draft-ietf-lemonade-imap-notify-02.txt   draft-ietf-lemonade-imap-notify-03.txt 
Network Working Group Curtis King Network Working Group Curtis King
Internet-Draft Alexey Melnikov Internet-Draft Alexey Melnikov
Intended Status: Proposed Standard Isode Ltd. Intended Status: Proposed Standard Isode Ltd.
Arnt Gulbrandsen Arnt Gulbrandsen
Oryx Mail Systems GmbH Oryx Mail Systems GmbH
December 25, 2007 February 8, 2008
The IMAP NOTIFY Extension The IMAP NOTIFY Extension
draft-ietf-lemonade-imap-notify-02.txt draft-ietf-lemonade-imap-notify-03.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents
at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as
reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
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Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
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This Internet-Draft expires in November 2007. This Internet-Draft expires in July 2008.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008).
Abstract Abstract
This document defines an IMAP extension which allows a client to This document defines an IMAP extension which allows a client to
request specific kinds of unsolicited notifications for specified request specific kinds of unsolicited notifications for specified
mailboxes, such as messages being added to or deleted from mailboxes, such as messages being added to or deleted from
mailboxes. mailboxes.
Internet-draft December 2007 Internet-draft February 2008
[[Add Updates: RFC-CONTEXT to the headers]]
1. Conventions Used in This Document 1. Conventions Used in This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
Formal syntax is defined by [RFC4234] as extended by [RFC3501] and Formal syntax is defined by [RFC4234] as extended by [RFC3501] and
[RFC4466]. [RFC4466].
The acronym MSN stands for Message Sequence Numbers (see Section The acronym MSN stands for Message Sequence Numbers (see Section
2.3.1.2 of [RFC3501]). 2.3.1.2 of [RFC3501]).
Example lines prefaced by "C:" are sent by the client and ones Example lines prefaced by "C:" are sent by the client and ones
prefaced by "S:" by the server. "[...]" means elision. prefaced by "S:" by the server. "[...]" means elision.
2. Overview 2. Overview and rationale
The IDLE command (defined in [RFC2177]) provides a way for the The IDLE command (defined in [RFC2177]) provides a way for the
client to go into a mode where the IMAP server pushes notifications client to go into a mode where the IMAP server pushes notifications
about IMAP mailstore events for the selected mailbox. However, the about IMAP mailstore events for the selected mailbox. However, the
IDLE extension doesn't restrict or control which server events can IDLE extension doesn't restrict or control which server events can
be sent, or what information the server sends in response to each be sent, or what information the server sends in response to each
event. Also, IDLE only applies to the selected mailbox, thus event. Also, IDLE only applies to the selected mailbox, thus
requiring an additional TCP connection per mailbox. requiring an additional TCP connection per mailbox.
This document defines an IMAP extension that allows clients to This document defines an IMAP extension that allows clients to
express their preferences about unsolicited events generated by the express their preferences about unsolicited events generated by the
server. The extension allows clients to only receive events they server. The extension allows clients to only receive events they
are interested in, while servers know that they don't need to go are interested in, while servers know that they don't need to go
into effort of generating certain types of untagged responses. into effort of generating certain types of untagged responses.
IMAP servers which support this extension advertise the X-DRAFT- Without the NOTIFY command defined in this document, and IMAP server
W00-NOTIFY extension. will only send information about mailstore changes to the client in
the following cases:
- as the result of a client command (e.g. FETCH responses to
a FETCH or STORE command),
- unsolicited responses sent just before the end of a command
(e.g. EXISTS or EXPUNGE) as the result of changes in other
sessions, and
- during an IDLE command.
The NOTIFY command extends what information may be returned in those
last two cases, and also permits and requires the server to send
information about updates between command. The NOTIFY command also
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allows for the client to extend what information is sent unsolicited
about the selected mailbox, and to request some update information
to be sent regarding other mailboxes.
For the new messages delivered to or appended to the selected
mailbox, the NOTIFY command can be used to request that a set of
attributes be sent to the client in an unsolicited FETCH response.
This allows a client to be passive recipient of events and new mail,
and be able to maintain full synchronisation without having to issue
any subsequent commands except to modify the state of the mailbox on
the server.
Some mobile clients, however, may want mail "pushed" only for mail
that matches a SEARCH pattern. To meet that need [CONTEXT] is
augmented by this document to extend the UPDATE return option to
specify a list of fetch-atts to be returned when a new message is
delivered or appended in another session.
[[Should the following be a normative subsection?]] IMAP servers
which support this extension advertise the X-DRAFT-W03-NOTIFY
extension.
A server implementing this extension is not required to implement A server implementing this extension is not required to implement
LIST-EXTENDED [LISTEXT], even though a NOTIFY compliant server must LIST-EXTENDED [LISTEXT], even though a NOTIFY compliant server must
be able to return extended LIST responses defined in [LISTEXT]. be able to return extended LIST responses defined in [LISTEXT].
[[RFC-Editor: Please delete the following before publication:
Comments regarding this draft may be sent either to the Comments regarding this draft may be sent either to the
lemonade@ietf.org mailing list or to the authors. lemonade@ietf.org mailing list or to the authors.]]
3. The NOTIFY Command 3. The NOTIFY Command
Arguments: "ADD" or "SET" Arguments: "ADD" or "SET"
optional STATUS indicator optional STATUS indicator
Mailboxes to be watched Mailboxes to be watched
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Events about which to notify the client Events about which to notify the client
Or Or
Arguments: "NONE" Arguments: "NONE"
Responses: Possibly untagged STATUS responses (for ADD/SET) Responses: Possibly untagged STATUS responses (for ADD/SET)
Result: OK - The server will notify the client as requested. Result: OK - The server will notify the client as requested.
NO - Unsupported notify event, NOTIFY too complex or NO - Unsupported notify event, NOTIFY too complex or
expensive, etc. expensive, etc.
BAD - Command unknown, invalid, unsupported or unknown BAD - Command unknown, invalid, unsupported or unknown
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arguments. arguments.
