draft-ietf-kitten-rfc2853bis-05.txt   rfc5653.txt 
Network Working Group M. Upadhyay Network Working Group M. Upadhyay
Internet-Draft Google Request for Comments: 5653 Google
Intended status: Standards Track S. Malkani Obsoletes: 2853 S. Malkani
Expires: August 20, 2009 Sun Microsystems Category: Standards Track ActivIdentity
February 16, 2009 August 2009
Generic Security Service API Version 2 : Java Bindings Update Generic Security Service API Version 2 : Java Bindings Update
draft-ietf-kitten-rfc2853bis-05.txt
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Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved.
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Abstract Abstract
The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSS-API) The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSS-API)
offers application programmers uniform access to security services offers application programmers uniform access to security services
atop a variety of underlying cryptographic mechanisms. This document atop a variety of underlying cryptographic mechanisms. This document
updates the Java bindings for the GSS-API that are specified in updates the Java bindings for the GSS-API that are specified in
"Generic Security Service API version 2 : Java Bindings" (RFC2853). "Generic Security Service API Version 2 : Java Bindings" (RFC 2853).
This document obsoletes RFC 2853 by making specific and incremental This document obsoletes RFC 2853 by making specific and incremental
clarifications and corrections to it in response to identification of clarifications and corrections to it in response to identification of
transcription errors and implementation experience. transcription errors and implementation experience.
The GSS-API is described at a language independent conceptual level The GSS-API is described at a language-independent conceptual level
in "Generic Security Service Application Program Interface Version 2, in "Generic Security Service Application Program Interface Version 2,
Update 1" (RFC2743). The GSS-API allows a caller application to Update 1" (RFC2743). The GSS-API allows a caller application to
authenticate a principal identity, to delegate rights to a peer, and authenticate a principal identity, to delegate rights to a peer, and
to apply security services such as confidentiality and integrity on a to apply security services such as confidentiality and integrity on a
per-message basis. Examples of security mechanisms defined for GSS- per-message basis. Examples of security mechanisms defined for GSS-
API are "The Simple Public-Key GSS-API Mechanism" (RFC2025) and "The API are "The Simple Public-Key GSS-API Mechanism" (RFC2025) and "The
Kerberos Version 5 GSS-API Mechanism (RFC4121). Kerberos Version 5 Generic Security Service Application Program
Interface (GSS-API) Mechanism: Version 2" (RFC 4121).
Table of Contents Status of This Memo
1. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
3. GSS-API Operational Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
4. Additional Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
4.1. Delegation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
4.2. Mutual Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.3. Replay and Out-of-Sequence Detection . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.4. Anonymous Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.5. Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.6. Inter-process Context Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
4.7. The Use of Incomplete Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Calling Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1. Package Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2. Provider Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.3. Integer Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.4. Opaque Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.5. Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.6. Object Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.7. Object Identifier Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.8. Credentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.9. Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.10. Authentication Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.11. Interprocess Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
5.12. Error Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.12.1. GSS Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.12.2. Mechanism-Specific Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.12.3. Supplementary Status Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.13. Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.14. Channel Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.15. Stream Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.16. Optional Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6. Introduction to GSS-API Classes and Interfaces . . . . . 27
6.1. GSSManager class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2. GSSName interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.3. GSSCredential interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.4. GSSContext interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.5. MessageProp class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6.6. GSSException class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6.7. Oid class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.8. ChannelBinding class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7. Detailed GSS-API Class Description . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1. public abstract class GSSManager . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.1.1. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.1.2. getInstance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.3. getMechs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.4. getNamesForMech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.5. getMechsForName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1.6. createName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.1.7. createName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.1.8. createName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.1.9. createName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.1.10. createCredential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.1.11. createCredential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
7.1.12. createCredential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7.1.13. createContext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
7.1.14. createContext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.1.15. createContext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.1.16. addProviderAtFront . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.1.17. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
7.1.18. addProviderAtEnd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.1.19. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.2. public interface GSSName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.2.1. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.2.2. Static Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.2.3. equals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
7.2.4. equals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.2.5. canonicalize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.2.6. export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.2.7. toString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.2.8. getStringNameType . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.2.9. isAnonymous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.2.10. isMN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.3. public interface GSSCredential implements Cloneable . . . 46
7.3.1. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.3.2. Static Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.3.3. dispose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.3.4. getName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.3.5. getName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.3.6. getRemainingLifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.3.7. getRemainingInitLifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.3.8. getRemainingAcceptLifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.3.9. getUsage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.3.10. getUsage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.3.11. getMechs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.3.12. add . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.3.13. equals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.4. public interface GSSContext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.4.1. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.4.2. Static Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.4.3. initSecContext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.4.4. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.4.5. initSecContext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
7.4.6. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
7.4.7. acceptSecContext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
7.4.8. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.4.9. acceptSecContext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
7.4.10. Example Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
7.4.11. isEstablished . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.4.12. dispose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.4.13. getWrapSizeLimit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.4.14. wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.4.15. wrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.4.16. unwrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.4.17. unwrap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
7.4.18. getMIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
7.4.19. getMIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.4.20. verifyMIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.4.21. verifyMIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
7.4.22. export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.4.23. requestMutualAuth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.4.24. requestReplayDet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.4.25. requestSequenceDet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.4.26. requestCredDeleg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.4.27. requestAnonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.4.28. requestConf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.4.29. requestInteg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.4.30. requestLifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.4.31. setChannelBinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.4.32. getCredDelegState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.4.33. getMutualAuthState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.4.34. getReplayDetState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.4.35. getSequenceDetState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.4.36. getAnonymityState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.4.37. isTransferable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.4.38. isProtReady . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.4.39. getConfState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.4.40. getIntegState . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.4.41. getLifetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.4.42. getSrcName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.4.43. getTargName . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.4.44. getMech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.4.45. getDelegCred . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
7.4.46. isInitiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.5. public class MessageProp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.5.1. Constructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.5.2. getQOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.5.3. getPrivacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.5.4. getMinorStatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.5.5. getMinorString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.5.6. setQOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.5.7. setPrivacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
7.5.8. isDuplicateToken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.5.9. isOldToken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.5.10. isUnseqToken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.5.11. isGapToken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.5.12. setSupplementaryStates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
7.6. public class ChannelBinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
7.6.1. Constructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
7.6.2. getInitiatorAddress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7.6.3. getAcceptorAddress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7.6.4. getApplicationData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7.6.5. equals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
7.7. public class Oid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
7.7.1. Constructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
7.7.2. toString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7.7.3. equals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7.7.4. getDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7.7.5. containedIn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7.8. public class GSSException extends Exception . . . . . . . 79
7.8.1. Static Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
7.8.2. Constructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.8.3. getMajor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.8.4. getMinor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.8.5. getMajorString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.8.6. getMinorString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.8.7. setMinor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.8.8. toString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
7.8.9. getMessage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
8. Sample Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
8.1. Simple GSS Context Initiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
8.2. Simple GSS Context Acceptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
12. Changes since RFC 2853 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
1. Conventions Used in This Document Copyright Notice
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document authors. All rights reserved.
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
2. Introduction This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
Contributions published or made publicly available before November
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material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
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it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
than English.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction ....................................................6
2. Conventions and Licenses ........................................7
3. GSS-API Operational Paradigm ....................................8
4. Additional Controls .............................................9
4.1. Delegation ................................................10
4.2. Mutual Authentication .....................................11
4.3. Replay and Out-of-Sequence Detection ......................11
4.4. Anonymous Authentication ..................................12
4.5. Confidentiality ...........................................13
4.6. Inter-process Context Transfer ............................13
4.7. The Use of Incomplete Contexts ............................14
5. Calling Conventions ............................................15
5.1. Package Name ..............................................15
5.2. Provider Framework ........................................15
5.3. Integer Types .............................................16
5.4. Opaque Data Types .........................................16
5.5. Strings ...................................................16
5.6. Object Identifiers ........................................16
5.7. Object Identifier Sets ....................................17
5.8. Credentials ...............................................17
5.9. Contexts ..................................................19
5.10. Authentication Tokens ....................................19
5.11. Inter-Process Tokens .....................................20
5.12. Error Reporting ..........................................20
5.12.1. GSS Status Codes ..................................21
5.12.2. Mechanism-Specific Status Codes ...................23
5.12.3. Supplementary Status Codes ........................23
5.13. Names ....................................................24
5.14. Channel Bindings .........................................26
5.15. Stream Objects ...........................................27
5.16. Optional Parameters ......................................28
6. Introduction to GSS-API Classes and Interfaces .................28
6.1. GSSManager Class ..........................................28
6.2. GSSName Interface .........................................29
6.3. GSSCredential Interface ...................................30
6.4. GSSContext Interface ......................................30
6.5. MessageProp Class .........................................31
6.6. GSSException Class ........................................32
6.7. Oid Class .................................................32
6.8. ChannelBinding Class ......................................32
7. Detailed GSS-API Class Description .............................33
7.1. public abstract class GSSManager ..........................33
7.1.1. Example Code .......................................34
7.1.2. getInstance ........................................34
7.1.3. getMechs ...........................................35
7.1.4. getNamesForMech ....................................35
7.1.5. getMechsForName ....................................35
7.1.6. createName .........................................35
7.1.7. createName .........................................36
7.1.8. createName .........................................36
7.1.9. createName .........................................37
7.1.10. createCredential ..................................38
7.1.11. createCredential ..................................38
7.1.12. createCredential ..................................39
7.1.13. createContext .....................................39
7.1.14. createContext .....................................40
7.1.15. createContext .....................................40
7.1.16. addProviderAtFront ................................41
7.1.17. Example Code ......................................41
7.1.18. addProviderAtEnd ..................................42
7.1.19. Example Code ......................................43
7.2. public interface GSSName ..................................44
7.2.1. Example Code .......................................44
7.2.2. Static Constants ...................................45
7.2.3. equals .............................................46
7.2.4. equals .............................................46
7.2.5. canonicalize .......................................46
7.2.6. export .............................................47
7.2.7. toString ...........................................47
7.2.8. getStringNameType ..................................47
7.2.9. isAnonymous ........................................47
7.2.10. isMN ..............................................47
7.3. public interface GSSCredential implements Cloneable .......47
7.3.1. Example Code .......................................49
7.3.2. Static Constants ...................................49
7.3.3. dispose ............................................50
7.3.4. getName ............................................50
7.3.5. getName ............................................50
7.3.6. getRemainingLifetime ...............................50
7.3.7. getRemainingInitLifetime ...........................51
7.3.8. getRemainingAcceptLifetime .........................51
7.3.9. getUsage ...........................................51
7.3.10. getUsage ..........................................51
7.3.11. getMechs ..........................................52
7.3.12. add ...............................................52
7.3.13. equals ............................................53
7.4. public interface GSSContext ...............................53
7.4.1. Example Code .......................................54
7.4.2. Static Constants ...................................56
7.4.3. initSecContext .....................................56
7.4.4. Example Code .......................................57
7.4.5. initSecContext .....................................58
7.4.6. Example Code .......................................58
7.4.7. acceptSecContext ...................................59
7.4.8. Example Code .......................................60
7.4.9. acceptSecContext ...................................61
7.4.10. Example Code ......................................61
7.4.11. isEstablished .....................................62
7.4.12. dispose ...........................................62
7.4.13. getWrapSizeLimit ..................................63
7.4.14. wrap ..............................................63
7.4.15. wrap ..............................................64
7.4.16. unwrap ............................................65
7.4.17. unwrap ............................................66
7.4.18. getMIC ............................................67
7.4.19. getMIC ............................................68
7.4.20. verifyMIC .........................................68
7.4.21. verifyMIC .........................................69
7.4.22. export ............................................70
7.4.23. requestMutualAuth .................................71
7.4.24. requestReplayDet ..................................71
7.4.25. requestSequenceDet ................................71
7.4.26. requestCredDeleg ..................................71
7.4.27. requestAnonymity ..................................72
7.4.28. requestConf .......................................72
7.4.29. requestInteg ......................................72
7.4.30. requestLifetime ...................................73
7.4.31. setChannelBinding .................................73
7.4.32. getCredDelegState .................................73
7.4.33. getMutualAuthState ................................73
7.4.34. getReplayDetState .................................74
7.4.35. getSequenceDetState ...............................74
7.4.36. getAnonymityState .................................74
7.4.37. isTransferable ....................................74
7.4.38. isProtReady .......................................74
7.4.39. getConfState ......................................75
7.4.40. getIntegState .....................................75
7.4.41. getLifetime .......................................75
7.4.42. getSrcName ........................................75
7.4.43. getTargName .......................................75
7.4.44. getMech ...........................................76
7.4.45. getDelegCred ......................................76
7.4.46. isInitiator .......................................76
7.5. public class MessageProp ..................................76
7.5.1. Constructors .......................................77
7.5.2. getQOP .............................................77
7.5.3. getPrivacy .........................................77
7.5.4. getMinorStatus .....................................77
7.5.5. getMinorString .....................................77
7.5.6. setQOP .............................................78
7.5.7. setPrivacy .........................................78
7.5.8. isDuplicateToken ...................................78
7.5.9. isOldToken .........................................78
7.5.10. isUnseqToken ......................................78
7.5.11. isGapToken ........................................78
7.5.12. setSupplementaryStates ............................79
7.6. public class ChannelBinding ...............................79
7.6.1. Constructors .......................................80
7.6.2. getInitiatorAddress ................................80
7.6.3. getAcceptorAddress .................................80
7.6.4. getApplicationData .................................81
7.6.5. equals .............................................81
7.7. public class Oid ..........................................81
7.7.1. Constructors .......................................81
7.7.2. toString ...........................................82
7.7.3. equals .............................................82
7.7.4. getDER .............................................82
7.7.5. containedIn ........................................83
7.8. public class GSSException extends Exception ...............83
7.8.1. Static Constants ...................................83
7.8.2. Constructors .......................................86
7.8.3. getMajor ...........................................86
7.8.4. getMinor ...........................................86
7.8.5. getMajorString .....................................87
7.8.6. getMinorString .....................................87
7.8.7. setMinor ...........................................87
7.8.8. toString ...........................................87
7.8.9. getMessage .........................................87
8. Sample Applications ............................................88
8.1. Simple GSS Context Initiator ..............................88
8.2. Simple GSS Context Acceptor ...............................92
9. Security Considerations ........................................96
10. Acknowledgments ...............................................96
11. Changes since RFC 2853 ........................................97
12. References ....................................................98
12.1. Normative References .....................................98
12.2. Informative References ...................................98
1. Introduction
This document specifies Java language bindings for the Generic This document specifies Java language bindings for the Generic
Security Services Application Programming Interface Version 2 (GSS- Security Services Application Programming Interface version 2 (GSS-
API). GSS-API Version 2 is described in a language independent API). GSS-API version 2 is described in a language-independent
format in RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE]. The GSS-API allows a caller format in RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE]. The GSS-API allows a caller
application to authenticate a principal identity, to delegate rights application to authenticate a principal identity, to delegate rights
to a peer, and to apply security services such as confidentiality and to a peer, and to apply security services such as confidentiality and
integrity on a per-message basis. integrity on a per-message basis.
This document and its predecessor RFC 2853 [RFC2853] leverage the This document and its predecessor, RFC 2853 [RFC2853], leverage the
work done by the WG in the area of RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] and the work done by the working group (WG) in the area of RFC 2743
C-bindings RFC 2744 [GSSAPI-Cbind]. Whenever appropriate, text has [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] and the C-bindings of RFC 2744 [GSSAPI-Cbind].
been used from the C-bindings RFC 2744 to explain generic concepts Whenever appropriate, text has been used from the C-bindings document
and provide direction to the implementors. (RFC 2744) to explain generic concepts and provide direction to the
implementors.
The design goals of this API have been to satisfy all the The design goals of this API have been to satisfy all the
functionality defined in RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] and to provide functionality defined in RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] and to provide
these services in an object oriented method. The specification also these services in an object-oriented method. The specification also
aims to satisfy the needs of both types of Java application aims to satisfy the needs of both types of Java application
developers, those who would like access to a "system-wide" GSS-API developers, those who would like access to a "system-wide" GSS-API
implementation, as well as those who would want to provide their own implementation, as well as those who would want to provide their own
"custom" implementation. "custom" implementation.
A "system-wide" implementation is one that is available to all A system-wide implementation is one that is available to all
applications in the form of a library package. It may be the applications in the form of a library package. It may be the
standard package in the Java runtime environment (JRE) being used or standard package in the Java runtime environment (JRE) being used or
it may be additionally installed and accessible to any application it may be additionally installed and accessible to any application
via the CLASSPATH. via the CLASSPATH.
A "custom" implementation of the GSS-API, on the other hand, is one A custom implementation of the GSS-API, on the other hand, is one
that would, in most cases, be bundled with the application during that would, in most cases, be bundled with the application during
distribution. It is expected that such an implementation would be distribution. It is expected that such an implementation would be
meant to provide for some particular need of the application, such as meant to provide for some particular need of the application, such as
support for some specific mechanism. support for some specific mechanism.
The design of this API also aims to provide a flexible framework to The design of this API also aims to provide a flexible framework to
add and manage GSS-API mechanisms. GSS-API leverages the Java add and manage GSS-API mechanisms. GSS-API leverages the Java
Cryptography Architecture (JCA) provider model to support the Cryptography Architecture (JCA) provider model to support the
plugability of mechanisms. Mechanisms can be added on a "system- plugability of mechanisms. Mechanisms can be added on a system-wide
wide" basis, where all users of the framework will have them basis, where all users of the framework will have them available.
available. The specification also allows for the addition of The specification also allows for the addition of mechanisms per-
mechanisms per-instance of the GSS-API. instance of the GSS-API.
Lastly, this specification presents an API that will naturally fit Lastly, this specification presents an API that will naturally fit
within the operation environment of the Java platform. Readers are within the operation environment of the Java platform. Readers are
assumed to be familiar with both the GSS-API and the Java platform. assumed to be familiar with both the GSS-API and the Java platform.
2. Conventions and Licenses
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
The following license applies to all code segments included in this
specification. If code is extracted from this specification, please
include the following text in the code:
/*
-- Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
-- authors of the code. All rights reserved.
--
-- Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
-- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
-- are met:
--
-- - Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
-- notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
--
-- - Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
-- notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
-- the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
-- distribution.
--
-- - Neither the name of Internet Society, IETF or IETF Trust, nor the
-- names of specific contributors, may be used to endorse or promote
-- products derived from this software without specific prior
-- written permission.
--
-- THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND
-- CONTRIBUTORS 'AS IS' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
-- INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
-- MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
-- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS
-- BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
-- EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
-- TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
-- DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON
-- ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
-- OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
-- OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
-- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
--
-- This code is part of RFC 5653; see the RFC itself for full legal
-- notices.
*/
3. GSS-API Operational Paradigm 3. GSS-API Operational Paradigm
The Generic Security Service Application Programming Interface "Generic Security Service Application Programming Interface, Version
Version 2 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] defines a generic security API to calling 2" [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] defines a generic security API to calling
applications. It allows a communicating application to authenticate applications. It allows a communicating application to authenticate
the user associated with another application, to delegate rights to the user associated with another application, to delegate rights to
another application, and to apply security services such as another application, and to apply security services such as
confidentiality and integrity on a per-message basis. confidentiality and integrity on a per-message basis.
There are four stages to using GSS-API: There are four stages to using GSS-API:
1) The application acquires a set of credentials with which it may 1) The application acquires a set of credentials with which it may
prove its identity to other processes. The application's credentials prove its identity to other processes. The application's
vouch for its global identity, which may or may not be related to any credentials vouch for its global identity, which may or may not be
local username under which it may be running. related to any local username under which it may be running.
2) A pair of communicating applications establish a joint security 2) A pair of communicating applications establish a joint security
context using their credentials. The security context encapsulates context using their credentials. The security context
shared state information, which is required in order that per-message encapsulates shared state information, which is required in order
security services may be provided. Examples of state information that per-message security services may be provided. Examples of
that might be shared between applications as part of a security state information that might be shared between applications as
context are cryptographic keys, and message sequence numbers. As part of a security context are cryptographic keys and message
part of the establishment of a security context, the context sequence numbers. As part of the establishment of a security
initiator is authenticated to the responder, and may require that the context, the context initiator is authenticated to the responder,
responder is authenticated back to the initiator. The initiator may and may require that the responder is authenticated back to the
optionally give the responder the right to initiate further security initiator. The initiator may optionally give the responder the
contexts, acting as an agent or delegate of the initiator. This right to initiate further security contexts, acting as an agent or
transfer of rights is termed "delegation", and is achieved by delegate of the initiator. This transfer of rights is termed
creating a set of credentials, similar to those used by the "delegation", and is achieved by creating a set of credentials,
initiating application, but which may be used by the responder. similar to those used by the initiating application, but which may
be used by the responder.
A GSSContext object is used to establish and maintain the shared A GSSContext object is used to establish and maintain the shared
information that makes up the security context. Certain GSSContext information that makes up the security context. Certain
methods will generate a token, which applications treat as GSSContext methods will generate a token, which applications treat
cryptographically protected, opaque data. The caller of such as cryptographically protected, opaque data. The caller of such a
GSSContext method is responsible for transferring the token to the GSSContext method is responsible for transferring the token to the
peer application, encapsulated if necessary in an application-to- peer application, encapsulated if necessary in an application-to-
application protocol. On receipt of such a token, the peer application protocol. On receipt of such a token, the peer
application should pass it to a corresponding GSSContext method which application should pass it to a corresponding GSSContext method
will decode the token and extract the information, updating the which will decode the token and extract the information, updating
security context state information accordingly. the security context state information accordingly.
3) Per-message services are invoked on a GSSContext object to apply 3) Per-message services are invoked on a GSSContext object to apply
either: either:
integrity and data origin authentication, or integrity and data origin authentication, or
confidentiality, integrity and data origin authentication confidentiality, integrity and data origin authentication
to application data, which are treated by GSS-API as arbitrary octet- to application data, which are treated by GSS-API as arbitrary
strings. An application transmitting a message that it wishes to octet-strings. An application transmitting a message that it
protect will call the appropriate GSSContext method (getMIC or wrap) wishes to protect will call the appropriate GSSContext method
to apply protection, and send the resulting token to the receiving (getMIC or wrap) to apply protection, and send the resulting token
application. The receiver will pass the received token (and, in the to the receiving application. The receiver will pass the received
case of data protected by getMIC, the accompanying message-data) to token (and, in the case of data protected by getMIC, the
the corresponding decoding method of the GSSContext interface accompanying message-data) to the corresponding decoding method of
(verifyMIC or unwrap) to remove the protection and validate the data. the GSSContext interface (verifyMIC or unwrap) to remove the
protection and validate the data.
4) At the completion of a communications session (which may extend 4) At the completion of a communications session (which may extend
across several transport connections), each application uses a across several transport connections), each application uses a
GSSContext method to invalidate the security context and release any GSSContext method to invalidate the security context and release
system or cryptographic resources held. Multiple contexts may also any system or cryptographic resources held. Multiple contexts may
be used (either successively or simultaneously) within a single also be used (either successively or simultaneously) within a
communications association, at the discretion of the applications. single communications association, at the discretion of the
applications.
4. Additional Controls 4. Additional Controls
This section discusses the optional services that a context initiator This section discusses the optional services that a context initiator
may request of the GSS-API before the context establishment. Each of may request of the GSS-API before the context establishment. Each of
these services is requested by calling the appropriate mutator method these services is requested by calling the appropriate mutator method
in the GSSContext object before the first call to init is performed. in the GSSContext object before the first call to init is performed.
Only the context initiator can request context flags. Only the context initiator can request context flags.
The optional services defined are: The optional services defined are:
Delegation The (usually temporary) transfer of rights from Delegation: The (usually temporary) transfer of rights from
initiator to acceptor, enabling the acceptor to authenticate initiator to acceptor, enabling the acceptor to authenticate
itself as an agent of the initiator. itself as an agent of the initiator.
Mutual Authentication In addition to the initiator authenticating Mutual Authentication: In addition to the initiator authenticating
its identity to the context acceptor, the context acceptor should its identity to the context acceptor, the context acceptor should
also authenticate itself to the initiator. also authenticate itself to the initiator.
Replay Detection In addition to providing message integrity Replay Detection: In addition to providing message integrity
services, GSSContext per-message operations of getMIC and wrap services, GSSContext per-message operations of getMIC and wrap
should include message numbering information to enable verifyMIC should include message numbering information to enable verifyMIC
and unwrap to detect if a message has been duplicated. and unwrap to detect if a message has been duplicated.
Out-of-Sequence Detection In addition to providing message Out-of-Sequence Detection: In addition to providing message
integrity services, GSSContext per-message operations (getMIC and integrity services, GSSContext per-message operations (getMIC and
wrap) should include message sequencing information to enable wrap) should include message sequencing information to enable
verifyMIC and unwrap to detect if a message has been received out verifyMIC and unwrap to detect if a message has been received out
of sequence. of sequence.
Anonymous Authentication The establishment of the security context Anonymous Authentication: The establishment of the security
should not reveal the initiator's identity to the context context should not reveal the initiator's identity to the context
acceptor. acceptor.
Some mechanisms may not support all optional services, and some Some mechanisms may not support all optional services, and some
mechanisms may only support some services in conjunction with others. mechanisms may only support some services in conjunction with others.
The GSSContext interface offers query methods to allow the The GSSContext interface offers query methods to allow the
verification by the calling application of which services will be verification by the calling application of which services will be
available from the context when the establishment phase is complete. available from the context when the establishment phase is complete.
In general, if the security mechanism is capable of providing a In general, if the security mechanism is capable of providing a
requested service, it should do so even if additional services must requested service, it should do so even if additional services must
be enabled in order to provide the requested service. If the be enabled in order to provide the requested service. If the
skipping to change at page 10, line 43 skipping to change at page 10, line 43
at least one token from acceptor to initiator during context at least one token from acceptor to initiator during context
establishment when the initiator indicates a desire to use such a establishment when the initiator indicates a desire to use such a
service, so that the initiating GSS-API can correctly indicate service, so that the initiating GSS-API can correctly indicate
whether the service is supported by the acceptor's GSS-API. whether the service is supported by the acceptor's GSS-API.
