Network Working Group                                Mark Smith, Editor
Request for Comments: DRAFT                         Pearl Crescent, LLC
Obsoletes: RFC 2255                                           Tim Howes
Expires: 16 May 4 July 2005                                      Opsware, Inc.

                                                       16 November 2004

                                                         4 January 2005

                     LDAP: Uniform Resource Locator

Status of this Memo

   By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
   applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
   have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she become
   aware will be disclosed, in accordance with RFC 3668.

   This document is intended to be published as a Standards Track RFC,
   replacing RFC 2255.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
   Technical discussion of this document will take place on the IETF
   LDAP (v3) Revision (ldapbis) Working Group mailing list
   <>.  Please send editorial comments directly
   to the editor <>.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

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   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  All Rights Reserved.
   Please see the Full Copyright section near the end of this document
   for more information.


   This document describes a format for a Lightweight Directory Access
   Protocol (LDAP) Uniform Resource Locator (URL).  An LDAP URL
   describes an LDAP search operation that is used to retrieve
   information from an LDAP directory, or, in the context of an LDAP
   referral or reference, an LDAP URL describes a service where an LDAP
   operation may be progressed.

Table of Contents

       Status of this Memo............................................1
       Table of Contents..............................................2
1.     Introduction...................................................2
2.     URL Definition.................................................3
2.1.      Escaping Using the % Method.................................5      Percent-Encoding............................................5
3.     Defaults for Fields of the LDAP URL............................5
4.     Examples.......................................................6
5.     Security Considerations........................................8
6.     IANA Considerations............................................9
7.     Normative References...........................................9
8.     Informative References.........................................10
9.     Acknowledgements...............................................10
10.    Authors' Addresses.............................................10 Addresses.............................................11
11.    Appendix A: Changes Since RFC 2255.............................11
11.1.     Technical Changes...........................................11
11.2.     Editorial Changes...........................................11 Changes...........................................12
12.    Appendix B: Changes Since Previous Document Revision...........13 Revision...........14
12.1.     Technical Changes...........................................13 Changes...........................................14
12.2.     Editorial Changes...........................................14
       Intellectual Property Rights...................................15 Rights...................................14
       Full Copyright.................................................15

1.  Introduction

   LDAP is the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol [Roadmap].  This
   document specifies the LDAP URL format for version 3 of LDAP and
   clarifies how LDAP URLs are resolved. This document also defines an
   extension mechanism for LDAP URLs. This mechanism may be used to
   provide access to new LDAP extensions.

   Note that not all of the parameters of the LDAP search operation
   described in [Protocol] can be expressed using the format defined in
   this document. Note also that URLs may be used to represent reference
   knowledge, including for non-search operations.

   This document is a integral part of the LDAP technical specification
   [Roadmap] which obsoletes the previously defined LDAP technical
   specification, RFC 3377, in its entirety.

   This document replaces RFC 2255. See Appendix A for a list of changes
   relative to RFC 2255.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119].

2.  URL Definition

   An LDAP URL begins with the protocol prefix "ldap" and is defined by
   the following grammar, following the ABNF notation defined in

       ldapurl     = scheme COLON SLASH SLASH [hostport] [host [COLON port]]
                        [SLASH dn [QUESTION [attributes]
                        [QUESTION [scope] [QUESTION [filter]
                        [QUESTION extensions]]]]]
                                       ; <hostport> is from Section <host> and <port> are defined
                                       ;   in Sections 3.2.2 of [RFC2396] as updated
                                       ;   by [RFC2732] to allow IPv6 and 3.2.3
                                       ;   literal addresses.   of [RFC2396bis].
                                       ; <filter> is from Section 3 of
                                       ;   [Filters], subject to the
                                       ;   provisions of the "Escaping
                                       ;   Using the % Method"   "Percent-Encoding" section
                                       ;   below.

       scheme      = "ldap"

       dn          = distinguishedName ; From Section 3 of [LDAPDN]. [LDAPDN],
                                       ; See subject to the "Escaping Using provisions of
                                       ; the "Percent-Encoding"
                                       ; % Method" section below.

       attributes  = attrdesc *(COMMA attrdesc)
       attrdesc    = selector *(COMMA selector)
       selector    = attributeSelector ; From Section 4.5.1 of
                                       ; [Protocol].  See [Protocol], subject to the "Escaping
                                       ; Using provisions of the % Method"
                                       ; "Percent-Encoding" section
                                       ; below.

       scope       = "base" / "one" / "sub"
       extensions  = extension *(COMMA extension)
       extension   = [EXCLAMATION] extype [EQUALS exvalue]
       extype      = oid               ; From section 1.4 of [Models].

       exvalue     = LDAPString        ; From section 4.1.2 of
                                       ; [Protocol].  See [Protocol], subject to the "Escaping
                                       ; Using provisions of the % Method"
                                       ; "Percent-Encoding" section
                                       ; below.