The NOTIFY command informs the server that the client listens for The NOTIFY command informs the server that the client listens for
event notifications all the time (even when no command is in event notifications all the time (even when no command is in
progress) and requests the server to notify it about the specified progress) and requests the server to notify it about the specified
set of events. The NOTIFY command has 3 forms. The NOTIFY NONE set of events. The NOTIFY command has 3 forms. The NOTIFY NONE
specifies that the client is not interested in any kind of event specifies that the client is not interested in any kind of event
happening on the server. The NOTIFY ADD prepends one or more events happening on the server. The NOTIFY ADD prepends one or more events
to the list of events which are interesting to the client. The to the list of events which are interesting to the client. The
NOTIFY SET replaces the current list of interesting events with a NOTIFY SET replaces the current list of interesting events with a
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If the NOTIFY command enables MessageNew, MessageExpunge, If the NOTIFY command enables MessageNew, MessageExpunge,
AnnotationChange or FlagChange notification for a mailbox, and the AnnotationChange or FlagChange notification for a mailbox, and the
client has specified the STATUS indicator parameter, then the server client has specified the STATUS indicator parameter, then the server
MUST send a STATUS response for that mailbox before NOTIFY's tagged MUST send a STATUS response for that mailbox before NOTIFY's tagged
OK. If MessageNew is enabled, the STATUS response MUST contain OK. If MessageNew is enabled, the STATUS response MUST contain
MESSAGES, UIDNEXT and UIDVALIDITY. If MessageExpunge is enabled, the MESSAGES, UIDNEXT and UIDVALIDITY. If MessageExpunge is enabled, the
STATUS response MUST contain MESSAGES. If either AnnotationChange or STATUS response MUST contain MESSAGES. If either AnnotationChange or
FlagChange are included, the STATUS response MUST contain FlagChange are included, the STATUS response MUST contain
UIDVALIDITY and HIGHESTMODSEQ. Absence of the STATUS indicator UIDVALIDITY and HIGHESTMODSEQ. Absence of the STATUS indicator
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parameter allows the client to avoid the additional STATUS parameter allows the client to avoid the additional STATUS
responses. This might be useful if the client has already retrieved responses. This might be useful if the client has already retrieved
this information before issuing the NOTIFY command. this information before issuing the NOTIFY command.
Clients are advised to limit the number of mailboxes used with Clients are advised to limit the number of mailboxes used with
NOTIFY. Particularly, if a client asks for events for all accessible NOTIFY. Particularly, if a client asks for events for all accessible
mailboxes, the server may swamp the client with updates about shared mailboxes, the server may swamp the client with updates about shared
mailboxes. This wastes both server and network resources. For mailboxes. This wastes both server and network resources. For
each mailbox specified, the server verifies that the client has each mailbox specified, the server verifies that the client has
access using the following test: access using the following test:
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- If the name does not refer to an existing mailbox, the server MUST - If the name does not refer to an existing mailbox, the server MUST
ignore it. ignore it.
- If the name refers to a mailbox which the client can't LIST, the - If the name refers to a mailbox which the client can't LIST, the
server MUST ignore it. For a server that implements [RFC4314] this server MUST ignore it. For a server that implements [RFC4314] this
means that if the client that doesn't have the 'l' (lookup) right means that if the client that doesn't have the 'l' (lookup) right
for the name, then the server MUST ignore the mailbox. This for the name, then the server MUST ignore the mailbox. This
behavior prevents dislosure on potentially confidential behavior prevents dislosure on potentially confidential
information to clients which don't have rights to know it. information to clients which don't have rights to know it.
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If the notification would be prohibitively expensive for the server If the notification would be prohibitively expensive for the server
(e.g. "notify me of all flag changes in all mailboxes"), the server (e.g. "notify me of all flag changes in all mailboxes"), the server
MAY refuse the command with a tagged NO [NOTIFICATIONOVERFLOW] MAY refuse the command with a tagged NO [NOTIFICATIONOVERFLOW]
response. response.
If the client requests information for events of an unsupported If the client requests information for events of an unsupported
type, the server MUST refuse the command with a tagged NO response type, the server MUST refuse the command with a tagged NO response
(not a BAD). This response SHOULD contain the BADEVENT response (not a BAD). This response SHOULD contain the BADEVENT response
code, which MUST list names of all events supported by the server. code, which MUST list names of all events supported by the server.
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Here's an example: Here's an example:
S: * OK [CAPABILITY IMAP4REV1 NOTIFY] S: * OK [CAPABILITY IMAP4REV1 NOTIFY]
C: a login bob alice C: a login bob alice
S: a OK Password matched S: a OK Password matched
C: b notify set status (selected MessageNew (uid C: b notify set status (selected MessageNew (uid
body.peek[header.fields (from to subject)]) (all) body.peek[header.fields (from to subject)]) MessageExpunge)
MessageExpunge) (subtree Lists MessageNew (uid) (all)) (subtree Lists MessageNew)
S: * STATUS Lists/Lemonade (UIDVALIDITY 4 UIDNEXT 9999 MESSAGES S: * STATUS Lists/Lemonade (UIDVALIDITY 4 UIDNEXT 9999 MESSAGES
500) 500)
S: [...] S: [...]
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S: * STATUS Lists/Im2000 (UIDVALIDITY 901 UIDNEXT 1 MESSAGES 0) S: * STATUS Lists/Im2000 (UIDVALIDITY 901 UIDNEXT 1 MESSAGES 0)
S: b OK done S: b OK done
C: c select inbox C: c select inbox
S: [...] (the usual 7-8 responses to SELECT) S: [...] (the usual 7-8 responses to SELECT)
S: c OK INBOX selected S: c OK INBOX selected
(Time passes. A new message is delivered to mailbox (Time passes. A new message is delivered to mailbox
Lists/Lemonade.) Lists/Lemonade.)
