sequence.
3 236 255 224 193 3 236 255 224 193
A-z_4ME A-z_4ME
Appendix C. Acknowledgements Appendix D. Acknowledgements
Solutions for signing JSON content were previously explored by Magic Solutions for signing JSON content were previously explored by Magic
Signatures [MagicSignatures], JSON Simple Sign [JSS], and Canvas Signatures [MagicSignatures], JSON Simple Sign [JSS], and Canvas
Applications [CanvasApp], all of which influenced this draft. Dirk Applications [CanvasApp], all of which influenced this draft. Dirk
Balfanz, Yaron Y. Goland, John Panzer, and Paul Tarjan all made Balfanz, Yaron Y. Goland, John Panzer, and Paul Tarjan all made
significant contributions to the design of this specification. significant contributions to the design of this specification.
Appendix D. Document History My thanks to Axel Nennker for his early implementation and feedback
on the JWS and JWE specifications.
Appendix E. Document History
[[ to be removed by the RFC editor before publication as an RFC ]]
-03
o Added the "cty" (content type) header parameter for declaring type
information about the secured content, as opposed to the "typ"
(type) header parameter, which declares type information about
this object.
o Added "Collision Resistant Namespace" to the terminology section.
o Reference ITU.X690.1994 for DER encoding.
o Added an example JWS using ECDSA P-521 SHA-512. This has
particular illustrative value because of the use of the 521 bit
integers in the key and signature values. This is also an example
in which the payload is not a base64url encoded JSON object.
o Added an example "x5c" value.
o No longer say "the UTF-8 representation of the JWS Secured Input
(which is the same as the ASCII representation)". Just call it
"the ASCII representation of the JWS Secured Input".
o Added Registration Template sections for defined registries.
o Added Registry Contents sections to populate registry values.
o Changed name of the JSON Web Signature and Encryption "typ" Values
registry to be the JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values
registry, since it is used for more than just values of the "typ"
parameter.
o Moved registries JSON Web Signature and Encryption Header
Parameters and JSON Web Signature and Encryption Type Values to
the JWS specification.
o Numerous editorial improvements.
-02 -02
o Clarified that it is an error when a "kid" value is included and o Clarified that it is an error when a "kid" value is included and
no matching key is found. no matching key is found.
o Removed assumption that "kid" (key ID) can only refer to an o Removed assumption that "kid" (key ID) can only refer to an
asymmetric key. asymmetric key.
o Clarified that JWSs with duplicate Header Parameter Names MUST be o Clarified that JWSs with duplicate Header Parameter Names MUST be
 End of changes. 104 change blocks. 
297 lines changed or deleted 737 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.41. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/