draft-ietf-lmap-framework-04.txt   draft-ietf-lmap-framework-05.txt 
Network Working Group P. Eardley Network Working Group P. Eardley
Internet-Draft BT Internet-Draft BT
Intended status: Informational A. Morton Intended status: Informational A. Morton
Expires: October 2, 2014 AT&T Labs Expires: November 14, 2014 AT&T Labs
M. Bagnulo M. Bagnulo
UC3M UC3M
T. Burbridge T. Burbridge
BT BT
P. Aitken P. Aitken
A. Akhter A. Akhter
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
March 31, 2014 May 13, 2014
A framework for large-scale measurement platforms (LMAP) A framework for large-scale measurement platforms (LMAP)
draft-ietf-lmap-framework-04 draft-ietf-lmap-framework-05
Abstract Abstract
Measuring broadband service on a large scale requires a description Measuring broadband service on a large scale requires a description
of the logical architecture and standardisation of the key protocols of the logical architecture and standardisation of the key protocols
that coordinate interactions between the components. The document that coordinate interactions between the components. The document
presents an overall framework for large-scale measurements. It also presents an overall framework for large-scale measurements. It also
defines terminology for LMAP (large-scale measurement platforms). defines terminology for LMAP (large-scale measurement platforms).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
skipping to change at page 1, line 42 skipping to change at page 1, line 42
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on October 2, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 14, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Outline of an LMAP-based measurement system . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Outline of an LMAP-based measurement system . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1. Measurement system is under the direction of a single 4.1. Measurement system is under the direction of a single
organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.2. Each MA may only have a single Controller at any point in 4.2. Each MA may only have a single Controller at any point in
time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5. LMAP Protocol Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5. LMAP Protocol Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. Bootstrapping process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1. Bootstrapping process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. Control Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2. Configuration Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2.1. Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.3. Control Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.2.2. Capabilities and Failure information . . . . . . . . 17 5.3.1. Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.3. Operation of Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.3.2. Capabilities and Failure information . . . . . . . . 18
5.3.1. Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . 19 5.4. Operation of Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.3.2. Overlapping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.4.1. Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . 20
5.4. Report Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.4.2. Overlapping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.4.1. Reporting of Subsriber's service parameters . . . . . 22 5.5. Report Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.5. Operation of LMAP over the underlying transport protocol 22 5.5.1. Reporting of Subscriber's service parameters . . . . 22
5.6. Items beyond the scope of the LMAP Protocol Model . . . . 23 5.6. Operation of LMAP over the underlying packet transfer
5.6.1. End-user-controlled measurement system . . . . . . . 24 mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.7. Items beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work . . . . . 24
5.7.1. End-user-controlled measurement system . . . . . . . 25
6. Deployment considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6. Deployment considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.1. Controller and the measurement system . . . . . . . . . . 25 6.1. Controller and the measurement system . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.2. Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.2. Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.2.1. Measurement Agent on a networked device . . . . . . . 26 6.2.1. Measurement Agent on a networked device . . . . . . . 27
6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway . . . . . 26 6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway . . . . . 27
6.2.3. Measurement Agent embedded behind site NAT /Firewall 27 6.2.3. Measurement Agent embedded behind site NAT /Firewall 27
6.2.4. Multi-homed Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 6.2.4. Multi-homed Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.3. Measurement Peer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6.2.5. Measurement Agent embedded in ISP Network . . . . . . 28
7. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6.3. Measurement Peer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
8. Privacy Considerations for LMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
8.1. Categories of Entities with Information of Interest . . . 30 8. Privacy Considerations for LMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.2. Examples of Sensitive Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8.1. Categories of Entities with Information of Interest . . . 31
8.2. Examples of Sensitive Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8.3. Key Distinction Between Active and Passive Measurement 8.3. Key Distinction Between Active and Passive Measurement
Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
8.4. Privacy analysis of the Communications Models . . . . . . 33 8.4. Privacy analysis of the Communications Models . . . . . . 34
8.4.1. MA Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8.4.1. MA Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8.4.2. Controller <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.4.2. Controller <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.4.3. Collector <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.4.3. Collector <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.4.4. Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . 35 8.4.4. Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . 36
8.4.5. Passive Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8.4.5. Passive Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8.4.6. Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results . . . . 37 8.4.6. Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results . . . . 38
8.5. Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 8.5. Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.5.1. Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 8.5.1. Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.5.2. Stored Data Compromise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 8.5.2. Stored Data Compromise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.5.3. Correlation and Identification . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8.5.3. Correlation and Identification . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.5.4. Secondary Use and Disclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8.5.4. Secondary Use and Disclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.6. Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8.6. Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.6.1. Data Minimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8.6.1. Data Minimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.6.2. Anonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8.6.2. Anonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.6.3. Pseudonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.6.3. Pseudonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.6.4. Other Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.6.4. Other Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10. Appendix: Deployment examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 10. Appendix: Deployment examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
12. History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 12. History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
12.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 12.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
12.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 12.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
12.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 12.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
12.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 12.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 12.5. From -04 to -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 13. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
There is a desire to be able to coordinate the execution of broadband There is a desire to be able to coordinate the execution of broadband
measurements and the collection of measurement results across a large measurements and the collection of measurement results across a large
scale set of diverse devices. These devices could be software based scale set of diverse devices. These devices could be software based
agents on PCs, embedded agents in consumer devices (e.g. blu-ray agents on PCs, embedded agents in consumer devices (e.g. blu-ray
players), service provider controlled devices such as set-top players players), service provider controlled devices such as set-top players
and home gateways, or simply dedicated probes. It is expected that and home gateways, or simply dedicated probes. It is expected that
such a system could easily comprise 100,000 devices. Such a scale such a system could easily comprise 100,000 devices. Measurement
presents unique problems in coordination, execution and measurement devices may also be embedded on a device that is part of an ISP's
result collection. Several use cases have been proposed for large- network, such as a DSLAM, router, Carrier Grade NAT or ISP Gateway.
scale measurements including: Such a scale presents unique problems in coordination, execution and
measurement result collection. Several use cases have been proposed
for large-scale measurements including:
o Operators: to help plan their network and identify faults o Operators: to help plan their network and identify faults
o Regulators: to benchmark several network operators and support o Regulators: to benchmark several network operators and support
public policy development public policy development
Further details of the use cases can be found in Further details of the use cases can be found in
[I-D.ietf-lmap-use-cases]. The LMAP framework should be useful for [I-D.ietf-lmap-use-cases]. The LMAP framework should be useful for
these, as well as other use cases, such as to help end users run these, as well as other use cases, such as to help end users run
diagnostic checks like a network speed test. diagnostic checks like a network speed test.
The LMAP framework has three basic elements: Measurement Agents, The LMAP Framework has three basic elements: Measurement Agents,
Controllers and Collectors. Controllers and Collectors.
Measurement Agents (MAs) perform the actual measurements, which are Measurement Agents (MAs) initiate the actual measurements, which are
called Measurement Tasks in the LMAP terminology. called Measurement Tasks in the LMAP terminology. In principle,
there are no restrictions on the type of device in which the MA
function resides.
The Controller manages one or more MAs by instructing it which The Controller instructs one or more MAs and communicates the set of
Measurement Tasks it should perform and when. For example it may Measurement Tasks an MA should perform and when. For example it may
instruct a MA at a home gateway: "Measure the 'UDP latency' with instruct a MA at a home gateway: "Measure the 'UDP latency' with
www.example.org; repeat every hour at xx.05". The Controller also www.example.org; repeat every hour at xx.05". The Controller also
manages a MA by instructing it how to report the Measurement Results, manages a MA by instructing it how to report the Measurement Results,
for example: "Report results once a day in a batch at 4am". We refer for example: "Report results once a day in a batch at 4am". We refer
to these as the Measurement Schedule and Report Schedule. to these as the Measurement Schedule and Report Schedule.
The Collector accepts Reports from the MAs with the Results from The Collector accepts Reports from the MAs with the Results from
their Measurement Tasks. Therefore the MA is a device that gets their Measurement Tasks. Therefore the MA is a device that gets
Instructions from the Controller, initiates the Measurement Tasks, Instructions from the Controller, initiates the Measurement Tasks,
and reports to the Collector. and reports to the Collector. The communications between these three
LMAP functions are structured according to a Control Protocol and a
There are additional elements that are part of a measurement system, Report Protocol.
but these are out of the scope for LMAP. We provide a detailed
discussion of all the elements in the rest of the document.
The desirable features for a large-scale measurement systems we are The desirable features for a large-scale measurement systems we are
designing for are: designing for are:
o Standardised - in terms of the Measurement Tasks that they o Standardised - in terms of the Measurement Tasks that they
perform, the components, the data models and protocols for perform, the components, the data models and protocols for
transferring information between the components. Amongst other transferring information between the components. Amongst other
things, standardisation enables meaningful comparisons of things, standardisation enables meaningful comparisons of
measurements made of the same metric at different times and measurements made of the same metric at different times and
places, and provides the operator of a measurement system with a places, and provides the operator of a measurement system with a
criteria for evaluation of the different solutions that can be criteria for evaluation of the different solutions that can be
used for various purposes including buying decisions (such as used for various purposes including buying decisions (such as
buying the various components from different vendors). Today's buying the various components from different vendors). Today's
systems are proprietary in some or all of these aspects. systems are proprietary in some or all of these aspects.
o Large-scale - [I-D.ietf-lmap-use-cases] envisages Measurement o Large-scale - [I-D.ietf-lmap-use-cases] envisages Measurement
Agents in every home gateway and edge device such as set-top-boxes Agents in every home gateway and edge device such as set-top-boxes
and tablet computers. It is expected that a measurement system and tablet computers, and located throughout the Internet as well
could easily encompass a few hundred thousand Measurement Agents.
Existing systems have up to a few thousand MAs (without judging [I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path]. It is expected that a measurement
how much further they could scale). system could easily encompass a few hundred thousand or even
millions of Measurement Agents. Existing systems have up to a few
thousand MAs (without judging how much further they could scale).
o Diversity - a measurement system should handle different types of o Diversity - a measurement system should handle different types of
Measurement Agent - for example Measurement Agents may come from Measurement Agents - for example Measurement Agents may come from
different vendors, be in wired and wireless networks, have different vendors, be in wired and wireless networks, have
different Measurement Task capabilities and be on devices with different Measurement Task capabilities and be on devices with
IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.
2. Outline of an LMAP-based measurement system 2. Outline of an LMAP-based measurement system
Figure 1 shows the main components of a measurement system, and the Figure 1 shows the main components of a measurement system, and the
interactions of those components. Some of the components are outside interactions of those components. Some of the components are outside
the scope of LMAP. In this section we provide an overview of the the scope of initial LMAP work. In this section we provide an
whole measurement system and we introduce the main terms needed for overview of the whole measurement system and we introduce the main
the LMAP framework. The new terms are capitalised. In the next terms needed for the LMAP framework. The new terms are capitalised.
section we provide a terminology section with a compilation of all In the next section we provide a terminology section with a
the LMAP terms and their definition. compilation of all the LMAP terms and their definition. Section 4
onwards considers the LMAP components in more detail.
The main work of the LMAP working group is to define the Control Other LMAP specifications will define an information model, the
Protocol between the Controller and MA, and the Report Protocol associated data models, and select/extend one or more protocols for
between the MA and Collector. Section 4 onwards considers the LMAP the secure communication: firstly, a Control Protocol, from a
components in more detail. Controller to instruct Measurement Agents what performance metrics to
measure, when to measure them, how/when to report the measurement
results to a Collector; secondly, a Report Protocol, for a
Measurement Agent to report the results to the Collector.
The MA performs Measurement Tasks. The MAs are pieces of code that The MA performs Measurement Tasks. The MAs are pieces of code that
can be executed in specialised hardware (hardware probe) or on a can be executed in specialised hardware (hardware probe) or on a
general-purpose device (like a PC or mobile phone). A device with a general-purpose device (like a PC or mobile phone). A device with a
Measurement Agent may have multiple interfaces (WiFi, Ethernet, DSL, Measurement Agent may have multiple interfaces (WiFi, Ethernet, DSL,
fibre, etc.) and the Measurement Tasks may specify any one of these. fibre; and non-physical interfaces such as PPPoE or IPsec) and the
Measurement Tasks may be Active (the MA generates Active Measurement Measurement Tasks may specify any one of these. Measurement Tasks
Traffic and measures some metric associated with its transfer), may be Active (the MA generates Measurement Traffic and measures some
Passive (the MA observes user traffic), or some hybrid form of the metric associated with its transfer), Passive (the MA observes
two. traffic), or some hybrid form of the two.