S: * STATUS Lists/Lemonade (UIDVALIDITY 4 UIDNEXT 10000 S: * STATUS Lists/Lemonade (UIDVALIDITY 4 UIDNEXT 10000
MESSAGES 501) MESSAGES 501)
(Time passes. A new message is delivered to inbox.) (Time passes. A new message is delivered to inbox.)
S: * 127 FETCH (UID 127001 BODY[HEADER.FIELDS (From To S: * 127 FETCH (UID 127001 BODY[HEADER.FIELDS (From To
Subject)] {75} Subject)] {75}
S: Subject: Re: good morning S: Subject: Re: good morning
S: From: alice@example.org S: From: alice@example.org
S: To: bob@example.org S: To: bob@example.org
S: S:
S: ) S: )
(Time passes. The client decides it wants to know about (Time passes. The client decides it wants to know about
one more mailbox.) one more mailbox.)
C: d notify add status (mailboxes misc MessageNew (uid) (all)) C: d notify add status (mailboxes misc MessageNew)
S: * STATUS misc (UIDVALIDITY 1 UIDNEXT 999) S: * STATUS misc (UIDVALIDITY 1 UIDNEXT 999)
(This command enables notification on one mailbox and (This command enables notification on one mailbox and
otherwise changes nothing, so one STATUS response is otherwise changes nothing, so one STATUS response is
sent.) sent.)
S: d OK done S: d OK done
4. Interaction with the IDLE Command 4. Interaction with the IDLE Command
If IDLE (as well as this extension) is supported, while processing If IDLE (as well as this extension) is supported, while processing
IDLE the server MUST send the same events as instructed by the IDLE the server MUST send the same events as instructed by the
client using the NOTIFY command. client using the NOTIFY command.
NOTIFY makes IDLE unnecessary for some clients. If a client does not NOTIFY makes IDLE unnecessary for some clients. If a client does not
use MSNs and '*' in commands, it can request MessageExpunge and use MSNs and '*' in commands, it can request MessageExpunge and
MessageNew for the selected mailbox using the NOTIFY command instead MessageNew for the selected mailbox using the NOTIFY command instead
of entering the IDLE mode. of entering the IDLE mode.
Internet-draft December 2007
5. Event Types 5. Event Types
Only some of the events in [MSGEVENT] can be expressed in IMAP, and Only some of the events in [MSGEVENT] can be expressed in IMAP, and
for some of them there are several possible ways to express the for some of them there are several possible ways to express the
event. event.
This section specifies the events which an IMAP server can notify an This section specifies the events which an IMAP server can notify an
IMAP client, and how. IMAP client, and how.
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The server SHOULD omit notifying the client if the event is caused The server SHOULD omit notifying the client if the event is caused
by this client. For example, if the client issues CREATE and has by this client. For example, if the client issues CREATE and has
requested MailboxName event that would cover the newly created requested MailboxName event that would cover the newly created
mailbox, the server SHOULD NOT notify the client of the MailboxName mailbox, the server SHOULD NOT notify the client of the MailboxName
change. change.
All event types described in this document require the 'l' and 'r' All event types described in this document require the 'l' and 'r'
rights (see [RFC4314]) on all observed mailboxes. Servers that rights (see [RFC4314]) on all observed mailboxes. Servers that
don't implement [RFC4314] should map the above rights to their don't implement [RFC4314] should map the above rights to their
access control model. access control model.
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similarly by the server. similarly by the server.
5.1. FlagChange and AnnotationChange 5.1. FlagChange and AnnotationChange
If the flag/annotation change happens in the selected mailbox, the If the flag/annotation change happens in the selected mailbox, the
server MUST notify the client by sending an unsolicited FETCH server MUST notify the client by sending an unsolicited FETCH
response, which MUST include UID and FLAGS/ANNOTATION FETCH data response, which MUST include UID and FLAGS/ANNOTATION FETCH data
items. It MAY also send new FLAGS and/or OK [PERMANENTFLAGS ...] items. It MAY also send new FLAGS and/or OK [PERMANENTFLAGS ...]
responses. responses.
If a search context is in effect as specified in [CONTEXT], an
ESEARCH ADDTO or ESEARCH REMOVEFROM will also be generated, if
appropriate. [[Alexey: I don't think this is needed: In this case,
the FETCH response MUST precede the ESEARCH response.]]
If the change happens in another mailbox, then the response depends If the change happens in another mailbox, then the response depends
on whether CONDSTORE [RFC4551] is being used. If so, the server on whether CONDSTORE [RFC4551] is being used. If so, the server
sends a STATUS (HIGHESTMODSEQ) response. Note that whenever mailbox sends a STATUS (HIGHESTMODSEQ) response. Note that whenever mailbox
UIDVALIDITY changes, the server MUST also include UIDVALIDITY in the UIDVALIDITY changes, the server MUST also include UIDVALIDITY in the
STATUS response. If CONDSTORE is not used, the server does not STATUS response. If CONDSTORE is not used, the server does not
notify the client. notify the client.
FlagChange covers the MessageRead, MessageTrash, FlagsSet and FlagChange covers the MessageRead, MessageTrash, FlagsSet and
FlagsClear events in [MSGEVENT]. FlagsClear events in [MSGEVENT].
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[[Open Issue: Filip Navara requested for STATUS (UNSEEN) to be sent [[Open Issue: Filip Navara requested for STATUS (UNSEEN) to be sent
for MessageRead. Arnt considers that unsound, since it involves for MessageRead. Arnt considers that unsound, since it involves
processing all messages in a mailbox after an event affecting only processing all messages in a mailbox after an event affecting only
one message, and since it's not reliable anyway.]] one message, and since it's not reliable anyway.]]