       EXCLAMATION = %x21              ; exclamation mark ("!")
       SLASH       = %x2F              ; forward slash ("/")
       COLON       = %x3A              ; colon (":")
       QUESTION    = %x3F              ; question mark ("?")

   The "ldap" prefix indicates an entry or entries accessible from the
   LDAP server running on the given hostname at the given portnumber.
   Note that the <hostport> <host> may contain literal IPv6 addresses as specified
   in [RFC2732]. Section 3.2.2 of [RFC2396bis].

   The <dn> is an LDAP Distinguished Name using the string format
   described in [LDAPDN]. It identifies the base object of the LDAP
   search or the target of a non-search operation.

   The <attributes> construct is used to indicate which attributes
   should be returned from the entry or entries.

   The <scope> construct is used to specify the scope of the search to
   perform in the given LDAP server.  The allowable scopes are "base"
   for a base object search, "one" for a one-level search, or "sub" for
   a subtree search.

   The <filter> is used to specify the search filter to apply to entries
   within the specified scope during the search.  It has the format
   specified in [Filters].

   The <extensions> construct provides the LDAP URL with an
   extensibility mechanism, allowing the capabilities of the URL to be
   extended in the future. Extensions are a simple comma-separated list
   of type=value pairs, where the =value portion MAY be omitted for
   options not requiring it. Each type=value pair is a separate
   extension. These LDAP URL extensions are not necessarily related to
   any of the LDAP extension mechanisms. Extensions may be supported or
   unsupported by the client resolving the URL. An extension prefixed
   with a '!' character (ASCII 0x21) is critical. An extension not
   prefixed with a '!' character is non-critical.

   If an LDAP URL extension is implemented (that is, if the
   implementation understands it and is able to use it), the
   implementation MUST make use of it.  If an extension is not
   implemented and is marked critical, the implementation MUST NOT
   process the URL.  If an extension is not implemented and it not
   marked critical, the implementation MUST ignore the extension.

   The extension type (<extype>) MAY be specified using the numeric OID
   <numericoid> form (e.g., or the descriptor <descr> form
   (e.g., myLDAPURLExtension).  Use of the <descr> form SHOULD be
   restricted to registered object identifier descriptive names.  See
   [LDAPIANA] for registration details and usage guidelines for
   descriptive names.

   No LDAP URL extensions are defined in this document.  Other documents
   or a future version of this document MAY define one or more

2.1.  Escaping Using the % Method  Percent-Encoding

   A generated LDAP URL MUST consist only of the restricted set of
   characters included in one of the <uric> production that is following three productions defined
   section 2 of [RFC2396]. [RFC2396bis]:


   Implementations SHOULD accept other valid UTF-8 strings [RFC3629] as
   input.  An octet MUST be escaped encoded using the
   % method percent-encoding mechanism
   described in section 2.4 2.1 of [RFC2396] [RFC2396bis] in any of these situations:

      The octet is not in the reserved set defined in section 2.2 of
      [RFC2396bis] or in the unreserved set defined in section 2.3 of

      It is the single Reserved character '?' and occurs inside a <dn>,
      <filter>, or other element of an LDAP URL.

      It is a comma character ',' that occurs inside an <exvalue>.

   Note that before the % method of escaping percent-encoding mechanism is applied, the
   extensions component of the LDAP URL may contain one or more null
   (zero) bytes.  No other component may.

3.  Defaults for Fields of the LDAP URL

   Some fields of the LDAP URL are optional, as described above.  In the
   absence of any other specification, the following general defaults
   SHOULD be used when a field is absent.  Note that other documents MAY
   specify different defaulting rules; for example, section 4.1.10 of
   [Protocol] specifies a different rule for determining the correct DN
   to use when it is absent in an LDAP URL that is returned as a

      The default LDAP port is TCP port 389.

      If no <hostport> <host> is given, the client must have some apriori knowledge
      of an appropriate LDAP server to contact.