The MA is managed by a Controller using the Control Protocol. The MA The Controller manages a MA through use of the Control Protocol,
receives Instructions from the Controller about which Measurement which transfer the Instruction to the MA. This describes the
Tasks it should perform and when. For example the Controller may Measurement Tasks the MA should perform and when. For example the
instruct a MA at a home gateway: "Count the number of TCP SYN packets Controller may instruct a MA at a home gateway: "Count the number of
observed in a 1 minute interval; repeat every hour at xx.05 + TCP SYN packets observed in a 1 minute interval; repeat every hour at
Unif[0,180] seconds". The Measurement Schedule determines when the xx.05 + Unif[0,180] seconds". The Measurement Schedule determines
Measurement Tasks are executed. The Controller also manages a MA by when the Measurement Tasks are executed. The Controller also manages
instructing it how to report the Measurement Results, for example: a MA by instructing it how to report the Measurement Results, for
"Report results once a day in a batch at 4am + Unif[0,180] seconds; example: "Report results once a day in a batch at 4am + Unif[0,180]
if the end user is active then delay the report 5 minutes". The seconds; if the end user is active then delay the report 5 minutes".
Report Schedule determines when the Reports are uploaded to the The Report Schedule determines when the Reports are uploaded to the
Collector. The Measurement chedule and Report Schedule can define Collector. The Measurement Schedule and Report Schedule can define
one-off (non-recurring) actions ("Do measurement now", "Report as one-off (non-recurring) actions ("Do measurement now", "Report as
soon as possible"), as well as recurring ones. soon as possible"), as well as recurring ones.
The Collector accepts a Report from a MA with the Measurement Results The Collector accepts a Report from a MA with the Measurement Results
from its Measurement Tasks. It then provides the Results to a from its Measurement Tasks. It then provides the Results to a
repository (see below). repository (see below).
Some Measurement Tasks involve several MAs acting in a coordinated Some Measurement Tasks involve several MAs acting in a coordinated
fashion. This coordination is achieved by the Controller instructing fashion. This coordination is achieved by the Controller instructing
the multiple MAs in a coherent manner. In some Measurement Tasks the the multiple MAs in a coherent manner. In some Measurement Tasks the
MA(s) is assisted by one or more network entities that are not MA(s) is assisted by one or more network entities that are not
managed by the Controller. The entities that helps the MA in the managed by the Controller. The entities that help the MA in the
Measurement Tasks but are not managed by the Controller are called Measurement Tasks but are not managed by the Controller are called
Measurement Peers (MPs). For example consider the case of a "ping" Measurement Peers (MPs). For example consider the case of a "ping"
Measurement Task, to measure the round trip delay between the MA and Measurement Task, to measure the round trip delay between the MA and
a given ICMP ECHO responder in the Internet. In this case, the a given ICMP ECHO responder in the Internet. In this case, the
responder is the Measurement Peer. The ICMP ECHO request and ICMP responder is the Measurement Peer. The ICMP ECHO request and ICMP
ECHO Requests and Replies flowing between the MA and the MP is called ECHO Requests and Replies flowing between the MA and the MP is called
Active Measurement Traffic. The Appendix has some other examples of Active Measurement Traffic. The Appendix has some other examples of
possible arrangements of Measurement Agents and Peers. possible arrangements of Measurement Agents and Peers.
A Measurement Method defines how to measure a Metric of interest. It A Measurement Method defines how to measure a Metric of interest. It
is very useful to standardise Measurement Methods, so that it is is very useful to standardise Measurement Methods, so that it is
meaningful to compare measurements of the same Metric made at meaningful to compare measurements of the same Metric made at
different times and places. It is also useful to define a registry different times and places. It is also useful to define a registry
for commonly-used Metrics [I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry] so for commonly-used Metrics [I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry] so
that a Measurement Method can be referred to simply by its identifier that a Measurement Method can be referred to simply by its identifier
in the registry. The Measurement Methods and registry will hopefully in the registry. The Measurement Methods and registry will hopefully
be referenced by other standards organisations. be referenced by other standards organisations.
A Measurement Task is a specific instantiation of a Measurement A Measurement Task is a specific instantiation of a Measurement
Method.It generates a Measurement Result. An Active Measurement Task Method. It generates a Measurement Result. An Active Measurement
involves either a Measurement Agent (MA) injecting Active Measurement Task involves either a Measurement Agent (MA) injecting Active
Traffic into the network destined for a Measurement Peer or for Measurement Traffic into the network destined for a Measurement Peer
another Measurement Agent, and/or a Measurement Peer (or another or for another Measurement Agent, and/or another Measurement Agent
Measurement Agent) sending Active Measurement Traffic to a MA; one of (or a Measurement Peer, in response to a packet from a MA) sending
them measures some parameter associated with the transfer of the Active Measurement Traffic to a MA; one of them measures some
packet(s). A Passive Measurement Task involves a MA simply observing parameter associated with the transfer of the packet(s). A Passive
existing traffic - for example, it could count bytes or it might Measurement Task involves a MA simply observing traffic - for
calculate the average loss for a particular flow. example, it could count bytes or it might calculate the average loss
for a particular flow.
In order for a Measurement Agent and a Measurement Peer (or another In order for a Measurement Agent and a Measurement Peer (or another
Measurement Agent) to execute an Active Measurement Task, they Measurement Agent) to execute an Active Measurement Task, they
exchange Active Measurement Traffic. The protocols used for the exchange Active Measurement Traffic. The protocols used for the
Active Measurement Traffic are out of the scope of the LMAP WG; they Active Measurement Traffic are out of the scope of initial LMAP work;
fall within the scope of other IETF WGs such as IPPM. they fall within the scope of other IETF WGs such as IPPM.
For Measurement Results to be truly comparable, as might be required For Measurement Results to be truly comparable, as might be required
by a regulator, not only do the same Measurement Methods need to be by a regulator, not only do the same Measurement Methods need to be
used but also the set of Measurement Tasks should follow a similar used but also the set of Measurement Tasks should follow a similar
Measurement Schedule and be of similar number. The details of such a Measurement Schedule and be of similar number. The details of such a
characterisation plan are beyond the scope of work in IETF although characterisation plan are beyond the scope of work in IETF although
certainly facilitated by IETF's work. certainly facilitated by IETF's work.
Finally we introduce several components that are out of scope of the Messages are transferred over a secure Channel. A Control Channel is
LMAP WG and will be provided through existing protocols or between the Controller and a MA; the Control Protocol delivers
Instruction Messages to the MA and Capabilities, Failure and logging
Information in the reverse direction. A Report Channel is between a
MA and Collector, and the Report Protocol delivers Reports to the
Collector.
Finally we introduce several components that are outside the scope of
initial LMAP work and will be provided through existing protocols or
applications. They affect how the measurement system uses the applications. They affect how the measurement system uses the
Measurement Results and how it decides what set of Measurement Tasks Measurement Results and how it decides what set of Measurement Tasks
to perform. to perform.
The MA needs to be bootstrapped with initial details about its The MA needs to be bootstrapped with initial details about its
Controller, including authentication credentials. The LMAP WG Controller, including authentication credentials. The LMAP work
considers the bootstrap process, since it affects the Information considers the bootstrap process, since it affects the Information
Model. However, it does not define a bootstrap protocol, since it is Model. However, LMAP does not define a bootstrap protocol, since it
likely to be technology specific and could be defined by the is likely to be technology specific and could be defined by the
Broadband Forum, CableLabs or IEEE depending on the device. Possible Broadband Forum, CableLabs or IEEE depending on the device. Possible
protocols are SNMP, NETCONF or (for Home Gateways) CPE WAN Management protocols are SNMP, NETCONF or (for Home Gateways) CPE WAN Management
Protocol (CWMP) from the Auto Configuration Server (ACS) (as Protocol (CWMP) from the Auto Configuration Server (ACS) (as
specified in TR-069 [TR-069]). specified in TR-069 [TR-069]).
A Subscriber parameter database contains information about the line, A Subscriber parameter database contains information about the line,
such as the customer's broadband contract (perhaps 2, 40 or 80Mb/s), such as the customer's broadband contract (perhaps 2, 40 or 80Mb/s),
the line technology (DSL or fibre), the time zone where the MA is the line technology (DSL or fibre), the time zone where the MA is
located, and the type of home gateway and MA. These parameters are located, and the type of home gateway and MA. These parameters are
already gathered and stored by existing operations systems. They may already gathered and stored by existing operations systems. They may
skipping to change at page 8, line 35 skipping to change at page 8, line 43
+------------+ +----------+ +--------+ +----------+ | +------------+ +----------+ +--------+ +----------+ |
|Bootstrapper| |Subscriber|--->| data |<---|repository| Out |Bootstrapper| |Subscriber|--->| data |<---|repository| Out
+------------+ |parameter | |analysis| +----------+ of +------------+ |parameter | |analysis| +----------+ of
|database | | tools | Scope |database | | tools | Scope
+----------+ +--------+ | +----------+ +--------+ |
| |
v v
Figure 1: Schematic of main elements of an LMAP-based Figure 1: Schematic of main elements of an LMAP-based
measurement system measurement system
(showing the elements in and out of the scope of the LMAP WG) (showing the elements in and out of the scope of initial LMAP work)
3. Terminology 3. Terminology
This section defines terminology for LMAP. Please note that defined This section defines terminology for LMAP. Please note that defined
terms are capitalized. terms are capitalized.
Active Measurement Method (Task): A Measurement Method (Task) in Active Measurement Method: A generalisation of an Active Measurement
which a Measurement Agent creates or receives Active Measurement Task.
Traffic, by coordinating with one or more other Measurement Agents or
Measurement Peers using protocols outside LMAP's scope. Active Measurement Task: A Measurement Task in which a Measurement
Agent creates or receives Active Measurement Traffic, by coordinating
with one or more other Measurement Agents or Measurement Peers using
protocols outside the initial LMAP work scope.
Active Measurement Traffic: the packet(s) generated in order to Active Measurement Traffic: the packet(s) generated in order to
execute an Active Measurement Task. execute an Active Measurement Task.
Bootstrap: A process that integrates a Measurement Agent into a Bootstrap: A process that integrates a Measurement Agent into a
measurement system. measurement system.
Capabilities: Information about the Measurement Methods that the MA Capabilities: Information about the performance measurement
can perform and the device hosting the MA, for example its interface capabilities of the MA, in particular the Measurement Methods that it
can perform, and the device hosting the MA, for example its interface
type and speed, but not dynamic information. type and speed, but not dynamic information.
Channel: A bi-directional logical connection that is defined by a Channel: A bi-directional logical connection that is defined by a
specific Controller and MA, or Collector and MA, plus associated specific Controller and MA, or Collector and MA, plus associated
security. security.
Collector: A function that receives a Report from a Measurement Collector: A function that receives a Report from a Measurement
Agent. Agent.
Configuration Protocol: The protocol delivering information, from a
Controller to a Measurement Agent, that updates the information
obtained during Bootstrapping.
Controller: A function that provides a Measurement Agent with its Controller: A function that provides a Measurement Agent with its
Instruction. Instruction.
Control Channel: a Channel between a Controller and a MA over which Control Channel: a Channel between a Controller and a MA over which
Instruction Messages and Capabilities and Failure information are Instruction Messages and Capabilities and Failure information are
sent. sent.
Control Protocol: The protocol delivering Instruction(s) from a Control Protocol: The protocol delivering Instruction(s) from a
Controller to a Measurement Agent. It also delivers Failure Controller to a Measurement Agent. It also delivers Failure
Information and Capabilities Information from the Measurement Agent Information and Capabilities Information from the Measurement Agent
skipping to change at page 9, line 37 skipping to change at page 10, line 5
Cycle-ID: A tag that is sent by the Controller in an Instruction and Cycle-ID: A tag that is sent by the Controller in an Instruction and
echoed by the MA in its Report. The same Cycle-ID is used by several echoed by the MA in its Report. The same Cycle-ID is used by several
MAs that use the same Measurement Method with the same Input MAs that use the same Measurement Method with the same Input
Parameters. Hence the Cycle-ID allows the Collector to easily Parameters. Hence the Cycle-ID allows the Collector to easily
identify Measurement Results that should be comparable. identify Measurement Results that should be comparable.
Data Model: The implementation of an Information Model in a Data Model: The implementation of an Information Model in a
particular data modelling language [RFC3444]. particular data modelling language [RFC3444].