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Example in the selected mailbox: Example in the selected mailbox:
S: * 99 FETCH (UID 9999 FLAGS ($Junk)) S: * 99 FETCH (UID 9999 FLAGS ($Junk))
And in another, with CONDSTORE in use: And in another, with CONDSTORE in use:
S: * STATUS Lists/Lemonade (HIGHESTMODSEQ 65666665) S: * STATUS Lists/Lemonade (HIGHESTMODSEQ 65666665)
5.2. MessageNew 5.2. MessageNew
This covers both MessageNew and MessageAppend in [MSGEVENT]. This covers both MessageNew and MessageAppend in [MSGEVENT].
If the new/appended message is in the selected mailbox, the server If the new/appended message is in the selected mailbox, the server
notifies the client by sending an unsolicited EXISTS response, notifies the client by sending an unsolicited EXISTS response,
followed by an unsolicited FETCH response containing the information followed by an unsolicited FETCH response containing the information
requested by the client. The server MAY also send a RECENT response, requested by the client. A FETCH response SHOULD NOT be generated
if the server marks the message as \Recent. for a new message created by the client on this particular
connection, for instance as the result of an APPEND or COPY command
to the selected mailbox performed by the client itself. The server
MAY also send a RECENT response, if the server marks the message as
\Recent.
Note that a single EXISTS response can be returned for multiple Note that a single EXISTS response can be returned for multiple
MessageAppend/MessageNew events. MessageAppend/MessageNew events.
If a search context is in effect as specified in [CONTEXT], an
ESEARCH ADDTO will also be generated, if appropriate. In this case,
the EXISTS response MUST precede the ESEARCH response. Both the
NOTIFY command and the SEARCH and SORT commands (see Section 7) can
specify attributes to be returned for new messages. These
attributes SHOULD be combined into a single FETCH response. The
server SHOULD avoid sending duplicate data. The FETCH response(s)
MUST follow any ESEARCH ADDTO responses.
If the new/appended message is in another mailbox, the server sends If the new/appended message is in another mailbox, the server sends
an unsolicited STATUS (UIDNEXT MESSAGES) response for the relevant an unsolicited STATUS (UIDNEXT MESSAGES) response for the relevant
mailbox. If CONDSTORE (defined in [RFC4551]) is in use, the mailbox. If CONDSTORE (defined in [RFC4551]) is in use, the
HIGHESTMODSEQ status data item MUST be included in the STATUS HIGHESTMODSEQ status data item MUST be included in the STATUS
response. response.
The client SHOULD NOT use FETCH attributes that implicitly set the The client SHOULD NOT use FETCH attributes that implicitly set the
\seen flag, or that presuppose the existence of a given bodypart. \seen flag, or that presuppose the existence of a given bodypart.
UID, MODSEQ, FLAGS, ENVELOPE, BODY.PEEK[HEADER.FIELDS... and UID, MODSEQ, FLAGS, ENVELOPE, BODY.PEEK[HEADER.FIELDS... and
BODY/BODYSTRUCTURE may be the most useful attributes. BODY/BODYSTRUCTURE may be the most useful attributes.
Note that if a client asks to be notified of MessageNew events, the Note that if a client asks to be notified of MessageNew events, the
number of messages can increase at any time, and therefore the number of messages can increase at any time, and therefore the
client cannot refer to a specific message using the MSN/UID '*'. client cannot refer to a specific message using the MSN/UID '*'.
Internet-draft February 2008
Example in the selected mailbox: Example in the selected mailbox:
S: * 444 EXISTS S: * 444 EXISTS
S: * 444 FETCH (UID 9999) S: * 444 FETCH (UID 9999)
And in another, without CONDSTORE: And in another, without CONDSTORE:
S: * STATUS Lists/Lemonade (UIDNEXT 10002 MESSAGES 503) S: * STATUS Lists/Lemonade (UIDNEXT 10002 MESSAGES 503)
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5.3. MessageExpunge 5.3. MessageExpunge
If the expunged message(s) is/are in the selected mailbox, the If the expunged message(s) is/are in the selected mailbox, the
server notifies the client using EXPUNGE (or VANISHED, if [QRESYNC] server notifies the client using EXPUNGE (or VANISHED, if [QRESYNC]
is being used). is being used).
If a search context is in effect as specified in [CONTEXT], an
ESEARCH REMOVEFROM will also be generated, if appropriate.
If the expunged message(s) is/are in another mailbox, the server If the expunged message(s) is/are in another mailbox, the server
sends an unsolicited STATUS (UIDNEXT MESSAGES) response for the sends an unsolicited STATUS (UIDNEXT MESSAGES) response for the
relevant mailbox. If CONDSTORE is being used, HIGHESTMODSEQ MUST be relevant mailbox. If CONDSTORE is being used, HIGHESTMODSEQ MUST be
included in the STATUS response. included in the STATUS response.
Note that if a client requests MessageExpunge, the meaning of a MSN Note that if a client requests MessageExpunge, the meaning of a MSN
can change at any time, so the client cannot use MSNs in commands can change at any time, so the client cannot use MSNs in commands
anymore. For example, such a client cannot use FETCH, but it has to anymore. For example, such a client cannot use FETCH, but it has to
use UID FETCH. The meaning of '*' can also change when messages are use UID FETCH. The meaning of '*' can also change when messages are
added or expunged. A client wishing to keep using MSNs MUST NOT added or expunged. A client wishing to keep using MSNs MUST NOT
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S: * STATUS misc (UIDNEXT 999 MESSAGES 554) S: * STATUS misc (UIDNEXT 999 MESSAGES 554)
5.4. MailboxName 5.4. MailboxName
These notifications are sent if an affected mailbox name was created These notifications are sent if an affected mailbox name was created
(with CREATE), deleted (with DELETE) or renamed (with RENAME). If a (with CREATE), deleted (with DELETE) or renamed (with RENAME). If a
mailbox is created or deleted, the mailbox itself and its parent are mailbox is created or deleted, the mailbox itself and its parent are
considered to be affected. considered to be affected.
The server notifies the client by sending an unsolicited LIST The server notifies the client by sending an unsolicited LIST
Internet-draft February 2008
response for each affected mailbox name. If the mailbox name does response for each affected mailbox name. If the mailbox name does
not refer to a mailbox after the event, the \Nonexistent flag MUST not refer to a mailbox after the event, the \Nonexistent flag MUST
be included. be included.