      The default LDAP port is TCP port 389.

      If no <dn> is given, the default is the zero-length DN, "".

      If the <attributes> part is omitted, all user attributes of the
      entry or entries should be requested (e.g., by setting the
      attributes field AttributeDescriptionList in the LDAP search
      request to a NULL list, or by using the special <alluserattrs>
      selector "*").

      If <scope> is omitted, a <scope> of "base" is assumed.

      If <filter> is omitted, a filter of "(objectClass=*)" is assumed.

      If <extensions> is omitted, no extensions are assumed.

4.  Examples

   The following are some example LDAP URLs using the format defined
   above.  The first example is an LDAP URL referring to the University
   of Michigan entry, available from an LDAP server of the client's


   The next example is an LDAP URL referring to the University of
   Michigan entry in a particular ldap server:


   Both of these URLs correspond to a base object search of the
   "o=University of Michigan,c=US" entry using a filter of
   "(objectclass=*)", requesting all attributes.

   The next example is an LDAP URL referring to only the postalAddress
   attribute of the University of Michigan entry:


   The corresponding LDAP search operation is the same as in the
   previous example, except that only the postalAddress attribute is

   The next example is an LDAP URL referring to the set of entries found
   by querying the given LDAP server on port 6666 and doing a subtree
   search of the University of Michigan for any entry with a common name
   of "Babs Jensen", retrieving all attributes:


   The next example is an LDAP URL referring to all children of the c=GB


   The objectClass attribute is requested to be returned along with the
   entries, and the default filter of "(objectclass=*)" is used.

   The next example is an LDAP URL to retrieve the mail attribute for
   the LDAP entry named "o=Question?,c=US" is given below, illustrating
   the use of the escaping percent-encoding mechanism on the reserved character


   The next example (which is broken into two lines for readability)
   illustrates the interaction between the LDAP string representation of
   filters quoting mechanism and URL quoting mechanisms.


   The filter in this example uses the LDAP escaping mechanism of \ to
   encode three zero or null bytes in the value. In LDAP, the filter
   would be written as (four-octet=\00\00\00\04). Because the \
   character must be escaped in a URL, the \'s are escaped percent-encoded as
   %5c (or %5C) in the URL encoding.

   The next example illustrates the interaction between the LDAP string
   representation of DNs quoting mechanism and URL quoting mechanisms.


   The DN encoded in the above URL is:

     o=An Example\2C Inc.,c=US

   That is, the left-most RDN value is:

     An Example, Inc.

   The following three URLs that are equivalent, assuming that the
   defaulting rules specified in section 4 of this document are used:


   These three URLs all point to the root DSE on the

The final two examples show use of a hypothetical, experimental bind
name extension (the value associated with the extension is an LDAP DN).


   The two URLs are the same, except that the second one marks the
   e-bindname extension as critical. Notice the use of the % encoding
   percent-encoding mechanism to encode the commas within the
   distinguished name value in the e-bindname extension.

5.  Security Considerations

   General URL security considerations discussed in [RFC2396] [RFC2396bis] are
   relevant for LDAP URLs.

   The use of security mechanisms when processing LDAP URLs requires
   particular care, since clients may encounter many different servers
   via URLs, and since URLs are likely to be processed automatically,
   without user intervention. A client SHOULD have a user-configurable
   policy that controls which servers the client will establish LDAP
   sessions with using which security mechanisms, and SHOULD NOT
   establish LDAP sessions that are inconsistent with this policy.  If a
   client chooses to reuse an existing LDAP session when resolving one
   or more LDAP URLs, it MUST ensure that the session is compatible with
   the URL and that no security policies are violated.

   Sending authentication information, no matter the mechanism, may
   violate a user's privacy requirements.  In the absence of specific
   policy permitting authentication information to be sent to a server,
   a client should use an anonymous LDAP session.  (Note that clients
   conforming to previous LDAP URL specifications, where all LDAP
   sessions are anonymous and unprotected, are consistent with this
   specification; they simply have the default security policy.)  Simply
   opening a transport connection to another server may violate some
   users' privacy requirements, so clients should provide the user with
   a way to control URL processing.