Data Transfer Method: The process whereby: a Controller transfers
information over a Control Channel to a MA; or a MA transfers
information over a Control Channel to a Controller; or a MA transfers
information over a Report Channel to a Collector; the generalisation
of a Data Transfer Task.
Data Transfer Task: The act consisting of the (single) operation of a
Data Transfer Method at a particular time.
Environmental Constraint: A parameter that is measured as part of the Environmental Constraint: A parameter that is measured as part of the
Measurement Task, its value determining whether the rest of the Measurement Task, its value determining whether the rest of the
Measurement Task proceeds. Measurement Task proceeds.
Failure Information: Information about the MA's failure to action or Failure Information: Information about the MA's failure to action or
execute an Instruction, whether concerning Measurement Tasks or execute an Instruction, whether concerning Measurement Tasks or
Reporting. Reporting.
Group-ID: An identifier of a group of MAs. Group-ID: An identifier of a group of MAs.
skipping to change at page 10, line 20 skipping to change at page 10, line 28
[RFC3444]. [RFC3444].
Input Parameter: A parameter whose value is left open by the Input Parameter: A parameter whose value is left open by the
Measurement Method and is set to a specific value in a Measurement Measurement Method and is set to a specific value in a Measurement
Task. Altering the value of an Input Parameter does not change the Task. Altering the value of an Input Parameter does not change the
fundamental nature of the Measurement Method. fundamental nature of the Measurement Method.
Instruction: The description of Measurement Tasks for a MA to perform Instruction: The description of Measurement Tasks for a MA to perform
and the details of the Report for it to send. It is the collective and the details of the Report for it to send. It is the collective
description of the Measurement Task configurations, the configuration description of the Measurement Task configurations, the configuration
of the Report Channel(s), the configuration of Data Transfer Tasks, of the Measurement Schedules, the configuration of the Report
the configuration of the Measurement Schedules, and the details of Channel(s), the configuration of Report Schedule(s), and the details
any suppression. of any suppression.
Instruction Message: The message that carries an Instruction from a Instruction Message: The message that carries an Instruction from a
Controller to a Measurement Agent. Controller to a Measurement Agent.
Measurement Agent (MA): The function that receives Instruction Measurement Agent (MA): The function that receives Instruction
Messages from a Controller and operates the Instruction by executing Messages from a Controller and operates the Instruction by executing
Measurement Tasks (using protocols outside LMAP's scope and perhaps Measurement Tasks (using protocols outside the initial LMAP work
in concert with one or more other Measurement Agents or Measurement scope and perhaps in concert with one or more other Measurement
Peers) and (if part of the Instruction) by reporting Measurement Agents or Measurement Peers) and (if part of the Instruction) by
Results to a Collector or Collectors. reporting Measurement Results to a Collector or Collectors.
Measurement Agent Identifier (MA-ID): a UUID [RFC4122] that Measurement Agent Identifier (MA-ID): a UUID [RFC4122] that
identifies a particular MA and is configured as part of the identifies a particular MA and is configured as part of the
Bootstrapping process. Bootstrapping process.
Measurement Method: The process for assessing the value of a Metric; Measurement Method: The process for assessing the value of a Metric;
the process of measuring some performance or reliability parameter the process of measuring some performance or reliability parameter
associated with the transfer of traffic; the generalisation of a associated with the transfer of traffic; the generalisation of a
Measurement Task. Measurement Task.
Measurement Peer (MP): The function that assists a Measurement Agent Measurement Peer (MP): The function that assists a Measurement Agent
with Measurement Tasks and does not have an interface to the with Measurement Tasks and does not have an interface to the
Controller or Collector. Controller or Collector.
Measurement Result: The output of a single Measurement Task (the Measurement Result: The output of a single Measurement Task (the
value obtained for the parameter of interest or Metric). value obtained for the parameter of interest or Metric).
Measurement Schedule: The schedule for performing Measurement Tasks. Measurement Schedule: The schedule for performing Measurement Tasks.
Measurement Task: The act that consistsof the single operation of the Measurement Task: The act that consists of the single operation of
Measurement Method at a particular time and with all its Input the Measurement Method at a particular time and with all its Input
Parameters set to specific values. Parameters set to specific values.
Metric: The quantity related to the performance and reliability of Metric: The quantity related to the performance and reliability of
the network that we'd like to know the value of, and that is the network that we'd like to know the value of, and that is
carefully specified. carefully specified.
Passive Measurement Method (Task): A Measurement Method (Task) in Passive Measurement Method (Task): A Measurement Method (Task) in
which a Measurement Agent observes existing traffic but does not which a Measurement Agent observes existing traffic but does not
inject Active Measurement Traffic. inject Active Measurement Traffic.
skipping to change at page 11, line 31 skipping to change at page 11, line 40
Report Channel: a communications channel between a MA and a Report Channel: a communications channel between a MA and a
Collector, which is defined by a specific MA, Collector, Report Collector, which is defined by a specific MA, Collector, Report
Schedule and associated security, and over which Reports are sent. Schedule and associated security, and over which Reports are sent.
Report Protocol: The protocol delivering Report(s) from a Measurement Report Protocol: The protocol delivering Report(s) from a Measurement
Agent to a Collector. Agent to a Collector.
Report Schedule: the schedule for sending Reports to a Collector. Report Schedule: the schedule for sending Reports to a Collector.
Subscriber: An entity (associated with one or more users) that is Subscriber: An entity (associated with one or more users) that is
engaged in a subscription with a service provider. The Subscriber is engaged in a subscription with a service provider.
allowed to subscribe and un-subscribe services, and to register a
user or a list of users authorized to enjoy these services. [Q1741].
Both the Subscriber and service provider are allowed to set the
limits relative to the use that associated users make of subscribed
services.
Suppression: the temporary cessation of Active Measurement Tasks. Suppression: the temporary cessation of Active Measurement Tasks.
4. Constraints 4. Constraints
The LMAP framework makes some important assumptions, which constrain The LMAP framework makes some important assumptions, which constrain
the scope of the work to be done. the scope of the initial LMAP work.
4.1. Measurement system is under the direction of a single organisation 4.1. Measurement system is under the direction of a single organisation
In the LMAP framework, the measurement system is under the direction In the LMAP framework, the measurement system is under the direction
of a single organisation that is responsible for any impact that of a single organisation that is responsible for any impact that its
measurements have on a user's quality of experience and privacy. measurements have on a user's quality of experience and privacy.
Clear responsibility is critical given that a misbehaving large-scale Clear responsibility is critical given that a misbehaving large-scale
measurement system could potentially harm user experience, user measurement system could potentially harm user experience, user
privacy and network security. privacy and network security.
However, the components of an LMAP measurement system can be deployed However, the components of an LMAP measurement system can be deployed
in administrative domains that are not owned by the measuring in administrative domains that are not owned by the measuring
organisation. Thus, the system of functions deployed by a single organisation. Thus, the system of functions deployed by a single
organisation constitutes a single LMAP domain which may span organisation constitutes a single LMAP domain which may span
ownership or other administrative boundaries. ownership or other administrative boundaries.
skipping to change at page 12, line 43 skipping to change at page 13, line 5
2. What messages are being transmitted and what do they mean? 2. What messages are being transmitted and what do they mean?
3. What are the important, but unobvious, features of the protocol? 3. What are the important, but unobvious, features of the protocol?
An LMAP system goes through the following phases: An LMAP system goes through the following phases:
o a bootstrapping process before the MA can take part in the other o a bootstrapping process before the MA can take part in the other
three phases three phases
o a Control Protocol, which delivers an Instruction from a o a Control Protocol, which delivers Instruction Messages from a
Controller to a MA, detailing what Measurement Tasks the MA should Controller to a MA, detailing what Measurement Tasks the MA should
perform and when, and how it should report the Measurement Results perform and when, and how it should report the Measurement
Results. It also delivers Capabilities, Failure and logging
Information from a MA to its Controller.
o the actual Measurement Tasks, which measure some performance or o the actual Measurement Tasks, which measure some performance or
reliability parameter(s) associated with the transfer of packets. reliability parameter(s) associated with the transfer of packets.
The LMAP WG does not define Measurement Methods, however the IPPM The LMAP work does not define Measurement Methods, these are
WG does. define elsewhere (e.g. IPPM).
o a Report Protocol, which delivers a Report from the MA to a o a Report Protocol, which delivers Reports from a MA to a
Collector. The Report contains the Measurement Results. Collector. The Report contains the Measurement Results.
The diagrams show the various LMAP messages and usesthe following The diagrams show the various LMAP messages and uses the following
convention: convention:
o (optional): indicated by round brackets o (optional): indicated by round brackets
o [potentially repeated]: indicated by square brackets o [potentially repeated]: indicated by square brackets
The protocol model is closely related to the Information Model The protocol model is closely related to the Information Model
[I-D.burbridge-lmap-information-model], which is the abstract [I-D.ietf-lmap-information-model], which is the abstract definition
definition of the information carried by the protocol model. The of the information carried by the protocol model. The purpose of
purpose of both is to provide a protocol and device independent view, both is to provide a protocol and device independent view, which can
which can be implemented via specific protocols. The LMAP WG will be implemented via specific protocols. LMAP defines a specific
define a specific Control Protocol and Report Protocol, but others Control Protocol and Report Protocol, but others could be defined by
could be defined by other standards bodies or be proprietary. other standards bodies or be proprietary. However it is important
However it is important that they all implement the same Information that they all implement the same Information Model and protocol
Model and protocol model, in order to ease the definition, operation model, in order to ease the definition, operation and
and interoperability of large-scale measurement systems. interoperability of large-scale measurement systems.
5.1. Bootstrapping process 5.1. Bootstrapping process
The primary purpose of bootstrapping is to enable a MA to be The primary purpose of bootstrapping is to enable a MA to be
integrated into a measurement system. The MA retrieves information integrated into a measurement system. The MA retrieves information
about itself (like its identity in the measurement system) and about about itself (like its identity in the measurement system) and about
the Controller, the Controller learns information about the MA, and the Controller, the Controller learns information about the MA, and
they learn about security information to communicate (such as they learn about security information to communicate (such as
certificates and credentials). certificates and credentials).
Whilst the LMAP WG considers the bootstrapping process, it is out of Whilst this memo considers the bootstrapping process, it is beyond
scope to define a bootstrap mechanism, as it depends on the type of the scope of initial LMAP work to define a bootstrap mechanism, as it
device and access. depends on the type of device and access.
As a result of the bootstrapping process the MA learns the following As a result of the bootstrapping process the MA learns information
information: with the following aims ([I-D.ietf-lmap-information-model] defines
the consequent list of information elements):
o its identifier, MA-ID o its identifier, either its MA-ID or a device identifier such as
its MAC
o (optionally) a Group-ID. A Group-ID would be shared by several o (optionally) a Group-ID. A Group-ID would be shared by several
MAs and could be useful for privacy reasons, for instance to MAs and could be useful for privacy reasons. For instance,
hinder tracking of a mobile device reporting the Group-ID and not the MA-ID could hinder tracking of
a mobile device
o the Control Channel, which is defined by: o the Control Channel, which is defined by:
* the address of the Controller (such as its FQDN (Fully * the address which identifies the Control Channel, such as the
Qualified Domain Name) [RFC1035]) Controller's FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) [RFC1035])
* security information (for example to enable the MA to decrypt * security information (for example to enable the MA to decrypt
the Instruction Message and encrypt messages sent to the the Instruction Message and encrypt messages sent to the
Controller) Controller)
* the name of this Control Channel
The details of the bootstrapping process are device /access specific. The details of the bootstrapping process are device /access specific.
For example, the information could be in the firmware, manually For example, the information could be in the firmware, manually
configured or transferred via a protocol like TR-069. There may be a configured or transferred via a protocol like TR-069 [TR-069]. There
multi-stage process where the MA contacts the device at a 'hard- may be a multi-stage process where the MA contacts the device at a
coded' address, which replies with the boostrapping information. 'hard-coded' address, which replies with the bootstrapping
information.
5.2. Control Protocol The MA must learn its MA-ID before getting an Instruction, either
during Bootstrapping or via the Configuration Protocol.
5.2. Configuration Protocol
The Configuration Protocol allows the Controller to update the MA
about some or all of the information that it obtained during the
bootstrapping process: the MA-ID, the (optional) Group-ID and the
Control Channel. The measurement system might use Configuration for
several reasons. For example, the bootstrapping process could 'hard
code' the MA with details of an initial Controller, and then the
initial Controller could configure the MA with details about the
Controller that sends Instruction Messages. (Note that a MA only has
one Control Channel, and so is associated with only one Controller,
at any moment.)