4.1. Delegation 4.1. Delegation
The GSS-API allows delegation to be controlled by the initiating The GSS-API allows delegation to be controlled by the initiating
application via the requestCredDeleg method before the first call to application via the requestCredDeleg method before the first call to
init has been issued. Some mechanisms do not support delegation, and init has been issued. Some mechanisms do not support delegation, and
for such mechanisms attempts by an application to enable delegation for such mechanisms, attempts by an application to enable delegation
are ignored. are ignored.
The acceptor of a security context, for which the initiator enabled The acceptor of a security context, for which the initiator enabled
delegation, can check if delegation was enabled by using the delegation, can check if delegation was enabled by using the
getCredDelegState method of the GSSContext interface. In cases when getCredDelegState method of the GSSContext interface. In cases when
it is, the delegated credential object can be obtained by calling the it is enabled, the delegated credential object can be obtained by
getDelegCred method. The obtained GSSCredential object may then be calling the getDelegCred method. The obtained GSSCredential object
used to initiate subsequent GSS-API security contexts as an agent or may then be used to initiate subsequent GSS-API security contexts as
delegate of the initiator. If the original initiator's identity is an agent or delegate of the initiator. If the original initiator's
"A" and the delegate's identity is "B", then, depending on the identity is "A" and the delegate's identity is "B", then, depending
underlying mechanism, the identity embodied by the delegated on the underlying mechanism, the identity embodied by the delegated
credential may be either "A" or "B acting for A". credential may be either "A" or "B acting for A".
For many mechanisms that support delegation, a simple boolean does For many mechanisms that support delegation, a simple boolean does
not provide enough control. Examples of additional aspects of not provide enough control. Examples of additional aspects of
delegation control that a mechanism might provide to an application delegation control that a mechanism might provide to an application
are duration of delegation, network addresses from which delegation are duration of delegation, network addresses from which delegation
is valid, and constraints on the tasks that may be performed by a is valid, and constraints on the tasks that may be performed by a
delegate. Such controls are presently outside the scope of the GSS- delegate. Such controls are presently outside the scope of the GSS-
API. GSS-API implementations supporting mechanisms offering API. GSS-API implementations supporting mechanisms offering
additional controls should provide extension routines that allow additional controls should provide extension routines that allow
these controls to be exercised (perhaps by modifying the initiator's these controls to be exercised (perhaps by modifying the initiator's
GSS-API credential object prior to its use in establishing a GSS-API credential object prior to its use in establishing a
context). However, the simple delegation control provided by GSS-API context). However, the simple delegation control provided by GSS-API
should always be able to over-ride other mechanism-specific should always be able to override other mechanism-specific delegation
delegation controls. If the application instructs the GSSContext controls. If the application instructs the GSSContext object that
object that delegation is not desired, then the implementation must delegation is not desired, then the implementation must not permit
not permit delegation to occur. This is an exception to the general delegation to occur. This is an exception to the general rule that a
rule that a mechanism may enable services even if they are not mechanism may enable services even if they are not requested --
requested - delegation may only be provided at the explicit request delegation may only be provided at the explicit request of the
of the application. application.
4.2. Mutual Authentication 4.2. Mutual Authentication
Usually, a context acceptor will require that a context initiator Usually, a context acceptor will require that a context initiator
authenticate itself so that the acceptor may make an access-control authenticate itself so that the acceptor may make an access-control
decision prior to performing a service for the initiator. In some decision prior to performing a service for the initiator. In some
cases, the initiator may also request that the acceptor authenticate cases, the initiator may also request that the acceptor authenticate
itself. GSS-API allows the initiating application to request this itself. GSS-API allows the initiating application to request this
mutual authentication service by calling the requestMutualAuth method mutual authentication service by calling the requestMutualAuth method
of the GSSContext interface with a "true" parameter before making the of the GSSContext interface with a "true" parameter before making the
first call to init. The initiating application is informed as to first call to init. The initiating application is informed as to
whether or not the context acceptor has authenticated itself. Note whether or not the context acceptor has authenticated itself. Note
that some mechanisms may not support mutual authentication, and other that some mechanisms may not support mutual authentication, and other
mechanisms may always perform mutual authentication, whether or not mechanisms may always perform mutual authentication, whether or not
the initiating application requests it. In particular, mutual the initiating application requests it. In particular, mutual
authentication may be required by some mechanisms in order to support authentication may be required by some mechanisms in order to support
replay or out-of-sequence message detection, and for such mechanisms replay or out-of-sequence message detection, and for such mechanisms,
a request for either of these services will automatically enable a request for either of these services will automatically enable
mutual authentication. mutual authentication.
4.3. Replay and Out-of-Sequence Detection 4.3. Replay and Out-of-Sequence Detection
The GSS-API may provide detection of mis-ordered messages once a The GSS-API may provide detection of mis-ordered messages once a
security context has been established. Protection may be applied to security context has been established. Protection may be applied to
messages by either application, by calling either getMIC or wrap messages by either application, by calling either getMIC or wrap
methods of the GSSContext interface, and verified by the peer methods of the GSSContext interface, and verified by the peer
application by calling verifyMIC or unwrap for the peer's GSSContext application by calling verifyMIC or unwrap for the peer's GSSContext
skipping to change at page 12, line 20 skipping to change at page 12, line 21
application, which presents them to the verifyMIC method of the application, which presents them to the verifyMIC method of the
peer's GSSContext object. peer's GSSContext object.
The wrap method calculates a cryptographic checksum of an application The wrap method calculates a cryptographic checksum of an application
message, and places both the checksum and the message inside a single message, and places both the checksum and the message inside a single
token. The application should pass the token to the peer token. The application should pass the token to the peer
application, which presents it to the unwrap method of the peer's application, which presents it to the unwrap method of the peer's
GSSContext object to extract the message and verify the checksum. GSSContext object to extract the message and verify the checksum.
Either pair of routines may be capable of detecting out-of-sequence Either pair of routines may be capable of detecting out-of-sequence
message delivery, or duplication of messages. Details of such mis- message delivery or the duplication of messages. Details of such
ordered messages are indicated through supplementary query methods of mis-ordered messages are indicated through supplementary query
the MessageProp object that is filled in by each of these routines. methods of the MessageProp object that is filled in by each of these
routines.
A mechanism need not maintain a list of all tokens that have been A mechanism need not maintain a list of all tokens that have been
processed in order to support these status codes. A typical processed in order to support these status codes. A typical
mechanism might retain information about only the most recent "N" mechanism might retain information about only the most recent "N"
tokens processed, allowing it to distinguish duplicates and missing tokens processed, allowing it to distinguish duplicates and missing
tokens within the most recent "N" messages; the receipt of a token tokens within the most recent "N" messages; the receipt of a token
older than the most recent "N" would result in the isOldToken method older than the most recent "N" would result in the isOldToken method
of the instance of MessageProp to return "true". of the instance of MessageProp to return "true".
4.4. Anonymous Authentication 4.4. Anonymous Authentication
In certain situations, an application may wish to initiate the In certain situations, an application may wish to initiate the
authentication process to authenticate a peer, without revealing its authentication process to authenticate a peer, without revealing its
own identity. As an example, consider an application providing own identity. As an example, consider an application providing
access to a database containing medical information, and offering access to a database containing medical information and offering
unrestricted access to the service. A client of such a service might unrestricted access to the service. A client of such a service might
wish to authenticate the service (in order to establish trust in any wish to authenticate the service (in order to establish trust in any
information retrieved from it), but might not wish the service to be information retrieved from it), but might not wish the service to be
able to obtain the client's identity (perhaps due to privacy concerns able to obtain the client's identity (perhaps due to privacy concerns
about the specific inquiries, or perhaps simply to avoid being placed about the specific inquiries, or perhaps simply to avoid being placed
on mailing-lists). on mailing-lists).
In normal use of the GSS-API, the initiator's identity is made In normal use of the GSS-API, the initiator's identity is made
available to the acceptor as a result of the context establishment available to the acceptor as a result of the context establishment
process. However, context initiators may request that their identity process. However, context initiators may request that their identity
not be revealed to the context acceptor. Many mechanisms do not not be revealed to the context acceptor. Many mechanisms do not
support anonymous authentication, and for such mechanisms the request support anonymous authentication, and for such mechanisms, the
will not be honored. An authentication token will still be request will not be honored. An authentication token will still be
generated, but the application is always informed if a requested generated, but the application is always informed if a requested
service is unavailable, and has the option to abort context service is unavailable, and has the option to abort context
establishment if anonymity is valued above the other security establishment if anonymity is valued above the other security
services that would require a context to be established. services that would require a context to be established.
In addition to informing the application that a context is In addition to informing the application that a context is
established anonymously (via the isAnonymous method of the GSSContext established anonymously (via the isAnonymous method of the GSSContext
class), the getSrcName method of the acceptor's GSSContext object class), the getSrcName method of the acceptor's GSSContext object
will, for such contexts, return a reserved internal-form name, will, for such contexts, return a reserved internal-form name,
defined by the implementation. defined by the implementation.
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4.5. Confidentiality 4.5. Confidentiality
If a GSSContext supports the confidentiality service, wrap method may If a GSSContext supports the confidentiality service, wrap method may
be used to encrypt application messages. Messages are selectively be used to encrypt application messages. Messages are selectively
encrypted, under the control of the setPrivacy method of the encrypted, under the control of the setPrivacy method of the
MessageProp object used in the wrap method. MessageProp object used in the wrap method.
4.6. Inter-process Context Transfer 4.6. Inter-process Context Transfer
GSS-API V2 provides functionality which allows a security context to GSS-APIv2 provides functionality that allows a security context to be
be transferred between processes on a single machine. These are transferred between processes on a single machine. These are
implemented using the export method of GSSContext and a byte array implemented using the export method of GSSContext and a byte array
constructor of the same class. The most common use for such a constructor of the same class. The most common use for such a
feature is a client-server design where the server is implemented as feature is a client-server design where the server is implemented as
a single process that accepts incoming security contexts, which then a single process that accepts incoming security contexts, which then
launches child processes to deal with the data on these contexts. In launches child processes to deal with the data on these contexts. In
such a design, the child processes must have access to the security such a design, the child processes must have access to the security
context object created within the parent so that they can use per- context object created within the parent so that they can use per-
message protection services and delete the security context when the message protection services and delete the security context when the
communication session ends. communication session ends.
Since the security context data structure is expected to contain Since the security context data structure is expected to contain
sequencing information, it is impractical in general to share a sequencing information, it is impractical in general to share a
context between processes. Thus GSSContext interface provides an context between processes. Thus, the GSSContext interface provides
export method that the process, which currently owns the context, can an export method that the process, which currently owns the context,
call to declare that it has no intention to use the context can call to declare that it has no intention to use the context
subsequently, and to create an inter-process token containing subsequently, and to create an inter-process token containing
information needed by the adopting process to successfully re-create information needed by the adopting process to successfully recreate
the context. After successful completion of export, the original the context. After successful completion of export, the original
security context is made inaccessible to the calling process by GSS- security context is made inaccessible to the calling process by GSS-
API and any further usage of this object will result in failures. API, and any further usage of this object will result in failures.
The originating process transfers the inter-process token to the The originating process transfers the inter-process token to the
adopting process, which creates a new GSSContext object using the adopting process, which creates a new GSSContext object using the
byte array constructor. The properties of the context are equivalent byte array constructor. The properties of the context are equivalent
to that of the original context. to that of the original context.
The inter-process token may contain sensitive data from the original The inter-process token may contain sensitive data from the original
security context (including cryptographic keys). Applications using security context (including cryptographic keys). Applications using
inter-process tokens to transfer security contexts must take inter-process tokens to transfer security contexts must take
appropriate steps to protect these tokens in transit. appropriate steps to protect these tokens in transit.
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mechanism may include sufficient information in its initial context- mechanism may include sufficient information in its initial context-
level tokens for the context acceptor to immediately decode messages level tokens for the context acceptor to immediately decode messages
protected with wrap or getMIC. For such a mechanism, the initiating protected with wrap or getMIC. For such a mechanism, the initiating
application need not wait until subsequent context-level tokens have application need not wait until subsequent context-level tokens have
been sent and received before invoking the per-message protection been sent and received before invoking the per-message protection
services. services.
An application can invoke the isProtReady method of the GSSContext An application can invoke the isProtReady method of the GSSContext
class to determine if the per-message services are available in class to determine if the per-message services are available in
advance of complete context establishment. Applications wishing to advance of complete context establishment. Applications wishing to
use per-message protection services on partially-established contexts use per-message protection services on partially established contexts
should query this method before attempting to invoke wrap or getMIC. should query this method before attempting to invoke wrap or getMIC.
5. Calling Conventions 5. Calling Conventions
Java provides the implementors with not just a syntax for the Java provides the implementors with not just a syntax for the
language, but also an operational environment. For example, memory language, but also an operational environment. For example, memory
is automatically managed and does not require application is automatically managed and does not require application
intervention. These language features have allowed for a simpler API intervention. These language features have allowed for a simpler API
and have led to the elimination of certain GSS-API functions. and have led to the elimination of certain GSS-API functions.
Moreover, the JCA defines a provider model which allows for Moreover, the JCA defines a provider model that allows for
implementation independent access to security services. Using this implementation-independent access to security services. Using this
model, applications can seamlessly switch between different model, applications can seamlessly switch between different
implementations and dynamically add new services. The GSS-API implementations and dynamically add new services. The GSS-API
specification leverages these concepts by the usage of providers for specification leverages these concepts by the usage of providers for
the mechanism implementations. the mechanism implementations.
5.1. Package Name 5.1. Package Name
The classes and interfaces defined in this document reside in the The classes and interfaces defined in this document reside in the
package called "org.ietf.jgss". Applications that wish to make use package called "org.ietf.jgss". Applications that wish to make use
of this API should import this package name as shown in section 8. of this API should import this package name as shown in section 8.
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Using the Java security provider model insulates applications from Using the Java security provider model insulates applications from
implementation details of the services they wish to use. implementation details of the services they wish to use.
Applications can switch between providers easily and new providers Applications can switch between providers easily and new providers
can be added as needed, even at runtime. can be added as needed, even at runtime.
The GSS-API may use providers to find components for specific The GSS-API may use providers to find components for specific
underlying security mechanisms. For instance, a particular provider underlying security mechanisms. For instance, a particular provider
might contain components that will allow the GSS-API to support the might contain components that will allow the GSS-API to support the
Kerberos v5 mechanism [RFC4121] and another might contain components Kerberos v5 mechanism [RFC4121] and another might contain components
to support the SPKM [RFC2025] mechanism. By delegating mechanism to support the Simple Public-Key GSS-API Mechanism (SPKM) [RFC2025].
specific functionality to the components obtained from providers, the By delegating mechanism-specific functionality to the components
GSS-API can be extended to support an arbitrary list of mechanism. obtained from providers, the GSS-API can be extended to support an
arbitrary list of mechanism.
How the GSS-API locates and queries these providers is beyond the How the GSS-API locates and queries these providers is beyond the
scope of this document and is being deferred to a Service Provider scope of this document and is being deferred to a Service Provider
Interface (SPI) specification. The availability of such a SPI Interface (SPI) specification. The availability of such an SPI
specification is not mandatory for the adoption of this API specification is not mandatory for the adoption of this API
specification nor is it mandatory to use providers in the specification nor is it mandatory to use providers in the
implementation of a GSS-API framework. However, by using the implementation of a GSS-API framework. However, by using the
provider framework together with an SPI specification one can create provider framework together with an SPI specification, one can create
an extensible and implementation independent GSS-API framework. an extensible and implementation-independent GSS-API framework.
5.3. Integer Types 5.3. Integer Types
All numeric values are declared as "int" primitive Java type. The All numeric values are declared as "int" primitive Java type. The
Java specification guarantees that this will be a 32 bit two's Java specification guarantees that this will be a 32-bit two's
complement signed number. complement signed number.
Throughout this API, the "boolean" primitive Java type is used Throughout this API, the "boolean" primitive Java type is used
wherever a boolean value is required or returned. wherever a boolean value is required or returned.
5.4. Opaque Data Types 5.4. Opaque Data Types
Java byte arrays are used to represent opaque data types which are Java byte arrays are used to represent opaque data types that are
consumed and produced by the GSS-API in the forms of tokens. Java consumed and produced by the GSS-API in the form of tokens. Java
arrays contain a length field which enables the users to easily arrays contain a length field that enables the users to easily
determine their size. The language has automatic garbage collection determine their size. The language has automatic garbage collection
which alleviates the need by developers to release memory and that alleviates the need by developers to release memory and
simplifies buffer ownership issues. simplifies buffer ownership issues.
5.5. Strings 5.5. Strings
The String object will be used to represent all textual data. The The String object will be used to represent all textual data. The
Java String object, transparently treats all characters as two-byte Java String object transparently treats all characters as two-byte
Unicode characters which allows support for many locals. All Unicode characters, which allows support for many locals. All
routines returning or accepting textual data will use the String routines returning or accepting textual data will use the String
object. object.
5.6. Object Identifiers 5.6. Object Identifiers
An Oid object will be used to represent Universal Object Identifiers An Oid object will be used to represent Universal Object Identifiers
(Oids). Oids are ISO-defined, hierarchically globally-interpretable (Oids). Oids are ISO-defined, hierarchically globally interpretable
identifiers used within the GSS-API framework to identify security identifiers used within the GSS-API framework to identify security
mechanisms and name formats. The Oid object can be created from a mechanisms and name formats. The Oid object can be created from a
string representation of its dot notation (e.g. "1.3.6.1.5.6.2") as string representation of its dot notation (e.g., "1.3.6.1.5.6.2") as
well as from its ASN.1 DER encoding. Methods are also provided to well as from its ASN.1 DER encoding. Methods are also provided to
test equality and provide the DER representation for the object. test equality and provide the DER representation for the object.
An important feature of the Oid class is that its instances are An important feature of the Oid class is that its instances are
immutable - i.e. there are no methods defined that allow one to immutable -- i.e., there are no methods defined that allow one to
change the contents of an Oid. This property allows one to treat change the contents of an Oid. This property allows one to treat
these objects as "statics" without the need to perform copies. these objects as "statics" without the need to perform copies.
Certain routines allow the usage of a default oid. A "null" value Certain routines allow the usage of a default oid. A "null" value
can be used in those cases. can be used in those cases.
5.7. Object Identifier Sets 5.7. Object Identifier Sets
The Java bindings represents object identifiers sets as arrays of Oid
objects. All Java arrays contain a length field which allows for The Java bindings represent object identifier sets as arrays of Oid
objects. All Java arrays contain a length field, which allows for
easy manipulation and reference. easy manipulation and reference.
In order to support the full functionality of RFC 2743 In order to support the full functionality of RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-
[GSSAPIv2-UPDATE], the Oid class includes a method which checks for UPDATE], the Oid class includes a method that checks for existence of
existence of an Oid object within a specified array. This is an Oid object within a specified array. This is equivalent in
equivalent in functionality to gss_test_oid_set_member. The use of functionality to gss_test_oid_set_member. The use of Java arrays and
Java arrays and Java's automatic garbage collection has eliminated Java's automatic garbage collection has eliminated the need for the
the need for the following routines: gss_create_empty_oid_set, following routines: gss_create_empty_oid_set, gss_release_oid_set,
gss_release_oid_set, and gss_add_oid_set_member. Java GSS-API and gss_add_oid_set_member. Java GSS-API implementations will not
implementations will not contain them. Java's automatic garbage contain them. Java's automatic garbage collection and the immutable
collection and the immutable property of the Oid object eliminates property of the Oid object eliminates the memory management issues of
the memory management issues of the C counterpart. the C counterpart.
When ever a default value for an Object Identifier Set is required, a When ever a default value for an Object Identifier Set is required, a
"null" value can be used. Please consult the detailed method "null" value can be used. Please consult the detailed method
description for details. description for details.
5.8. Credentials 5.8. Credentials
GSS-API credentials are represented by the GSSCredential interface. GSS-API credentials are represented by the GSSCredential interface.
The interface contains several constructs to allow for the creation The interface contains several constructs to allow for the creation
of most common credential objects for the initiator and the acceptor. of most common credential objects for the initiator and the acceptor.
Comparisons are performed using the interface's "equals" method. The Comparisons are performed using the interface's "equals" method. The
following general description of GSS-API credentials is included from following general description of GSS-API credentials is included from
the C-bindings specification: the C-bindings specification:
GSS-API credentials can contain mechanism-specific principal GSS-API credentials can contain mechanism-specific principal
authentication data for multiple mechanisms. A GSS-API credential is authentication data for multiple mechanisms. A GSS-API credential
composed of a set of credential-elements, each of which is applicable is composed of a set of credential-elements, each of which is
to a single mechanism. A credential may contain at most one applicable to a single mechanism. A credential may contain at
credential-element for each supported mechanism. A credential- most one credential-element for each supported mechanism. A
element identifies the data needed by a single mechanism to credential-element identifies the data needed by a single
authenticate a single principal, and conceptually contains two mechanism to authenticate a single principal, and conceptually
credential-references that describe the actual mechanism-specific contains two credential-references that describe the actual
authentication data, one to be used by GSS-API for initiating mechanism-specific authentication data, one to be used by GSS-API
contexts, and one to be used for accepting contexts. For mechanisms for initiating contexts, and one to be used for accepting
that do not distinguish between acceptor and initiator credentials, contexts. For mechanisms that do not distinguish between acceptor
both references would point to the same underlying mechanism-specific and initiator credentials, both references would point to the same
authentication data. underlying mechanism-specific authentication data.
Credentials describe a set of mechanism-specific principals, and give Credentials describe a set of mechanism-specific principals, and give
their holder the ability to act as any of those principals. All their holder the ability to act as any of those principals. All
principal identities asserted by a single GSS-API credential should principal identities asserted by a single GSS-API credential should
belong to the same entity, although enforcement of this property is belong to the same entity, although enforcement of this property is
an implementation-specific matter. A single GSSCredential object an implementation-specific matter. A single GSSCredential object
represents all the credential elements that have been acquired. represents all the credential elements that have been acquired.
The creation's of an GSSContext object allows the value of "null" to The creation of an GSSContext object allows the value of "null" to be
be specified as the GSSCredential input parameter. This will specified as the GSSCredential input parameter. This will indicate a
indicate a desire by the application to act as a default principal. desire by the application to act as a default principal. While
While individual GSS-API implementations are free to determine such individual GSS-API implementations are free to determine such default
default behavior as appropriate to the mechanism, the following behavior as appropriate to the mechanism, the following default
default behavior by these routines is recommended for portability: behavior by these routines is recommended for portability:
For the initiator side of the context: For the initiator side of the context:
1) If there is only a single principal capable of initiating security 1) If there is only a single principal capable of initiating security
contexts for the chosen mechanism that the application is authorized contexts for the chosen mechanism that the application is
to act on behalf of, then that principal shall be used, otherwise authorized to act on behalf of, then that principal shall be used;
otherwise,
2) If the platform maintains a concept of a default network- identity 2) If the platform maintains a concept of a default network- identity
for the chosen mechanism, and if the application is authorized to act for the chosen mechanism, and if the application is authorized to
on behalf of that identity for the purpose of initiating security act on behalf of that identity for the purpose of initiating
contexts, then the principal corresponding to that identity shall be security contexts, then the principal corresponding to that
used, otherwise identity shall be used; otherwise,
3) If the platform maintains a concept of a default local identity, 3) If the platform maintains a concept of a default local identity,
and provides a means to map local identities into network-identities and provides a means to map local identities into network-
for the chosen mechanism, and if the application is authorized to act identities for the chosen mechanism, and if the application is
on behalf of the network- identity image of the default local authorized to act on behalf of the network-identity image of the
identity for the purpose of initiating security contexts using the default local identity for the purpose of initiating security
chosen mechanism, then the principal corresponding to that identity contexts using the chosen mechanism, then the principal
shall be used, otherwise corresponding to that identity shall be used; otherwise,
4) A user-configurable default identity should be used. 4) A user-configurable default identity should be used.
and for the acceptor side of the context For the acceptor side of the context:
1) If there is only a single authorized principal identity capable of 1) If there is only a single authorized principal identity capable of
accepting security contexts for the chosen mechanism, then that accepting security contexts for the chosen mechanism, then that
principal shall be used, otherwise principal shall be used; otherwise,
2) If the mechanism can determine the identity of the target 2) If the mechanism can determine the identity of the target
principal by examining the context-establishment token processed principal by examining the context-establishment token processed
during the accept method, and if the accepting application is during the accept method, and if the accepting application is
authorized to act as that principal for the purpose of accepting authorized to act as that principal for the purpose of accepting
security contexts using the chosen mechanism, then that principal security contexts using the chosen mechanism, then that principal
identity shall be used, otherwise identity shall be used; otherwise,
3) If the mechanism supports context acceptance by any principal, and 3) If the mechanism supports context acceptance by any principal, and
if mutual authentication was not requested, any principal that the if mutual authentication was not requested, any principal that the
application is authorized to accept security contexts under using the application is authorized to accept security contexts under using
chosen mechanism may be used, otherwise the chosen mechanism may be used; otherwise,
4) A user-configurable default identity shall be used. 4) A user-configurable default identity shall be used.
The purpose of the above rules is to allow security contexts to be The purpose of the above rules is to allow security contexts to be
established by both initiator and acceptor using the default behavior established by both initiator and acceptor using the default behavior
whenever possible. Applications requesting default behavior are whenever possible. Applications requesting default behavior are
likely to be more portable across mechanisms and implementations than likely to be more portable across mechanisms and implementations than
ones that instantiate an GSSCredential object representing a specific ones that instantiate an GSSCredential object representing a specific
identity. identity.