   Some authentication methods, in particular reusable passwords sent to
   the server, may reveal easily-abused information to the remote server
   or to eavesdroppers in transit, and should not be used in URL
   processing unless explicitly permitted by policy.  Confirmation by
   the human user of the use of authentication information is
   appropriate in many circumstances.  Use of strong authentication
   methods that do not reveal sensitive information is much preferred.
   If the URL represents a referral for an update operation, strong
   authentication methods SHOULD be used.  Please refer to the Security
   Considerations section of [AuthMeth] for more information.

   The LDAP URL format allows the specification of an arbitrary LDAP
   search operation to be performed when evaluating the LDAP URL.
   Following an LDAP URL may cause unexpected results, for example, the
   retrieval of large amounts of data, the initiation of a long-lived
   search, etc.  The security implications of resolving an LDAP URL are
   the same as those of resolving an LDAP search query.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

7.  Normative References

[AuthMeth]  Harrison, R. (editor), "LDAP: Authentication Methods",
            draft-ietf-ldapbis-authmeth-xx.txt, a work in progress.  a
            work in progress.

[LDAPDN]    Zeilenga, K. (editor), "LDAP: String Representation of
            Distinguished Names", draft-ietf-ldapbis-dn-xx.txt, a work
            in progress.

[Filters]   Smith, M. and Howes, T., "LDAP: String Representation of
            Search Filters", draft-ietf-ldapbis-filter-xx.txt, a work in

[RFC2119]   Bradner, S., "Key Words for use in RFCs to Indicate
            Requirement Levels," RFC 2119, BCP 14, March 1997.

[Protocol]  Sermersheim, J. (editor), "LDAP: The Protocol",
            draft-ietf-ldapbis-protocol-xx.txt, a work in progress.

[RFC2234]   Crocker, D., Overell, P., "Augmented BNF for Syntax
            Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.


            Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., R. and Masinter, L., "Uniform
            Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 2396,
            August 1998.

[RFC2732]   Hinden, R., Carpenter, B., Masinter, L., "Format for Literal
            IPv6 Addresses
            draft-fielding-uri-rfc2396bis-xx.txt, a work in URL's", RFC 2732, December 1999. progress.

[Roadmap]   K. Zeilenga (editor), "LDAP: Technical Specification Road
            Map", draft-ietf-ldapbis-roadmap-xx.txt, a work in progress.

[RFC3629]   Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646",
            RFC 3629, November 2003.

8.  Informative References

[LDAPIANA]  Zeilenga, K., "IANA Considerations for LDAP",
            draft-ietf-ldapbis-bcp64-xx.txt, a work in progress.  None.

9.  Acknowledgements

   The LDAP URL format was originally defined at the University of
   Michigan. This material is based upon work supported by the National
   Science Foundation under Grant No. NCR-9416667. The support of both
   the University of Michigan and the National Science Foundation is
   gratefully acknowledged.

   This document is an update to RFC 2255 by Tim Howes and Mark Smith.
   Changes included in this revised specification are based upon
   discussions among the authors, discussions within the LDAP (v3)
   Revision Working Group (ldapbis), and discussions within other IETF
   Working Groups.  The contributions of individuals in these working
   groups is gratefully acknowledged.  Several people in particular have
   made valuable comments on this document; RL "Bob" Morgan, Mark Wahl,
   Kurt Zeilenga, Jim Sermersheim, and Hallvard Furuseth deserve special
   thanks for their contributions.

10.  Authors' Addresses

   Mark Smith, Editor
   Pearl Crescent, LLC
   447 Marlpool Dr.
   Saline, MI 48176
   +1 734 944-2856

   Tim Howes
   Opsware, Inc.
   599 N. Mathilda Ave.
   Sunnyvale, CA 94085
   +1 408 744-7509

11.  Appendix A: Changes Since RFC 2255

11.1.  Technical Changes

   The following technical changes were made to the contents of the "URL
   Definition" section:

   Revised all of the ABNF to use common productions from [Models].

   Added note and

   Replaced references to [RFC2732] [RFC2396] with a reference to allow [RFC2396bis]
   (this allows literal IPv6 addresses to be used inside the hostport <host>
   portion of the URL. URL, and a note was added to remind the reader of this
   enhancement).  Referencing [RFC2396bis] required changes to the ABNF
   and text so that productions that are no longer defined by
   [RFC2396bis] are not used.  For example, <hostport> is not defined by
   [RFC2396bis] so it has been replaced with host [COLON port].  Note:
   [RFC2396bis] includes new definitions for the "Reserved" and
   "Unreserved" sets of characters, and the net result is that the
   following two additional characters should be percent-encoded when
   they appear anywhere in the data used to construct an LDAP URL: "["
   and "]" (these two characters were first added to the Reserved set by
   RFC 2732).