Note that an implementation may choose to combine Configuration
information and an Instruction Message into a single message.
+-----------------+ +-------------+
| | | Measurement |
| Controller |======================================| Agent |
+-----------------+ +-------------+
Configuration information: ->
(MA-ID),
(Group-ID),
(Control Channel)
<- Response(details)
5.3. Control Protocol
The primary purpose of the Control Protocol is to allow the The primary purpose of the Control Protocol is to allow the
Controller to configure a Measurement Agent with an Instruction about Controller to configure a Measurement Agent with an Instruction about
what Measurement Tasks to do, when to do them, and how to report the what Measurement Tasks to do, when to do them, and how to report the
Measurement Results (Section 5.2.1). The Measurement Agent then acts Measurement Results (Section 5.2.1). The Measurement Agent then acts
on the Instruction autonomously. The Control Protocol also enables on the Instruction autonomously. The Control Protocol also enables
the MA to inform the Controller about its Capabilities and any the MA to inform the Controller about its Capabilities and any
Failures (Section 5.2.2). Failure and logging Information (Section 5.3.2).
5.2.1. Instruction 5.3.1. Instruction
The Instruction is the description of the Measurement Tasks for a The Instruction is the description of the Measurement Tasks for a
Measurement Agent to do and the details of the Measurement Reports Measurement Agent to do and the details of the Measurement Reports
for it to send. In order to update the Instruction the Controller for it to send. In order to update the Instruction the Controller
uses a Data Transfer Task to send an Instruction Message over the uses the Control Protocol to send an Instruction Message over the
Control Channel. Control Channel.
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
| | | Measurement | | | | Measurement |
| Controller |======================================| Agent | | Controller |======================================| Agent |
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
Instruction: -> Instruction: ->
[(Measurement Task configuration( [(Measurement Task configuration(
[Input Parameter], [Input Parameter],
(interface), (interface),
(Cycle-ID))), (Cycle-ID))),
(Report Channel), (Report Channel),
(Data Transfer Task),
(Measurement Schedule), (Measurement Schedule),
(Report Schedule),
(Suppression information)] (Suppression information)]
<- Response(details) <- Response(details)
The Instruction defines the following: The Instruction defines information with the following aims
([I-D.ietf-lmap-information-model] defines the consequent list of
information elements):
o the Measurement Task configurations, each of which needs: o the Measurement Task configurations, each of which needs:
* the Measurement Method, specified as a URN to a registry entry. * the Metric, specified as a URI to a registry entry; it includes
The registry could be defined by the IETF the specification of a Measurement Method. The registry could
[I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry], locally by the operator be defined by the IETF [I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry],
of the measurement system or perhaps by another standards locally by the operator of the measurement system or perhaps by
organisation. another standards organisation.
* any Input Parameters that need to be set for the Measurement * any Input Parameters that need to be set for the Measurement
Method, such as the address of the Measurement Peer (or other Method, such as the address of the Measurement Peer (or other
Measurement Agent) that are involved in an Active Measurement Measurement Agent) that are involved in an Active Measurement
Task Task
* if the device with the MA has multiple interfaces, then the * if the device with the MA has multiple interfaces, then the
interface to use (if not defined, then the default interface is interface to use (if not defined, then the default interface is
used) used)
* optionally, a Cycle-ID (a tag that may help the data analysis o configuration of the Measurement Schedules, each of which needs:
tools identify Measurement Results that should be comparable)
* a name for this Measurement Task configuration * the timing of when the Measurement Tasks are to be performed.
Possible types of timing are periodic, calendar-based periodic,
one-off immediate and one-off at a future time
o configuration of the Report Channels, each of which needs: o configuration of the Report Channels, each of which needs:
* the address of the Collector, for instance its URL * the address of the Collector, for instance its URL
* security for this Report Channel, for example the X.509 * security for this Report Channel, for example the X.509
certificate certificate
* a name for this Report Channel o configuration of the Report Schedules, each of which needs:
o configuration of the Data Transfer Tasks, each of which needs:
* the name of the Channel to use
* the timing of when to operate this Data Transfer Task
* whether to include the MA-ID &/or Group-ID in a Measurement
Report
* a name for this Data Transfer Task
A Data Transfer Task may concern the reporting of Measurement
Results (when the timing could be every hour or immediately, for
instance). Alternatively, a Data Transfer Task may concern the MA
informing the Controller about its Capabilities or any Failures.
o configuration of the Measurement Schedules, each of which needs:
* the name of one or several Measurement Task configurations
* the timing of when the Measurement Tasks are to be performed.
Possible types of timing are periodic, calendar-based periodic,
one-off immediate and one-off at a future time
* the name of a Data Transfer Task or Tasks on which to report
the Measurement Results
* a name for this Measurement Schedule * the timing of when reporting is to be performed. For instance,
every hour or immediately.
o Suppression information, if any (see Section 5.2.1.1) o Suppression information, if any (see Section 5.2.1.1)
A single Instruction Message may contain some or all of the above A single Instruction Message may contain some or all of the above
parts. The finest level of granularity possible in an Instruction parts. The finest level of granularity possible in an Instruction
Message is determined by the implementation and operation of the Message is determined by the implementation and operation of the
Control Protocol. For example, a single Instruction Message may be Control Protocol. For example, a single Instruction Message may add
able to add or update an individual Measurement Schedule - or it may or update an individual Measurement Schedule - or it may only update
only be able to update the complete set of Measurement Schedules; a the complete set of Measurement Schedules; a single Instruction
single Instruction Message may be able to update both Measurement Message may update both Measurement Schedules and Measurement Task
Schedules and Measurement Task configurations - or only one at a configurations - or only one at a time; and so on.
time; and so on.
The MA informs the Controller that it has successfully understood the The MA informs the Controller that it has successfully understood the
Instruction Message, or that it cannot action the Instruction - for Instruction Message, or that it cannot action the Instruction - for
example, if it doesn't include a parameter that is mandatory for the example, if it doesn't include a parameter that is mandatory for the
requested Measurement Method, or it is missing details of the target requested Measurement Method, or it is missing details of the target
Collector. Collector.
The Instruction Message instructs the MA; the Control Protocol does The Instruction Message instructs the MA; the Control Protocol does
not allow the MA to negotiate, as this would add complexity to the not allow the MA to negotiate, as this would add complexity to the
MA, Controller and Control Protocol for little benefit. MA, Controller and Control Protocol for little benefit.
5.2.1.1. Suppression 5.3.1.1. Suppression
The Instruction may include Suppression information. Suppression is The Instruction may include Suppression information. Suppression is
used if the measurement system wants to eliminate inessential used if the measurement system wants to eliminate inessential
traffic, because there is some unexpected network issue for example. traffic, because there is some unexpected network issue for example.
By default, Suppression means that the MA does not begin any new By default, Suppression means that the MA does not begin any new
Active Measurement Task. The impact on other Measurement Tasks is Active Measurement Task. The impact on other Measurement Tasks is
not defined by LMAP; since they do not involve the MA creating any not defined by LMAP; since they do not involve the MA creating any
Active Measurement Traffic there is no need to suppress them, however Active Measurement Traffic there is no need to suppress them, however
it may be simpler for an implementation to do so. Also, by default it may be simpler for an implementation to do so. Also, by default
Suppression starts immediately and continues until an un-suppress Suppression starts immediately and continues until an un-suppress
skipping to change at page 17, line 20 skipping to change at page 17, line 46
suppressed. For example, suppose the measurement system has suppressed. For example, suppose the measurement system has
defined two Schedules, one with the most critical Measurement defined two Schedules, one with the most critical Measurement
Tasks and the other with less critical ones that create a lot of Tasks and the other with less critical ones that create a lot of
Active Measurement Traffic, then it may only want to suppress the Active Measurement Traffic, then it may only want to suppress the
second. second.
o a start time, at which suppression begins o a start time, at which suppression begins
o an end time, at which suppression ends o an end time, at which suppression ends
o that the MA should end its on-going Active Measurement Task(s). o a demand that the MA ends its on-going Active Measurement Task(s)
(and deletes the associated partial Measurement Result(s)).
Note that Suppression is not intended to permanently stop a Note that Suppression is not intended to permanently stop a
Measurement Task (instead, the Controller should send a new Measurement Task (instead, the Controller should send a new
Measurement Schedule), nor to permanently disable a MA (instead, some Measurement Schedule), nor to permanently disable a MA (instead, some
kind of management action is suggested). kind of management action is suggested).
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
| | | Measurement | | | | Measurement |
| Controller |===================================| Agent | | Controller |===================================| Agent |
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
Suppress: Suppress:
[(Measurement Task), -> [(Measurement Task), ->
(Measurement Schedule), (Measurement Schedule),
start time, start time,
end time, end time,
on-going suppressed?] on-going suppressed?]
Un-suppress -> Un-suppress ->
5.2.2. Capabilities and Failure information 5.3.2. Capabilities and Failure information
The Control Protocol also enables the MA to inform the Controller The Control Protocol also enables the MA to inform the Controller
about various information, such as its Capabilities and any Failures, about various information, such as its Capabilities and any Failures.
by the MA operating a Data Transfer Task. It is also possible that a It is also possible to use a device-specific mechanism which is
device-specific mechanism beyond the scope of LMAP is used. beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work.
Capabilities are information about the MA that the Controller needs Capabilities are information about the MA that the Controller needs
to know in order to correctly instruct the MA, such as: to know in order to correctly instruct the MA, such as:
o the Measurement Methods that the MA supports o the Measurement Methods that the MA supports
o the interfaces that the MA has o the interfaces that the MA has
o the version of the MA o the version of the MA
o the version of the hardware, firmware or software of the device o the version of the hardware, firmware or software of the device
with the MA with the MA
o but not dynamic information like the currently unused CPU, memory o but not dynamic information like the currently unused CPU, memory
or battery life of the device with the MA. or battery life of the device with the MA.
skipping to change at page 18, line 14 skipping to change at page 18, line 43
o the interfaces that the MA has o the interfaces that the MA has
o the version of the MA o the version of the MA
o the version of the hardware, firmware or software of the device o the version of the hardware, firmware or software of the device
with the MA with the MA
o but not dynamic information like the currently unused CPU, memory o but not dynamic information like the currently unused CPU, memory
or battery life of the device with the MA. or battery life of the device with the MA.
The MA could do this in response to a request from the Controller Failure information concerns why the MA has been unable to execute a
(for example, if the Controller forgets what the MA can do or Measurement Task or deliver a Report, for example:
otherwise wants to resynchronize what it knows about the MA) or on
its own initiative (for example when the MA first communicates with a
Controller or if it becomes capable of a new Measurement Method).
Another example of the latter case is if the device with the MA re-
boots, then the MA should notify its Controller in case its
Instruction needs to be updated; to avoid a "mass calling event"
after a widespread power restoration affecting many MAs, it is
sensible for an MA to pause for a random delay, perhaps in the range
of one minute or so.
Failure information is sent on the initiative of the MA and concerns
why the MA has been unable to execute a Measurement Task or Data
Transfer Task, for example:
o the Measurement Task failed to run properly because the MA o the Measurement Task failed to run properly because the MA
(unexpectedly) has no spare CPU cycles (unexpectedly) has no spare CPU cycles
o the MA failed record the Measurement Results because it o the MA failed record the Measurement Results because it
(unexpectedly) is out of spare memory (unexpectedly) is out of spare memory
o a Data Transfer Task failed to deliver Measurement Results because o a Report failed to deliver Measurement Results because the
the Collector (unexpectedly) is not responding Collector (unexpectedly) is not responding
o but not if a Measurement Task correctly doesn't start. For o but not if a Measurement Task correctly doesn't start. For
example, the first step of some Measurement Methods is for the MA example, the first step of some Measurement Methods is for the MA
to check there is no cross-traffic. to check there is no cross-traffic.
Logging information is sent by the MA in response to a request from Logging information concerns how the MA is operating and may help
the Controller; it concerns how the MA is operating and may help
debugging, for example: debugging, for example:
o the last time the MA ran a Measurement Task o the last time the MA ran a Measurement Task
o the last time the MA sent a Measurement Report o the last time the MA sent a Measurement Report
o the last time the MA received an Instruction Message o the last time the MA received an Instruction Message
o whether the MA is currently Suppressing Measurement Tasks
.