For each selectable [[Alexey: is "selectable" important?]] mailbox For each selectable [[Alexey: is "selectable" important?]] mailbox
renamed, the server sends an extended LIST response [LISTEXT] for renamed, the server sends an extended LIST response [LISTEXT] for
the new mailbox name, containing the OLDNAME extended data item with the new mailbox name, containing the OLDNAME extended data item with
the old mailbox name. When a mailbox is renamed, its children are the old mailbox name. When a mailbox is renamed, its children are
renamed too. No additional MailboxName events are sent for children renamed too. No additional MailboxName events are sent for children
in this case. When INBOX is renamed, a new INBOX is assumed to be in this case. When INBOX is renamed, a new INBOX is assumed to be
created. No MailboxName event must be sent for INBOX in this case. created. No MailboxName event must be sent for INBOX in this case.
Internet-draft December 2007
Example of a newly created mailbox: Example of a newly created mailbox:
S: * LIST () "/" "NewMailbox" S: * LIST () "/" "NewMailbox"
And a deleted mailbox: And a deleted mailbox:
S: * LIST (\NonExistent) "/" "INBOX.DeletedMailbox" S: * LIST (\NonExistent) "/" "INBOX.DeletedMailbox"
Example of a renamed mailbox: Example of a renamed mailbox:
S: * LIST () "/" "NewMailbox" ("OLDNAME" ("OldMailbox")) S: * LIST () "/" "NewMailbox" ("OLDNAME" ("OldMailbox"))
5.5. SubscriptionChange 5.5. SubscriptionChange
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metadata should be included, but if necessary, all metadata must be metadata should be included, but if necessary, all metadata must be
included. included.
Example: Example:
S: * LIST "/" "INBOX" (METADATA (/comment)) S: * LIST "/" "INBOX" (METADATA (/comment))
5.7. ServerMetadataChange 5.7. ServerMetadataChange
The server sends an unsolicited METADATA response (as per Section The server sends an unsolicited METADATA response (as per Section
4.5.2 of [METADATA]). Only the names of changed metadata entries 4.5.2 of [METADATA]). Only the names of changed metadata entries
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SHOULD be returned in such METADATA responses. SHOULD be returned in such METADATA responses.
Example: Example:
S: * METADATA (/comment) S: * METADATA (/comment)
5.8. Notification Overflow 5.8. Notification Overflow
If the server is unable or unwilling to deliver as many If the server is unable or unwilling to deliver as many
notifications as it is being asked to, it may disable notifications notifications as it is being asked to, it may disable notifications
for some or all clients. It MUST notify these clients by sending an for some or all clients. It MUST notify these clients by sending an
Internet-draft December 2007
untagged "OK [NOTIFICATIONOVERFLOW]" response and behave as if a untagged "OK [NOTIFICATIONOVERFLOW]" response and behave as if a
NOTIFY NONE command had just been received. NOTIFY NONE command had just been received.
Example: Example:
S: * OK [NOTIFICATIONOVERFLOW] ...A comment can go here... S: * OK [NOTIFICATIONOVERFLOW] ...A comment can go here...
5.9. ACL Changes 5.9. ACL Changes
Even if NOTIFY succeeds, it is still possible to loose access to the Even if NOTIFY succeeds, it is still possible to loose access to the
mailboxes monitoried at a later time. If this happens, the server mailboxes monitoried at a later time. If this happens, the server
skipping to change at page 10, line 32 skipping to change at page 11, line 42
Mailboxes to be monitored can be specified in several different Mailboxes to be monitored can be specified in several different
ways. ways.
If the client specifies monitoring of the same mailbox several If the client specifies monitoring of the same mailbox several
times, the first specification wins. A common example is asking for times, the first specification wins. A common example is asking for
events on the selected mailbox and some named mailboxes. events on the selected mailbox and some named mailboxes.
In this example, the client asks for MessageExpunge events for all In this example, the client asks for MessageExpunge events for all
personal mailboxes except the selected mailbox: personal mailboxes except the selected mailbox:
C: a notify set (selected (MessageNew (uid flags) flagchange)) C: a notify set (selected (MessageNew (uid flags) flagchange))
(personal (MessageNew (uid flags) flagchange MessageExpunge)) (personal (MessageNew FlagChange MessageExpunge))
6.1. Selected 6.1. Selected
Selected refers to the mailbox selected using either SELECT or Selected refers to the mailbox selected using either SELECT or
EXAMINE (see [RFC3501] section 6.3.1 and 6.3.2). When the IMAP EXAMINE (see [RFC3501] section 6.3.1 and 6.3.2). When the IMAP
connection is not in selected state, selected does not refer to any connection is not in selected state, selected does not refer to any
Internet-draft February 2008
mailbox. mailbox.
6.2. Personal 6.2. Personal
Personal refers to all selectable mailboxes in the user's personal Personal refers to all selectable mailboxes in the user's personal
namespace(s). namespace(s).
6.3. Inboxes 6.3. Inboxes
Inboxes refers to all selectable mailboxes in the user's personal Inboxes refers to all selectable mailboxes in the user's personal
Internet-draft December 2007
namespace(s) to which messages may be delivered by an MDA (see namespace(s) to which messages may be delivered by an MDA (see
[EMAIL-ARCH], particularly section 4.3.3). [EMAIL-ARCH], particularly section 4.3.3).
If the IMAP server cannot easily compute this set, it MUST treat If the IMAP server cannot easily compute this set, it MUST treat
"inboxes" as equivalent to "personal". "inboxes" as equivalent to "personal".
6.4 Subscribed 6.4 Subscribed
Subscribed refers to all mailboxes subscribed by the user. Subscribed refers to all mailboxes subscribed by the user.
If the subscription list changes, the server MUST reevaluate the If the subscription list changes, the server MUST reevaluate the
list. list.