5.9. Contexts 5.9. Contexts
The GSSContext interface is used to represent one end of a GSS-API The GSSContext interface is used to represent one end of a GSS-API
security context, storing state information appropriate to that end security context, storing state information appropriate to that end
of the peer communication, including cryptographic state information. of the peer communication, including cryptographic state information.
The instantiation of the context object is done differently by the The instantiation of the context object is done differently by the
initiator and the acceptor. After the context has been instantiated, initiator and the acceptor. After the context has been instantiated,
the initiator may choose to set various context options which will the initiator may choose to set various context options that will
determine the characteristics of the desired security context. When determine the characteristics of the desired security context. When
all the application desired characteristics have been set, the all the application-desired characteristics have been set, the
initiator will call the initSecContext method which will produce a initiator will call the initSecContext method, which will produce a
token for consumption by the peer's acceptSecContext method. It is token for consumption by the peer's acceptSecContext method. It is
the responsibility of the application to deliver the authentication the responsibility of the application to deliver the authentication
token(s) between the peer applications for processing. Upon token(s) between the peer applications for processing. Upon
completion of the context establishment phase, context attributes can completion of the context-establishment phase, context attributes can
be retrieved, by both the initiator and acceptor, using the accessor be retrieved, by both the initiator and acceptor, using the accessor
methods. These will reflect the actual attributes of the established methods. These will reflect the actual attributes of the established
context. At this point the context can be used by the application to context. At this point, the context can be used by the application
apply cryptographic services to its data. to apply cryptographic services to its data.
5.10. Authentication Tokens 5.10. Authentication Tokens
A token is a caller-opaque type that GSS-API uses to maintain A token is a caller-opaque type that GSS-API uses to maintain
synchronization between each end of the GSS-API security context. synchronization between each end of the GSS-API security context.
The token is a cryptographically protected octet-string, generated by The token is a cryptographically protected octet-string, generated by
the underlying mechanism at one end of a GSS-API security context for the underlying mechanism at one end of a GSS-API security context for
use by the peer mechanism at the other end. Encapsulation (if use by the peer mechanism at the other end. Encapsulation (if
required) within the application protocol and transfer of the token required) within the application protocol and transfer of the token
are the responsibility of the peer applications. are the responsibility of the peer applications.
Java GSS-API uses byte arrays to represent authentication tokens. Java GSS-API uses byte arrays to represent authentication tokens.
Overloaded methods exist which allow the caller to supply input and Overloaded methods exist that allow the caller to supply input and
output streams which will be used for the reading and writing of the output streams that will be used for the reading and writing of the
token data. token data.
5.11. Interprocess Tokens 5.11. Inter-Process Tokens
Certain GSS-API routines are intended to transfer data between Certain GSS-API routines are intended to transfer data between
processes in multi-process programs. These routines use a caller- processes in multi-process programs. These routines use a caller-
opaque octet-string, generated by the GSS-API in one process for use opaque octet-string, generated by the GSS-API in one process for use
by the GSS-API in another process. The calling application is by the GSS-API in another process. The calling application is
responsible for transferring such tokens between processes. Note responsible for transferring such tokens between processes. Note
that, while GSS-API implementors are encouraged to avoid placing that, while GSS-API implementors are encouraged to avoid placing
sensitive information within interprocess tokens, or to sensitive information within inter-process tokens, or to
cryptographically protect them, many implementations will be unable cryptographically protect them, many implementations will be unable
to avoid placing key material or other sensitive data within them. to avoid placing key material or other sensitive data within them.
It is the application's responsibility to ensure that interprocess It is the application's responsibility to ensure that inter-process
tokens are protected in transit, and transferred only to processes tokens are protected in transit, and transferred only to processes
that are trustworthy. An interprocess token is represented using a that are trustworthy. An inter-process token is represented using a
byte array emitted from the export method of the GSSContext byte array emitted from the export method of the GSSContext
interface. The receiver of the interprocess token would initialize interface. The receiver of the inter-process token would initialize
an GSSContext object with this token to create a new context. Once a an GSSContext object with this token to create a new context. Once a
context has been exported, the GSSContext object is invalidated and context has been exported, the GSSContext object is invalidated and
is no longer available. is no longer available.
5.12. Error Reporting 5.12. Error Reporting
RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] defined the usage of major and minor RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] defined the usage of major and minor
status values for signaling of GSS-API errors. The major code, also status values for the signaling of GSS-API errors. The major code,
called GSS status code, is used to signal errors at the GSS-API level also called GSS status code, is used to signal errors at the GSS-API
independent of the underlying mechanism(s). The minor status value level, independent of the underlying mechanism(s). The minor status
or Mechanism status code, is a mechanism defined error value value or Mechanism status code, is a mechanism-defined error value
indicating a mechanism specific error code. indicating a mechanism-specific error code.
Java GSS-API uses exceptions implemented by the GSSException class to Java GSS-API uses exceptions implemented by the GSSException class to
signal both minor and major error values. Both mechanism specific signal both minor and major error values. Both mechanism-specific
errors and GSS-API level errors are signaled through instances of errors and GSS-API level errors are signaled through instances of
this class. The usage of exceptions replaces the need for major and this class. The usage of exceptions replaces the need for major and
minor codes to be used within the API calls. GSSException class also minor codes to be used within the API calls. The GSSException class
contains methods to obtain textual representations for both the major also contains methods to obtain textual representations for both the
and minor values, which is equivalent to the functionality of major and minor values, which is equivalent to the functionality of
gss_display_status. gss_display_status.
5.12.1. GSS Status Codes 5.12.1. GSS Status Codes
GSS status codes indicate errors that are independent of the GSS status codes indicate errors that are independent of the
underlying mechanism(s) used to provide the security service. The underlying mechanism(s) used to provide the security service. The
errors that can be indicated via a GSS status code are generic API errors that can be indicated via a GSS status code are generic API
routine errors (errors that are defined in the GSS-API routine errors (errors that are defined in the GSS-API
specification). These bindings take advantage of the Java exceptions specification). These bindings take advantage of the Java exceptions
mechanism, thus eliminating the need for calling errors. mechanism, thus, eliminating the need for calling errors.
A GSS status code indicates a single fatal generic API error from the A GSS status code indicates a single fatal generic API error from the
routine that has thrown the GSSException. Using exceptions announces routine that has thrown the GSSException. Using exceptions announces
that a fatal error has occurred during the execution of the method. that a fatal error has occurred during the execution of the method.
The GSS-API operational model also allows for the signaling of The GSS-API operational model also allows for the signaling of
supplementary status information from the per-message calls. These supplementary status information from the per-message calls. These
need to be handled as return values since using exceptions is not need to be handled as return values since using exceptions is not
appropriate for informatory or warning-like information. The methods appropriate for informatory or warning-like information. The methods
that are capable of producing supplementary information are the two that are capable of producing supplementary information are the two
per-message methods GSSContext.verifyMIC() and GSSContext.unwrap(). per-message methods GSSContext.verifyMIC() and GSSContext.unwrap().
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unspecified at the GSS-API unspecified at the GSS-API
level. level.
NO_CONTEXT 12 Invalid context has been NO_CONTEXT 12 Invalid context has been
supplied. supplied.
NO_CRED 13 No credentials were supplied, or NO_CRED 13 No credentials were supplied, or
the credentials were unavailable the credentials were unavailable
or inaccessible. or inaccessible.
BAD_QOP 14 The quality-of-protection BAD_QOP 14 The quality-of-protection (QOP)
requested could not be provided. requested could not be provided.
UNAUTHORIZED 15 The operation is forbidden by UNAUTHORIZED 15 The operation is forbidden by
the local security policy. the local security policy.
UNAVAILABLE 16 The operation or option is UNAVAILABLE 16 The operation or option is
unavailable. unavailable.
DUPLICATE_ELEMENT 17 The requested credential DUPLICATE_ELEMENT 17 The requested credential
element already exists. element already exists.
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provide more details about the error. provide more details about the error.
The different major status codes that can be contained in the The different major status codes that can be contained in the
GSSException object thrown by the methods in this specification are GSSException object thrown by the methods in this specification are
the same as the major status codes returned by the corresponding the same as the major status codes returned by the corresponding
calls in RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE]. calls in RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE].
5.12.2. Mechanism-Specific Status Codes 5.12.2. Mechanism-Specific Status Codes
Mechanism-specific status codes are communicated in two ways, they Mechanism-specific status codes are communicated in two ways, they
are part of any GSSException thrown from the mechanism specific layer are part of any GSSException thrown from the mechanism-specific layer
to signal a fatal error, or they are part of the MessageProp object to signal a fatal error, or they are part of the MessageProp object
that the per-message calls use to signal non-fatal errors. that the per-message calls use to signal non-fatal errors.
A default value of 0 in either the GSSException object or the A default value of 0 in either the GSSException object or the
MessageProp object will be used to represent the absence of any MessageProp object will be used to represent the absence of any
mechanism specific status code. mechanism-specific status code.
5.12.3. Supplementary Status Codes 5.12.3. Supplementary Status Codes
Supplementary status codes are confined to the per-message methods of Supplementary status codes are confined to the per-message methods of
the GSSContext interface. Because of the informative nature of these the GSSContext interface. Because of the informative nature of these
errors it is not appropriate to use exceptions to signal them. errors it is not appropriate to use exceptions to signal them.
Instead, the per-message operations of the GSSContext interface Instead, the per-message operations of the GSSContext interface
return these values in a MessageProp object. return these values in a MessageProp object.
The MessageProp class defines query methods which return boolean The MessageProp class defines query methods that return boolean
values indicating the following supplementary states: values indicating the following supplementary states:
Table: Supplementary Status Methods Table: Supplementary Status Methods
Method Name Meaning when "true" is returned Method Name Meaning when "true" is returned
isDuplicateToken The token was a duplicate of an isDuplicateToken The token was a duplicate of an
earlier token. earlier token.
isOldToken The token's validity period has isOldToken The token's validity period has
expired. expired.
isUnseqToken A later token has already been isUnseqToken A later token has already been
processed. processed.
isGapToken An expected per-message token was isGapToken An expected per-message token was
not received. not received.
"true" return value for any of the above methods indicates that the A "true" return value for any of the above methods indicates that the
token exhibited the specified property. The application must token exhibited the specified property. The application must
determine the appropriate course of action for these supplementary determine the appropriate course of action for these supplementary
values. They are not treated as errors by the GSS-API. values. They are not treated as errors by the GSS-API.
5.13. Names 5.13. Names
A name is used to identify a person or entity. GSS-API authenticates A name is used to identify a person or entity. GSS-API authenticates
the relationship between a name and the entity claiming the name. the relationship between a name and the entity claiming the name.
Since different authentication mechanisms may employ different Since different authentication mechanisms may employ different
namespaces for identifying their principals, GSS-API's naming support namespaces for identifying their principals, GSS-API's naming support
is necessarily complex in multi-mechanism environments (or even in is necessarily complex in multi-mechanism environments (or even in
some single-mechanism environments where the underlying mechanism some single-mechanism environments where the underlying mechanism
supports multiple namespaces). supports multiple namespaces).
Two distinct conceptual representations are defined for names: Two distinct conceptual representations are defined for names:
1) A GSS-API form represented by implementations of the GSSName 1) A GSS-API form represented by implementations of the GSSName
interface: A single GSSName object may contain multiple names from interface: A single GSSName object may contain multiple names from
different namespaces, but all names should refer to the same entity. different namespaces, but all names should refer to the same
An example of such an internal name would be the name returned from a entity. An example of such an internal name would be the name
call to the getName method of the GSSCredential interface, when returned from a call to the getName method of the GSSCredential
applied to a credential containing credential elements for multiple interface, when applied to a credential containing credential
authentication mechanisms employing different namespaces. This elements for multiple authentication mechanisms employing
GSSName object will contain a distinct name for the entity for each different namespaces. This GSSName object will contain a distinct
authentication mechanism. name for the entity for each authentication mechanism.
For GSS-API implementations supporting multiple namespaces, GSSName For GSS-API implementations supporting multiple namespaces,
implementations must contain sufficient information to determine the GSSName implementations must contain sufficient information to
namespace to which each primitive name belongs. determine the namespace to which each primitive name belongs.
2) Mechanism-specific contiguous byte array and string forms: 2) Mechanism-specific contiguous byte array and string forms:
Different GSSName initialization methods are provided to handle both Different GSSName initialization methods are provided to handle
byte array and string formats and to accommodate various calling both byte array and string formats and to accommodate various
applications and name types. These formats are capable of containing calling applications and name types. These formats are capable of
only a single name (from a single namespace). Contiguous string containing only a single name (from a single namespace).
names are always accompanied by an object identifier specifying the Contiguous string names are always accompanied by an object
namespace to which the name belongs, and their format is dependent on identifier specifying the namespace to which the name belongs, and
the authentication mechanism that employs that name. The string name their format is dependent on the authentication mechanism that
forms are assumed to be printable, and may therefore be used by GSS- employs that name. The string name forms are assumed to be
API applications for communication with their users. The byte array printable, and may therefore be used by GSS-API applications for
name formats are assumed to be in non-printable formats (e.g. the communication with their users. The byte array name formats are
byte array returned from the export method of the GSSName interface). assumed to be in non-printable formats (e.g., the byte array
returned from the export method of the GSSName interface).
A GSSName object can be converted to a contiguous representation by A GSSName object can be converted to a contiguous representation by
using the toString method. This will guarantee that the name will be using the toString method. This will guarantee that the name will be
converted to a printable format. Different initialization methods in converted to a printable format. Different initialization methods in
the GSSName interface are defined allowing support for multiple the GSSName interface are defined allowing support for multiple
syntaxes for each supported namespace, and allowing users the freedom syntaxes for each supported namespace, and allowing users the freedom
to choose a preferred name representation. The toString method to choose a preferred name representation. The toString method
should use an implementation-chosen printable syntax for each should use an implementation-chosen printable syntax for each
supported name-type. To obtain the printable name type, supported name type. To obtain the printable name type,
getStringNameType method can be used. getStringNameType method can be used.
There is no guarantee that calling the toString method on the GSSName There is no guarantee that calling the toString method on the GSSName
interface will produce the same string form as the original imported interface will produce the same string form as the original imported
string name. Furthermore, it is possible that the name was not even string name. Furthermore, it is possible that the name was not even
constructed from a string representation. The same applies to name- constructed from a string representation. The same applies to
space identifiers which may not necessarily survive unchanged after a namespace identifiers, which may not necessarily survive unchanged
journey through the internal name-form. An example of this might be after a journey through the internal name form. An example of this
a mechanism that authenticates X.500 names, but provides an might be a mechanism that authenticates X.500 names, but provides an
algorithmic mapping of Internet DNS names into X.500. That algorithmic mapping of Internet DNS names into X.500. That
mechanism's implementation of GSSName might, when presented with a mechanism's implementation of GSSName might, when presented with a
DNS name, generate an internal name that contained both the original DNS name, generate an internal name that contained both the original
DNS name and the equivalent X.500 name. Alternatively, it might only DNS name and the equivalent X.500 name. Alternatively, it might only
store the X.500 name. In the latter case, the toString method of store the X.500 name. In the latter case, the toString method of
GSSName would most likely generate a printable X.500 name, rather GSSName would most likely generate a printable X.500 name, rather
than the original DNS name. than the original DNS name.
The context acceptor can obtain a GSSName object representing the The context acceptor can obtain a GSSName object representing the
entity performing the context initiation (through the usage of entity performing the context initiation (through the usage of
getSrcName method). Since this name has been authenticated by a getSrcName method). Since this name has been authenticated by a
single mechanism, it contains only a single name (even if the single mechanism, it contains only a single name (even if the
internal name presented by the context initiator to the GSSContext internal name presented by the context initiator to the GSSContext
object had multiple components). Such names are termed internal object had multiple components). Such names are termed internal-
mechanism names, or "MN"s and the names emitted by GSSContext mechanism names (or MNs), and the names emitted by GSSContext
interface in the getSrcName and getTargName are always of this type. interface in the getSrcName and getTargName are always of this type.
Since some applications may require MNs without wanting to incur the Since some applications may require MNs without wanting to incur the
overhead of an authentication operation, creation methods are overhead of an authentication operation, creation methods are
provided that take not only the name buffer and name type, but also provided that take not only the name buffer and name type, but also
the mechanism oid for which this name should be created. When the mechanism oid for which this name should be created. When
dealing with an existing GSSName object, the canonicalize method may dealing with an existing GSSName object, the canonicalize method may
be invoked to convert a general internal name into an MN. be invoked to convert a general internal name into an MN.
GSSName objects can be compared using their equal method, which GSSName objects can be compared using their equal method, which
returns "true" if the two names being compared refer to the same returns "true" if the two names being compared refer to the same
entity. This is the preferred way to perform name comparisons entity. This is the preferred way to perform name comparisons
instead of using the printable names that a given GSS-API instead of using the printable names that a given GSS-API
implementation may support. Since GSS-API assumes that all primitive implementation may support. Since GSS-API assumes that all primitive
names contained within a given internal name refer to the same names contained within a given internal name refer to the same
entity, equal can return "true" if the two names have at least one entity, equal can return "true" if the two names have at least one
primitive name in common. If the implementation embodies knowledge primitive name in common. If the implementation embodies knowledge
of equivalence relationships between names taken from different of equivalence relationships between names taken from different
namespaces, this knowledge may also allow successful comparisons of namespaces, this knowledge may also allow successful comparisons of
internal names containing no overlapping primitive elements. internal names containing no overlapping primitive elements.
When used in large access control lists, the overhead of creating an When used in large access control lists, the overhead of creating a
GSSName object on each name and invoking the equal method on each GSSName object on each name and invoking the equal method on each
name from the ACL may be prohibitive. As an alternative way of name from the Access Control List (ACL) may be prohibitive. As an
supporting this case, GSS-API defines a special form of the alternative way of supporting this case, GSS-API defines a special
contiguous byte array name which may be compared directly (byte by form of the contiguous byte array name, which may be compared
byte). Contiguous names suitable for comparison are generated by the directly (byte by byte). Contiguous names suitable for comparison
export method. Exported names may be re-imported by using the byte are generated by the export method. Exported names may be re-
array constructor and specifying the NT_EXPORT_NAME as the name type imported by using the byte array constructor and specifying the
object identifier. The resulting GSSName name will also be a MN. NT_EXPORT_NAME as the name type object identifier. The resulting
GSSName name will also be a MN.
The GSSName interface defines public static Oid objects representing The GSSName interface defines public static Oid objects representing
the standard name types. Structurally, an exported name object the standard name types. Structurally, an exported name object
consists of a header containing an OID identifying the mechanism that consists of a header containing an OID identifying the mechanism that
authenticated the name, and a trailer containing the name itself, authenticated the name, and a trailer containing the name itself,
where the syntax of the trailer is defined by the individual where the syntax of the trailer is defined by the individual
mechanism specification. Detailed description of the format is mechanism specification. Detailed description of the format is
specified in the language-independent GSS-API specification specified in the language-independent GSS-API specification
[GSSAPIv2-UPDATE]. [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE].
Note that the results obtained by using the equals method will in Note that the results obtained by using the equals method will in
general be different from those obtained by invoking canonicalize and general be different from those obtained by invoking canonicalize and
export, and then comparing the byte array output. The first series export, and then comparing the byte array output. The first series
of operation determines whether two (unauthenticated) names identify of operation determines whether two (unauthenticated) names identify
the same principal; the second whether a particular mechanism would the same principal; the second whether a particular mechanism would
authenticate them as the same principal. These two operations will authenticate them as the same principal. These two operations will
in general give the same results only for MNs. in general give the same results only for MNs.
It is important to note that the above are guidelines as how GSSName It is important to note that the above are guidelines as to how
implementations should behave, and are not intended to be specific GSSName implementations should behave, and are not intended to be
requirements of how names objects must be implemented. The mechanism specific requirements of how name objects must be implemented. The
designers are free to decide on the details of their implementations mechanism designers are free to decide on the details of their
of the GSSName interface as long as the behavior satisfies the above implementations of the GSSName interface as long as the behavior
guidelines. satisfies the above guidelines.
5.14. Channel Bindings 5.14. Channel Bindings
GSS-API supports the use of user-specified tags to identify a given GSS-API supports the use of user-specified tags to identify a given
context to the peer application. These tags are intended to be used context to the peer application. These tags are intended to be used
to identify the particular communications channel that carries the to identify the particular communications channel that carries the
context. Channel bindings are communicated to the GSS-API using the context. Channel bindings are communicated to the GSS-API using the
ChannelBinding object. The application may use byte arrays to ChannelBinding object. The application may use byte arrays to
specify the application data to be used in the channel binding as specify the application data to be used in the channel binding as
well as using instances of the InetAddress. The InetAddress for the well as using instances of the InetAddress. The InetAddress for the
initiator and/or acceptor can be used within an instance of a initiator and/or acceptor can be used within an instance of a
ChannelBinding. ChannelBinding can be set for the GSSContext object ChannelBinding. ChannelBinding can be set for the GSSContext object
using the setChannelBinding method before the first call to init or using the setChannelBinding method before the first call to init or
accept has been performed. Unless the setChannelBinding method has accept has been performed. Unless the setChannelBinding method has
been used to set the ChannelBinding for a GSSContext object, "null" been used to set the ChannelBinding for a GSSContext object, "null"
ChannelBinding will be assumed. InetAddress is currently the only ChannelBinding will be assumed. InetAddress is currently the only
address type defined within the Java platform and as such, it is the address type defined within the Java platform and as such, it is the
only one supported within the ChannelBinding class. Applications only one supported within the ChannelBinding class. Applications
that use other types of addresses can include them as part of the that use other types of addresses can include them as part of the
application specific data. application-specific data.
Conceptually, the GSS-API concatenates the initiator and acceptor Conceptually, the GSS-API concatenates the initiator and acceptor
address information, and the application supplied byte array to form address information, and the application-supplied byte array to form
an octet string. The mechanism calculates a MIC over this octet an octet-string. The mechanism calculates a Message Integrity Code
string and binds the MIC to the context establishment token emitted (MIC) over this octet-string and binds the MIC to the context
by init method of the GSSContext interface. The same bindings are establishment token emitted by the init method of the GSSContext
set by the context acceptor for its GSSContext object and during interface. The same bindings are set by the context acceptor for its
processing of the accept method a MIC is calculated in the same way. GSSContext object and during processing of the accept method, a MIC
The calculated MIC is compared with that found in the token, and if is calculated in the same way. The calculated MIC is compared with
the MICs differ, accept will throw a GSSException with the major code that found in the token, and if the MICs differ, accept will throw a
set to BAD_BINDINGS, and the context will not be established. Some GSSException with the major code set to BAD_BINDINGS, and the context
mechanisms may include the actual channel binding data in the token will not be established. Some mechanisms may include the actual
(rather than just a MIC); applications should therefore not use channel binding data in the token (rather than just a MIC);
confidential data as channel-binding components. applications should therefore not use confidential data as channel-
binding components.
Individual mechanisms may impose additional constraints on addresses Individual mechanisms may impose additional constraints on addresses
that may appear in channel bindings. For example, a mechanism may that may appear in channel bindings. For example, a mechanism may
verify that the initiator address field of the channel binding verify that the initiator address field of the channel binding
contains the correct network address of the host system. Portable contains the correct network address of the host system. Portable
applications should therefore ensure that they either provide correct applications should therefore ensure that they either provide correct
information for the address fields, or omit setting of the addressing information for the address fields, or omit the setting of the
information. addressing information.
5.15. Stream Objects 5.15. Stream Objects
The context object provides overloaded methods which use input and The context object provides overloaded methods that use input and
output streams as the means to convey authentication and per-message output streams as the means to convey authentication and per-message
GSS-API tokens. It is important to note that the streams are GSS-API tokens. It is important to note that the streams are
expected to contain the usual GSS-API tokens which would otherwise be expected to contain the usual GSS-API tokens, which would otherwise
handled through the usage of byte arrays. The tokens are expected to be handled through the usage of byte arrays. The tokens are expected
have a definite start and an end. The callers are responsible for to have a definite start and an end. The callers are responsible for
ensuring that the supplied streams will not block, or expect to block ensuring that the supplied streams will not block, or expect to block
until a full token is processed by the GSS-API method. Only a single until a full token is processed by the GSS-API method. Only a single
GSS-API token will be processed per invocation of the stream based GSS-API token will be processed per invocation of the stream-based
method. method.
The usage of streams allows the callers to have control and The usage of streams allows the callers to have control and
management of the supplied buffers. Because streams are non- management of the supplied buffers. Because streams are non-
primitive objects, the callers can make the streams as complicated or primitive objects, the callers can make the streams as complicated or
as simple as desired simply by using the streams defined in the as simple as desired simply by using the streams defined in the
java.io package or creating their own through the use of inheritance. java.io package or creating their own through the use of inheritance.
This will allow for the application's greatest flexibility. This will allow for the application's greatest flexibility.
5.16. Optional Parameters 5.16. Optional Parameters
Whenever the application wishes to omit an optional parameter the Whenever the application wishes to omit an optional parameter the
"null" value shall be used. The detailed method descriptions "null" value shall be used. The detailed method descriptions
indicate which parameters are optional. Methods overloading has also indicate which parameters are optional. Method overloading has also
been used as a technique to indicate default parameters. been used as a technique to indicate default parameters.
6. Introduction to GSS-API Classes and Interfaces 6. Introduction to GSS-API Classes and Interfaces
This section presents a brief description of the classes and This section presents a brief description of the classes and
interfaces that constitute the GSS-API. The implementations of these interfaces that constitute the GSS-API. The implementations of these
are obtained from the CLASSPATH defined by the application. If Java are obtained from the CLASSPATH defined by the application. If Java
GSS becomes part of the standard Java API's then these classes will GSS becomes part of the standard Java APIs, then these classes will
be available by default on all systems as part of the JRE's system be available by default on all systems as part of the JRE's system
classes. classes.