+-----------------+ +-------------+ o whether the MA is currently Suppressing Measurement Tasks
| | | Measurement |
| Controller |===================================| Agent |
+-----------------+ +-------------+
(Capabilities request) -> Capabilities, failure and logging information are sent by the MA,
<- Capabilities either in response to a request from the Controller (for example, if
the Controller forgets what the MA can do or otherwise wants to
resynchronize what it knows about the MA), or on its own initiative
(for example when the MA first communicates with a Controller or if
it becomes capable of a new Measurement Method). Another example of
the latter case is if the device with the MA re-boots, then the MA
should notify its Controller in case its Instruction needs to be
updated; to avoid a "mass calling event" after a widespread power
restoration affecting many MAs, it is sensible for an MA to pause for
a random delay, perhaps in the range of one minute or so.
<- Failure Information +-----------------+ +-------------+
[reason] | | | Measurement |
| Controller |===================================| Agent |
+-----------------+ +-------------+
Logging request -> (Instruction:
<- Logging Information [(Request Capabilities),
[details] (Request Failure Information),
(Request Logging Information)]) ->
<- (Capabilities),
(Failure Information),
(Logging Information)
5.3. Operation of Measurement Tasks 5.4. Operation of Measurement Tasks
The LMAP WG is neutral to what the actual Measurement Task is. It This LMAP framework is neutral to what the actual Measurement Task
does not define Measurement Methods, however the IPPM WG does. is. It does not define Measurement Methods, these are defined
elsewhere (e.g. IPPM).
The MA carries out the Measurement Tasks as instructed, unless it The MA carries out the Measurement Tasks as instructed, unless it
gets an updated Instruction. The MA acts autonomously, in terms of gets an updated Instruction. The MA acts autonomously, in terms of
operation of the Measurement Tasks and reporting of the Results; it operation of the Measurement Tasks and reporting of the Results; it
doesn't do a 'safety check' with the Controller to ask whether it doesn't do a 'safety check' with the Controller to ask whether it
should still continue with the requested Measurement Tasks. should still continue with the requested Measurement Tasks.
5.3.1. Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks 5.4.1. Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks
The WG does not define a generic start and stop process, since the This LMAP framework does not define a generic start and stop process,
correct approach depends on the particular Measurement Task; the since the correct approach depends on the particular Measurement
details are defined as part of each Measurement Method. This section Task; the details are defined as part of each Measurement Method.
provides some general hints. The MA does not inform the Controller This section provides some general hints. The MA does not inform the
about Measurement Tasks starting and stopping. Controller about Measurement Tasks starting and stopping.
Before sending Active Measurement Traffic the MA may run a pre-check. Before sending Active Measurement Traffic the MA may run a pre-check.
Action could include: (The pre-check could be defined as a separate, preceding Task or as
the first part of a larger Task.) Action could include:
o the MA checking that there is no cross-traffic. In other words, a o the MA checking that there is no cross-traffic. In other words, a
check that the end-user isn't already sending traffic; check that the end-user isn't already sending traffic;
o the MA checking with the Measurement Peer (or other Measurement o the MA checking with the Measurement Peer (or other Measurement
Agent involved in the Measurement Task) that it can handle a new Agent involved in the Measurement Task) that it can handle a new
Measurement Task (in case, for example, the Measurement Peer is Measurement Task (in case, for example, the Measurement Peer is
already handling many Measurement Tasks with other MAs); already handling many Measurement Tasks with other MAs);
o the first part of the Measurement Task consisting of traffic that o sending traffic that probes the path to check it isn't overloaded;
probes the path to make sure it isn't overloaded;
o the first part of the Measurement Task checking that the device o checking that the device with the MA has enough resources to
with the MA has enough resources to execute the Measurement Task execute the Measurement Task reliably. Note that the designer of
reliably. Note that the designer of the measurement system should the measurement system should ensure that the device's
ensure that the device's capabilities are normally sufficient to capabilities are normally sufficient to comfortably operate the
comfortably operate the Measurement Tasks. Measurement Tasks.
It is possible that similar checks continue during the Measurement It is possible that similar checks continue during the Measurement
Task, especially one that is long-running and/or creates a lot of Task, especially one that is long-running and/or creates a lot of
Active Measurement Traffic, and might lead to it being abandoned Active Measurement Traffic, and might lead to it being abandoned
whilst in-progress. A Measurement Task could also be abandoned in whilst in-progress. A Measurement Task could also be abandoned in
response to a "suppress" message (see Section 5.2.1). Action could response to a "suppress" message (see Section 5.2.1). Action could
include: include:
o For 'upload' tests, the MA not sending traffic o For 'upload' tests, the MA not sending traffic
o For 'download' tests, the MA closing the TCP connection or sending o For 'download' tests, the MA closing the TCP connection or sending
a TWAMP Stop control message [RFC5357]. a TWAMP Stop control message [RFC5357].
The Controller may want a MA to run the same Measurement Task The Controller may want a MA to run the same Measurement Task
indefinitely (for example, "run the 'upload speed' Measurement Task indefinitely (for example, "run the 'upload speed' Measurement Task
once an hour until further notice"). To avoid the MA generating once an hour until further notice"). To avoid the MA generating
traffic forever after a Controller has permanently failed, it is traffic forever after a Controller has permanently failed (or
suggested that the Measurement Schedule includes a time limit ("run communications with the Controller have failed), the MA can be
the 'upload speed' Measurement Task once an hour for the next 30 configured with a time limit; if the MA doesn't hear from the
days") and that the Measurement Schedule is updated regularly (say, Controller for this length of time, then it stops operating
every 10 days). Measurement Tasks.
5.3.2. Overlapping Measurement Tasks 5.4.2. Overlapping Measurement Tasks
It is possible that a MA starts a new Measurement Task before another It is possible that a MA starts a new Measurement Task before another
Measurement Task has completed. This may be intentional (the way Measurement Task has completed. This may be intentional (the way
that the measurement system has designed the Measurement Schedules), that the measurement system has designed the Measurement Schedules),
but it could also be unintentional - for instance, if a Measurement but it could also be unintentional - for instance, if a Measurement
Task has a 'wait for X' step which pauses for an unexpectedly long Task has a 'wait for X' step which pauses for an unexpectedly long
time. The operator of the measurement system can handle (or not) time. The operator of the measurement system can handle (or not)
overlapping Measurement Tasks in any way they choose - it is a policy overlapping Measurement Tasks in any way they choose - it is a policy
or implementation issue and not the concern of LMAP. Some possible or implementation issue and not the concern of LMAP. Some possible
approaches are: to configure the MA not to begin the second approaches are: to configure the MA not to begin the second
Measurement Task; to start the second Measurement Task as usual; for Measurement Task; to start the second Measurement Task as usual; for
the action to be an Input Parameter of the Measurement Task; and so the action to be an Input Parameter of the Measurement Task; and so
on. on.
It is likely to be important to include in the Measurement Report the It may be important to include in the Measurement Report the fact
fact that the Measurement Task overlapped with another. that the Measurement Task overlapped with another.
5.4. Report Protocol 5.5. Report Protocol
The primary purpose of the Report Protocol is to allow a Measurement The primary purpose of the Report Protocol is to allow a Measurement
Agent to report its Measurement Results to a Collector, along with Agent to report its Measurement Results to a Collector, along with
the context in which they were obtained. the context in which they were obtained.
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
| | | Measurement | | | | Measurement |
| Collector |===================================| Agent | | Collector |===================================| Agent |
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
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o the MA-ID or a Group-ID (to anonymise results) o the MA-ID or a Group-ID (to anonymise results)
o the actual Measurement Results, including the time they were o the actual Measurement Results, including the time they were
measured measured
o the details of the Measurement Task (to avoid the Collector having o the details of the Measurement Task (to avoid the Collector having
to ask the Controller for this information later) to ask the Controller for this information later)
o perhaps the Subscriber's service parameters (see Section 5.4.1). o perhaps the Subscriber's service parameters (see Section 5.4.1).
The MA sends Reports as defined by the Data Transfer Task in the The MA sends Reports as defined by the Instruction. It is possible
Controller's Instruction. It is possible that the Instruction tells that the Instruction tells the MA to report the same Results to more
the MA to report the same Results to more than one Collector, or to than one Collector, or to report a different subset of Results to
report a different subset of Results to different Collectors. It is different Collectors. It is also possible that a Measurement Task
also possible that a Measurement Task may create two (or more) may create two (or more) Measurement Results, which could be reported
Measurement Results, which could be reported differently (for differently (for example, one Result could be reported periodically,
example, one Result could be reported periodically, whilst the second whilst the second Result could be an alarm that is created as soon as
Result could be an alarm that is created as soon as the measured the measured value of the Metric crosses a threshold and that is
value of the Metric crosses a threshold and that is reported reported immediately).
immediately).
Optionally, a Report is not sent when there are no Measurement Optionally, a Report is not sent when there are no Measurement
Results. Results.
In the initial LMAP Information Model and Report Protocol, for In the initial LMAP Information Model and Report Protocol, for
simplicity we assume that all Measurement Results are reported as-is, simplicity we assume that all Measurement Results are reported as-is,
but allow extensibility so that a measurement system (or perhaps a but allow extensibility so that a measurement system (or perhaps a
second phase of LMAP) could allow a MA to: second phase of LMAP) could allow a MA to:
o label, or perhaps not include, Measurement Results impacted by, o label, or perhaps not include, Measurement Results impacted by,
for instance, cross-traffic or the Measurement Peer (or other for instance, cross-traffic or the Measurement Peer (or other
Measurment Agent) being busy Measurement Agent) being busy
o label Measurement Results obtained by a Measurement Task that o label Measurement Results obtained by a Measurement Task that
overlapped with another overlapped with another
o not report the Measurement Results if the MA believes that they o not report the Measurement Results if the MA believes that they
are invalid are invalid
o detail when Suppression started and ended o detail when Suppression started and ended
5.4.1. Reporting of Subsriber's service parameters 5.5.1. Reporting of Subscriber's service parameters
The Subscriber's service parameters are information about his/her The Subscriber's service parameters are information about his/her
broadband contract, line rate and so on. Such information is likely broadband contract, line rate and so on. Such information is likely
to be needed to help analyse the Measurement Results, for example to to be needed to help analyse the Measurement Results, for example to
help decide whether the measured download speed is reasonable. help decide whether the measured download speed is reasonable.
The information could be transferred directly from the Subscriber The information could be transferred directly from the Subscriber
parameter database to the data analysis tools. It may also be parameter database to the data analysis tools. It may also be
possible to transfer the information via the MA. How (and if) the MA possible to transfer the information via the MA. How (and if) the MA
knows such information is likely to depend on the device type. The knows such information is likely to depend on the device type. The
MA could either include the information in a Measurement Report or MA could either include the information in a Measurement Report or
run a separate Data Transfer Task. All such considerations are out separately.
of scope of LMAP.
5.5. Operation of LMAP over the underlying transport protocol 5.6. Operation of LMAP over the underlying packet transfer mechanism
The above sections have described LMAP's protocol model. As part of The above sections have described LMAP's protocol model. Other
the design of the Control and Report Protocols, the LMAP working specifications will define the actual Control and Report Protocols,
group will specify operation over an existing protocol, to be possibly operating over an existing protocol, to be selected, for
selected, for example REST-style HTTP(S). It is also possible that a example REST-style HTTP(S). It is also possible that a different
different choice is made for the Control and Report Protocols, for choice is made for the Control and Report Protocols, for example
example NETCONF-YANG and IPFIX respectively. NETCONF-YANG and IPFIX respectively.
From an LMAP perspective, the Controller needs to know that the MA From an LMAP perspective, the Controller needs to know that the MA
has received the Instruction Message, or at least that it needs to be has received the Instruction Message, or at least that it needs to be
re-sent as it may have failed to be delivered. Similarly the MA re-sent as it may have failed to be delivered. Similarly the MA
needs to know about the delivery of Capabilities and Failure needs to know about the delivery of Capabilities and Failure
information to the Controller and Reports to the Collector. How this information to the Controller and Reports to the Collector. How this
is done depends on the design of the Control and Report Protocols and is done depends on the design of the Control and Report Protocols and
the underlying transport protocol. the underlying packet transfer mechanism.