   Changed the definition of <attrdesc> to refer to <attributeSelector>
   from [Protocol].  This allows use of "*" in the <attrdesc> part of
   the URL.  It is believed that existing implementations of RFC 2255
   already support this.

   Avoided use of <prose-val> (bracketed-string) productions in the
   <dn>, <hostport>, <host>, <attrdesc>, and <exvalue> rules.

   Changed the ABNF for <ldapurl> to group the <dn> component with the
   preceding <SLASH>.

   Changed the <extype> rule to be an <oid> from [Models].

   Changed the text about extension types so it references [LDAPIANA].
   Reordered rules to more closely follow the order the elements appear
   in the URL.

   "Bindname Extension": removed due to lack of known implementations.

11.2.  Editorial Changes

   Changed document title to include "LDAP:" prefix.

   IESG Note: removed note about lack of satisfactory mandatory
   authentication mechanisms.

   "Status of this Memo" section: updated boilerplate to match current
   I-D guidelines.

   "Abstract" section: separated from introductory material.

   "Table of Contents" and "IANA Considerations" sections: added.

   "Introduction" section: new section; separated from the Abstract.
   Changed the text indicate that RFC 2255 is replaced by this document
   (instead of RFC 1959).  Added text to indicate that LDAP URLs are
   used for references and referrals.  Fixed typo (replaced the nonsense
   phrase "to perform to retrieve" with "used to retrieve").  Added a
   note to let the reader know that not all of the parameters of the
   LDAP search operation described in [Protocol] can be expressed using
   this format.

   "URL Definition" section: removed second copy of <ldapurl> grammar
   and following two paragraphs (editorial error in RFC 2255).  Fixed
   line break within '!' sequence.  Reformatted the ABNF to improve
   readability by aligning comments and adding some blank lines.
   Replaced "residing in the LDAP server" with "accessible from the LDAP
   server" in the sentence immediately following the ABNF.  Removed the
   sentence "Individual attrdesc names are as defined for
   AttributeDescription in [Protocol]."  because [Protocol]'s
   <attributeSelector> is now used directly in the ABNF.  Reworded last
   paragraph to clarify which characters must be URL escaped. percent-encoded.  Added
   text to indicate that LDAP URLs are used for references and
   referrals.  Added text that refers to the ABNF from RFC 2234.
   Clarified and strengthened the requirements with respect to
   processing of URLs that contain implements and not implemented
   extensions (the approach now closely matches that specified in
   [Protocol] for LDAP controls).

   "Defaults for Fields of the LDAP URL" section: added; formed by
   moving text about defaults out of the "URL Definition" section.
   Replaced direct reference to the attribute name "*" with a reference
   to the special <alluserattrs> selector "*" defined in [Protocol].

   "URL Processing" section: removed.

   "Examples" section: Modified examples to use and hostnames.  Added missing '?' to the LDAP URL example
   whose filter contains three null bytes.  Removed space after one
   comma within a DN.  Revised the bindname example to use e-bindname.
   Changed the name of an attribute used in one example from "int" to
   "four-octet" to avoid potential confusion.  Added an example that
   demonstrates the interaction between DN escaping and URL escaping.
   percent-encoding.  Added some examples to show URL equivalence with
   respect to the <dn> portion of the URL.  Used uppercase in some
   examples to remind the reader that some tokens are case-insensitive.

   "Security Considerations" section: Added a note about connection
   reuse.  Added a note about using strong authentication methods for
   updates.  Added a reference to [AuthMeth].  Added note that simply
   opening a connection may violate some users' privacy requirements.
   Adopted the working group's revised LDAP terminology specification by
   replacing the word "connection" with "LDAP session" or "LDAP
   connection" as appropriate.

   "Acknowledgements" section: added statement about this being an
   update to RFC 2255.  Added Kurt Zeilenga, Jim Sermersheim, and
   Hallvard Furuseth.

   "Normative References" section: renamed from "References" per new RFC
   guidelines. Changed from [1] style to [Protocol] style throughout the
   document.  Added references to RFC 2234, RFC 2732, 2234 and RFC 3629.  Updated all
   RFC 1738 references to point to the appropriate sections within RFC 2396.
   [RFC2396bis].  Updated the LDAP references to refer to LDAPBis WG
   documents.  Removed the reference to the LDAP Attribute Syntaxes
   document and added references to the [AuthMeth], [LDAPIANA], and
   [Roadmap] documents.