This section also shows the corresponding RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] This section also shows the corresponding RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE]
functionality implemented by each of the classes. Detailed functionality implemented by each of the classes. Detailed
description of these classes and their methods is presented in description of these classes and their methods is presented in
section 7. section 7.
6.1. GSSManager class 6.1. GSSManager Class
This abstract class serves as a factory to instantiate This abstract class serves as a factory to instantiate
implementations of the GSS-API interfaces and also provides methods implementations of the GSS-API interfaces and also provides methods
to make queries about underlying security mechanisms. to make queries about underlying security mechanisms.
A default implementation can be obtained using the static method A default implementation can be obtained using the static method
getInstance(). Applications that desire to provide their own getInstance(). Applications that desire to provide their own
implementation of the GSSManager class can simply extend the abstract implementation of the GSSManager class can simply extend the abstract
class themselves. class themselves.
This class contains equivalents of the following RFC 2743 This class contains equivalents of the following RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-
[GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] routines: UPDATE] routines:
RFC 2743 Routine Function Section(s)
gss_import_name Create an internal name from 7.1.6- gss_import_name Create an internal name from 7.1.6-
the supplied information. 7.1.9 the supplied information. 7.1.9
gss_acquire_cred Acquire credential 7.1.10- gss_acquire_cred Acquire credential 7.1.10-
for use. 7.1.12 for use. 7.1.12
gss_import_sec_context Create a previously exported 7.1.15 gss_import_sec_context Create a previously exported 7.1.15
context. context.
skipping to change at page 29, line 5 skipping to change at page 29, line 28
implementation. implementation.
gss_inquire_mechs_for_name List the mechanisms 7.1.5 gss_inquire_mechs_for_name List the mechanisms 7.1.5
supporting the supporting the
specified name type. specified name type.
gss_inquire_names_for_mech List the name types 7.1.4 gss_inquire_names_for_mech List the name types 7.1.4
supported by the supported by the
specified mechanism. specified mechanism.
6.2. GSSName interface 6.2. GSSName Interface
GSS-API names are represented in the Java bindings through the GSS-API names are represented in the Java bindings through the
GSSName interface. Different name formats and their definitions are GSSName interface. Different name formats and their definitions are
identified with universal Object Identifiers (oids). The format of identified with Universal Object Identifiers (oids). The format of
the names can be derived based on the unique oid of each name type. the names can be derived based on the unique oid of each name type.
The following GSS-API routines are provided by the GSSName interface: The following GSS-API routines are provided by the GSSName interface:
RFC 2743 Routine Function Section(s) RFC 2743 Routine Function Section(s)
gss_display_name Covert internal name 7.2.7 gss_display_name Covert internal name 7.2.7
representation to text format. representation to text format.
gss_compare_name Compare two internal names. 7.2.3, gss_compare_name Compare two internal names. 7.2.3,
7.2.4 7.2.4
skipping to change at page 29, line 38 skipping to change at page 30, line 13
export format. export format.
gss_duplicate_name Create a copy of the internal N/A gss_duplicate_name Create a copy of the internal N/A
name. name.
The gss_release_name call is not provided as Java does its own The gss_release_name call is not provided as Java does its own
garbage collection. The gss_duplicate_name call is also redundant; garbage collection. The gss_duplicate_name call is also redundant;
the GSSName interface has no mutator methods that can change the the GSSName interface has no mutator methods that can change the
state of the object so it is safe for sharing across threads. state of the object so it is safe for sharing across threads.
6.3. GSSCredential interface 6.3. GSSCredential Interface
The GSSCredential interface is responsible for the encapsulation of The GSSCredential interface is responsible for the encapsulation of
GSS-API credentials. Credentials identify a single entity and GSS-API credentials. Credentials identify a single entity and
provide the necessary cryptographic information to enable the provide the necessary cryptographic information to enable the
creation of a context on behalf of that entity. A single credential creation of a context on behalf of that entity. A single credential
may contain multiple mechanism specific credentials, each referred to may contain multiple mechanism-specific credentials, each referred to
as a credential element. The GSSCredential interface provides the as a credential element. The GSSCredential interface provides the
functionality of the following GSS-API routines: functionality of the following GSS-API routines:
RFC 2743 Routine Function Section(s) RFC 2743 Routine Function Section(s)
gss_add_cred Constructs credentials 7.3.12 gss_add_cred Constructs credentials 7.3.12
incrementally. incrementally.
gss_inquire_cred Obtain information about 7.3.4- gss_inquire_cred Obtain information about 7.3.4-
credential. 7.3.11 credential. 7.3.11
gss_inquire_cred_by_mech Obtain per-mechanism 7.3.5- gss_inquire_cred_by_mech Obtain per-mechanism 7.3.5-
information about 7.3.10 information about 7.3.10
a credential. a credential.
gss_release_cred Disposes of credentials 7.3.3 gss_release_cred Dispose of credentials 7.3.3
after use. after use.
6.4. GSSContext interface 6.4. GSSContext Interface
This interface encapsulates the functionality of context-level calls This interface encapsulates the functionality of context-level calls
required for security context establishment and management between required for security context establishment and management between
peers as well as the per-message services offered to applications. A peers as well as the per-message services offered to applications. A
context is established between a pair of peers and allows the usage context is established between a pair of peers and allows the usage
of security services on a per-message basis on application data. It of security services on a per-message basis on application data. It
is created over a single security mechanism. The GSSContext is created over a single security mechanism. The GSSContext
interface provides the functionality of the following GSS-API interface provides the functionality of the following GSS-API
routines: routines:
skipping to change at page 30, line 31 skipping to change at page 31, line 4
context is established between a pair of peers and allows the usage context is established between a pair of peers and allows the usage
of security services on a per-message basis on application data. It of security services on a per-message basis on application data. It
is created over a single security mechanism. The GSSContext is created over a single security mechanism. The GSSContext
interface provides the functionality of the following GSS-API interface provides the functionality of the following GSS-API
routines: routines:
RFC 2743 Routine Function Section(s) RFC 2743 Routine Function Section(s)
gss_init_sec_context Initiate the creation of a 7.4.3- gss_init_sec_context Initiate the creation of a 7.4.3-
security context with a peer. 7.4.6 security context with a peer. 7.4.6
gss_accept_sec_context Accept a security context 7.4.7- gss_accept_sec_context Accept a security context 7.4.7-
initiated by a peer. 7.4.10 initiated by a peer. 7.4.10
gss_delete_sec_context Destroy a security context. 7.4.12 gss_delete_sec_context Destroy a security context. 7.4.12
gss_context_time Obtain remaining context 7.4.41 gss_context_time Obtain remaining context 7.4.41
time. time.
gss_inquire_context Obtain context 7.4.32- gss_inquire_context Obtain context 7.4.32-
characteristics. 7.3.46 characteristics. 7.4.46
gss_wrap_size_limit Determine token-size limit 7.4.13 gss_wrap_size_limit Determine token-size limit 7.4.13
for gss_wrap. for gss_wrap.
gss_export_sec_context Transfer security context 7.4.22 gss_export_sec_context Transfer security context 7.4.22
to another process. to another process.
gss_get_mic Calculate a cryptographic 7.4.18, gss_get_mic Calculate a cryptographic 7.4.18,
Message Integrity Code (MIC) 7.4.19 Message Integrity Code (MIC) 7.4.19
for a message. for a message.
skipping to change at page 31, line 23 skipping to change at page 31, line 41
gss_unwrap Obtain a previously wrapped 7.4.16, gss_unwrap Obtain a previously wrapped 7.4.16,
application message verifying 7.4.17 application message verifying 7.4.17
its integrity and optionally its integrity and optionally
decrypting it. decrypting it.
The functionality offered by the gss_process_context_token routine The functionality offered by the gss_process_context_token routine
has not been included in the Java bindings specification. The has not been included in the Java bindings specification. The
corresponding functionality of gss_delete_sec_context has also been corresponding functionality of gss_delete_sec_context has also been
modified to not return any peer tokens. This has been proposed in modified to not return any peer tokens. This has been proposed in
accordance to the recommendations stated in RFC 2743 accordance to the recommendations stated in RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-
[GSSAPIv2-UPDATE]. GSSContext does offer the functionality of UPDATE]. GSSContext does offer the functionality of destroying the
destroying the locally-stored context information. locally stored context information.
6.5. MessageProp class 6.5. MessageProp Class
This helper class is used in the per-message operations on the This helper class is used in the per-message operations on the
context. An instance of this class is created by the application and context. An instance of this class is created by the application and
then passed into the per-message calls. In some cases, the then passed into the per-message calls. In some cases, the
application conveys information to the GSS-API implementation through application conveys information to the GSS-API implementation through
this object and in other cases the GSS-API returns information to the this object and in other cases the GSS-API returns information to the
application by setting it in this object. See the description of the application by setting it in this object. See the description of the
per-message operations wrap, unwrap, getMIC, and verifyMIC in the per-message operations wrap, unwrap, getMIC, and verifyMIC in the
GSSContext interfaces for details. GSSContext interfaces for details.
6.6. GSSException class 6.6. GSSException Class
Exceptions are used in the Java bindings to signal fatal errors to Exceptions are used in the Java bindings to signal fatal errors to
the calling applications. This replaces the major and minor codes the calling applications. This replaces the major and minor codes
used in the C-bindings specification as a method of signaling used in the C-bindings specification as a method of signaling
failures. The GSSException class handles both minor and major codes, failures. The GSSException class handles both minor and major codes,
as well as their translation into textual representation. All GSS- as well as their translation into textual representation. All GSS-
API methods are declared as throwing this exception. API methods are declared as throwing this exception.
RFC 2743 Routine Function Section RFC 2743 Routine Function Section
gss_display_status Retrieve textual 7.8.5, 7.8.6, gss_display_status Retrieve textual 7.8.5, 7.8.6,
representation of error 7.8.8, 7.8.9 representation of error 7.8.8, 7.8.9
codes. codes.
6.7. Oid class 6.7. Oid Class
This utility class is used to represent Universal Object Identifiers This utility class is used to represent Universal Object Identifiers
and their associated operations. GSS-API uses object identifiers to and their associated operations. GSS-API uses object identifiers to
distinguish between security mechanisms and name types. This class, distinguish between security mechanisms and name types. This class,
aside from being used whenever an object identifier is needed, aside from being used whenever an object identifier is needed,
implements the following GSS-API functionality: implements the following GSS-API functionality:
RFC 2743 Routine Function Section RFC 2743 Routine Function Section
gss_test_oid_set_member Determine if the specified oid 7.7.5 gss_test_oid_set_member Determine if the specified oid 7.7.5
is part of a set of oids. is part of a set of oids.
6.8. ChannelBinding class 6.8. ChannelBinding Class
An instance of this class is used to specify channel binding An instance of this class is used to specify channel binding
information to the GSSContext object before the start of a security information to the GSSContext object before the start of a security
context establishment. The application may use a byte array to context establishment. The application may use a byte array to
specify application data to be used in the channel binding as well as specify application data to be used in the channel binding as well as
use instances of the InetAddress. InetAddress is currently the only to use instances of the InetAddress. InetAddress is currently the
address type defined within the Java platform and as such, it is the only address type defined within the Java platform and as such, it is
only one supported within the ChannelBinding class. Applications the only one supported within the ChannelBinding class. Applications
that use other types of addresses can include them as part of the that use other types of addresses can include them as part of the
application data. application data.
7. Detailed GSS-API Class Description 7. Detailed GSS-API Class Description
This section lists a detailed description of all the public methods This section lists a detailed description of all the public methods
that each of the GSS-API classes and interfaces must provide. that each of the GSS-API classes and interfaces must provide.
7.1. public abstract class GSSManager 7.1. public abstract class GSSManager
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for three GSS interfaces: GSSName, GSSCredential, and GSSContext. It for three GSS interfaces: GSSName, GSSCredential, and GSSContext. It
also provides methods for applications to determine what mechanisms also provides methods for applications to determine what mechanisms
are available from the GSS implementation and what nametypes these are available from the GSS implementation and what nametypes these
mechanisms support. An instance of the default GSSManager subclass mechanisms support. An instance of the default GSSManager subclass
may be obtained through the static method getInstance(), but may be obtained through the static method getInstance(), but
applications are free to instantiate other subclasses of GSSManager. applications are free to instantiate other subclasses of GSSManager.
All but one method in this class are declared abstract. This means All but one method in this class are declared abstract. This means
that subclasses have to provide the complete implementation for those that subclasses have to provide the complete implementation for those
methods. The only exception to this is the static method methods. The only exception to this is the static method
getInstance() which will have platform specific code to return an getInstance(), which will have platform-specific code to return an
instance of the default subclass. instance of the default subclass.
Platform providers of GSS are required not to add any constructors to Platform providers of GSS are required not to add any constructors to
this class, private, public, or protected. This will ensure that all this class, private, public, or protected. This will ensure that all
subclasses invoke only the default constructor provided to the base subclasses invoke only the default constructor provided to the base
class by the compiler. class by the compiler.
A subclass extending the GSSManager abstract class may be implemented A subclass extending the GSSManager abstract class may be implemented
as a modular provider based layer that utilizes some well known as a modular provider-based layer that utilizes some well-known
service provider specification. The GSSManager API provides the service provider specification. The GSSManager API provides the
application with methods to set provider preferences on such an application with methods to set provider preferences on such an
implementation. These methods also allow the implementation to throw implementation. These methods also allow the implementation to throw
a well-defined exception in case provider based configuration is not a well-defined exception in case provider-based configuration is not
supported. Applications that expect to be portable should be aware supported. Applications that expect to be portable should be aware
of this and recover cleanly by catching the exception. of this and recover cleanly by catching the exception.
It is envisioned that there will be three most common ways in which It is envisioned that there will be three most common ways in which
providers will be used: providers will be used:
1) The application does not care about what provider is used (the 1) The application does not care about what provider is used (the
default case). default case).
2) The application wants a particular provider to be used 2) The application wants a particular provider to be used
preferentially, either for a particular mechanism or all the time, preferentially, either for a particular mechanism or all the time,
irrespective of mechanism. irrespective of the mechanism.
3) The application wants to use the locally configured providers as 3) The application wants to use the locally configured providers as
far as possible but if support is missing for one or more mechanisms far as possible, but if support is missing for one or more
then it wants to fall back on its own provider. mechanisms, then it wants to fall back on its own provider.
The GSSManager class has two methods that enable these modes of The GSSManager class has two methods that enable these modes of
usage: addProviderAtFront() and addProviderAtEnd(). These methods usage: addProviderAtFront() and addProviderAtEnd(). These methods
have the effect of creating an ordered list of <provider, oid> pairs have the effect of creating an ordered list of <provider, oid> pairs
where each pair indicates a preference of provider for a given oid. where each pair indicates a preference of provider for a given oid.
The use of these methods does not require any knowledge of whatever The use of these methods does not require any knowledge of whatever
service provider specification the GSSManager subclass follows. It service provider specification the GSSManager subclass follows. It
is hoped that these methods will serve the needs of most is hoped that these methods will serve the needs of most
applications. Additional methods may be added to an extended applications. Additional methods may be added to an extended
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7.1.4. getNamesForMech 7.1.4. getNamesForMech
public abstract Oid[] getNamesForMech(Oid mech) public abstract Oid[] getNamesForMech(Oid mech)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Returns name type Oid's supported by the specified mechanism. Returns name type Oid's supported by the specified mechanism.
Parameters: Parameters:
mech The Oid object for the mechanism to query. mech: The Oid object for the mechanism to query.
7.1.5. getMechsForName 7.1.5. getMechsForName
public abstract Oid[] getMechsForName(Oid nameType) public abstract Oid[] getMechsForName(Oid nameType)
Returns an array of Oid objects corresponding to the mechanisms that Returns an array of Oid objects corresponding to the mechanisms that
support the specific name type. "null" is returned when no mechanisms support the specific name type. "null" is returned when no mechanisms
are found to support the specified name type. are found to support the specified name type.
Parameters: Parameters:
nameType The Oid object for the name type. nameType: The Oid object for the name type.
7.1.6. createName 7.1.6. createName
public abstract GSSName createName(String nameStr, Oid nameType) public abstract GSSName createName(String nameStr, Oid nameType)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Factory method to convert a contiguous string name from the specified Factory method to convert a contiguous string name from the specified
namespace to a GSSName object. In general, the GSSName object namespace to a GSSName object. In general, the GSSName object
created will not be an MN; two examples that are exceptions to this created will not be an MN; two examples that are exceptions to this
are when the namespace type parameter indicates NT_EXPORT_NAME or are when the namespace type parameter indicates NT_EXPORT_NAME or
when the GSS-API implementation is not multi-mechanism. when the GSS-API implementation is not multi-mechanism.
Parameters: Parameters:
nameStr The string representing a printable form of the name to nameStr: The string representing a printable form of the name
create. to create.
nameType The Oid specifying the namespace of the printable name nameType: The Oid specifying the namespace of the printable
supplied. Note that nameType serves to describe and qualify the name is supplied. Note that nameType serves to
interpretation of the input nameStr, it does not necessarily imply describe and qualify the interpretation of the input
a type for the output GSSName implementation. "null" value can be nameStr, it does not necessarily imply a type for
used to specify that a mechanism specific default printable syntax the output GSSName implementation. The "null" value
should be assumed by each mechanism that examines nameStr. can be used to specify that a mechanism-specific
default printable syntax should be assumed by each
mechanism that examines nameStr.
7.1.7. createName 7.1.7. createName
public abstract GSSName createName(byte[] name, Oid nameType) public abstract GSSName createName(byte[] name, Oid nameType)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Factory method to convert a contiguous byte array containing a name Factory method to convert a contiguous byte array containing a name
from the specified namespace to a GSSName object. In general, the from the specified namespace to a GSSName object. In general, the
GSSName object created will not be an MN; two examples that are GSSName object created will not be an MN; two examples that are
exceptions to this are when the namespace type parameter indicates exceptions to this are when the namespace type parameter indicates
NT_EXPORT_NAME or when the GSS-API implementation is not multi- NT_EXPORT_NAME or when the GSS-API implementation is not multi-
mechanism. mechanism.
Parameters: Parameters:
name The byte array containing the name to create. name: The byte array containing the name to create.
nameType The Oid specifying the namespace of the name supplied in nameType: The Oid specifying the namespace of the name
the byte array. Note that nameType serves to describe and qualify supplied in the byte array. Note that nameType
the interpretation of the input name byte array, it does not serves to describe and qualify the interpretation of
necessarily imply a type for the output GSSName implementation. the input name byte array; it does not necessarily
"null" value can be used to specify that a mechanism specific imply a type for the output GSSName implementation.
default syntax should be assumed by each mechanism that examines The "null" value can be used to specify that a
the byte array. mechanism-specific default syntax should be assumed
by each mechanism that examines the byte array.
7.1.8. createName 7.1.8. createName
public abstract GSSName createName(String nameStr, Oid nameType, public abstract GSSName createName(String nameStr, Oid nameType,
Oid mech) throws GSSException Oid mech) throws GSSException
Factory method to convert a contiguous string name from the specified Factory method to convert a contiguous string name from the specified
namespace to an GSSName object that is a mechanism name (MN). In namespace to a GSSName object that is a mechanism name (MN). In
other words, this method is a utility that does the equivalent of two other words, this method is a utility that does the equivalent of two
steps: the createName described in 7.1.6 and then also the steps: the createName described in section 7.1.6, and then also the
GSSName.canonicalize() described in 7.2.5. GSSName.canonicalize() described in section 7.2.5.
Parameters: Parameters:
nameStr The string representing a printable form of the name to nameStr: The string representing a printable form of the name
create. to create.
nameType The Oid specifying the namespace of the printable name nameType: The Oid specifying the namespace of the printable
supplied. Note that nameType serves to describe and qualify the name supplied. Note that nameType serves to
interpretation of the input nameStr, it does not necessarily imply describe and qualify the interpretation of the input
a type for the output GSSName implementation. "null" value can be nameStr; it does not necessarily imply a type for
used to specify that a mechanism specific default printable syntax the output GSSName implementation. The "null" value
should be assumed when the mechanism examines nameStr. can be used to specify that a mechanism-specific
default printable syntax should be assumed when the
mechanism examines nameStr.
mech Oid specifying the mechanism for which this name should be mech: Oid specifying the mechanism for which this name
created. should be created.
7.1.9. createName 7.1.9. createName
public abstract GSSName createName(byte[] name, Oid nameType, public abstract GSSName createName(byte[] name, Oid nameType,
Oid mech) throws GSSException Oid mech) throws GSSException
Factory method to convert a contiguous byte array containing a name Factory method to convert a contiguous byte array containing a name
from the specified namespace to a GSSName object that is an MN. In from the specified namespace to a GSSName object that is an MN. In
other words, this method is a utility that does the equivalent of two other words, this method is a utility that does the equivalent of two
steps: the createName described in 7.1.7 and then also the steps: the createName described in section 7.1.7, and then also the
GSSName.canonicalize() described in 7.2.5. GSSName.canonicalize() described in section 7.2.5.
Parameters: Parameters:
name The byte array representing the name to create. name: The byte array representing the name to create.
nameType The Oid specifying the namespace of the name supplied in nameType: The Oid specifying the namespace of the name
the byte array. Note that nameType serves to describe and qualify supplied in the byte array. Note that nameType
the interpretation of the input name byte array, it does not serves to describe and qualify the interpretation of
necessarily imply a type for the output GSSName implementation. the input name byte array, it does not necessarily
"null" value can be used to specify that a mechanism specific imply a type for the output GSSName implementation.
default syntax should be assumed by each mechanism that examines The "null" value can be used to specify that a
the byte array. mechanism-specific default syntax should be assumed
by each mechanism that examines the byte array.
mech Oid specifying the mechanism for which this name should be mech: Oid specifying the mechanism for which this name
created. should be created.
7.1.10. createCredential 7.1.10. createCredential
public abstract GSSCredential createCredential(int usage) public abstract GSSCredential createCredential(int usage)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Factory method for acquiring default credentials. This will cause Factory method for acquiring default credentials. This will cause
the GSS-API to use system specific defaults for the set of the GSS-API to use system-specific defaults for the set of
mechanisms, name, and a DEFAULT lifetime. mechanisms, name, and a DEFAULT lifetime.
Parameters: Parameters:
usage The intended usage for this credential object.The value of usage: The intended usage for this credential object. The
this parameter must be one of: value of this parameter must be one of:
GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0), GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0),
GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2) GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), or
GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2)
7.1.11. createCredential 7.1.11. createCredential
public abstract GSSCredential createCredential(GSSName aName, public abstract GSSCredential createCredential(GSSName aName,
int lifetime, Oid mech, int usage) int lifetime, Oid mech, int usage)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Factory method for acquiring a single mechanism credential. Factory method for acquiring a single mechanism credential.
Parameters: Parameters:
aName Name of the principal for whom this credential is to be aName: Name of the principal for whom this credential is to
acquired. Use "null" to specify the default principal. be acquired. Use "null" to specify the default
principal.
lifetime The number of seconds that credentials should remain lifetime: The number of seconds that credentials should remain
valid. Use GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME to request that the valid. Use GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME to
credentials have the maximum permitted lifetime. Use request that the credentials have the maximum
GSSCredential.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request default credential permitted lifetime. Use
lifetime. GSSCredential.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request default
credential lifetime.
mech The oid of the desired mechanism. Use "(Oid) null" to mech: The oid of the desired mechanism. Use "(Oid) null"
request the default mechanism(s). to request the default mechanism(s).
usage: The intended usage for this credential object. The
value of this parameter must be one of:
usage The intended usage for this credential object. The value of
this parameter must be one of:
GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0), GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0),
GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2) GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), or
GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2)
7.1.12. createCredential 7.1.12. createCredential
public abstract GSSCredential createCredential(GSSName aName, public abstract GSSCredential createCredential(GSSName aName,
int lifetime, Oid[] mechs, int usage) int lifetime, Oid[] mechs, int usage)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Factory method for acquiring credentials over a set of mechanisms. Factory method for acquiring credentials over a set of mechanisms.
Acquires credentials for each of the mechanisms specified in the Acquires credentials for each of the mechanisms specified in the
array called mechs. To determine the list of mechanisms' for which array called mechs. To determine the list of mechanisms' for which
the acquisition of credentials succeeded, the caller should use the the acquisition of credentials succeeded, the caller should use the
GSSCredential.getMechs() method. GSSCredential.getMechs() method.
Parameters: Parameters:
aName Name of the principal for whom this credential is to be aName: Name of the principal for whom this credential is to
acquired. Use "null" to specify the default principal. be acquired. Use "null" to specify the default
principal.
lifetime The number of seconds that credentials should remain lifetime: The number of seconds that credentials should remain
valid. Use GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME to request that the valid. Use GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME to
credentials have the maximum permitted lifetime. Use request that the credentials have the maximum
GSSCredential.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request default credential permitted lifetime. Use
lifetime. GSSCredential.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request default
credential lifetime.
mechs The array of mechanisms over which the credential is to be mechs: The array of mechanisms over which the credential is
acquired. Use "(Oid[]) null" for requesting a system specific to be acquired. Use "(Oid[]) null" for requesting a
default set of mechanisms. system-specific default set of mechanisms.
usage: The intended usage for this credential object. The
value of this parameter must be one of:
usage The intended usage for this credential object. The value of
this parameter must be one of:
GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0), GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0),
GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2) GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), or
GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2)
7.1.13. createContext 7.1.13. createContext
public abstract GSSContext createContext(GSSName peer, Oid mech, public abstract GSSContext createContext(GSSName peer, Oid mech,
GSSCredential myCred, int lifetime) GSSCredential myCred, int lifetime)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Factory method for creating a context on the initiator's side. Factory method for creating a context on the initiator's side.