For the Control Protocol, the underlying transport protocol could be: For the Control Protocol, the underlying packet transfer mechanism
could be:
o a 'push' protocol (that is, from the Controller to the MA) o a 'push' protocol (that is, from the Controller to the MA)
o a multicast protocol (from the Controller to a group of MAs) o a multicast protocol (from the Controller to a group of MAs)
o a 'pull' protocol. The MA periodically checks with Controller if o a 'pull' protocol. The MA periodically checks with Controller if
the Instruction has changed and pulls a new Instruction if the Instruction has changed and pulls a new Instruction if
necessary. A pull protocol seems attractive for a MA behind a NAT necessary. A pull protocol seems attractive for a MA behind a NAT
(as is typical for a MA on an end-user's device), so that it can (as is typical for a MA on an end-user's device), so that it can
initiate the communications. A pull mechanism is likely to initiate the communications. A pull mechanism is likely to
require the MA to be configured with how frequently it should require the MA to be configured with how frequently it should
check in with the Controller, and perhaps what it should do if the check in with the Controller, and perhaps what it should do if the
Controller is unreachable after a certain number of attempts. Controller is unreachable after a certain number of attempts.
o a hybrid protocol. In addition to a pull protocol, the Controller o a hybrid protocol. In addition to a pull protocol, the Controller
can also push an alert to the MA that it should immediately pull a can also push an alert to the MA that it should immediately pull a
new Instruction. new Instruction.
For the Report Protocol, the underlying transport protocol could be: For the Report Protocol, the underlying packet transfer mechanism
could be:
o a 'push' protocol (that is, from the MA to the Collector) o a 'push' protocol (that is, from the MA to the Collector)
o perhaps supplemented by the ability for the Collector to 'pull' o perhaps supplemented by the ability for the Collector to 'pull'
Measurement Results from a MA. Measurement Results from a MA.
5.6. Items beyond the scope of the LMAP Protocol Model 5.7. Items beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work
There are several potential interactions between LMAP elements that There are several potential interactions between LMAP elements that
are out of scope of definition by the LMAP WG: are beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work:
1. It does not define a coordination process between MAs. Whilst a 1. It does not define a coordination process between MAs. Whilst a
measurement system may define coordinated Measurement Schedules measurement system may define coordinated Measurement Schedules
across its various MAs, there is no direct coordination between across its various MAs, there is no direct coordination between
MAs. MAs.
2. It does not define interactions between the Collector and 2. It does not define interactions between the Collector and
Controller. It is quite likely that there will be such Controller. It is quite likely that there will be such
interactions, optionally intermediated by the data analysis interactions, optionally intermediated by the data analysis
tools. For example, if there is an "interesting" Measurement tools. For example, if there is an "interesting" Measurement
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3. It does not define coordination between different measurement 3. It does not define coordination between different measurement
systems. For example, it does not define the interaction of a MA systems. For example, it does not define the interaction of a MA
in one measurement system with a Controller or Collector in a in one measurement system with a Controller or Collector in a
different measurement system. Whilst it is likely that the different measurement system. Whilst it is likely that the
Control and Report Protocols could be re-used or adapted for this Control and Report Protocols could be re-used or adapted for this
scenario, any form of coordination between different scenario, any form of coordination between different
organisations involves difficult commercial and technical issues organisations involves difficult commercial and technical issues
and so, given the novelty of large-scale measurement efforts, any and so, given the novelty of large-scale measurement efforts, any
form of inter-organisation coordination is outside the scope of form of inter-organisation coordination is outside the scope of
the LMAP WG. Note that a single MA is instructed by a single the initial LMAP work. Note that a single MA is instructed by a
Controller and is only in one measurement system. single Controller and is only in one measurement system.
* An interesting scenario is where a home contains two * An interesting scenario is where a home contains two
independent MAs, for example one controlled by a regulator and independent MAs, for example one controlled by a regulator and
one controlled by an ISP. Then the Active Measurement Traffic one controlled by an ISP. Then the Active Measurement Traffic
of one MA is treated by the other MA just like any other end- of one MA is treated by the other MA just like any other end-
user traffic. user traffic.
4. It does not consider how to prevent a malicious party "gaming the 4. It does not consider how to prevent a malicious party "gaming the
system". For example, where a regulator is running a measurement system". For example, where a regulator is running a measurement
system in order to benchmark operators, a malicious operator system in order to benchmark operators, a malicious operator
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measuring and prioritise that traffic. It is assumed this is a measuring and prioritise that traffic. It is assumed this is a
policy issue and would be dealt with through a code of conduct policy issue and would be dealt with through a code of conduct
for instance. for instance.
5. It does not define how to analyse Measurement Results, including 5. It does not define how to analyse Measurement Results, including
how to interpret missing Results. how to interpret missing Results.
6. It does not specifically define a end-user-controlled measurement 6. It does not specifically define a end-user-controlled measurement
system, see sub-section 5.6.1. system, see sub-section 5.6.1.
5.6.1. End-user-controlled measurement system 5.7.1. End-user-controlled measurement system
The WG concentrates on the cases where an ISP or a regulator runs the This framework concentrates on the cases where an ISP or a regulator
measurement system. However, we expect that LMAP functionality will runs the measurement system. However, we expect that LMAP
also be used in the context of an end-user-controlled measurement functionality will also be used in the context of an end-user-
system. There are at least two ways this could happen (they have controlled measurement system. There are at least two ways this
various pros and cons): could happen (they have various pros and cons):
1. an end-user could somehow request the ISP- (or regulator-) run 1. an end-user could somehow request the ISP- (or regulator-) run
measurement system to test his/her line. The ISP (or regulator) measurement system to test his/her line. The ISP (or regulator)
Controller would then send an Instruction to the MA in the usual Controller would then send an Instruction to the MA in the usual
LMAP way. Note that a user can't directly initiate a Measurement LMAP way. Note that a user can't directly initiate a Measurement
Task on an ISP- (or regulator-) controlled MA. Task on an ISP- (or regulator-) controlled MA.
2. an end-user could deploy their own measurement system, with their 2. an end-user could deploy their own measurement system, with their
own MA, Controller and Collector. For example, the user could own MA, Controller and Collector. For example, the user could
implement all three functions onto the same end-user-owned end implement all three functions onto the same end-user-owned end
device, perhaps by downloading the functions from the ISP or device, perhaps by downloading the functions from the ISP or
regulator. Then the LMAP Control and Report Protocols do not regulator. Then the LMAP Control and Report Protocols do not
need to be used, but using LMAP's Information Model would still need to be used, but using LMAP's Information Model would still
be beneficial. The Measurement Peer (or other MA involved in the be beneficial. The Measurement Peer (or other MA involved in the
Measurement Task) could be in the home gateway or outside the Measurement Task) could be in the home gateway or outside the
home network; in the latter case the Measurement Peer is highly home network; in the latter case the Measurement Peer is highly
likely to be run by a different organisation, which raises extra likely to be run by a different organisation, which raises extra
privacy considerations. privacy considerations.
In both cases there will be some way for the end-user to initiate the In both cases there will be some way for the end-user to initiate the
Measurement Task(s). The mechanism is out-of-scope of the LMAP WG, Measurement Task(s). The mechanism is outside the scope of the
but could include the user clicking a button on a GUI or sending a initial LMAP work, but could include the user clicking a button on a
text message. Presumably the user will also be able to see the GUI or sending a text message. Presumably the user will also be able
Measurement Results, perhaps summarised on a webpage. It is to see the Measurement Results, perhaps summarised on a webpage. It
suggested that these interfaces conform to the LMAP guidance on is suggested that these interfaces conform to the LMAP guidance on
privacy in Section 8. privacy in Section 8.
6. Deployment considerations 6. Deployment considerations
The Appendix has some examples of possible deployment arrangements of The Appendix has some examples of possible deployment arrangements of
Measurement Agents and Peers. Measurement Agents and Peers.
6.1. Controller and the measurement system 6.1. Controller and the measurement system
The Controller should understand both the MA's LMAP Capabilities (for The Controller should understand both the MA's LMAP Capabilities (for
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Tasks and the Reporting Schedule are sensible for each MA that it Tasks and the Reporting Schedule are sensible for each MA that it
Instructs. Instructs.
An Instruction is likely to include several Measurement Tasks. An Instruction is likely to include several Measurement Tasks.
Typically these run at different times, but it is also possible for Typically these run at different times, but it is also possible for
them to run at the same time. Some Tasks may be compatible, in that them to run at the same time. Some Tasks may be compatible, in that
they do not affect each other's Results, whilst with others great they do not affect each other's Results, whilst with others great
care would need to be taken. care would need to be taken.
The Controller should ensure that the Active Measurement Tasks do not The Controller should ensure that the Active Measurement Tasks do not
have an adverse effect on the end user. Typically Tasks, especially have an adverse effect on the end user. Tasks, especially those that
those that generate a substantial amount of traffic, will include a generate a substantial amount of traffic, will often include a pre-
pre-check that the user isn't already sending traffic (Section 5.3). check that the user isn't already sending traffic (Section 5.3).
Another consideration is whether Active Measurement Traffic will Another consideration is whether Active Measurement Traffic will
impact a Subscriber's bill or traffic cap; if it will, then the impact a Subscriber's bill or traffic cap.
measurement system may need to compensate the Subscriber, for
instance.
The different elements of the Instruction can be updated The different elements of the Instruction can be updated
independently. For example, the Measurement Tasks could be independently. For example, the Measurement Tasks could be
configured with different Input Parameters whilst keeping the same configured with different Input Parameters whilst keeping the same
Measurement Schedule. In general this should not create any issues, Measurement Schedule. In general this should not create any issues,
since Measurement Methods should be defined so their fundamental since Measurement Methods should be defined so their fundamental
nature does not change for a new value of Input Parameter. There nature does not change for a new value of Input Parameter. There
could be a problem if, for example, a Measurement Task involving a could be a problem if, for example, a Measurement Task involving a
1kB file upload could be changed into a 1GB file upload. 1kB file upload could be changed into a 1GB file upload.
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The Measurement Agent could be deployed in a variety of locations. The Measurement Agent could be deployed in a variety of locations.
Not all deployment locations are available to every kind of Not all deployment locations are available to every kind of
Measurement Agent. There are also a variety of limitations and Measurement Agent. There are also a variety of limitations and
trade-offs depending on the final placement. The next sections trade-offs depending on the final placement. The next sections
outline some of the locations a Measurement Agent may be deployed. outline some of the locations a Measurement Agent may be deployed.
This is not an exhaustive list and combinations may also apply. This is not an exhaustive list and combinations may also apply.
6.2.1. Measurement Agent on a networked device 6.2.1. Measurement Agent on a networked device
A MA may be embedded on a device that is directly connected to the A MA may be embedded on a device that is directly connected to the
network, such as a MA on a smartphone. network, such as a MA on a smartphone. Other examples include a MA
downloaded and installed on a subscriber's laptop computer or tablet
when the network service is provided on wired or other wireless radio
technologies, such as Wi-Fi.
6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway 6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway
A Measurement Agent embedded with the site gateway, for example a A Measurement Agent embedded with the site gateway, for example a
home router or the edge router of a branch office in a managed home router or the edge router of a branch office in a managed
service environment, is one of better places the Measurement Agent service environment, is one of better places the Measurement Agent
could be deployed. All site-to-ISP traffic would traverse through could be deployed. All site-to-ISP traffic would traverse through
the gateway and passive measurements could easily be performed. the gateway and passive measurements could easily be performed.
Similarly, due to this user traffic visibility, an Active Measurement Similarly, due to this user traffic visibility, an Active Measurement
Task could be rescheduled so as not to compete with user traffic. Task could be rescheduled so as not to compete with user traffic.
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6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway 6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway
A Measurement Agent embedded with the site gateway, for example a A Measurement Agent embedded with the site gateway, for example a
home router or the edge router of a branch office in a managed home router or the edge router of a branch office in a managed
service environment, is one of better places the Measurement Agent service environment, is one of better places the Measurement Agent
could be deployed. All site-to-ISP traffic would traverse through could be deployed. All site-to-ISP traffic would traverse through
the gateway and passive measurements could easily be performed. the gateway and passive measurements could easily be performed.
Similarly, due to this user traffic visibility, an Active Measurement Similarly, due to this user traffic visibility, an Active Measurement
Task could be rescheduled so as not to compete with user traffic. Task could be rescheduled so as not to compete with user traffic.
Generally NAT and firewall services are built into the gateway, Generally NAT and firewall services are built into the gateway,
allowing the Measurement Agent the option to offer its Controller- allowing the Measurement Agent the option to offer its Controller-
facing management interface outside of the NAT/firewall. This facing management interface outside of the NAT/firewall. This
placement of the management interface allows the Controller to placement of the management interface allows the Controller to
unilaterally contact the Measurement Agent for instructions. unilaterally contact the Measurement Agent for instructions.