   "Informative References" section: added.

   Header and "Authors' Addresses" sections: added "editor" next to Mark
   Smith's name.  Updated affiliation and contact information.

   Copyright: updated the year.

   Throughout the document: surrounded the names of all ABNF productions
   with "<" and ">" where they are used in descriptive text.

12.  Appendix B: Changes Since Previous Document Revision

   This appendix lists all changes relative to the previously published
   revision, draft-ietf-ldapbis-url-07.txt. draft-ietf-ldapbis-url-08.txt.  Note that when appropriate
   these changes are also included in Appendix A, but are also included
   here for the benefit of the people who have already reviewed
   draft-ietf-ldapbis-url-08.txt. This section will be removed before
   this document is published as an RFC.

12.1.  Technical Changes

   "URL Definition" section: avoid

   Throughout the use of <prose-val>
   (bracketed-string) productions.  Use <attributeSelector> from
   [Protocol] and <oid> from [Models]; this allowed <oid>, <oiddescr>,
   and <ASTERISK> to be removed from this document.  Include correct
   section document: Replaced references for [Protocol] to [RFC2396] and [Filters].

12.2.  Editorial Changes

   "Abstract" section: spelled out LDAP on first use.

   "Introduction" section: referenced [Roadmap] upon first use of LDAP
   and expanded the paragraph that begins "This document is an integral
   part of the LDAP technical specification..."
   [RFC2732] with references to [RFC2396bis].  This required changes to match the text used
   in [Protocol].  Also re-worded
   the ABNF and text so that describes the extension

   "URL Definition" section: reformatted the ABNF to improve readability productions that are no longer defined by aligning comments and adding some blank lines.  Removed the
   sentence "Individual attrdesc names
   [RFC2396bis] are as not used.  For example, <hostport> is not defined by
   [RFC2396bis] so it has been replaced with host [COLON port].  Note:
   [RFC2396bis] includes new definitions for
   AttributeDescription in [Protocol]."  because [Protocol]'s
   <attributeSelector> the "Reserved" and
   "Unreserved" sets of characters, and the net result is now used directly that the
   following two additional characters should be percent-encoded when
   they appear anywhere in the ABNF.  Replaced one
   occurrence of "extension value" with <exvalue> data used to improve clarity.

   "Defaults for Fields of the construct an LDAP URL" section: in URL: "["
   and "]" (these two characters were first added to the <attributes>
   paragraph, replaced this phrase:

      or (in LDAPv3) Reserved set by requesting the special attribute name "*"

   RFC 2732).

12.2.  Editorial Changes

   Throughout the following:

      by document: Replaced phrases like "Escaping using the special <alluserattrs> selector "*"

   "Examples" section: used uppercase "LDAP" and "ONE" in an example %
   method" with "Percent-encoding" to
   remind be consistent with the reader that these tokens are case-insensitive.  Likewise, terminology
   used uppercase in some hex escaped strings (e.g., replace "%5c" with

   "Security Considerations" [RFC2396bis].

   "URL Definition" section: adopted the working group's
   revised LDAP terminology specification by updating For consistency, replaced all occurrences
   of the 2nd and 3rd
   paragraphs to replace phrase 'see the word "connection" "Percent-Encoding" section below' with "LDAP session" or
   "LDAP connection" as appropriate.

   References: moved [LDAPIANA] to "Informative References."

   Changed these two sections
   'subject to unnumbered ones: "Intellectual Property
   Rights" and "Full Copyright."  Removed the extra "Intellectual
   Property Rights" section.

   Throughout the document: surrounded the names provisions of all ABNF productions
   with "<" and ">" where they are used in descriptive text.

   Throughout the document: replaced "Note: ..." constructs with "Note
   that ...." "Percent-Encoding" section below.'

   Updated the copyright year to 2005.

Intellectual Property Rights

   The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
   Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed to
   pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described in
   this document or the extent to which any license under such rights
   might or might not be available; nor does it represent that it has
   made any independent effort to identify any such rights.  Information
   on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC documents can be
   found in BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
   assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
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   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004). (2005).  This document is subject
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   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an

This Internet Draft expires on 16 May 4 July 2005.