Context flags may be modified through the mutator methods prior to Context flags may be modified through the mutator methods prior to
calling GSSContext.initSecContext(). calling GSSContext.initSecContext().
Parameters: Parameters:
peer Name of the target peer. peer: Name of the target peer.
mech Oid of the desired mechanism. Use "(Oid) null" to request mech: Oid of the desired mechanism. Use "(Oid) null" to
the default mechanism. request the default mechanism.
myCred Credentials of the initiator. Use "null" to act as a myCred: Credentials of the initiator. Use "null" to act as
default initiator principal. a default initiator principal.
lifetime The request lifetime, in seconds, for the context. Use lifetime: The request lifetime, in seconds, for the context.
GSSContext.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME and GSSContext.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to Use GSSContext.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME and
request indefinite or default context lifetime. GSSContext.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request indefinite or
default context lifetime.
7.1.14. createContext 7.1.14. createContext
public abstract GSSContext createContext(GSSCredential myCred) public abstract GSSContext createContext(GSSCredential myCred)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Factory method for creating a context on the acceptor' side. The Factory method for creating a context on the acceptor' side. The
context's properties will be determined from the input token supplied context's properties will be determined from the input token supplied
to the accept method. to the accept method.
Parameters: Parameters:
myCred Credentials for the acceptor. Use "null" to act as a myCred: Credentials for the acceptor. Use "null" to act as
default acceptor principal. a default acceptor principal.
7.1.15. createContext 7.1.15. createContext
public abstract GSSContext createContext(byte[] interProcessToken) public abstract GSSContext createContext(byte[] interProcessToken)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Factory method for creating a previously exported context. The Factory method for creating a previously exported context. The
context properties will be determined from the input token and can't context properties will be determined from the input token and can't
be modified through the set methods. be modified through the set methods.
Parameters: Parameters:
interProcessToken The token previously emitted from the export interProcessToken: The token previously emitted from the export
method. method.
7.1.16. addProviderAtFront 7.1.16. addProviderAtFront
public abstract void addProviderAtFront(Provider p, Oid mech) public abstract void addProviderAtFront(Provider p, Oid mech)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
This method is used to indicate to the GSSManager that the This method is used to indicate to the GSSManager that the
application would like a particular provider to be used ahead of all application would like a particular provider to be used ahead of all
others when support is desired for the given mechanism. When a value others when support is desired for the given mechanism. When a value
of null is used instead of an Oid for the mechanism, the GSSManager of "null" is used instead of an Oid for the mechanism, the GSSManager
must use the indicated provider ahead of all others no matter what must use the indicated provider ahead of all others no matter what
the mechanism is. Only when the indicated provider does not support the mechanism is. Only when the indicated provider does not support
the needed mechanism should the GSSManager move on to a different the needed mechanism should the GSSManager move on to a different
provider. provider.
Calling this method repeatedly preserves the older settings but Calling this method repeatedly preserves the older settings but
lowers them in preference thus forming an ordered list of provider lowers them in preference thus forming an ordered list of provider
and Oid pairs that grows at the top. and Oid pairs that grows at the top.
Calling addProviderAtFront with a null Oid will remove all previous Calling addProviderAtFront with a null Oid will remove all previous
preferences that were set for this provider in the GSSManager preferences that were set for this provider in the GSSManager
instance. Calling addProviderAtFront with a non-null Oid will remove instance. Calling addProviderAtFront with a non-null Oid will remove
any previous preference that was set using this mechanism and this any previous preference that was set using this mechanism and this
provider together. provider together.
If the GSSManager implementation does not support an SPI with a If the GSSManager implementation does not support an SPI with a
pluggable provider architecture it should throw a GSSException with pluggable provider architecture, it should throw a GSSException with
the status code GSSException.UNAVAILABLE to indicate that the the status code GSSException.UNAVAILABLE to indicate that the
operation is unavailable. operation is unavailable.
Parameters: Parameters:
p The provider instance that should be used whenever support is p: The provider instance that should be used whenever
needed for mech. support is needed for mech.
mech The mechanism for which the provider is being set mech: The mechanism for which the provider is being set.
7.1.17. Example Code 7.1.17. Example Code
Suppose an application desired that the provider A always be checked Suppose an application desired that the provider A always be checked
first when any mechanism is needed, it would call: first when any mechanism is needed, it would call:
GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance(); GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance();
// mgr may at this point have its own pre-configured list // mgr may at this point have its own pre-configured list
// of provider preferences. The following will prepend to // of provider preferences. The following will prepend to
// any such list: // any such list:
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Suppose an application desired that the provider A always be checked Suppose an application desired that the provider A always be checked
first when any mechanism is needed, it would call: first when any mechanism is needed, it would call:
GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance(); GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance();
// mgr may at this point have its own pre-configured list // mgr may at this point have its own pre-configured list
// of provider preferences. The following will prepend to // of provider preferences. The following will prepend to
// any such list: // any such list:
mgr.addProviderAtFront(A, null); mgr.addProviderAtFront(A, null);
Now if it also desired that the mechanism of Oid m1 always be Now if it also desired that the mechanism of Oid m1 always be
obtained from the provider B before the previously set A was checked, obtained from the provider B before the previously set A was checked,
it would call: it would call:
mgr.addProviderAtFront(B, m1); mgr.addProviderAtFront(B, m1);
The GSSManager would then first check with B if m1 was needed. In The GSSManager would then first check with B if m1 was needed. In
case B did not provide support for m1, the GSSManager would continue case B did not provide support for m1, the GSSManager would continue
on to check with A. If any mechanism m2 is needed where m2 is on to check with A. If any mechanism m2 is needed where m2 is
different from m1 then the GSSManager would skip B and check with A different from m1, then the GSSManager would skip B and check with A
directly. directly.
Suppose at a later time the following call is made to the same Suppose, at a later time, the following call is made to the same
GSSManager instance: GSSManager instance:
mgr.addProviderAtFront(B, null) mgr.addProviderAtFront(B, null)
then the previous setting with the pair (B, m1) is subsumed by this then the previous setting with the pair (B, m1) is subsumed by this
and should be removed. Effectively the list of preferences now and should be removed. Effectively, the list of preferences now
becomes {(B, null), (A, null), ... //followed by the pre-configured becomes {(B, null), (A, null), ... //followed by the pre-configured
list. list.
Please note, however, that the following call: Please note, however, that the following call:
mgr.addProviderAtFront(A, m3) mgr.addProviderAtFront(A, m3)
does not subsume the previous setting of (A, null) and the list will does not subsume the previous setting of (A, null), and the list will
effectively become {(A, m3), (B, null), (A, null), ...} effectively become {(A, m3), (B, null), (A, null), ...}
7.1.18. addProviderAtEnd 7.1.18. addProviderAtEnd
public abstract void addProviderAtEnd(Provider p, Oid mech) public abstract void addProviderAtEnd(Provider p, Oid mech)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
This method is used to indicate to the GSSManager that the This method is used to indicate to the GSSManager that the
application would like a particular provider to be used if no other application would like a particular provider to be used if no other
provider can be found that supports the given mechanism. When a provider can be found that supports the given mechanism. When a
value of null is used instead of an Oid for the mechanism, the value of "null" is used instead of an Oid for the mechanism, the
GSSManager must use the indicated provider for any mechanism. GSSManager must use the indicated provider for any mechanism.
Calling this method repeatedly preserves the older settings but Calling this method repeatedly preserves the older settings, but
raises them above newer ones in preference thus forming an ordered raises them above newer ones in preference thus forming an ordered
list of providers and Oid pairs that grows at the bottom. Thus the list of providers and Oid pairs that grows at the bottom. Thus, the
older provider settings will be utilized first before this one is. older provider settings will be utilized first before this one is.
If there are any previously existing preferences that conflict with If there are any previously existing preferences that conflict with
the preference being set here, then the GSSManager should ignore this the preference being set here, then the GSSManager should ignore this
request. request.
If the GSSManager implementation does not support an SPI with a If the GSSManager implementation does not support an SPI with a
pluggable provider architecture it should throw a GSSException with pluggable provider architecture, it should throw a GSSException with
the status code GSSException.UNAVAILABLE to indicate that the the status code GSSException.UNAVAILABLE to indicate that the
operation is unavailable. operation is unavailable.
Parameters: Parameters:
p The provider instance that should be used whenever support is p: The provider instance that should be used whenever
needed for mech. support is needed for mech.
mech The mechanism for which the provider is being set mech: The mechanism for which the provider is being set.
7.1.19. Example Code 7.1.19. Example Code
Suppose an application desired that when a mechanism of Oid m1 is Suppose an application desired that when a mechanism of Oid m1 is
needed the system default providers always be checked first, and only needed, the system default providers always be checked first, and
when they do not support m1 should a provider A be checked. It would only when they do not support m1 should a provider A be checked. It
then make the call: would then make the call:
GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance(); GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance();
mgr.addProviderAtEnd(A, m1); mgr.addProviderAtEnd(A, m1);
Now, if it also desired that for all mechanisms the provider B be Now, if it also desired that for all mechanisms the provider B be
checked after all configured providers have been checked, it would checked after all configured providers have been checked, it would
then call: then call:
mgr.addProviderAtEnd(B, null); mgr.addProviderAtEnd(B, null);
Effectively the list of preferences now becomes {..., (A, m1), (B, Effectively, the list of preferences now becomes {..., (A, m1), (B,
null)}. null)}.
Suppose at a later time the following call is made to the same Suppose, at a later time, the following call is made to the same
GSSManager instance: GSSManager instance:
mgr.addProviderAtEnd(B, m2) mgr.addProviderAtEnd(B, m2)
then the previous setting with the pair (B, null) subsumes this and then the previous setting with the pair (B, null) subsumes this;
therefore this request should be ignored. The same would happen if a therefore, this request should be ignored. The same would happen if
request is made for the already existing pairs of (A, m1) or (B, a request is made for the already existing pairs of (A, m1) or (B,
null). null).
Please note, however, that the following call: Please note, however, that the following call:
mgr.addProviderAtEnd(A, null) mgr.addProviderAtEnd(A, null)
is not subsumed by the previous setting of (A, m1) and the list will is not subsumed by the previous setting of (A, m1) and the list will
effectively become {..., (A, m1), (B, null), (A, null)} effectively become {..., (A, m1), (B, null), (A, null)}.
7.2. public interface GSSName 7.2. public interface GSSName
This interface encapsulates a single GSS-API principal entity. This interface encapsulates a single GSS-API principal entity.
Different name formats and their definitions are identified with Different name formats and their definitions are identified with
universal Object Identifiers (Oids). The format of the names can be Universal Object Identifiers (Oids). The format of the names can be
derived based on the unique oid of its namespace type. derived based on the unique oid of its namespace type.
7.2.1. Example Code 7.2.1. Example Code
Included below are code examples utilizing the GSSName interface. Included below are code examples utilizing the GSSName interface.
The code below creates a GSSName, converts it to a mechanism name The code below creates a GSSName, converts it to a mechanism name
(MN), performs a comparison, obtains a printable representation of (MN), performs a comparison, obtains a printable representation of
the name, exports it and then re-imports to obtain a new GSSName. the name, exports it and then re-imports to obtain a new GSSName.
GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance(); GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance();
// create a host based service name // create a host-based service name
GSSName name = mgr.createName("service@host", GSSName name = mgr.createName("service@host",
GSSName.NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE); GSSName.NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE);
Oid krb5 = new Oid("1.2.840.113554.1.2.2"); Oid krb5 = new Oid("1.2.840.113554.1.2.2");
GSSName mechName = name.canonicalize(krb5); GSSName mechName = name.canonicalize(krb5);
// the above two steps are equivalent to the following // the above two steps are equivalent to the following
GSSName mechName = mgr.createName("service@host", GSSName mechName = mgr.createName("service@host",
GSSName.NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE, krb5); GSSName.NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE, krb5);
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public static final Oid NT_USER_NAME public static final Oid NT_USER_NAME
Name type to indicate a named user on a local system. It represents Name type to indicate a named user on a local system. It represents
the following value: { iso(1) member-body(2) United States(840) the following value: { iso(1) member-body(2) United States(840)
mit(113554) infosys(1) gssapi(2) generic(1) user_name(1) } mit(113554) infosys(1) gssapi(2) generic(1) user_name(1) }
public static final Oid NT_MACHINE_UID_NAME public static final Oid NT_MACHINE_UID_NAME
Name type to indicate a numeric user identifier corresponding to a Name type to indicate a numeric user identifier corresponding to a
user on a local system. (e.g. Uid). It represents the following user on a local system (e.g., Uid). It represents the following
value: { iso(1) member-body(2) United States(840) mit(113554) value: { iso(1) member-body(2) United States(840) mit(113554)
infosys(1) gssapi(2) generic(1) machine_uid_name(2) } infosys(1) gssapi(2) generic(1) machine_uid_name(2) }
public static final Oid NT_STRING_UID_NAME public static final Oid NT_STRING_UID_NAME
Name type to indicate a string of digits representing the numeric Name type to indicate a string of digits representing the numeric
user identifier of a user on a local system. It represents the user identifier of a user on a local system. It represents the
following value: { iso(1) member-body(2) United States(840) following value: { iso(1) member-body(2) United States(840)
mit(113554) infosys(1) gssapi(2) generic(1) string_uid_name(3) } mit(113554) infosys(1) gssapi(2) generic(1) string_uid_name(3) }
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public boolean equals(GSSName another) throws GSSException public boolean equals(GSSName another) throws GSSException
Compares two GSSName objects to determine whether they refer to the Compares two GSSName objects to determine whether they refer to the
same entity. This method may throw a GSSException when the names same entity. This method may throw a GSSException when the names
cannot be compared. If either of the names represents an anonymous cannot be compared. If either of the names represents an anonymous
entity, the method will return "false". entity, the method will return "false".
Parameters: Parameters:
another GSSName object to compare with. another: GSSName object with which to compare.
7.2.4. equals 7.2.4. equals
public boolean equals(Object another) public boolean equals(Object another)
A variation of the equals method described in 7.2.3 that is provided A variation of the equals method, described in section 7.2.3, that
to override the Object.equals() method that the implementing class is provided to override the Object.equals() method that the
will inherit. The behavior is exactly the same as that in 7.2.3 implementing class will inherit. The behavior is exactly the same
except that no GSSException is thrown; instead, false will be as that in section 7.2.3 except that no GSSException is thrown;
returned in the situation where an error occurs. (Note that the Java instead, "false" will be returned in the situation where an error
language specification requires that two objects that are equal occurs. (Note that the Java language specification requires that
according to the equals(Object) method must return the same integer two objects that are equal according to the equals(Object) method
result when the hashCode() method is called on them.) must return the same integer result when the hashCode() method is
called on them.)
Parameters: Parameters:
another GSSName object to compare with. another: GSSName object with which to compare.
7.2.5. canonicalize 7.2.5. canonicalize
public GSSName canonicalize(Oid mech) throws GSSException public GSSName canonicalize(Oid mech) throws GSSException
Creates a mechanism name (MN) from an arbitrary internal name. This Creates a mechanism name (MN) from an arbitrary internal name.
is equivalent to using the factory methods described in 7.1.8 or This is equivalent to using the factory methods described in
7.1.9 that take the mechanism name as one of their parameters. sections 7.1.8 or 7.1.9 that take the mechanism name as one of
their parameters.
Parameters: Parameters:
mech The oid for the mechanism for which the canonical form of the mech: The oid for the mechanism for which the canonical
name is requested. form of the name is requested.
7.2.6. export 7.2.6. export
public byte[] export() throws GSSException public byte[] export() throws GSSException
Returns a canonical contiguous byte representation of a mechanism Returns a canonical contiguous byte representation of a mechanism
name (MN), suitable for direct, byte by byte comparison by name (MN), suitable for direct, byte-by-byte comparison by
authorization functions. If the name is not an MN, implementations authorization functions. If the name is not an MN, implementations
may throw a GSSException with the NAME_NOT_MN status code. If an may throw a GSSException with the NAME_NOT_MN status code. If an
implementation chooses not to throw an exception, it should use some implementation chooses not to throw an exception, it should use some
system specific default mechanism to canonicalize the name and then system-specific default mechanism to canonicalize the name and then
export it. The format of the header of the output buffer is export it. The format of the header of the output buffer is
specified in RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE]. specified in RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE].
7.2.7. toString 7.2.7. toString
public String toString() public String toString()
Returns a textual representation of the GSSName object. To retrieve Returns a textual representation of the GSSName object. To retrieve
the printed name format, which determines the syntax of the returned the printed name format, which determines the syntax of the returned
string, the getStringNameType method can be used. string, the getStringNameType method can be used.
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public boolean isMN() public boolean isMN()
Tests if this name object contains only one mechanism element and is Tests if this name object contains only one mechanism element and is
thus a mechanism name as defined by RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE]. thus a mechanism name as defined by RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE].
7.3. public interface GSSCredential implements Cloneable 7.3. public interface GSSCredential implements Cloneable
This interface encapsulates the GSS-API credentials for an entity. A This interface encapsulates the GSS-API credentials for an entity. A
credential contains all the necessary cryptographic information to credential contains all the necessary cryptographic information to
enable the creation of a context on behalf of the entity that it enable the creation of a context on behalf of the entity that it
represents. It may contain multiple, distinct, mechanism specific represents. It may contain multiple, distinct, mechanism-specific
credential elements, each containing information for a specific credential elements, each containing information for a specific
security mechanism, but all referring to the same entity. security mechanism, but all referring to the same entity.
A credential may be used to perform context initiation, acceptance, A credential may be used to perform context initiation, acceptance,
or both. or both.
GSS-API implementations must impose a local access-control policy on GSS-API implementations must impose a local access-control policy on
callers to prevent unauthorized callers from acquiring credentials to callers to prevent unauthorized callers from acquiring credentials to
which they are not entitled. GSS-API credential creation is not which they are not entitled. GSS-API credential creation is not
intended to provide a "login to the network" function, as such a intended to provide a "login to the network" function, as such a
function would involve the creation of new credentials rather than function would involve the creation of new credentials rather than
merely acquiring a handle to existing credentials. Such functions, merely acquiring a handle to existing credentials. Such functions,
if required, should be defined in implementation-specific extensions if required, should be defined in implementation-specific extensions
to the API. to the API.
If credential acquisition is time-consuming for a mechanism, the If credential acquisition is time-consuming for a mechanism, the
mechanism may choose to delay the actual acquisition until the mechanism may choose to delay the actual acquisition until the
credential is required (e.g. by GSSContext). Such mechanism- credential is required (e.g., by GSSContext). Such mechanism-
specific implementation decisions should be invisible to the calling specific implementation decisions should be invisible to the calling
application; thus the query methods immediately following the application; thus, the query methods immediately following the
creation of a credential object must return valid credential data, creation of a credential object must return valid credential data,
and may therefore incur the overhead of a deferred credential and may therefore incur the overhead of a deferred credential
acquisition. acquisition.
Applications will create a credential object passing the desired Applications will create a credential object passing the desired
parameters. The application can then use the query methods to obtain parameters. The application can then use the query methods to obtain
specific information about the instantiated credential object specific information about the instantiated credential object
(equivalent to the gss_inquire routines). When the credential is no (equivalent to the gss_inquire routines). When the credential is no
longer needed, the application should call the dispose (equivalent to longer needed, the application should call the dispose (equivalent to
gss_release_cred) method to release any resources held by the gss_release_cred) method to release any resources held by the
credential object and to destroy any cryptographically sensitive credential object and to destroy any cryptographically sensitive
information. information.
Classes implementing this interface also implement the Cloneable Classes implementing this interface also implement the Cloneable
interface. This indicates the the class will support the clone() interface. This indicates that the class will support the clone()
method that will allow the creation of duplicate credentials. This method that will allow the creation of duplicate credentials. This
is useful when called just before the add() call to retain a copy of is useful when called just before the add() call to retain a copy of
the original credential. the original credential.
7.3.1. Example Code 7.3.1. Example Code
This example code demonstrates the creation of a GSSCredential This example code demonstrates the creation of a GSSCredential
implementation for a specific entity, querying of its fields, and its implementation for a specific entity, querying of its fields, and its
release when it is no longer needed. release when it is no longer needed.
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credential is no longer needed to minimize the time any sensitive credential is no longer needed to minimize the time any sensitive
information is maintained. information is maintained.
7.3.4. getName 7.3.4. getName
public GSSName getName() throws GSSException public GSSName getName() throws GSSException
Retrieves the name of the entity that the credential asserts. Retrieves the name of the entity that the credential asserts.
7.3.5. getName 7.3.5. getName
public GSSName getName(Oid mechOID) throws GSSException public GSSName getName(Oid mechOID) throws GSSException
Retrieves a mechanism name of the entity that the credential asserts. Retrieves a mechanism name of the entity that the credential asserts.
Equivalent to calling canonicalize() on the name returned by 7.3.4. Equivalent to calling canonicalize() on the name returned by section
7.3.4.
Parameters: Parameters:
mechOID The mechanism for which information should be returned. mechOID: The mechanism for which information should be
returned.
7.3.6. getRemainingLifetime 7.3.6. getRemainingLifetime
public int getRemainingLifetime() throws GSSException public int getRemainingLifetime() throws GSSException
Returns the remaining lifetime in seconds for a credential. The Returns the remaining lifetime in seconds for a credential. The
remaining lifetime is the minimum lifetime for any of the underlying remaining lifetime is the minimum lifetime for any of the underlying
credential mechanisms. A return value of credential mechanisms. A return value of
GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME indicates that the credential does GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME indicates that the credential does
not expire. A return value of 0 indicates that the credential is not expire. A return value of 0 indicates that the credential is
already expired. already expired.
7.3.7. getRemainingInitLifetime 7.3.7. getRemainingInitLifetime
public int getRemainingInitLifetime(Oid mech) throws GSSException public int getRemainingInitLifetime(Oid mech) throws GSSException
Returns the remaining lifetime is seconds for the credential to Returns the remaining lifetime in seconds for the credential to
remain capable of initiating security contexts under the specified remain capable of initiating security contexts under the specified
mechanism. A return value of GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME mechanism. A return value of GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME
indicates that the credential does not expire for context initiation. indicates that the credential does not expire for context initiation.
A return value of 0 indicates that the credential is already expired. A return value of 0 indicates that the credential is already expired.
Parameters: Parameters:
mechOID The mechanism for which information should be returned. mechOID: The mechanism for which information should be
returned.
7.3.8. getRemainingAcceptLifetime 7.3.8. getRemainingAcceptLifetime
public int getRemainingAcceptLifetime(Oid mech) throws GSSException public int getRemainingAcceptLifetime(Oid mech) throws GSSException
Returns the remaining lifetime is seconds for the credential to Returns the remaining lifetime in seconds for the credential to
remain capable of accepting security contexts under the specified remain capable of accepting security contexts under the specified
mechanism. A return value of GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME mechanism. A return value of GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME
indicates that the credential does not expire for context acceptance. indicates that the credential does not expire for context acceptance.
A return value of 0 indicates that the credential is already expired. A return value of 0 indicates that the credential is already expired.
Parameters: Parameters:
mechOID The mechanism for which information should be returned. mechOID: The mechanism for which information should be
returned.
7.3.9. getUsage 7.3.9. getUsage
public int getUsage() throws GSSException public int getUsage() throws GSSException
Returns the credential usage flag as a union over all mechanisms. Returns the credential usage flag as a union over all mechanisms.
The return value will be one of GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0), The return value will be one of GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0),
GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), or GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2). GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), or GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2).
7.3.10. getUsage 7.3.10. getUsage
public int getUsage(Oid mechOID) throws GSSException public int getUsage(Oid mechOID) throws GSSException
Returns the credential usage flag for the specified mechanism only. Returns the credential usage flag for the specified mechanism only.
The return value will be one of GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0), The return value will be one of GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0),
GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), or GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2). GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), or GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2).
Parameters: Parameters:
mechOID The mechanism for which information should be returned. mechOID: The mechanism for which information should be
returned.
7.3.11. getMechs 7.3.11. getMechs
public Oid[] getMechs() throws GSSException public Oid[] getMechs() throws GSSException
Returns an array of mechanisms supported by this credential. Returns an array of mechanisms supported by this credential.
7.3.12. add 7.3.12. add
public void add(GSSName aName, int initLifetime, int acceptLifetime, public void add(GSSName aName, int initLifetime, int acceptLifetime,
Oid mech, int usage) throws GSSException Oid mech, int usage) throws GSSException
Adds a mechanism specific credential-element to an existing Adds a mechanism-specific credential-element to an existing
credential. This method allows the construction of credentials one credential. This method allows the construction of credentials one
mechanism at a time. mechanism at a time.
This routine is envisioned to be used mainly by context acceptors This routine is envisioned to be used mainly by context acceptors
during the creation of acceptance credentials which are to be used during the creation of acceptance credentials, which are to be used
with a variety of clients using different security mechanisms. with a variety of clients using different security mechanisms.
This routine adds the new credential element "in-place". To add the This routine adds the new credential element "in-place". To add the
element in a new credential, first call clone() to obtain a copy of element in a new credential, first call clone() to obtain a copy of
this credential, then call its add() method. this credential, then call its add() method.
Parameters: Parameters:
aName Name of the principal for whom this credential is to be aName: Name of the principal for whom this credential
acquired. Use "null" to specify the default principal. is to be acquired. Use "null" to specify the
default principal.
initLifetime The number of seconds that credentials should remain initLifetime: The number of seconds that credentials should
valid for initiating of security contexts. Use remain valid for initiating of security
GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME to request that the credentials contexts. Use
have the maximum permitted lifetime. Use GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME to request
GSSCredential.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request default credential that the credentials have the maximum permitted
lifetime. lifetime. Use GSSCredential.DEFAULT_LIFETIME
to request default credential lifetime.
acceptLifetime The number of seconds that credentials should acceptLifetime: The number of seconds that credentials should
remain valid for accepting of security contexts. Use remain valid for accepting of security
GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME to request that the credentials contexts.
have the maximum permitted lifetime. Use
GSSCredential.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request default credential
lifetime.
mech The mechanisms over which the credential is to be acquired. Use GSSCredential.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME to
request that the credentials have the maximum
permitted lifetime. Use
GSSCredential.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request
default credential lifetime.
mech: The mechanisms over which the credential is to
be acquired.
usage: The intended usage for this credential object.