However, if the site gateway is owned and operated by the service However, a Measurement Agent on a site gateway (whether end-user
provider, the Measurement Agent will generally not be directly service-provider owned) will generally not be directly available for
available for over the top providers, the regulator, end users or over the top providers, the regulator, end users or enterprises.
enterprises.
6.2.3. Measurement Agent embedded behind site NAT /Firewall 6.2.3. Measurement Agent embedded behind site NAT /Firewall
The Measurement Agent could also be embedded behind a NAT, a The Measurement Agent could also be embedded behind a NAT, a
firewall, or both. In this case the Controller may not be able to firewall, or both. In this case the Controller may not be able to
unilaterally contact the Measurement Agent unless either static port unilaterally contact the Measurement Agent unless either static port
forwarding configuration or firewall pin holing is configured. For forwarding or firewall pin holing is configured. Configuring port
the former, protocols such as PCP [RFC6887], TR-069 [TR-069]or UPnP forwarding could use protocols such as PCP [RFC6887], TR-069
[UPnP]could be used. For the latter, the Measurement Agent could
send keepalives towards the Controller to prop open the firewall (and [TR-069]or UPnP [UPnP]. To prop open the firewall, the Measurement
perhaps use these also as a network reachability test). Agent could send keepalives towards the Controller (and perhaps use
these also as a network reachability test).
6.2.4. Multi-homed Measurement Agent 6.2.4. Multi-homed Measurement Agent
If the device with the Measurement Agent is single homed then there If the device with the Measurement Agent is single homed then there
is no confusion about what interface to measure. Similarly, if the is no confusion about what interface to measure. Similarly, if the
MA is at the gateway and the gateway only has a single WAN-side and a MA is at the gateway and the gateway only has a single WAN-side and a
single LAN-side interface, there is little confusion - for an Active single LAN-side interface, there is little confusion - for an Active
Measurement Task, the location of the other MA or Measurement Peer Measurement Task, the location of the other MA or Measurement Peer
determines whether the WAN or LAN is measured. determines whether the WAN or LAN is measured.
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However, if a MA can measure any of the interfaces, then the However, if a MA can measure any of the interfaces, then the
Controller defines in the Instruction which interface the MA should Controller defines in the Instruction which interface the MA should
use for a Measurement Task; if the choice of interface is not defined use for a Measurement Task; if the choice of interface is not defined
then the MA uses the default one. Explicit definition is preferred then the MA uses the default one. Explicit definition is preferred
if the measurement system wants to measure the performance of a if the measurement system wants to measure the performance of a
particular network, whereas using the default is better if the particular network, whereas using the default is better if the
measurement system wants to include the impact of the MA's interface measurement system wants to include the impact of the MA's interface
selection algorithm. In any case, the Measurement Result should selection algorithm. In any case, the Measurement Result should
include the network that was measured. include the network that was measured.
6.2.5. Measurement Agent embedded in ISP Network
A MA may be embedded on a device that is part of an ISP's network,
such as a router or switch. Usually the network devices with an
embedded MA will be strategically located, such as a Carrier Grade
NAT or ISP Gateway. [I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path] gives many examples
where a MA might be located within a network to provide an
intermediate measurement point on the end-to-end path. Other
examples include a network device whose primary role is to host MA
functions and the necessary measurement protocol.
6.3. Measurement Peer 6.3. Measurement Peer
A Measurement Peer participates in Active Measurement Tasks. It may A Measurement Peer participates in Active Measurement Tasks. It may
have specific functionality to enable it to participate in a have specific functionality to enable it to participate in a
particular Measurement Method. On the other hand, other Measurement particular Measurement Method. On the other hand, other Measurement
Methods may require no special functionality, for example if the Methods may require no special functionality, for example if the
Measurement Agent sends a ping to example.com then the server at Measurement Agent sends a ping to example.com then the server at
example.com plays the role of a Measurement Peer. example.com plays the role of a Measurement Peer.
A device may participate in some Measurement Tasks as a Measurement A device may participate in some Measurement Tasks as a Measurement
Agent and in others as a Measurement Peer. Agent and in others as a Measurement Peer.
Measurement schedules should account for limited resources in a Measurement Schedules should account for limited resources in a
Measurement Peer when instructing a MA to execute measurements with a Measurement Peer when instructing a MA to execute measurements with a
Measurement Peer. In some measurement protocols, such as [RFC4656] Measurement Peer. In some measurement protocols, such as [RFC4656]
and [RFC5357], the Measurement Peer can reject a measurement session and [RFC5357], the Measurement Peer can reject a measurement session
or refuse a control connection prior to setting-up a measurement or refuse a control connection prior to setting-up a measurement
session and so protect itself from resource exhaustion. This is a session and so protect itself from resource exhaustion. This is a
valuable capability because the MP may be used by more than one valuable capability because the MP may be used by more than one
organisation. organisation.
7. Security considerations 7. Security considerations
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Instructions from a single organisation, which operates the Instructions from a single organisation, which operates the
Controller. These Instructions must be authenticated (to ensure that Controller. These Instructions must be authenticated (to ensure that
they come from the trusted Controller), checked for integrity (to they come from the trusted Controller), checked for integrity (to
ensure no-one has tampered with them) and not vulnerable to replay ensure no-one has tampered with them) and not vulnerable to replay
attacks. If a malicious party can gain control of the MA they can attacks. If a malicious party can gain control of the MA they can
use it to launch DoS attacks at targets, reduce the end user's use it to launch DoS attacks at targets, reduce the end user's
quality of experience and corrupt the Measurement Results that are quality of experience and corrupt the Measurement Results that are
reported to the Collector. By altering the Measurement Tasks and/or reported to the Collector. By altering the Measurement Tasks and/or
the address that Results are reported to, they can also compromise the address that Results are reported to, they can also compromise
the confidentiality of the network user and the MA environment (such the confidentiality of the network user and the MA environment (such
as information about the location of devices or their traffic). as information about the location of devices or their traffic). The
Instruction messages also need to be encrypted to maintain
confidentiality, as the information might be useful to an attacker.
The process to upgrade the firmware in an MA is out-of-scope for this The process to upgrade the firmware in an MA is outside the scope of
phase of LMAP development, similar to the protocol to bootstrap the the initial LMAP work, similar to the protocol to bootstrap the MAs
MAs (as specified in the charter). However, systems which provide (as specified in the charter). However, systems which provide remote
remote upgrade must secure authorised access and integrity of the upgrade must secure authorised access and integrity of the process.
process.
Reporting by the MA must also be secured to maintain confidentiality. Reporting by the MA must also be secured to maintain confidentiality.
The results must be encrypted such that only the authorised Collector The results must be encrypted such that only the authorised Collector
can decrypt the results to prevent the leakage of confidential or can decrypt the results to prevent the leakage of confidential or
private information. In addition it must be authenticated that the private information. In addition it must be authenticated that the
results have come from the expected MA and that they have not been results have come from the expected MA and that they have not been
tampered with. It must not be possible to fool a MA into injecting tampered with. It must not be possible to fool a MA into injecting
falsified data into the measurement platform or to corrupt the falsified data into the measurement platform or to corrupt the
results of a real MA. The results must also be held and processed results of a real MA. The results must also be held and processed
securely after collection and analysis. See section 8.5.2 below for securely after collection and analysis.
additional considerations on stored data compromise, and section 8.6
on potential mitigations for compromise. Reporting by the MA must be encrypted to maintain confidentiality, to
prevent the leakage of confidential or private information.
Reporting must also be authenticated (to ensure that it comes from a
trusted MA) and not vulnerable to tampering (which can be ensured
through integrity and replay checks). It must not be possible to
fool a MA into injecting falsified data and the results must also be
held and processed securely after collection and analysis See section
8.5.2 below for additional considerations on stored data compromise,
and section 8.6 on potential mitigations for compromise.
Since Collectors will be contacted repeatedly by MAs using the Since Collectors will be contacted repeatedly by MAs using the
Collection Protocol to convey their recent results, a successful Collection Protocol to convey their recent results, a successful
attack to exhaust the communication resources would prevent a attack to exhaust the communication resources would prevent a
critical operation: reporting. Therefore, all LMAP Collectors should critical operation: reporting. Therefore, all LMAP Collectors should
implement technical mechanisms to: implement technical mechanisms to:
o limit the number of reporting connections from a single MA o limit the number of reporting connections from a single MA
(simultaneous, and connections per unit time). (simultaneous, and connections per unit time).
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o separate resources if multiple authentication strengths are used, o separate resources if multiple authentication strengths are used,
where the resources should be separated according to each class of where the resources should be separated according to each class of
strength. strength.
o limit iteration counters to generate keys with both a lower and o limit iteration counters to generate keys with both a lower and
upper limit, to prevent an attacking system from requesting the upper limit, to prevent an attacking system from requesting the
maximum and causing the Controller to stall on the process (see maximum and causing the Controller to stall on the process (see
section 6 of [RFC5357]). section 6 of [RFC5357]).
Many of the above considerations are applicable to Controllers using Many of the above considerations are applicable to a "pull" model,
a "push" model, where the MA must contact the Controller because NAT where the MA must contact the Controller because NAT or other network
or other network aspect prevents Controllers from contacting MAs aspect prevents Controllers from contacting MAs directly.
directly.
Availability should also be considered. While the loss of some MAs Availability should also be considered. While the loss of some MAs
may not be considered critical, the unavailability of the Collector may not be considered critical, the unavailability of the Collector
could mean that valuable business data or data critical to a could mean that valuable business data or data critical to a
regulatory process is lost. Similarly, the unavailability of a regulatory process is lost. Similarly, the unavailability of a
Controller could mean that the MAs do not operate a correct Controller could mean that the MAs do not operate a correct
Measurement Schedule. Measurement Schedule.
The security mechanisms described above may not be strictly necessary
if the network's design ensures the LMAP components and their
communications are already secured, for example potentially if they
are all part of an ISP's dedicated management network.
A malicious party could "game the system". For example, where a A malicious party could "game the system". For example, where a
regulator is running a measurement system in order to benchmark regulator is running a measurement system in order to benchmark
operators, an operator could try to identify the broadband lines that operators, an operator could try to identify the broadband lines that
the regulator was measuring and prioritise that traffic. This the regulator was measuring and prioritise that traffic. Normally,
potential issue is currently handled by a code of conduct. It is this potential issue is handled by a code of conduct. It is outside
outside the scope of the LMAP WG to consider the issue. the scope of the initial LMAP work to consider the issue.
8. Privacy Considerations for LMAP 8. Privacy Considerations for LMAP
The LMAP Working Group will consider privacy as a core requirement The LMAP work considers privacy as a core requirement and will ensure
and will ensure that by default the Control and Report Protocols that by default the Control and Report Protocols operate in a
operate in a privacy-sensitive manner and that privacy features are privacy-sensitive manner and that privacy features are well-defined.
well-defined.
This section provides a set of privacy considerations for LMAP. This This section provides a set of privacy considerations for LMAP. This
section benefits greatly from the timely publication of [RFC6973]. section benefits greatly from the timely publication of [RFC6973].
Privacy and security (Section 7) are related. In some jurisdictions Privacy and security (Section 7) are related. In some jurisdictions
privacy is called data protection. privacy is called data protection.
We begin with a set of assumptions related to protecting the We begin with a set of assumptions related to protecting the
sensitive information of individuals and organisations participating sensitive information of individuals and organisations participating
in LMAP-orchestrated measurement and data collection. in LMAP-orchestrated measurement and data collection.
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Other organisations will have some combination of the lists above. Other organisations will have some combination of the lists above.
The LMAP system would not typically expose all of the information The LMAP system would not typically expose all of the information
above, but could expose a combination of items which could be above, but could expose a combination of items which could be
correlated with other pieces collected by an attacker (as discussed correlated with other pieces collected by an attacker (as discussed
in the section on Threats below). in the section on Threats below).
8.3. Key Distinction Between Active and Passive Measurement Tasks 8.3. Key Distinction Between Active and Passive Measurement Tasks
Passive and Active Measurement Tasks raise different privacy issues. Passive and Active Measurement Tasks raise different privacy issues.
Passive Measurement Tasks are conducted on a user's traffic, such Passive Measurement Tasks are conducted on one or more user's
that sensitive information is present and stored in the measurement traffic, such that sensitive information is present and stored in the
system (however briefly this storage may be). We note that some measurement system (however briefly this storage may be). We note
authorities make a distinction on time of storage, and information that some authorities make a distinction on time of storage, and
that is kept only temporarily to perform a communications function is information that is kept only temporarily to perform a communications
not subject to regulation (for example, active queue management, deep function is not subject to regulation (for example, active queue
packet inspection). Passive Measurement Tasks could reveal all the management, deep packet inspection). Passive Measurement Tasks could
websites a Subscriber visits and the applications and/or services reveal all the websites a Subscriber visits and the applications and/
they use. or services they use.