6.5 Subtree 6.5 Subtree
Subtree is followed by a mailbox name or list of mailbox names. A Subtree is followed by a mailbox name or list of mailbox names. A
subtree refers to all selectable mailboxes which are subordinate to subtree refers to all selectable mailboxes which are subordinate to
the specified mailbox plus the mailbox itself. the specified mailbox plus the mailbox itself.
[[Open Issue: Making this "all selectable mailboxes" makes it easy
to implement this well. The pattern can be evaluated at NOTIFY time
and notification information affixed to the mailboxes in RAM. Fine.
But what about "notify me if any mailboxes are created whose name
contains the letters xxx"? Not useful IMO...? (writes arnt)]]
6.6 Mailboxes 6.6 Mailboxes
Mailboxes is followed by a mailbox name or a list of mailbox names. Mailboxes is followed by a mailbox name or a list of mailbox names.
The server MUST NOT do wildcard expansion. This means there is no The server MUST NOT do wildcard expansion. This means there is no
special treatment for the LIST wildcard characters ('*' and '%') if special treatment for the LIST wildcard characters ('*' and '%') if
they are present in mailbox names. they are present in mailbox names.
7. Formal Syntax 7. Extension to SEARCH and SORT commands
If the server that support the NOTIFY extension also supports
CONTEXT=SEARCH and/or CONTEXT=SORT as defined in [CONTEXT], the
UPDATE return option is extended so that a client can request that
FETCH attributes be returned when a new message is added to the
Internet-draft February 2008
context result set.
For example:
C: a00 SEARCH RETURN (COUNT UPDATE (UID BODY[HEADER.FIELDS (TO
FROM
SUBJECT)])) FROM "boss" S: * ESEARCH (TAG "a00") (COUNT
17) S: a00 OK [...a new message is delivered...] S: * EXISTS
93 S: * ESEARCH (TAG "a00") ADDTO (0 93) S: * 93 FETCH (UID
127001 BODY[HEADER.FIELDS (FROM TO SUBJECT)] {76} S: Subject:
Re: good morning S: From: myboss@example.org S: To:
bob@example.org S: S: )
Note that the EXISTS response MUST precede the ESEARCH response, and
the FETCH response MUST follow the ESEARCH response.
No untagged FETCH response SHOULD be returned if a message becomes a
member of UPDATE SEARCH due to flag or annotation changes.
8. Formal Syntax
The following syntax specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur The following syntax specification uses the Augmented Backus-Naur
Form (ABNF) notation as specified in [RFC4234]. [RFC3501] defines Form (ABNF) notation as specified in [RFC4234]. [RFC3501] defines
the non-terminals "capability", "command-auth", "mailbox", "mailbox- the non-terminals "capability", "command-auth", "mailbox", "mailbox-
data", "resp-text-code" and "search-key". data", "resp-text-code" and "search-key". The "modifier-update" non-
terminal is defined in [CONTEXT].
Except as noted otherwise, all alphabetic characters are case- Except as noted otherwise, all alphabetic characters are case-
insensitive. The use of upper or lower case characters to define insensitive. The use of upper or lower case characters to define
token strings is for editorial clarity only. Implementations MUST token strings is for editorial clarity only. Implementations MUST
accept these strings in a case-insensitive fashion. accept these strings in a case-insensitive fashion.
Internet-draft December 2007 capability =/ "X-DRAFT-W03-NOTIFY"
capability =/ "X-DRAFT-W00-NOTIFY"
;; [[Note to RFC Editor: change the capability ;; [[Note to RFC Editor: change the capability
;; name before publication]] ;; name before publication]]
command-auth =/ notify command-auth =/ notify
notify = "NOTIFY" SP notify = "NOTIFY" SP
(notify-add / notify-set / notify-none) (notify-add / notify-set / notify-none)
notify-add = "ADD" [status-indicator] SP event-groups notify-add = "ADD" [status-indicator] SP event-groups
; Add (prepend) registered notification ; Add (prepend) registered notification
; events to the list of notification ; events to the list of notification
; events. Newer events override older ; events. Newer events override older
; events. ; events.
[[Alexey: what about "most specific" event [[Alexey: what about "most specific" event
overriding a pattern?]] overriding a pattern?]]
Internet-draft February 2008
notify-set = "SET" [status-indicator] SP event-groups notify-set = "SET" [status-indicator] SP event-groups
; Replace registered notification events ; Replace registered notification events
; with the specified list of events ; with the specified list of events
notify-none = "NONE" notify-none = "NONE"
; Cancel all registered notification ; Cancel all registered notification
; events. The client is not interested ; events. The client is not interested
; in receiving any events. ; in receiving any events.
status-indicator = SP "STATUS" status-indicator = SP "STATUS"
skipping to change at page 13, line 4 skipping to change at page 14, line 38
( "subtree" SP one-or-more-mailbox ) / ( "subtree" SP one-or-more-mailbox ) /
( "mailboxes" SP one-or-more-mailbox ) ( "mailboxes" SP one-or-more-mailbox )
events = ( "(" event *(SP event) ")" ) / "NONE" events = ( "(" event *(SP event) ")" ) / "NONE"
;; As in [MSGEVENT]. ;; As in [MSGEVENT].