The value of this parameter must be one of:
usage The intended usage for this credential object. The value of
this parameter must be one of:
GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0), GSSCredential.INITIATE_AND_ACCEPT(0),
GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2) GSSCredential.INITIATE_ONLY(1), or
GSSCredential.ACCEPT_ONLY(2)
7.3.13. equals 7.3.13. equals
public boolean equals(Object another) public boolean equals(Object another)
Tests if this GSSCredential refers to the same entity as the supplied Tests if this GSSCredential refers to the same entity as the supplied
object. The two credentials must be acquired over the same object. The two credentials must be acquired over the same
mechanisms and must refer to the same principal. Returns "true" if mechanisms and must refer to the same principal. Returns "true" if
the two GSSCredentials refer to the same entity; "false" otherwise. the two GSSCredentials refer to the same entity; "false" otherwise.
(Note that the Java language specification [JLS] requires that two (Note that the Java language specification [JLS] requires that two
objects that are equal according to the equals(Object) method must objects that are equal according to the equals(Object) method must
return the same integer result when the hashCode() method is called return the same integer result when the hashCode() method is called
on them.) on them.)
Parameters: Parameters:
another Another GSSCredential object for comparison. another: Another GSSCredential object for comparison.
7.4. public interface GSSContext 7.4. public interface GSSContext
This interface encapsulates the GSS-API security context and provides This interface encapsulates the GSS-API security context and provides
the security services (wrap, unwrap, getMIC, verifyMIC) that are the security services (wrap, unwrap, getMIC, verifyMIC) that are
available over the context. Security contexts are established available over the context. Security contexts are established
between peers using locally acquired credentials. Multiple contexts between peers using locally acquired credentials. Multiple contexts
may exist simultaneously between a pair of peers, using the same or may exist simultaneously between a pair of peers, using the same or
different set of credentials. GSS-API functions in a manner different set of credentials. GSS-API functions in a manner
independent of the underlying transport protocol and depends on its independent of the underlying transport protocol and depends on its
calling application to transport its tokens between peers. calling application to transport its tokens between peers.
Before the context establishment phase is initiated, the context Before the context establishment phase is initiated, the context
initiator may request specific characteristics desired of the initiator may request specific characteristics desired of the
established context. These can be set using the set methods. After established context. These can be set using the set methods. After
the context is established, the caller can check the actual the context is established, the caller can check the actual
characteristic and services offered by the context using the query characteristic and services offered by the context using the query
methods. methods.
The context establishment phase begins with the first call to the The context establishment phase begins with the first call to the
init method by the context initiator. During this phase the init method by the context initiator. During this phase, the
initSecContext and acceptSecContext methods will produce GSS-API initSecContext and acceptSecContext methods will produce GSS-API
authentication tokens which the calling application needs to send to authentication tokens, which the calling application needs to send to
its peer. If an error occurs at any point, an exception will get its peer. If an error occurs at any point, an exception will get
thrown and the code will start executing in a catch block. If not, thrown and the code will start executing in a catch block. If not,
the normal flow of code continues and the application can make a call the normal flow of code continues and the application can make a call
to the isEstablished() method. If this method returns false it to the isEstablished() method. If this method returns "false" it
indicates that a token is needed from its peer in order to continue indicates that a token is needed from its peer in order to continue
the context establishment phase. A return value of true signals that the context establishment phase. A return value of "true" signals
the local end of the context is established. This may still require that the local end of the context is established. This may still
that a token be sent to the peer, if one is produced by GSS-API. require that a token be sent to the peer, if one is produced by GSS-
During the context establishment phase, the isProtReady() method may API. During the context establishment phase, the isProtReady()
be called to determine if the context can be used for the per-message method may be called to determine if the context can be used for the
operations. This allows applications to use per-message operations per-message operations. This allows applications to use per-message
on contexts which aren't fully established. operations on contexts that aren't fully established.
After the context has been established or the isProtReady() method After the context has been established or the isProtReady() method
returns "true", the query routines can be invoked to determine the returns "true", the query routines can be invoked to determine the
actual characteristics and services of the established context. The actual characteristics and services of the established context. The
application can also start using the per-message methods of wrap and application can also start using the per-message methods of wrap and
getMIC to obtain cryptographic operations on application supplied getMIC to obtain cryptographic operations on application supplied
data. data.
When the context is no longer needed, the application should call When the context is no longer needed, the application should call
dispose to release any system resources the context may be using. dispose to release any system resources the context may be using.
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instantiation, setting of desired flags, context establishment, query instantiation, setting of desired flags, context establishment, query
of actual context flags, per-message operations on application data, of actual context flags, per-message operations on application data,
and finally context deletion. and finally context deletion.
GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance(); GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance();
// start by creating the name for a service entity // start by creating the name for a service entity
GSSName targetName = mgr.createName("service@host", GSSName targetName = mgr.createName("service@host",
GSSName.NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE); GSSName.NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE);
// create a context using default credentials for the above entity // create a context using default credentials for the above entity
// and the implementation specific default mechanism // and the implementation-specific default mechanism
GSSContext context = mgr.createContext(targetName, GSSContext context = mgr.createContext(targetName,
null, /* default mechanism */ null, /* default mechanism */
null, /* default credentials */ null, /* default credentials */
GSSContext.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME); GSSContext.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME);
// set desired context options - all others are false by default // set desired context options - all others are "false" by default
context.requestConf(true); context.requestConf(true);
context.requestMutualAuth(true); context.requestMutualAuth(true);
context.requestReplayDet(true); context.requestReplayDet(true);
context.requestSequenceDet(true); context.requestSequenceDet(true);
// establish a context between peers - using byte arrays // establish a context between peers - using byte arrays
byte[]inTok = new byte[0]; byte[]inTok = new byte[0];
try { try {
do { do {
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print("Context mechanism = " + context.getMech().toString()); print("Context mechanism = " + context.getMech().toString());
print("Initiator = " + context.getSrcName().toString()); print("Initiator = " + context.getSrcName().toString());
print("Acceptor = " + context.getTargName().toString()); print("Acceptor = " + context.getTargName().toString());
if (context.getConfState()) if (context.getConfState())
print("Confidentiality security service available"); print("Confidentiality security service available");
if (context.getIntegState()) if (context.getIntegState())
print("Integrity security service available"); print("Integrity security service available");
// perform wrap on an application supplied message, appMsg, // perform wrap on an application-supplied message, appMsg,
// using QOP = 0, and requesting privacy service // using QOP = 0, and requesting privacy service
byte[] appMsg ... byte[] appMsg ...
MessageProp mProp = new MessageProp(0, true); MessageProp mProp = new MessageProp(0, true);
byte[] tok = context.wrap(appMsg, 0, appMsg.length, mProp); byte[] tok = context.wrap(appMsg, 0, appMsg.length, mProp);
if (mProp.getPrivacy()) if (mProp.getPrivacy())
print("Message protected with privacy."); print("Message protected with privacy.");
sendToken(tok); sendToken(tok);
// release the local-end of the context // release the local end of the context
context.dispose(); context.dispose();
7.4.2. Static Constants 7.4.2. Static Constants
public static final int DEFAULT_LIFETIME public static final int DEFAULT_LIFETIME
A lifetime constant representing the default context lifetime. The A lifetime constant representing the default context lifetime. The
value of this constant is 0. value of this constant is 0.
public static final int INDEFINITE_LIFETIME public static final int INDEFINITE_LIFETIME
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A lifetime constant representing indefinite context lifetime. The A lifetime constant representing indefinite context lifetime. The
value of this constant is the maximum integer value in Java - value of this constant is the maximum integer value in Java -
Integer.MAX_VALUE. Integer.MAX_VALUE.
7.4.3. initSecContext 7.4.3. initSecContext
public byte[] initSecContext(byte[] inputBuf, int offset, int len) public byte[] initSecContext(byte[] inputBuf, int offset, int len)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Called by the context initiator to start the context creation Called by the context initiator to start the context creation
process. This is equivalent to the stream based method except that process. This is equivalent to the stream-based method except that
the token buffers are handled as byte arrays instead of using stream the token buffers are handled as byte arrays instead of using stream
objects. This method may return an output token which the objects. This method may return an output token that the application
application will need to send to the peer for processing by the will need to send to the peer for processing by the accept call.
accept call. Typically, the application would do so by calling the Typically, the application would do so by calling the flush() method
flush() method on an OutputStream that encapsulates the connection on an OutputStream that encapsulates the connection between the two
between the two peers. The application can call isEstablished() to peers. The application can call isEstablished() to determine if the
determine if the context establishment phase is complete for this context establishment phase is complete for this peer. A return
peer. A return value of "false" from isEstablished() indicates that value of "false" from isEstablished() indicates that more tokens are
more tokens are expected to be supplied to the initSecContext() expected to be supplied to the initSecContext() method. Note that it
method. Note that it is possible that the initSecContext() method is possible that the initSecContext() method will return a token for
return a token for the peer, and isEstablished() return "true" also. the peer and isEstablished() will return "true" also. This indicates
This indicates that the token needs to be sent to the peer, but the that the token needs to be sent to the peer, but the local end of the
local end of the context is now fully established. context is now fully established.
Upon completion of the context establishment, the available context Upon completion of the context establishment, the available context
options may be queried through the get methods. options may be queried through the get methods.
Parameters: Parameters:
inputBuf Token generated by the peer. This parameter is ignored inputBuf: Token generated by the peer. This parameter is
on the first call. ignored on the first call.
offset The offset within the inputBuf where the token begins. offset: The offset within the inputBuf where the token
begins.
len The length of the token within the inputBuf (starting at the len: The length of the token within the inputBuf
offset). (starting at the offset).
7.4.4. Example Code 7.4.4. Example Code
// Create a new GSSContext implementation object. // Create a new GSSContext implementation object.
// GSSContext wrapper implements interface GSSContext. // GSSContext wrapper implements interface GSSContext.
GSSContext context = mgr.createContext(...); GSSContext context = mgr.createContext(...);
byte[] inTok = new byte[0]; byte[] inTok = new byte[0];
try { try {
skipping to change at page 56, line 4 skipping to change at page 58, line 6
// another token expected from peer // another token expected from peer
inTok = readToken(); inTok = readToken();
} while (true); } while (true);
} catch (GSSException e) { } catch (GSSException e) {
print("GSSAPI error: " + e.getMessage()); print("GSSAPI error: " + e.getMessage());
} }
7.4.5. initSecContext 7.4.5. initSecContext
public int initSecContext(InputStream inStream, public int initSecContext(InputStream inStream,
OutputStream outStream) throws GSSException OutputStream outStream) throws GSSException
Called by the context initiator to start the context creation Called by the context initiator to start the context creation
process. This is equivalent to the byte array based method. This process. This is equivalent to the byte-array-based method. This
method may write an output token to the outStream, which the method may write an output token to the outStream, which the
application will need to send to the peer for processing by the application will need to send to the peer for processing by the
accept call. Typically, the application would do so by calling the accept call. Typically, the application would do so by calling the
flush() method on an OutputStream that encapsulates the connection flush() method on an OutputStream that encapsulates the connection
between the two peers. The application can call isEstablished() to between the two peers. The application can call isEstablished() to
determine if the context establishment phase is complete for this determine if the context establishment phase is complete for this
peer. A return value of "false" from isEstablished indicates that peer. A return value of "false" from isEstablished indicates that
more tokens are expected to be supplied to the initSecContext method. more tokens are expected to be supplied to the initSecContext method.
Note that it is possible that the initSecContext() method return a Note that it is possible that the initSecContext() method will return
token for the peer, and isEstablished() return "true" also. This a token for the peer and isEstablished() will return "true" also.
indicates that the token needs to be sent to the peer, but the local This indicates that the token needs to be sent to the peer, but the
end of the context is now fully established. local end of the context is now fully established.
The GSS-API authentication tokens contain a definitive start and end. The GSS-API authentication tokens contain a definitive start and end.
This method will attempt to read one of these tokens per invocation, This method will attempt to read one of these tokens per invocation,
and may block on the stream if only part of the token is available. and may block on the stream if only part of the token is available.
Upon completion of the context establishment, the available context Upon completion of the context establishment, the available context
options may be queried through the get methods. options may be queried through the get methods.
Parameters: Parameters:
inStream Contains the token generated by the peer. This parameter inStream: Contains the token generated by the peer. This
is ignored on the first call. parameter is ignored on the first call.
outStream Output stream where the output token will be written. outStream: Output stream where the output token will be
During the final stage of context establishment, there may be no written. During the final stage of context
bytes written. establishment, there may be no bytes written.
7.4.6. Example Code 7.4.6. Example Code
This sample code merely demonstrates the token exchange during the This sample code merely demonstrates the token exchange during the
context establishment phase. It is expected that most Java context establishment phase. It is expected that most Java
applications will use custom implementations of the Input and Output applications will use custom implementations of the Input and Output
streams that encapsulate the communication routines. For instance, a streams that encapsulate the communication routines. For instance, a
simple read on the application InputStream, when called by the simple read on the application InputStream, when called by the
Context, might cause a token to be read from the peer, and a simple Context, might cause a token to be read from the peer, and a simple
flush() on the application OutputStream might cause a previously flush() on the application OutputStream might cause a previously
skipping to change at page 57, line 35 skipping to change at page 59, line 39
} catch (GSSException e) { } catch (GSSException e) {
print("GSSAPI error: " + e.getMessage()); print("GSSAPI error: " + e.getMessage());
} }
7.4.7. acceptSecContext 7.4.7. acceptSecContext
public byte[] acceptSecContext(byte[] inTok, int offset, int len) public byte[] acceptSecContext(byte[] inTok, int offset, int len)
throws GSSException throws GSSException
Called by the context acceptor upon receiving a token from the peer. Called by the context acceptor upon receiving a token from the peer.
This call is equivalent to the stream based method except that the This call is equivalent to the stream-based method except that the
token buffers are handled as byte arrays instead of using stream token buffers are handled as byte arrays instead of using stream
objects. objects.
This method may return an output token which the application will This method may return an output token that the application will need
need to send to the peer for further processing by the init call. to send to the peer for further processing by the init call.
"null" return value indicates that no token needs to be sent to the The "null" return value indicates that no token needs to be sent to
peer. The application can call isEstablished() to determine if the the peer. The application can call isEstablished() to determine if
context establishment phase is complete for this peer. A return the context establishment phase is complete for this peer. A return
value of "false" from isEstablished() indicates that more tokens are value of "false" from isEstablished() indicates that more tokens are
expected to be supplied to this method. expected to be supplied to this method.
Note that it is possible that acceptSecContext() return a token for Note that it is possible that acceptSecContext() will return a token
the peer, and isEstablished() return "true" also. This indicates for the peer and isEstablished() will return "true" also. This
that the token needs to be sent to the peer, but the local end of the indicates that the token needs to be sent to the peer, but the local
context is now fully established. end of the context is now fully established.
Upon completion of the context establishment, the available context Upon completion of the context establishment, the available context
options may be queried through the get methods. options may be queried through the get methods.
Parameters: Parameters:
inTok Token generated by the peer. inTok: Token generated by the peer.
offset The offset within the inTok where the token begins. offset: The offset within the inTok where the token begins.
len The length of the token within the inTok (starting at the len: The length of the token within the inTok (starting
offset). at the offset).
7.4.8. Example Code 7.4.8. Example Code
// acquire server credentials // acquire server credentials
GSSCredential server = mgr.createCredential(...); GSSCredential server = mgr.createCredential(...);
// create acceptor GSS-API context from the default provider // create acceptor GSS-API context from the default provider
GSSContext context = mgr.createContext(server, null); GSSContext context = mgr.createContext(server, null);
try { try {
skipping to change at page 59, line 12 skipping to change at page 61, line 21
This call is equivalent to the byte array method. It may write an This call is equivalent to the byte array method. It may write an
output token to the outStream, which the application will need to output token to the outStream, which the application will need to
send to the peer for processing by its initSecContext method. send to the peer for processing by its initSecContext method.
Typically, the application would do so by calling the flush() method Typically, the application would do so by calling the flush() method
on an OutputStream that encapsulates the connection between the two on an OutputStream that encapsulates the connection between the two
peers. The application can call isEstablished() to determine if the peers. The application can call isEstablished() to determine if the
context establishment phase is complete for this peer. A return context establishment phase is complete for this peer. A return
value of "false" from isEstablished() indicates that more tokens are value of "false" from isEstablished() indicates that more tokens are
expected to be supplied to this method. expected to be supplied to this method.
Note that it is possible that acceptSecContext() return a token for Note that it is possible that acceptSecContext() will return a token
the peer, and isEstablished() return "true" also. This indicates for the peer and isEstablished() will return "true" also. This
that the token needs to be sent to the peer, but the local end of the indicates that the token needs to be sent to the peer, but the local
context is now fully established. end of the context is now fully established.
The GSS-API authentication tokens contain a definitive start and end. The GSS-API authentication tokens contain a definitive start and end.
This method will attempt to read one of these tokens per invocation, This method will attempt to read one of these tokens per invocation,
and may block on the stream if only part of the token is available. and may block on the stream if only part of the token is available.
Upon completion of the context establishment, the available context Upon completion of the context establishment, the available context
options may be queried through the get methods. options may be queried through the get methods.
Parameters: Parameters:
inStream Contains the token generated by the peer. inStream: Contains the token generated by the peer.
outStream Output stream where the output token will be written. outStream: Output stream where the output token will be
During the final stage of context establishment, there may be no written. During the final stage of context
bytes written. establishment, there may be no bytes written.
7.4.10. Example Code 7.4.10. Example Code
This sample code merely demonstrates the token exchange during the This sample code merely demonstrates the token exchange during the
context establishment phase. It is expected that most Java context establishment phase. It is expected that most Java
applications will use custom implementations of the Input and Output applications will use custom implementations of the Input and Output
streams that encapsulate the communication routines. For instance, a streams that encapsulate the communication routines. For instance, a
simple read on the application InputStream, when called by the simple read on the application InputStream, when called by the
Context, might cause a token to be read from the peer, and a simple Context, might cause a token to be read from the peer, and a simple
flush() on the application OutputStream might cause a previously flush() on the application OutputStream might cause a previously
skipping to change at page 61, line 21 skipping to change at page 63, line 33
Successful completion of this call does not guarantee that wrap will Successful completion of this call does not guarantee that wrap will
be able to protect a message of the computed length, since this be able to protect a message of the computed length, since this
ability may depend on the availability of system resources at the ability may depend on the availability of system resources at the
time that wrap is called. However, if the implementation itself time that wrap is called. However, if the implementation itself
imposes an upper limit on the length of messages that may be imposes an upper limit on the length of messages that may be
processed by wrap, the implementation should not return a value that processed by wrap, the implementation should not return a value that
is greater than this length. is greater than this length.
Parameters: Parameters:
qop Indicates the level of protection wrap will be asked to qop: Indicates the level of protection wrap will be asked
provide. to provide.
confReq Indicates if wrap will be asked to provide privacy confReq: Indicates if wrap will be asked to provide privacy
service. service.
maxTokenSize The desired maximum size of the token emitted by maxTokenSize: The desired maximum size of the token emitted by
wrap. wrap.
7.4.14. wrap 7.4.14. wrap
public byte[] wrap(byte[] inBuf, int offset, int len, public byte[] wrap(byte[] inBuf, int offset, int len,
MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException
Applies per-message security services over the established security Applies per-message security services over the established security
context. The method will return a token with a cryptographic MIC and context. The method will return a token with a cryptographic MIC and
may optionally encrypt the specified inBuf. This method is may optionally encrypt the specified inBuf. This method is
equivalent in functionality to its stream counterpart. The returned equivalent in functionality to its stream counterpart. The returned
byte array will contain both the MIC and the message. byte array will contain both the MIC and the message.
The MessageProp object is instantiated by the application and used to The MessageProp object is instantiated by the application and used to
specify a QOP value which selects cryptographic algorithms, and a specify a QOP value that selects cryptographic algorithms, and a
privacy service to optionally encrypt the message. The underlying privacy service to optionally encrypt the message. The underlying
mechanism that is used in the call may not be able to provide the mechanism that is used in the call may not be able to provide the
privacy service. It sets the actual privacy service that it does privacy service. It sets the actual privacy service that it does
provide in this MessageProp object which the caller should then query provide in this MessageProp object, which the caller should then
upon return. If the mechanism is not able to provide the requested query upon return. If the mechanism is not able to provide the
QOP, it throws a GSSException with the BAD_QOP code. requested QOP, it throws a GSSException with the BAD_QOP code.
Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
by wrap to provide "secure framing", implementations should support by wrap to provide "secure framing", implementations should support
the wrapping of zero-length messages. the wrapping of zero-length messages.
The application will be responsible for sending the token to the The application will be responsible for sending the token to the
peer. peer.
Parameters: Parameters:
inBuf Application data to be protected. inBuf: Application data to be protected.
offset The offset within the inBuf where the data begins. offset: The offset within the inBuf where the data begins.
len The length of the data within the inBuf (starting at the len: The length of the data within the inBuf (starting at
offset). the offset).
msgProp Instance of MessageProp that is used by the application to msgProp: Instance of MessageProp that is used by the
set the desired QOP and privacy state. Set the desired QOP to 0 application to set the desired QOP and privacy
to request the default QOP. Upon return from this method, this state. Set the desired QOP to 0 to request the
object will contain the the actual privacy state that was applied default QOP. Upon return from this method, this
to the message by the underlying mechanism. object will contain the actual privacy state that
was applied to the message by the underlying
mechanism.
7.4.15. wrap 7.4.15. wrap
public void wrap(InputStream inStream, OutputStream outStream, public void wrap(InputStream inStream, OutputStream outStream,
MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException
Allows to apply per-message security services over the established Allows to apply per-message security services over the established
security context. The method will produce a token with a security context. The method will produce a token with a
cryptographic MIC and may optionally encrypt the message in inStream. cryptographic MIC and may optionally encrypt the message in inStream.
The outStream will contain both the MIC and the message. The outStream will contain both the MIC and the message.
The MessageProp object is instantiated by the application and used to The MessageProp object is instantiated by the application and used to
specify a QOP value which selects cryptographic algorithms, and a specify a QOP value that selects cryptographic algorithms, and a
privacy service to optionally encrypt the message. The underlying privacy service to optionally encrypt the message. The underlying
mechanism that is used in the call may not be able to provide the mechanism that is used in the call may not be able to provide the
privacy service. It sets the actual privacy service that it does privacy service. It sets the actual privacy service that it does
provide in this MessageProp object which the caller should then query provide in this MessageProp object, which the caller should then
upon return. If the mechanism is not able to provide the requested query upon return. If the mechanism is not able to provide the
QOP, it throws a GSSException with the BAD_QOP code. requested QOP, it throws a GSSException with the BAD_QOP code.
Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
by wrap to provide "secure framing", implementations should support by wrap to provide "secure framing", implementations should support
the wrapping of zero-length messages. the wrapping of zero-length messages.
The application will be responsible for sending the token to the The application will be responsible for sending the token to the
peer. peer.
Parameters: Parameters:
inStream Input stream containing the application data to be inStream: Input stream containing the application data to be
protected. protected.
outStream The output stream to write the protected message to. outStream: The output stream to which to write the protected
The application is responsible for sending this to the other peer message. The application is responsible for sending
for processing in its unwrap method. this to the other peer for processing in its unwrap
method.
msgProp Instance of MessageProp that is used by the application to msgProp: Instance of MessageProp that is used by the
set the desired QOP and privacy state. Set the desired QOP to 0 application to set the desired QOP and privacy
to request the default QOP. Upon return from this method, this state. Set the desired QOP to 0 to request the
object will contain the the actual privacy state that was applied default QOP. Upon return from this method, this
to the message by the underlying mechanism. object will contain the actual privacy state that
was applied to the message by the underlying
mechanism.
7.4.16. unwrap 7.4.16. unwrap
public byte[] unwrap(byte[] inBuf, int offset, int len, public byte[] unwrap(byte[] inBuf, int offset, int len,
MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException
Used by the peer application to process tokens generated with the Used by the peer application to process tokens generated with the
wrap call. This call is equal in functionality to its stream wrap call. This call is equal in functionality to its stream
counterpart. The method will return the message supplied in the peer counterpart. The method will return the message supplied in the peer
application to the wrap call, verifying the embedded MIC. application to the wrap call, verifying the embedded MIC.
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by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such
as the QOP, whether confidentiality was applied to the message, and as the QOP, whether confidentiality was applied to the message, and
other supplementary message state information. other supplementary message state information.
Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
by wrap to provide "secure framing", implementations should support by wrap to provide "secure framing", implementations should support
the wrapping and unwrapping of zero-length messages. the wrapping and unwrapping of zero-length messages.
Parameters: Parameters:
inBuf GSS-API wrap token received from peer. inBuf: GSS-API wrap token received from peer.
offset The offset within the inBuf where the token begins. offset: The offset within the inBuf where the token begins.
len The length of the token within the inBuf (starting at the len: The length of the token within the inBuf (starting
offset). at the offset).
msgProp Upon return from the method, this object will contain the msgProp: Upon return from the method, this object will
applied QOP, the privacy state of the message, and supplementary contain the applied QOP, the privacy state of the
information described in 5.12.3 stating whether the token was a message, and supplementary information, described in
duplicate, old, out of sequence or arriving after a gap. section 5.12.3, stating whether the token was a
duplicate, old, out of sequence, or arriving after a
gap.
7.4.17. unwrap 7.4.17. unwrap
public void unwrap(InputStream inStream, OutputStream outStream, public void unwrap(InputStream inStream, OutputStream outStream,
MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException
Used by the peer application to process tokens generated with the Used by the peer application to process tokens generated with the
wrap call. This call is equal in functionality to its byte array wrap call. This call is equal in functionality to its byte array
counterpart. It will produce the message supplied in the peer counterpart. It will produce the message supplied in the peer
application to the wrap call, verifying the embedded MIC. application to the wrap call, verifying the embedded MIC.
The MessageProp object is instantiated by the application and is used The MessageProp object is instantiated by the application and is used
by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such
skipping to change at page 64, line 23 skipping to change at page 66, line 42
by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such
as the QOP, whether confidentiality was applied to the message, and as the QOP, whether confidentiality was applied to the message, and
other supplementary message state information. other supplementary message state information.
Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
by wrap to provide "secure framing", implementations should support by wrap to provide "secure framing", implementations should support
the wrapping and unwrapping of zero-length messages. the wrapping and unwrapping of zero-length messages.
Parameters: Parameters:
inStream Input stream containing the GSS-API wrap token received inStream: Input stream containing the GSS-API wrap token
from the peer. received from the peer.
outStream The output stream to write the application message to. outStream: The output stream to which to write the application
message.
msgProp Upon return from the method, this object will contain the msgProp: Upon return from the method, this object will
applied QOP, the privacy state of the message, and supplementary contain the applied QOP, the privacy state of the
information described in 5.12.3 stating whether the token was a message, and supplementary information, described in
duplicate, old, out of sequence or arriving after a gap. section 5.12.3, stating whether the token was a
duplicate, old, out of sequence, or arriving after a
gap.
7.4.18. getMIC 7.4.18. getMIC
public byte[] getMIC(byte[] inMsg, int offset, int len, public byte[] getMIC(byte[] inMsg, int offset, int len,
MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException
Returns a token containing a cryptographic MIC for the supplied Returns a token containing a cryptographic MIC for the supplied
message, for transfer to the peer application. Unlike wrap, which message for transfer to the peer application. Unlike wrap, which
encapsulates the user message in the returned token, only the message encapsulates the user message in the returned token, only the message
MIC is returned in the output token. This method is identical in MIC is returned in the output token. This method is identical in
functionality to its stream counterpart. functionality to its stream counterpart.
Note that privacy can only be applied through the wrap call. Note that privacy can only be applied through the wrap call.
Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
by getMIC to provide "secure framing", implementations should support by getMIC to provide "secure framing", implementations should support
derivation of MICs from zero-length messages. derivation of MICs from zero-length messages.
Parameters: Parameters:
inMsg Message to generate MIC over. inMsg: Message over which to generate MIC.
offset The offset within the inMsg where the token begins. offset: The offset within the inMsg where the token begins.
len The length of the token within the inMsg (starting at the len: The length of the token within the inMsg (starting
offset). at the offset).
msgProp Instance of MessageProp that is used by the application to msgProp: Instance of MessageProp that is used by the
set the desired QOP. Set the desired QOP to 0 in msgProp to application to set the desired QOP. Set the desired
request the default QOP. Alternatively pass in "null" for msgProp QOP to 0 in msgProp to request the default QOP.
to request default QOP. Alternatively, pass in "null" for msgProp to request
default QOP.
7.4.19. getMIC 7.4.19. getMIC
public void getMIC(InputStream inStream, OutputStream outStream, public void getMIC(InputStream inStream, OutputStream outStream,
MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException
Produces a token containing a cryptographic MIC for the supplied Produces a token containing a cryptographic MIC for the supplied
message, for transfer to the peer application. Unlike wrap, which message, for transfer to the peer application. Unlike wrap, which
encapsulates the user message in the returned token, only the message encapsulates the user message in the returned token, only the message
MIC is produced in the output token. This method is identical in MIC is produced in the output token. This method is identical in
functionality to its byte array counterpart. functionality to its byte array counterpart.
Note that privacy can only be applied through the wrap call. Note that privacy can only be applied through the wrap call.
Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
by getMIC to provide "secure framing", implementations should support by getMIC to provide "secure framing", implementations should support
derivation of MICs from zero-length messages. derivation of MICs from zero-length messages.
Parameters: Parameters:
inStream Input stream containing the message to generate MIC over. inStream: Input stream containing the message over which to
generate MIC.
outStream Output stream to write the GSS-API output token to. outStream: Output stream to which to write the GSS-API output
token.
msgProp Instance of MessageProp that is used by the application to msgProp: Instance of MessageProp that is used by the
set the desired QOP. Set the desired QOP to 0 in msgProp to application to set the desired QOP. Set the desired
request the default QOP. Alternatively pass in "null" for msgProp QOP to 0 in msgProp to request the default QOP.
to request default QOP. Alternatively, pass in "null" for msgProp to request
default QOP.
7.4.20. verifyMIC 7.4.20. verifyMIC
public void verifyMIC(byte[] inTok, int tokOffset, int tokLen, public void verifyMIC(byte[] inTok, int tokOffset, int tokLen,
byte[] inMsg, int msgOffset, int msgLen, byte[] inMsg, int msgOffset, int msgLen,
MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException
Verifies the cryptographic MIC, contained in the token parameter, Verifies the cryptographic MIC, contained in the token parameter,
over the supplied message. This method is equivalent in over the supplied message. This method is equivalent in
functionality to its stream counterpart. functionality to its stream counterpart.
skipping to change at page 66, line 17 skipping to change at page 69, line 11
by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such
as the QOP indicating the strength of protection that was applied to as the QOP indicating the strength of protection that was applied to
the message and other supplementary message state information. the message and other supplementary message state information.
Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
by getMIC to provide "secure framing", implementations should support by getMIC to provide "secure framing", implementations should support
the calculation and verification of MICs over zero-length messages. the calculation and verification of MICs over zero-length messages.
Parameters: Parameters:
inTok Token generated by peer's getMIC method. inTok: Token generated by peer's getMIC method.
tokOffset The offset within the inTok where the token begins. tokOffset: The offset within the inTok where the token begins.
tokLen The length of the token within the inTok (starting at the tokLen: The length of the token within the inTok (starting
offset). at the offset).
inMsg Application message to verify the cryptographic MIC over. inMsg: Application message over which to verify the
cryptographic MIC.
msgOffset The offset within the inMsg where the message begins. msgOffset: The offset within the inMsg where the message
begins.
msgLen The length of the message within the inMsg (starting at the msgLen: The length of the message within the inMsg (starting
offset). at the offset).
msgProp Upon return from the method, this object will contain the msgProp: Upon return from the method, this object will
applied QOP and supplementary information described in 5.12.3 contain the applied QOP and supplementary
stating whether the token was a duplicate, old, out of sequence or information, described in section 5.12.3, stating
arriving after a gap. The confidentiality state will be set to whether the token was a duplicate, old, out of
"false". sequence, or arriving after a gap. The
confidentiality state will be set to "false".
7.4.21. verifyMIC 7.4.21. verifyMIC
public void verifyMIC(InputStream tokStream, InputStream msgStream, public void verifyMIC(InputStream tokStream, InputStream msgStream,
MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException MessageProp msgProp) throws GSSException
Verifies the cryptographic MIC, contained in the token parameter, Verifies the cryptographic MIC, contained in the token parameter,
over the supplied message. This method is equivalent in over the supplied message. This method is equivalent in
functionality to its byte array counterpart. functionality to its byte array counterpart.
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by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such by the underlying mechanism to return information to the caller such
as the QOP indicating the strength of protection that was applied to as the QOP indicating the strength of protection that was applied to
the message and other supplementary message state information. the message and other supplementary message state information.
Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted Since some application-level protocols may wish to use tokens emitted
by getMIC to provide "secure framing", implementations should support by getMIC to provide "secure framing", implementations should support
the calculation and verification of MICs over zero-length messages. the calculation and verification of MICs over zero-length messages.
Parameters: Parameters:
tokStream Input stream containing the token generated by peer's tokStream: Input stream containing the token generated by the
getMIC method. peer's getMIC method.
msgStream Input stream containing the application message to msgStream: Input stream containing the application message over
verify the cryptographic MIC over. which to verify the cryptographic MIC.
msgProp Upon return from the method, this object will contain the msgProp: Upon return from the method, this object will
applied QOP and supplementary information described in 5.12.3 contain the applied QOP and supplementary
stating whether the token was a duplicate, old, out of sequence or information, described in section 5.12.3, stating
arriving after a gap. The confidentiality state will be set to whether the token was a duplicate, old, out of
"false". sequence, or arriving after a gap. The
confidentiality state will be set to "false".
7.4.22. export 7.4.22. export
public byte[] export() throws GSSException public byte[] export() throws GSSException
Provided to support the sharing of work between multiple processes. Provided to support the sharing of work between multiple processes.
This routine will typically be used by the context-acceptor, in an This routine will typically be used by the context acceptor, in an
application where a single process receives incoming connection application where a single process receives incoming connection
requests and accepts security contexts over them, then passes the requests and accepts security contexts over them, then passes the
established context to one or more other processes for message established context to one or more other processes for message
exchange. exchange.
This method deactivates the security context and creates an This method deactivates the security context and creates an inter-
interprocess token which, when passed to the byte array constructor process token which, when passed to the byte array constructor of the
of the GSSContext interface in another process, will re-activate the GSSContext interface in another process, will re-activate the context
context in the second process. Only a single instantiation of a in the second process. Only a single instantiation of a given
given context may be active at any one time; a subsequent attempt by context may be active at any one time; a subsequent attempt by a
a context exporter to access the exported security context will fail. context exporter to access the exported security context will fail.
The implementation may constrain the set of processes by which the The implementation may constrain the set of processes by which the
interprocess token may be imported, either as a function of local inter-process token may be imported, either as a function of local
security policy, or as a result of implementation decisions. For security policy, or as a result of implementation decisions. For
example, some implementations may constrain contexts to be passed example, some implementations may constrain contexts to be passed
only between processes that run under the same account, or which are only between processes that run under the same account, or which are
part of the same process group. part of the same process group.
The interprocess token may contain security-sensitive information The inter-process token may contain security-sensitive information
(for example cryptographic keys). While mechanisms are encouraged to (for example, cryptographic keys). While mechanisms are encouraged
either avoid placing such sensitive information within interprocess to either avoid placing such sensitive information within inter-
tokens, or to encrypt the token before returning it to the process tokens or to encrypt the token before returning it to the
application, in a typical GSS-API implementation this may not be application, in a typical GSS-API implementation, this may not be
possible. Thus the application must take care to protect the possible. Thus, the application must take care to protect the
interprocess token, and ensure that any process to which the token is inter-process token, and ensure that any process to which the token
transferred is trustworthy. is transferred is trustworthy.
7.4.23. requestMutualAuth 7.4.23. requestMutualAuth
public void requestMutualAuth(boolean state) throws GSSException public void requestMutualAuth(boolean state) throws GSSException
Sets the request state of the mutual authentication flag for the Sets the request state of the mutual authentication flag for the
context. This method is only valid before the context creation context. This method is only valid before the context creation
process begins and only for the initiator. process begins and only for the initiator.
Parameters: Parameters:
state Boolean representing if mutual authentication should be state: Boolean representing if mutual authentication should
requested during context establishment. be requested during context establishment.
7.4.24. requestReplayDet 7.4.24. requestReplayDet
public void requestReplayDet(boolean state) throws GSSException public void requestReplayDet(boolean state) throws GSSException
Sets the request state of the replay detection service for the Sets the request state of the replay detection service for the
context. This method is only valid before the context creation context. This method is only valid before the context creation
process begins and only for the initiator. process begins and only for the initiator.
Parameters: Parameters:
state Boolean representing if replay detection is desired over the state: Boolean representing if replay detection is desired
established context. over the established context.
7.4.25. requestSequenceDet 7.4.25. requestSequenceDet
public void requestSequenceDet(boolean state) throws GSSException public void requestSequenceDet(boolean state) throws GSSException
Sets the request state for the sequence checking service of the Sets the request state for the sequence checking service of the
context. This method is only valid before the context creation context. This method is only valid before the context creation
process begins and only for the initiator. process begins and only for the initiator.
Parameters: Parameters:
state Boolean representing if sequence detection is desired over state: Boolean representing if sequence detection is
the established context. desired over the established context.
7.4.26. requestCredDeleg 7.4.26. requestCredDeleg
public void requestCredDeleg(boolean state) throws GSSException public void requestCredDeleg(boolean state) throws GSSException
Sets the request state for the credential delegation flag for the Sets the request state for the credential delegation flag for the
context. This method is only valid before the context creation context. This method is only valid before the context creation
process begins and only for the initiator. process begins and only for the initiator.
Parameters: Parameters:
state Boolean representing if credential delegation is desired. state: Boolean representing if credential delegation is
desired.
7.4.27. requestAnonymity 7.4.27. requestAnonymity
public void requestAnonymity(boolean state) throws GSSException public void requestAnonymity(boolean state) throws GSSException
Requests anonymous support over the context. This method is only Requests anonymous support over the context. This method is only
valid before the context creation process begins and only for the valid before the context creation process begins and only for the
initiator. initiator.
Parameters: Parameters:
state Boolean representing if anonymity support is requested. state: Boolean representing if anonymity support is
requested.
7.4.28. requestConf 7.4.28. requestConf
public void requestConf(boolean state) throws GSSException public void requestConf(boolean state) throws GSSException
Requests that confidentiality service be available over the context. Requests that confidentiality service be available over the context.
This method is only valid before the context creation process begins This method is only valid before the context creation process begins
and only for the initiator. and only for the initiator.
Parameters: Parameters:
state Boolean indicating if confidentiality services are to be state: Boolean indicating if confidentiality services are
requested for the context. to be requested for the context.
7.4.29. requestInteg 7.4.29. requestInteg
public void requestInteg(boolean state) throws GSSException public void requestInteg(boolean state) throws GSSException
Requests that integrity services be available over the context. This Requests that integrity services be available over the context. This
method is only valid before the context creation process begins and method is only valid before the context creation process begins and
only for the initiator. only for the initiator.
Parameters: Parameters:
state Boolean indicating if integrity services are to be requested state: Boolean indicating if integrity services are to be
for the context. requested for the context.
7.4.30. requestLifetime 7.4.30. requestLifetime
public void requestLifetime(int lifetime) throws GSSException public void requestLifetime(int lifetime) throws GSSException
Sets the desired lifetime for the context in seconds. This method is Sets the desired lifetime for the context in seconds. This method is
only valid before the context creation process begins and only for only valid before the context creation process begins and only for
the initiator. Use GSSContext.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME and the initiator. Use GSSContext.INDEFINITE_LIFETIME and
GSSContext.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request indefinite or default context GSSContext.DEFAULT_LIFETIME to request indefinite or default context
lifetime. lifetime.
Parameters: Parameters:
lifetime The desired context lifetime in seconds. lifetime: The desired context lifetime in seconds.
7.4.31. setChannelBinding 7.4.31. setChannelBinding
public void setChannelBinding(ChannelBinding cb) throws GSSException public void setChannelBinding(ChannelBinding cb) throws GSSException
Sets the channel bindings to be used during context establishment. Sets the channel bindings to be used during context establishment.
This method is only valid before the context creation process begins. This method is only valid before the context creation process begins.
Parameters: Parameters:
cb Channel bindings to be used. cb: Channel bindings to be used.
7.4.32. getCredDelegState 7.4.32. getCredDelegState
public boolean getCredDelegState() public boolean getCredDelegState()
Returns the state of the delegated credentials for the context. When Returns the state of the delegated credentials for the context. When
issued before context establishment is completed or when the issued before context establishment is completed or when the
isProtReady method returns "false", it returns the desired state, isProtReady method returns "false", it returns the desired state;
otherwise it will indicate the actual state over the established otherwise, it will indicate the actual state over the established
context. context.
7.4.33. getMutualAuthState 7.4.33. getMutualAuthState
public boolean getMutualAuthState() public boolean getMutualAuthState()
Returns the state of the mutual authentication option for the Returns the state of the mutual authentication option for the
context. When issued before context establishment completes or when context. When issued before context establishment completes or when
the isProtReady method returns "false", it returns the desired state, the isProtReady method returns "false", it returns the desired state;
otherwise it will indicate the actual state over the established otherwise, it will indicate the actual state over the established
context. context.
7.4.34. getReplayDetState 7.4.34. getReplayDetState
public boolean getReplayDetState() public boolean getReplayDetState()
Returns the state of the replay detection option for the context. Returns the state of the replay detection option for the context.
When issued before context establishment completes or when the When issued before context establishment completes or when the
isProtReady method returns "false", it returns the desired state, isProtReady method returns "false", it returns the desired state;
otherwise it will indicate the actual state over the established otherwise, it will indicate the actual state over the established
context. context.
7.4.35. getSequenceDetState 7.4.35. getSequenceDetState
public boolean getSequenceDetState() public boolean getSequenceDetState()
Returns the state of the sequence detection option for the context. Returns the state of the sequence detection option for the context.
When issued before context establishment completes or when the When issued before context establishment completes or when the
isProtReady method returns "false", it returns the desired state, isProtReady method returns "false", it returns the desired state;
otherwise it will indicate the actual state over the established otherwise, it will indicate the actual state over the established
context. context.
7.4.36. getAnonymityState 7.4.36. getAnonymityState
public boolean getAnonymityState() public boolean getAnonymityState()
Returns "true" if this is an anonymous context. When issued before Returns "true" if this is an anonymous context. When issued before
context establishment completes or when the isProtReady method context establishment completes or when the isProtReady method
returns "false", it returns the desired state, otherwise it will returns "false", it returns the desired state; otherwise, it will
indicate the actual state over the established context. indicate the actual state over the established context.
7.4.37. isTransferable 7.4.37. isTransferable
public boolean isTransferable() throws GSSException public boolean isTransferable() throws GSSException
Returns "true" if the context is transferable to other processes Returns "true" if the context is transferable to other processes
through the use of the export method. This call is only valid on through the use of the export method. This call is only valid on
fully established contexts. fully established contexts.
7.4.38. isProtReady 7.4.38. isProtReady
public boolean isProtReady() public boolean isProtReady()
Returns "true" if the per message operations can be applied over the Returns "true" if the per-message operations can be applied over the
context. Some mechanisms may allow the usage of per-message context. Some mechanisms may allow the usage of per-message
operations before the context is fully established. This will also operations before the context is fully established. This will also
indicate that the get methods will return actual context state indicate that the get methods will return actual context state
characteristics instead of the desired ones. characteristics instead of the desired ones.
7.4.39. getConfState 7.4.39. getConfState
public boolean getConfState() public boolean getConfState()
Returns the confidentiality service state over the context. When Returns the confidentiality service state over the context. When
issued before context establishment completes or when the isProtReady issued before context establishment completes or when the isProtReady
method returns "false", it returns the desired state, otherwise it method returns "false", it returns the desired state; otherwise, it
will indicate the actual state over the established context. will indicate the actual state over the established context.
7.4.40. getIntegState 7.4.40. getIntegState
public boolean getIntegState() public boolean getIntegState()
Returns the integrity service state over the context. When issued Returns the integrity service state over the context. When issued
before context establishment completes or when the isProtReady method before context establishment completes or when the isProtReady method
returns "false", it returns the desired state, otherwise it will returns "false", it returns the desired state; otherwise, it will
indicate the actual state over the established context. indicate the actual state over the established context.
7.4.41. getLifetime 7.4.41. getLifetime
public int getLifetime() public int getLifetime()
Returns the context lifetime in seconds. When issued before context Returns the context lifetime in seconds. When issued before context
establishment completes or when the isProtReady method returns establishment completes or when the isProtReady method returns
"false", it returns the desired lifetime, otherwise it will indicate "false", it returns the desired lifetime; otherwise, it will indicate
the remaining lifetime for the context. the remaining lifetime for the context.
7.4.42. getSrcName 7.4.42. getSrcName
public GSSName getSrcName() throws GSSException public GSSName getSrcName() throws GSSException
Returns the name of the context initiator. This call is valid only Returns the name of the context initiator. This call is valid only
after the context is fully established or the isProtReady method after the context is fully established or the isProtReady method
returns "true". It is guaranteed to return an MN. returns "true". It is guaranteed to return an MN.
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supplied data (wrap only). To request default QOP, the value of 0 supplied data (wrap only). To request default QOP, the value of 0
should be used for QOP. should be used for QOP.
When used with the unwrap and verifyMIC methods of the GSSContext When used with the unwrap and verifyMIC methods of the GSSContext
interface, an instance of this class will be used to indicate the interface, an instance of this class will be used to indicate the
applied QOP and confidentiality services over the supplied message. applied QOP and confidentiality services over the supplied message.
In the case of verifyMIC, the confidentiality state will always be In the case of verifyMIC, the confidentiality state will always be
"false". Upon return from these methods, this object will also "false". Upon return from these methods, this object will also
contain any supplementary status values applicable to the processed contain any supplementary status values applicable to the processed
token. The supplementary status values can indicate old tokens, out token. The supplementary status values can indicate old tokens, out
of sequence tokens, gap tokens or duplicate tokens. of sequence tokens, gap tokens, or duplicate tokens.
7.5.1. Constructors 7.5.1. Constructors
public MessageProp(boolean privState) public MessageProp(boolean privState)
Constructor which sets QOP to 0 indicating that the default QOP is Constructor that sets QOP to 0 indicating that the default QOP is
requested. requested.
Parameters: Parameters:
privState The desired privacy state. "true" for privacy and privState: The desired privacy state. "true" for privacy and
"false" for integrity only. "false" for integrity only.
public MessageProp(int qop, boolean privState) public MessageProp(int qop, boolean privState)
Constructor which sets the values for the qop and privacy state. Constructor that sets the values for the qop and privacy state.
Parameters: Parameters:
qop The desired QOP. Use 0 to request a default QOP. qop: The desired QOP. Use 0 to request a default QOP.
privState The desired privacy state. "true" for privacy and privState: The desired privacy state. "true" for privacy and
"false" for integrity only. "false" for integrity only.
7.5.2. getQOP 7.5.2. getQOP
public int getQOP() public int getQOP()
Retrieves the QOP value. Retrieves the QOP value.
7.5.3. getPrivacy 7.5.3. getPrivacy
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public int getMinorStatus() public int getMinorStatus()
Retrieves the minor status that the underlying mechanism might have Retrieves the minor status that the underlying mechanism might have
set. set.
7.5.5. getMinorString 7.5.5. getMinorString
public String getMinorString() public String getMinorString()
Returns a string explaining the mechanism specific error code. null Returns a string explaining the mechanism-specific error code. "null"
will be returned when no mechanism error code has been set. will be returned when no mechanism error code has been set.
7.5.6. setQOP 7.5.6. setQOP
public void setQOP(int qopVal) public void setQOP(int qopVal)
Sets the QOP value. Sets the QOP value.
Parameters: Parameters:
qopVal The QOP value to be set. Use 0 to request a default QOP qopVal: The QOP value to be set. Use 0 to request a default
value. QOP value.
7.5.7. setPrivacy 7.5.7. setPrivacy
public void setPrivacy(boolean privState) public void setPrivacy(boolean privState)
Sets the privacy state. Sets the privacy state.
Parameters: Parameters:
privState The privacy state to set. privState: The privacy state to set.
7.5.8. isDuplicateToken 7.5.8. isDuplicateToken
public boolean isDuplicateToken() public boolean isDuplicateToken()
Returns "true" if this is a duplicate of an earlier token. Returns "true" if this is a duplicate of an earlier token.
7.5.9. isOldToken 7.5.9. isOldToken
public boolean isOldToken() public boolean isOldToken()
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boolean old, boolean unseq, boolean gap, boolean old, boolean unseq, boolean gap,
int minorStatus, String minorString) int minorStatus, String minorString)
This method sets the state for the supplementary information flags This method sets the state for the supplementary information flags
and the minor status in MessageProp. It is not used by the and the minor status in MessageProp. It is not used by the
application but by the GSS implementation to return this information application but by the GSS implementation to return this information
to the caller of a per-message context method. to the caller of a per-message context method.
Parameters: Parameters:
duplicate true if the token was a duplicate of an earlier token, duplicate: "true" if the token was a duplicate of an earlier
false otherwise token; otherwise, "false".
old true if the token's validity period has expired, false old: "true" if the token's validity period has expired;
otherwise otherwise, "false".
unseq true if a later token has already been processed, false unseq: "true" if a later token has already been processed;
otherwise otherwise, "false".
gap true if one or more predecessor tokens have not yet been gap: "true" if one or more predecessor tokens have not
successfully processed, false otherwise yet been successfully processed; otherwise, "false".
minorStatus the integer minor status code that the underlying minorStatus: The integer minor status code that the underlying
mechanism wants to set mechanism wants to set.
minorString the textual representation of the minorStatus value minorString: The textual representation of the minorStatus value.
7.6. public class ChannelBinding 7.6. public class ChannelBinding
The GSS-API accommodates the concept of caller-provided channel The GSS-API accommodates the concept of caller-provided channel
binding information. Channel bindings are used to strengthen the binding information. Channel bindings are used to strengthen the
quality with which peer entity authentication is provided during quality with which peer entity authentication is provided during
context establishment. They enable the GSS-API callers to bind the context establishment. They enable the GSS-API callers to bind the
establishment of the security context to relevant characteristics establishment of the security context to relevant characteristics
like addresses or to application specific data. like addresses or to application-specific data.
The caller initiating the security context must determine the The caller initiating the security context must determine the
appropriate channel binding values to set in the GSSContext object. appropriate channel binding values to set in the GSSContext object.
The acceptor must provide an identical binding in order to validate The acceptor must provide an identical binding in order to validate
that received tokens possess correct channel-related characteristics. that received tokens possess correct channel-related characteristics.