;; "NONE" means that the client does not wish ;; "NONE" means that the client does not wish
;; to receive any events for the specified ;; to receive any events for the specified
;; mailboxes. ;; mailboxes.
event = message-event event = message-event
Internet-draft December 2007
/ mailbox-event / user-event / event-ext / mailbox-event / user-event / event-ext
message-match-criteria = "(" search-key ")" message-match-criteria = "(" search-key ")"
message-event = ( "MessageNew" SP message-event = ( "MessageNew" [SP
"(" fetch-att *(SP fetch-att) ")" "(" fetch-att *(SP fetch-att) ")" ] )
SP message-match-criteria )
/ "MessageExpunge" / "MessageExpunge"
/ "FlagChange" SP message-match-criteria / "FlagChange" SP message-match-criteria
/ "AnnotationChange" SP message-match-criteria / "AnnotationChange" SP message-match-criteria
;; "MessageNew" includes "MessageAppend" from ;; "MessageNew" includes "MessageAppend" from
;; [MSGEVENT]. "FlagChange" is any of ;; [MSGEVENT]. "FlagChange" is any of
;; "MessageRead", "MessageTrash", "FlagsSet", ;; "MessageRead", "MessageTrash", "FlagsSet",
;; "FlagsClear" [MSGEVENT]. "MessageExpunge" ;; "FlagsClear" [MSGEVENT]. "MessageExpunge"
;; includes "MessageExpire" [MSGEVENT]. ;; includes "MessageExpire" [MSGEVENT].
Internet-draft February 2008
mailbox-event = "MailboxName" / mailbox-event = "MailboxName" /
"SubscriptionChange" / "MailboxMetadataChange" "SubscriptionChange" / "MailboxMetadataChange"
; "SubscriptionChange" includes ; "SubscriptionChange" includes
; MailboxSubscribe and MailboxUnSubscribe. ; MailboxSubscribe and MailboxUnSubscribe.
; "MailboxName" includes MailboxCreate, ; "MailboxName" includes MailboxCreate,
; "MailboxDelete" and "MailboxRename". ; "MailboxDelete" and "MailboxRename".
user-event = "ServerMetadataChange" user-event = "ServerMetadataChange"
event-ext = atom event-ext = atom
skipping to change at page 14, line 5 skipping to change at page 15, line 40
message-event-name = "MessageNew" / message-event-name = "MessageNew" /
/ "MessageExpunge" / "FlagChange" / / "MessageExpunge" / "FlagChange" /
"AnnotationChange" "AnnotationChange"
event-name = message-event-name / mailbox-event / event-name = message-event-name / mailbox-event /
user-event user-event
unsupported-events-code = "BADEVENT" unsupported-events-code = "BADEVENT"
SP "(" event-name *(SP event-name) ")" SP "(" event-name *(SP event-name) ")"
Internet-draft December 2007 modifier-update = "UPDATE"
[ "(" fetch-att *(SP fetch-att) ")" ]
8. Security considerations 9. Security considerations
It is very easy for a client to deny itself service using NOTIFY: It is very easy for a client to deny itself service using NOTIFY:
Asking for all events on all mailboxes may work on a small server, Asking for all events on all mailboxes may work on a small server,
but with a big server can swamp the client's network connection or but with a big server can swamp the client's network connection or
processing capability. In the worst case, the server's processing processing capability. In the worst case, the server's processing
could also degrade the service it offers to other clients. could also degrade the service it offers to other clients.
Server authors should be aware that if a client issues requests and Server authors should be aware that if a client issues requests and
does not listen to the resulting responses, the TCP window can does not listen to the resulting responses, the TCP window can
easily fill up, and a careless server might block. This problem easily fill up, and a careless server might block. This problem
Internet-draft February 2008
exists in plain IMAP, however this extension magnifies the problem. exists in plain IMAP, however this extension magnifies the problem.
This extensions makes it possible to retrieve messages immediately This extensions makes it possible to retrieve messages immediately
when they are added to the mailbox. This makes it wholly impractical when they are added to the mailbox. This makes it wholly impractical
to delete sensitive messages using programs like imapfilter. Using to delete sensitive messages using programs like imapfilter. Using
[SIEVE] or similar is much better. [SIEVE] or similar is much better.
9. IANA considerations 10. IANA considerations
The IANA is requested to add NOTIFY to the list of IMAP extensions, The IANA is requested to add NOTIFY to the list of IMAP extensions,
http://www.iana.org/assignments/imap4-capabilities. http://www.iana.org/assignments/imap4-capabilities.
9.1. Initial LIST-EXTENDED extended data item registrations 10.1. Initial LIST-EXTENDED extended data item registrations
It is requested that the following entry be added to the LIST- It is requested that the following entry be added to the LIST-
EXTENDED extended data item registry [LISTEXT]: EXTENDED extended data item registry [LISTEXT]:
To: iana@iana.org Subject: Registration of OLDNAME LIST-EXTENDED To: iana@iana.org Subject: Registration of OLDNAME LIST-EXTENDED
extended data item extended data item
LIST-EXTENDED extended data item tag: OLDNAME LIST-EXTENDED extended data item tag: OLDNAME
LIST-EXTENDED extended data item description: The OLDNAME extended LIST-EXTENDED extended data item description: The OLDNAME extended
skipping to change at page 15, line 4 skipping to change at page 16, line 43
Which LIST-EXTENDED option(s) (and their types) causes this extended Which LIST-EXTENDED option(s) (and their types) causes this extended
data item to be returned (if any): none data item to be returned (if any): none
Published specification : RFC XXXX, Section 5.4. Published specification : RFC XXXX, Section 5.4.
Security considerations: none Security considerations: none
Intended usage: COMMON Intended usage: COMMON
Person and email address to contact for further information: Person and email address to contact for further information:
Internet-draft December 2007
Alexey Melnikov <Alexey.Melnikov@isode.com> Alexey Melnikov <Alexey.Melnikov@isode.com>
Owner/Change controller: iesg@ietf.org Owner/Change controller: iesg@ietf.org
10. Acknowedgements 11. Acknowedgements
The authors gratefully acknowledge the help of Peter Coates, Dave The authors gratefully acknowledge the help of Peter Coates, Dave
Cridland, Mark Crispin, Cyrus Daboo, Abhijit Menon-Sen and Eric Cridland, Mark Crispin, Cyrus Daboo, Abhijit Menon-Sen and Eric
Burger. Various example lines are copied from other RFCs. Burger. In particular, Peter Coates contributed lots of text and
useful suggestions to this document.
Internet-draft February 2008
Various examples are copied from other RFCs.
This document builds on one published and two unpublished drafts by This document builds on one published and two unpublished drafts by
the same authors. the same authors.