Use of channel bindings is optional in GSS-API. Since channel- Use of channel bindings is optional in GSS-API. Since channel-
binding information may be transmitted in context establishment binding information may be transmitted in context establishment
tokens, applications should therefore not use confidential data as tokens, applications should therefore not use confidential data as
channel-binding components. channel-binding components.
7.6.1. Constructors 7.6.1. Constructors
public ChannelBinding(InetAddress initAddr, InetAddress acceptAddr, public ChannelBinding(InetAddress initAddr, InetAddress acceptAddr,
byte[] appData) byte[] appData)
Create a ChannelBinding object with user supplied address information Create a ChannelBinding object with user-supplied address information
and data. "null" values can be used for any fields which the and data. "null" values can be used for any fields that the
application does not want to specify. application does not want to specify.
Parameters: Parameters:
initAddr The address of the context initiator. "null" value can be initAddr: The address of the context initiator. "null" value
supplied to indicate that the application does not want to set can be supplied to indicate that the application
this value. does not want to set this value.
acceptAddr The address of the context acceptor. "null" value can acceptAddr: The address of the context acceptor. "null" value
be supplied to indicate that the application does not want to set can be supplied to indicate that the application
this value. does not want to set this value.
appData Application supplied data to be used as part of the appData: Application-supplied data to be used as part of the
channel bindings. "null" value can be supplied to indicate that channel bindings. "null" value can be supplied to
the application does not want to set this value. indicate that the application does not want to set
this value.
public ChannelBinding(byte[] appData) public ChannelBinding(byte[] appData)
Creates a ChannelBinding object without any addressing information. Creates a ChannelBinding object without any addressing information.
Parameters: Parameters:
appData Application supplied data to be used as part of the appData: Application supplied data to be used as part of the
channel bindings. channel bindings.
7.6.2. getInitiatorAddress 7.6.2. getInitiatorAddress
public InetAddress getInitiatorAddress() public InetAddress getInitiatorAddress()
Returns the initiator's address for this channel binding. "null" is Returns the initiator's address for this channel binding. "null" is
returned if the address has not been set. returned if the address has not been set.
7.6.3. getAcceptorAddress 7.6.3. getAcceptorAddress
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public boolean equals(Object obj) public boolean equals(Object obj)
Returns "true" if two channel bindings match. (Note that the Java Returns "true" if two channel bindings match. (Note that the Java
language specification requires that two objects that are equal language specification requires that two objects that are equal
according to the equals(Object) method must return the same integer according to the equals(Object) method must return the same integer
result when the hashCode() method is called on them.) result when the hashCode() method is called on them.)
Parameters: Parameters:
obj Another channel binding to compare with. obj: Another channel binding with which to compare.
7.7. public class Oid 7.7. public class Oid
This class represents Universal Object Identifiers (Oids) and their This class represents Universal Object Identifiers (Oids) and their
associated operations. associated operations.
Oids are hierarchically globally-interpretable identifiers used Oids are hierarchically globally interpretable identifiers used
within the GSS-API framework to identify mechanisms and name formats. within the GSS-API framework to identify mechanisms and name formats.
The structure and encoding of Oids is defined in ISOIEC-8824 and The structure and encoding of Oids is defined in ISOIEC-8824 and
ISOIEC-8825. For example the Oid representation of Kerberos V5 ISOIEC-8825. For example, the Oid representation of the Kerberos v5
mechanism is "1.2.840.113554.1.2.2" mechanism is "1.2.840.113554.1.2.2".
The GSSName name class contains public static Oid objects The GSSName name class contains public static Oid objects
representing the standard name types defined in GSS-API. representing the standard name types defined in GSS-API.
7.7.1. Constructors 7.7.1. Constructors
public Oid(String strOid) throws GSSException public Oid(String strOid) throws GSSException
Creates an Oid object from a string representation of its integer Creates an Oid object from a string representation of its integer
components (e.g. "1.2.840.113554.1.2.2"). components (e.g., "1.2.840.113554.1.2.2").
Parameters: Parameters:
strOid The string representation for the oid. strOid: The string representation for the oid.
public Oid(InputStream derOid) throws GSSException public Oid(InputStream derOid) throws GSSException
Creates an Oid object from its DER encoding. This refers to the full Creates an Oid object from its DER encoding. This refers to the full
encoding including tag and length. The structure and encoding of encoding including tag and length. The structure and encoding of
Oids is defined in ISOIEC-8824 and ISOIEC-8825. This method is Oids is defined in ISOIEC-8824 and ISOIEC-8825. This method is
identical in functionality to its byte array counterpart. identical in functionality to its byte array counterpart.
Parameters: Parameters:
derOid Stream containing the DER encoded oid. derOid: Stream containing the DER-encoded oid.
public Oid(byte[] DEROid) throws GSSException public Oid(byte[] DEROid) throws GSSException
Creates an Oid object from its DER encoding. This refers to the full Creates an Oid object from its DER encoding. This refers to the full
encoding including tag and length. The structure and encoding of encoding including tag and length. The structure and encoding of
Oids is defined in ISOIEC-8824 and ISOIEC-8825. This method is Oids is defined in ISOIEC-8824 and ISOIEC-8825. This method is
identical in functionality to its byte array counterpart. identical in functionality to its byte array counterpart.
Parameters: Parameters:
derOid Byte array storing a DER encoded oid. derOid: Byte array storing a DER-encoded oid.
7.7.2. toString 7.7.2. toString
public String toString() public String toString()
Returns a string representation of the oid's integer components in Returns a string representation of the oid's integer components in
dot separated notation (e.g. "1.2.840.113554.1.2.2"). dot separated notation (e.g., "1.2.840.113554.1.2.2").
7.7.3. equals 7.7.3. equals
public boolean equals(Object Obj) public boolean equals(Object Obj)
Returns "true" if the two Oid objects represent the same oid value. Returns "true" if the two Oid objects represent the same oid value.
(Note that the Java language specification [JLS] requires that two (Note that the Java language specification [JLS] requires that two
objects that are equal according to the equals(Object) method must objects that are equal according to the equals(Object) method must
return the same integer result when the hashCode() method is called return the same integer result when the hashCode() method is called
on them.) on them.)
Parameters: Parameters:
obj Another Oid object to compare with. obj: Another Oid object with which to compare.
7.7.4. getDER 7.7.4. getDER
public byte[] getDER() public byte[] getDER()
Returns the full ASN.1 DER encoding for this oid object, which Returns the full ASN.1 DER encoding for this oid object, which
includes the tag and length. includes the tag and length.
7.7.5. containedIn 7.7.5. containedIn
public boolean containedIn(Oid[] oids) public boolean containedIn(Oid[] oids)
A utility method to test if an Oid object is contained within the A utility method to test if an Oid object is contained within the
supplied Oid object array. supplied Oid object array.
Parameters: Parameters:
oids An array of oids to search. oids: An array of oids to search.
7.8. public class GSSException extends Exception 7.8. public class GSSException extends Exception
This exception is thrown whenever a fatal GSS-API error occurs This exception is thrown whenever a fatal GSS-API error occurs
including mechanism specific errors. It may contain both, the major including mechanism-specific errors. It may contain both, the major
and minor, GSS-API status codes. The mechanism implementers are and minor, GSS-API status codes. The mechanism implementors are
responsible for setting appropriate minor status codes when throwing responsible for setting appropriate minor status codes when throwing
this exception. Aside from delivering the numeric error code(s) to this exception. Aside from delivering the numeric error code(s) to
the caller, this class performs the mapping from their numeric values the caller, this class performs the mapping from their numeric values
to textual representations. All Java GSS-API methods are declared to textual representations. All Java GSS-API methods are declared
throwing this exception. throwing this exception.
All implementations are encouraged to use the Java All implementations are encouraged to use the Java
internationalization techniques to provide local translations of the internationalization techniques to provide local translations of the
message strings. message strings.
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All valid major GSS-API error code values are declared as constants All valid major GSS-API error code values are declared as constants
in this class. in this class.
public static final int BAD_BINDINGS public static final int BAD_BINDINGS
Channel bindings mismatch error. The value of this constant is 1. Channel bindings mismatch error. The value of this constant is 1.
public static final int BAD_MECH public static final int BAD_MECH
Unsupported mechanism requested error. The value of this constant is Unsupported mechanism requested error. The value of this constant is
2 2.
public static final int BAD_NAME public static final int BAD_NAME
Invalid name provided error. The value of this constant is 3. Invalid name provided error. The value of this constant is 3.
public static final int BAD_NAMETYPE public static final int BAD_NAMETYPE
Name of unsupported type provided error. The value of this constant Name of unsupported type provided error. The value of this constant
is 4. is 4.
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constant is 22. constant is 22.
7.8.2. Constructors 7.8.2. Constructors
public GSSException(int majorCode) public GSSException(int majorCode)
Creates a GSSException object with a specified major code. Creates a GSSException object with a specified major code.
Parameters: Parameters:
majorCode The GSS error code causing this exception to be thrown. majorCode: The GSS error code causing this exception to be
thrown.
public GSSException(int majorCode, int minorCode, String minorString) public GSSException(int majorCode, int minorCode, String minorString)
Creates a GSSException object with the specified major code, minor Creates a GSSException object with the specified major code, minor
code, and minor code textual explanation. This constructor is to be code, and minor code textual explanation. This constructor is to be
used when the exception is originating from the security mechanism. used when the exception is originating from the security mechanism.
It allows to specify the GSS code and the mechanism code. It allows to specify the GSS code and the mechanism code.
Parameters: Parameters:
majorCode The GSS error code causing this exception to be thrown. majorCode: The GSS error code causing this exception to be
minorCode The mechanism error code causing this exception to be
thrown. thrown.
minorString The textual explanation of the mechanism error code. minorCode: The mechanism error code causing this exception to
be thrown.
minorString: The textual explanation of the mechanism error code.
7.8.3. getMajor 7.8.3. getMajor
public int getMajor() public int getMajor()
Returns the major code representing the GSS error code that caused Returns the major code representing the GSS error code that caused
this exception to be thrown. this exception to be thrown.
7.8.4. getMinor 7.8.4. getMinor
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public String getMajorString() public String getMajorString()
Returns a string explaining the GSS major error code causing this Returns a string explaining the GSS major error code causing this
exception to be thrown. exception to be thrown.
7.8.6. getMinorString 7.8.6. getMinorString
public String getMinorString() public String getMinorString()
Returns a string explaining the mechanism specific error code. null Returns a string explaining the mechanism-specific error code. "null"
will be returned when no mechanism error code has been set. will be returned when no mechanism error code has been set.
7.8.7. setMinor 7.8.7. setMinor
public void setMinor(int minorCode, String message) public void setMinor(int minorCode, String message)
Used internally by the GSS-API implementation and the underlying Used internally by the GSS-API implementation and the underlying
mechanisms to set the minor code and its textual representation. mechanisms to set the minor code and its textual representation.
Parameters: Parameters:
minorCode The mechanism specific error code. minorCode: The mechanism-specific error code.
message A textual explanation of the mechanism error code. message: A textual explanation of the mechanism error code.
7.8.8. toString 7.8.8. toString
public String toString() public String toString()
Returns a textual representation of both the major and minor status Returns a textual representation of both the major and minor status
codes. codes.
7.8.9. getMessage 7.8.9. getMessage
public String getMessage() public String getMessage()
Returns a detailed message of this exception. Overrides Returns a detailed message of this exception. Overrides
skipping to change at page 84, line 39 skipping to change at page 88, line 27
* *
* This code sketch assumes the existence of a GSS-API * This code sketch assumes the existence of a GSS-API
* implementation that supports the mechanism that it will need * implementation that supports the mechanism that it will need
* and is present as a library package (org.ietf.jgss) either as * and is present as a library package (org.ietf.jgss) either as
* part of the standard JRE or in the CLASSPATH the application * part of the standard JRE or in the CLASSPATH the application
* specifies. * specifies.
*/ */
public class SimpleClient { public class SimpleClient {
private String serviceName; // name of peer (ie. server) private String serviceName; // name of peer (i.e., server)
private GSSCredential clientCred = null; private GSSCredential clientCred = null;
private GSSContext context = null; private GSSContext context = null;
private Oid mech; // underlying mechanism to use private Oid mech; // underlying mechanism to use
private GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance(); private GSSManager mgr = GSSManager.getInstance();
... ...
... ...
private void clientActions() { private void clientActions() {
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byte[] buffer; byte[] buffer;
// Container for multiple input-output arguments to and // Container for multiple input-output arguments to and
// from the per-message routines (e.g., wrap/unwrap). // from the per-message routines (e.g., wrap/unwrap).
MessageProp messgInfo = new MessageProp(); MessageProp messgInfo = new MessageProp();
try { try {
/* /*
* Now send some bytes to the server to be * Now send some bytes to the server to be
* processed. They will be integrity protected but * processed. They will be integrity protected
* not encrypted for privacy. * but not encrypted for privacy.
*/ */
buffer = readFromFile(); buffer = readFromFile();
// Set privacy to false and use the default QOP // Set privacy to "false" and use the default QOP
messgInfo.setPrivacy(false); messgInfo.setPrivacy(false);
outToken = context.wrap(buffer, 0, buffer.length, outToken = context.wrap(buffer, 0, buffer.length,
messgInfo); messgInfo);
writeGSSToken(outToken); writeGSSToken(outToken);
/* /*
* Now read the response from the server. * Now read the response from the server.
*/ */
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} // end of class SimpleClient } // end of class SimpleClient
8.2. Simple GSS Context Acceptor 8.2. Simple GSS Context Acceptor
import org.ietf.jgss.*; import org.ietf.jgss.*;
/** /**
* This is a partial sketch for a simple server program that acts * This is a partial sketch for a simple server program that acts
* as a GSS context acceptor. It illustrates how to use the Java * as a GSS context acceptor. It illustrates how to use the Java
* bindings for the GSS-API specified in * bindings for the GSS-API specified in
* Generic Security Service API Version 2 : Java bindings * Generic Security Service API Version 2 : Java bindings.
* *
* This code sketch assumes the existence of a GSS-API * This code sketch assumes the existence of a GSS-API
* implementation that supports the mechanisms that it will need * implementation that supports the mechanisms that it will need
* and is present as a library package (org.ietf.jgss) either as * and is present as a library package (org.ietf.jgss) either as
* part of the standard JRE or in the CLASSPATH the application * part of the standard JRE or in the CLASSPATH the application
* specifies. * specifies.
*/ */
import org.ietf.jgss.*; import org.ietf.jgss.*;
skipping to change at page 89, line 49 skipping to change at page 93, line 41
public void run() { public void run() {
byte[] inToken = null; byte[] inToken = null;
byte[] outToken = null; byte[] outToken = null;
byte[] buffer; byte[] buffer;
GSSName peer; GSSName peer;
// Container for multiple input-output arguments to // Container for multiple input-output arguments to
// and from the per-message routines // and from the per-message routines
// (i.e. wrap/unwrap). // (i.e., wrap/unwrap).
MessageProp supplInfo = new MessageProp(); MessageProp supplInfo = new MessageProp();
GSSContext secContext = null; GSSContext secContext = null;
try { try {
// Now do the context establishment loop // Now do the context establishment loop
GSSContext context = mgr.createContext(cred); GSSContext context = mgr.createContext(cred);
while (!context.isEstablished()) { while (!context.isEstablished()) {
inToken = readGSSToken(); inToken = readGSSToken();
outToken = context.acceptSecContext(inToken, outToken = context.acceptSecContext(inToken,
0, inToken.length); 0, inToken.length);
if (outToken != null) if (outToken != null)
writeGSSToken(outToken); writeGSSToken(outToken);
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// Now read the bytes sent by the client to be // Now read the bytes sent by the client to be
// processed. // processed.
inToken = readGSSToken(); inToken = readGSSToken();
// Unwrap the message // Unwrap the message
buffer = context.unwrap(inToken, 0, buffer = context.unwrap(inToken, 0,
inToken.length, supplInfo); inToken.length, supplInfo);
// All ok if no exception was thrown! // All ok if no exception was thrown!
// Print other supplementary per-message status // Print other supplementary per-message status
// information // information.
print("Message from " + print("Message from " +
peer.toString() + " arrived."); peer.toString() + " arrived.");
print("Was it encrypted? " + print("Was it encrypted? " +
supplInfo.getPrivacy()); supplInfo.getPrivacy());
print("Duplicate Token? " + print("Duplicate Token? " +
supplInfo.isDuplicateToken()); supplInfo.isDuplicateToken());
print("Old Token? " + supplInfo.isOldToken()); print("Old Token? " + supplInfo.isOldToken());
print("Unsequenced Token? " + print("Unsequenced Token? " +
supplInfo.isUnseqToken()); supplInfo.isUnseqToken());
skipping to change at page 92, line 10 skipping to change at page 96, line 8
} // end of inner class ServerThread } // end of inner class ServerThread
... ...
... ...
} // end of class SimpleServer } // end of class SimpleServer
9. Security Considerations 9. Security Considerations
The Java language security model allows platform providers to have The Java language security model allows platform providers to have
policy based fine-grained access control over any resource that an policy-based fine-grained access control over any resource that an
application wants. When using a Java security manager (such as, but application wants. When using a Java security manager (such as, but
not limited to, the case of applets running in browsers) the not limited to, the case of applets running in browsers) the
application code is in a sandbox by default. application code is in a sandbox by default.
Administrators of the platform JRE determine what permissions, if Administrators of the platform JRE determine what permissions, if
any, are to be given to source from different codebases. Thus the any, are to be given to source from different codebases. Thus, the
administrator has to be aware of any special requirements that the administrator has to be aware of any special requirements that the
GSS provider might have for system resources. For instance, a GSS provider might have for system resources. For instance, a
Kerberos provider might wish to make a network connection to the KDC Kerberos provider might wish to make a network connection to the Key
to obtain initial credentials. This would not be allowed under the Distribution Center (KDC) to obtain initial credentials. This would
sandbox unless the administrator had granted permissions for this. not be allowed under the sandbox unless the administrator had granted
Also note that this granting and checking of permissions happens permissions for this. Also, note that this granting and checking of
transparently to the application and is outside the scope of this permissions happens transparently to the application and is outside
document. the scope of this document.
The Java language allows administrators to pre-configure a list of The Java language allows administrators to pre-configure a list of
security service providers in the <JRE>/lib/security/java.security security service providers in the <JRE>/lib/security/java.security
file. At runtime, the system approaches these providers in order of file. At runtime, the system approaches these providers in order of
preference when looking for security related services. Applications preference when looking for security related services. Applications
have a means to modify this list through methods in the "Security" have a means to modify this list through methods in the "Security"
class in the "java.security" package. However, since these class in the "java.security" package. However, since these
modifications would be visible in the entire JVM and thus affect all modifications would be visible in the entire Java Virtual Machine
code executing in it, this operation is not available in the sandbox (JVM) and thus affect all code executing in it, this operation is not
and requires special permissions to perform. Thus when a GSS available in the sandbox and requires special permissions to perform.
application has special needs that are met by a particular security Thus, when a GSS application has special needs that are met by a
provider, it has two choices: particular security provider, it has two choices:
1) To install the provider on a JVM wide basis using the 1) To install the provider on a JVM-wide basis using the
java.security.Security class and then depend on the system to find java.security.Security class and then depend on the system to find
the right provider automatically when the need arises. (This would the right provider automatically when the need arises. (This
require the application to be granted a "insertProvider would require the application to be granted a "insertProvider
SecurityPermission".) SecurityPermission".)
2) To pass an instance of the provider to the local instance of 2) To pass an instance of the provider to the local instance of
GSSManager so that only factory calls going through that GSSManager GSSManager so that only factory calls going through that
use the desired provider. (This would not require any permissions.) GSSManager use the desired provider. (This would not require any
permissions.)
10. IANA Considerations
This document has no IANA considerations currently.
11. Acknowledgments 10. Acknowledgments
This proposed API leverages earlier work performed by the IETF's CAT This proposed API leverages earlier work performed by the IETF's CAT
WG as outlined in both RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] and RFC 2744 WG as outlined in both RFC 2743 [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] and RFC 2744
[GSSAPI-Cbind]. Many conceptual definitions, implementation [GSSAPI-Cbind]. Many conceptual definitions, implementation
directions, and explanations have been included from these documents. directions, and explanations have been included from these documents.
We would like to thank Mike Eisler, Lin Ling, Ram Marti, Michael We would like to thank Mike Eisler, Lin Ling, Ram Marti, Michael
Saltz and other members of Sun's development team for their helpful Saltz, and other members of Sun's development team for their helpful
input, comments and suggestions. input, comments, and suggestions.
We would also like to thank Joe Salowey, and Michael Smith for many We would also like to thank Joe Salowey, and Michael Smith for many
insightful ideas and suggestions that have contributed to this insightful ideas and suggestions that have contributed to this
document. document.
12. Changes since RFC 2853 11. Changes since RFC 2853
This document has following changes: This document has following changes:
1) Major GSS Status Code Constant Values 1) Major GSS Status Code Constant Values
RFC 2853 listed all the GSS status code values in two different RFC 2853 listed all the GSS status code values in two different
sections: section 4.12.1 defined numeric values for them, and section sections: section 4.12.1 defined numeric values for them, and
6.8.1 defined them as static constants in the GSSException class section 6.8.1 defined them as static constants in the GSSException
without assigning any values. Due to an inconsistent ordering class without assigning any values. Due to an inconsistent
between these two sections, all of the GSS major status codes ordering between these two sections, all of the GSS major status
resulted in misalignment, and a subsequent disagreement between codes resulted in misalignment, and a subsequent disagreement
deployed implementations. between deployed implementations.
This document defines the numeric values of the GSS status codes in This document defines the numeric values of the GSS status codes
both sections, while maintaining the original ordering from section in both sections, while maintaining the original ordering from
6.8.1 of RFC 2853 [RFC2853], and obsoletes the GSS status code values section 6.8.1 of RFC 2853 [RFC2853], and obsoletes the GSS status
defined in 4.12.1. The relevant sections in this document are code values defined in section 4.12.1. The relevant sections in
sections 5.12.1 and 7.8.1. this document are sections 5.12.1 and 7.8.1.
2) GSS Credential Usage Constant Values 2) GSS Credential Usage Constant Values
RFC 2853 section 6.3.2 defines static constants for the GSSCredential RFC 2853 section 6.3.2 defines static constants for the
usage flags. However, the values of these constants were not defined GSSCredential usage flags. However, the values of these constants
anywhere in RFC 2853 [RFC2853]. were not defined anywhere in RFC 2853 [RFC2853].
This document defines the credential usage values in section 7.3.2. This document defines the credential usage values in section
The original ordering of these values from section 6.3.2 of RFC 2853 7.3.2. The original ordering of these values from section 6.3.2
[RFC2853] is maintained. of RFC 2853 [RFC2853] is maintained.
3) GSS Host-Based Service Name 3) GSS Host-Based Service Name
RFC 2853 [RFC2853] section 6.2.2 defines the static constant for the
GSS host-based service OID NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE, using a deprecated
OID value.
This document updates the NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE OID value in section RFC 2853 [RFC2853], section 6.2.2, defines the static constant for
7.2.2 to be consistent with the C-bindings in RFC 2744 the GSS host-based service OID NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE, using a
deprecated OID value.
This document updates the NT_HOSTBASED_SERVICE OID value in
section 7.2.2 to be consistent with the C-bindings in RFC 2744
[GSSAPI-Cbind]. [GSSAPI-Cbind].
13. References 12. References
13.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[GSSAPI-Cbind] [GSSAPI-Cbind]
Wray, J., "Generic Security Service API Version 2 : Wray, J., "Generic Security Service API Version 2 :
C-bindings", RFC 2744, January 2000. C-bindings", RFC 2744, January 2000.
[GSSAPIv2-UPDATE] [GSSAPIv2-UPDATE]
Linn, J., "Generic Security Service Application Program Linn, J., "Generic Security Service Application Program
Interface, Version 2, Update 1", RFC 2743, January 2000. Interface Version 2, Update 1", RFC 2743, January 2000.
[RFC2025] Adams, C., "The Simple Public-Key GSS-API Mechanism", [RFC2025] Adams, C., "The Simple Public-Key GSS-API Mechanism
RFC 2025, October 1996. (SPKM)", RFC 2025, October 1996.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2853] Kabat, J. and M. Upadhyay, "Generic Security Service [RFC2853] Kabat, J. and M. Upadhyay, "Generic Security Service API
Application Program Interface : Java Bindings", RFC 2853, Version 2 : Java Bindings", RFC 2853, June 2000.
June 2000.
[RFC4121] Zhu, L. and S. Hartman, "The Kerberos Version 5 Generic [RFC4121] Zhu, L., Jaganathan, K., and S. Hartman, "The Kerberos
Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API) Version 5 Generic Security Service Application Program
Mechanism: Version 2", RFC 4121, July 2005. Interface (GSS-API) Mechanism: Version 2", RFC 4121, July
2005.
13.2. Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[JLS] Gosling, J., "The Java Language Specification", [JLS] Gosling, J., Joy, B., Steele, G., and G. Bracha "The Java
JLS langspec. Language Specification", Third Edition,
http://java.sun.com/docs/books/jls/.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Mayank D. Upadhyay Mayank D. Upadhyay
Google Inc. Google Inc.
1600 Amphitheatre Parkway 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View, CA 94043 Mountain View, CA 94043
USA USA
Email: mayank+ietf-2853@google.com
EMail: m.d.upadhyay+ietf@gmail.com
Seema Malkani Seema Malkani
Sun Microsystems, Inc. ActivIdentity Corp.
4140 Network Circle 6623 Dumbarton Circle
Santa Clara, CA 95054 Fremont, California 94555
USA USA
Email: Seema.Malkani@sun.com EMail: Seema.Malkani@gmail.com
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