11. Normative References 12. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, Harvard University, March Requirement Levels", RFC 2119, Harvard University, March
1997. 1997.
[RFC2177] Leiba, "IMAP4 IDLE Command", RFC 2177, IBM, June 1997. [RFC2177] Leiba, "IMAP4 IDLE Command", RFC 2177, IBM, June 1997.
[RFC3501] Crispin, "Internet Message Access Protocol - Version [RFC3501] Crispin, "Internet Message Access Protocol - Version
4rev1", RFC 3501, University of Washington, June 2003. 4rev1", RFC 3501, University of Washington, June 2003.
skipping to change at page 15, line 45 skipping to change at page 17, line 37
[RFC4314] Melnikov, "IMAP4 Access Control List (ACL) Extension", [RFC4314] Melnikov, "IMAP4 Access Control List (ACL) Extension",
RFC 4314, December 2005. RFC 4314, December 2005.
[RFC4466] Melnikov, Daboo, "Collected Extensions to IMAP4 ABNF", [RFC4466] Melnikov, Daboo, "Collected Extensions to IMAP4 ABNF",
RFC 4466, Isode Ltd., April 2006. RFC 4466, Isode Ltd., April 2006.
[RFC4551] Melnikov, Hole, "IMAP Extension for Conditional STORE [RFC4551] Melnikov, Hole, "IMAP Extension for Conditional STORE
Operation or Quick Flag Changes Resynchronization", RFC Operation or Quick Flag Changes Resynchronization", RFC
4551, Isode Ltd., June 2006. 4551, Isode Ltd., June 2006.
[LISTEXT] Leiba, Melnikov, "IMAP4 List Command Extensions", [LISTEXT] Leiba, Melnikov, "IMAP4 List Command Extensions", draft-
draft-ietf-imapext-list-extensions-18 (work in progress), ietf-imapext-list-extensions-18 (work in progress), IBM,
IBM, September 2006. September 2006.
[METADATA] Daboo, "IMAP METADATA Extension", [METADATA] Daboo, "IMAP METADATA Extension", draft-daboo-imap-
draft-daboo-imap-annotatemore-12 (work in progress), annotatemore-12 (work in progress), Apple Computer, Inc.,
Apple Computer, Inc., December 2007. December 2007.
Internet-draft December 2007 [MSGEVENT] Newman, C. and R. Gellens, "Internet Message Store
Events", draft-ietf-lemonade-msgevent-03.txt (work in
progress), Sun, July 2007.
[MSGEVENT] Newman, "Internet Message Store Events", [CONTEXT] Cridland, D. and C. King, "Contexts for IMAP4", work in
draft-ietf-lemonade-msgevent-03.txt (work in progress), progress, draft-cridland-imap-context-03.txt, Isode, June
Sun, July 2007. 2007.
12. Informative References Internet-draft February 2008
[SIEVE] Showalter, "Sieve: A Mail Filtering Language", RFC 3028, 13. Informative References
Mirapoint Inc, January 2001.
[QRESYNC] Melnikov, Cridland, Wilson, "IMAP4 Extensions for Quick [SIEVE] Guenther, P. and T. Showalter, "Sieve: A Mail Filtering
Mailbox Resynchronization", Language", RFC 5228, January 2008.
draft-ietf-lemonade-reconnect-client-05.txt (work in
progress), February 2007.
[EMAIL-ARCH] Crocker, "Internet Mail Architecture", [QRESYNC] Melnikov, Cridland, Wilson, "IMAP4 Extensions for Quick
draft-crocker-email-arch-09 (work in progress), March Mailbox Resynchronization", draft-ietf-lemonade-
reconnect-client-05.txt (work in progress), February
2007. 2007.
13. Authors' Addresses [EMAIL-ARCH] Crocker, "Internet Mail Architecture", draft-crocker-
email-arch-09 (work in progress), March 2007.
14. Authors' Addresses
Curtis King Curtis King
Isode Ltd Isode Ltd
5 Castle Business Village 5 Castle Business Village
36 Station Road 36 Station Road
Hampton, Middlesex TW12 2BX Hampton, Middlesex TW12 2BX
UK UK
Email: Curtis.King@isode.com Email: Curtis.King@isode.com
skipping to change at page 17, line 5 skipping to change at page 19, line 5
Email: Alexey.Melnikov@isode.com Email: Alexey.Melnikov@isode.com
Arnt Gulbrandsen Arnt Gulbrandsen
Oryx Mail Systems GmbH Oryx Mail Systems GmbH
Schweppermannstr. 8 Schweppermannstr. 8
D-81671 Muenchen D-81671 Muenchen
Germany Germany
Email: arnt@oryx.com Email: arnt@oryx.com
Internet-draft December 2007 Internet-draft February 2008
Intellectual Property Statement Intellectual Property Statement
The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any The IETF takes no position regarding the validity or scope of any
Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed Intellectual Property Rights or other rights that might be claimed
to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described to pertain to the implementation or use of the technology described
in this document or the extent to which any license under such in this document or the extent to which any license under such
rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that rights might or might not be available; nor does it represent that
it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights. it has made any independent effort to identify any such rights.
Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC Information on the procedures with respect to rights in RFC
skipping to change at page 17, line 28 skipping to change at page 19, line 28
Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any Copies of IPR disclosures made to the IETF Secretariat and any
assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an assurances of licenses to be made available, or the result of an
attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use attempt made to obtain a general license or permission for the use
of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this of such proprietary rights by implementers or users of this
specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository specification can be obtained from the IETF on-line IPR repository
at http://www.ietf.org/ipr. at http://www.ietf.org/ipr.
The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf- this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at
ipr@ietf.org. ietf-ipr@ietf.org.
Full Copyright Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007). This document is subject to Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2008). This document is subject to
the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights. except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on This document and the information contained herein are provided on
an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE an "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE
REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE REPRESENTS OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE
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WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY
WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE
ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
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