Active Measurement Tasks are conducted on traffic which is created Active Measurement Tasks are conducted on traffic which is created
specifically for the purpose. Even if a user host generates Active specifically for the purpose. Even if a user host generates Active
Measurement Traffic, there is limited sensitive information about the Measurement Traffic, there is limited sensitive information about the
Subscriber present and stored in the measurement system compared to Subscriber present and stored in the measurement system compared to
the passive case, as follows: the passive case, as follows:
o IP address in use (and possibly sub-IP addresses and names) o IP address in use (and possibly sub-IP addresses and names)
o Status as a study volunteer and Schedule of Active Measurement o Status as a study volunteer and Schedule of Active Measurement
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privacy, especially if one or more of these functional entities has privacy, especially if one or more of these functional entities has
been compromised. Likewise, all devices on the paths used for been compromised. Likewise, all devices on the paths used for
control, reporting, and measurement are also observers. control, reporting, and measurement are also observers.
8.4.1. MA Bootstrapping 8.4.1. MA Bootstrapping
Section 5.1 provides the communication model for the Bootstrapping Section 5.1 provides the communication model for the Bootstrapping
process. process.
Although the specification of mechanisms for Bootstrapping the MA are Although the specification of mechanisms for Bootstrapping the MA are
beyond the LMAP scope, designers should recognize that the beyond the initial LMAP work scope, designers should recognize that
Bootstrapping process is extremely powerful and could cause an MA to the Bootstrapping process is extremely powerful and could cause an MA
join a new or different LMAP system with a different Controller and to join a new or different LMAP system with a different Controller
Collector, or simply install new Measurement Methods (for example to and Collector, or simply install new Measurement Methods (for example
passively record DNS queries). A Bootstrap attack could result in a to passively record DNS queries). A Bootstrap attack could result in
breach of the LMAP system with significant sensitive information a breach of the LMAP system with significant sensitive information
exposure depending on the capabilities of the MA, so sufficient exposure depending on the capabilities of the MA, so sufficient
security protections are warranted. security protections are warranted.
The Bootstrapping process provides sensitive information about the The Bootstrapping process provides sensitive information about the
LMAP system and the organisation that operates it, such as LMAP system and the organisation that operates it, such as
o Initial Controller IP address or FQDN o Initial Controller IP address or FQDN
o Assigned Controller IP address or FQDN o Assigned Controller IP address or FQDN
o Security certificates and credentials o Security certificates and credentials
During the Bootstrap process, the MA receives its MA-ID which is a
persistent pseudonym for the Subscriber in the case that the MA is During the Bootstrap process for an MA located at a single
located at a service demarcation point. Thus, the MA-ID is subscriber's service demarcation point, the MA receives a MA-ID which
considered sensitive information, because it could provide the link is a persistent pseudonym for the Subscriber. Thus, the MA-ID is
considered sensitive information because it could provide the link
between Subscriber identification and Measurements Results. between Subscriber identification and Measurements Results.
Also, the Bootstrap process could assign a Group-ID to the MA. The Also, the Bootstrap process could assign a Group-ID to the MA. The
specific definition of information represented in a Group-ID is to be specific definition of information represented in a Group-ID is to be
determined, but several examples are envisaged including use as a determined, but several examples are envisaged including use as a
pseudonym for a set of Subscribers, a class of service, an access pseudonym for a set of Subscribers, a class of service, an access
technology, or other important categories. Assignment of a Group-ID technology, or other important categories. Assignment of a Group-ID
enables anonymisation sets to be formed on the basis of service type/ enables anonymisation sets to be formed on the basis of service type/
grade/rates. Thus, the mapping between Group-ID and MA-ID is grade/rates. Thus, the mapping between Group-ID and MA-ID is
considered sensitive information. considered sensitive information.
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The Measurement Results are the additional sensitive information The Measurement Results are the additional sensitive information
included in the Collector-MA exchange. Organisations collecting LMAP included in the Collector-MA exchange. Organisations collecting LMAP
measurements have the responsibility for data control. Thus, the measurements have the responsibility for data control. Thus, the
Results and other information communicated in the Collector protocol Results and other information communicated in the Collector protocol
must be secured. must be secured.
8.4.4. Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent 8.4.4. Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent
Although the specification of the mechanisms for an Active Although the specification of the mechanisms for an Active
Measurement Task is beyond the scope of LMAP, it raises potential Measurement Task is beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work, it
privacy issues. The high-level communications model below raises potential privacy issues. The high-level communications model
illustrates the various exchanges to execute Active Measurement Tasks below illustrates the various exchanges to execute Active Measurement
and store the Results. Tasks and store the Results.
We note the potential for additional observers in the figures below We note the potential for additional observers in the figures below
by indicating the possible presence of a NAT, which has additional by indicating the possible presence of a NAT, which has additional
significance to the protocols and direction of initiation. significance to the protocols and direction of initiation.
The various messages are optional, depending on the nature of the The various messages are optional, depending on the nature of the
Active Measurement Task. It may involve sending Active Measurement Active Measurement Task. It may involve sending Active Measurement
Traffic from the Measurement Peer to MA, MA to Measurement Peer, or Traffic from the Measurement Peer to MA, MA to Measurement Peer, or
both. both.
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Schedule, and intermediate results carried in the Active Measurement Schedule, and intermediate results carried in the Active Measurement
Traffic (usually a set of timestamps). Traffic (usually a set of timestamps).
If the Active Measurement Traffic is unencrypted, as found in many If the Active Measurement Traffic is unencrypted, as found in many
systems today, then both timing and limited results are open to on- systems today, then both timing and limited results are open to on-
path observers. path observers.
8.4.5. Passive Measurement Agent 8.4.5. Passive Measurement Agent
Although the specification of the mechanisms for a Passive Although the specification of the mechanisms for a Passive
Measurement Task is beyond the scope of LMAP, it raises potential Measurement Task is beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work, it
privacy issues. raises potential privacy issues.
The high-level communications model below illustrates the collection The high-level communications model below illustrates the collection
of user information of interest with the Measurement Agent performing of user information of interest with the Measurement Agent performing
the monitoring and storage of the Results. This particular exchange the monitoring and storage of the Results. This particular exchange
is for passive measurement of DNS Response Time, which most is for passive measurement of DNS Response Time, which most
frequently uses UDP transport. frequently uses UDP transport.
_________________ ____________ _________________ ____________
| | | | | | | |
| DNS Server |=========== NAT ? ==========*=======| User client| | DNS Server |=========== NAT ? ==========*=======| User client|
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(listed above) can be collected and stored in the passive monitoring (listed above) can be collected and stored in the passive monitoring
scenario and so must be secured. scenario and so must be secured.
It would also be possible for a Measurement Agent to source the DNS It would also be possible for a Measurement Agent to source the DNS
query itself. But then, as with any active measurement task, there query itself. But then, as with any active measurement task, there
are few privacy concerns. are few privacy concerns.
8.4.6. Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results 8.4.6. Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results
Although the mechanisms for communicating results (beyond the initial Although the mechanisms for communicating results (beyond the initial
Collector) are beyond the LMAP scope, there are potential privacy Collector) are beyond the initial LMAP work scope, there are
issues related to a single organisation's storage and reporting of potential privacy issues related to a single organisation's storage
Measurement Results. Both storage and reporting functions can help and reporting of Measurement Results. Both storage and reporting
to preserve privacy by implementing the mitigations described below. functions can help to preserve privacy by implementing the
mitigations described below.
8.5. Threats 8.5. Threats
This section indicates how each of the threats described in [RFC6973] This section indicates how each of the threats described in [RFC6973]
apply to the LMAP entities and their communication and storage of apply to the LMAP entities and their communication and storage of
"information of interest". "information of interest". Denial of Service (DOS) and other attacks
described in the Security section represent threats as well, and
these attacks are more effective when sensitive information
protections have been compromised.
8.5.1. Surveillance 8.5.1. Surveillance
Section 5.1.1 of [RFC6973] describes Surveillance as the "observation Section 5.1.1 of [RFC6973] describes Surveillance as the "observation
or monitoring of and individual's communications or activities." or monitoring of and individual's communications or activities."
Hence all Passive Measurement Tasks are a form of surveillance, with Hence all Passive Measurement Tasks are a form of surveillance, with
inherent risks. inherent risks.
Active Measurement Methods which avoid periods of user transmission Active Measurement Methods which avoid periods of user transmission
indirectly produce a record of times when a subscriber or authorised indirectly produce a record of times when a subscriber or authorised
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resulting from inadequate measures to secure stored data from resulting from inadequate measures to secure stored data from
unauthorised or inappropriate access. For LMAP systems this includes unauthorised or inappropriate access. For LMAP systems this includes
deleting or modifying collected measurement records, as well as data deleting or modifying collected measurement records, as well as data
theft. theft.
The primary LMAP entity subject to compromise is the repository, The primary LMAP entity subject to compromise is the repository,
which stores the Measurement Results; extensive security and privacy which stores the Measurement Results; extensive security and privacy
threat mitigations are warranted. The Collector and MA also store threat mitigations are warranted. The Collector and MA also store
sensitive information temporarily, and need protection. The sensitive information temporarily, and need protection. The
communications between the local storage of the Collector and the communications between the local storage of the Collector and the
repository is beyond the scope of the LMAP work at this time, though repository is beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work, though this
this communications channel will certainly need protection as well as communications channel will certainly need protection as well as the
the mass storage itself. mass storage itself.
The LMAP Controller may have direct access to storage of Subscriber The LMAP Controller may have direct access to storage of Subscriber
information (location, billing, service parameters, etc.) and other information (location, billing, service parameters, etc.) and other
information which the controlling organisation considers private, and information which the controlling organisation considers private, and
again needs protection. again needs protection.
Note that there is tension between the desire to store all raw Note that there is tension between the desire to store all raw
results in the LMAP Collector (for reproduceability and custom results in the LMAP Collector (for reproducibility and custom
analysis), and the need to protect the privacy of measurement analysis), and the need to protect the privacy of measurement
participants. Many of the compromise mitigations described in participants. Many of the compromise mitigations described in
section 8.6 below are most efficient when deployed at the MA, section 8.6 below are most efficient when deployed at the MA,
therefore minimizing the risks with stored results. therefore minimizing the risks with stored results.
8.5.3. Correlation and Identification 8.5.3. Correlation and Identification
Sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 of [RFC6973] describes Correlation as Sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 of [RFC6973] describes Correlation as
combining various pieces of information to obtain desired combining various pieces of information to obtain desired
characteristics of an individual, and Identification as using this characteristics of an individual, and Identification as using this
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8.5.4. Secondary Use and Disclosure 8.5.4. Secondary Use and Disclosure
Sections 5.2.3 and 5.2.4 of [RFC6973] describes Secondary Use as Sections 5.2.3 and 5.2.4 of [RFC6973] describes Secondary Use as
unauthorised utilisation of an individual's information for a purpose unauthorised utilisation of an individual's information for a purpose
the individual did not intend, and Disclosure is when such the individual did not intend, and Disclosure is when such
information is revealed causing other's notions of the individual to information is revealed causing other's notions of the individual to
change, or confidentiality to be violated. change, or confidentiality to be violated.
Passive Measurement Tasks are a form of Secondary Use, and the Passive Measurement Tasks are a form of Secondary Use, and the
Subscribers' permission and the measured ISP's permission should be Subscribers' permission should be obtained beforehand. It may be
obtained beforehand. Although user traffic is only indirectly necessary to obtain the measured ISP's permission to conduct
measurements, for example when required by the terms and conditions
of the service agreement, and notification is considered good
measurement practice. Although user traffic is only indirectly
involved, the Measurement Results from Active Measurement Tasks involved, the Measurement Results from Active Measurement Tasks
provide some limited information about the Subscriber/ISP and could provide some limited information about the Subscriber or ISP and
be used for Secondary Uses. For example, the use of the Results in could result in Secondary Uses. For example, the use of the Results
unauthorised marketing campaigns would qualify as Secondary Use. in unauthorised marketing campaigns would qualify as Secondary Use.
Secondary use may break national laws and regulations, and may
violate individual's expectations or desires.
8.6. Mitigations 8.6. Mitigations
This section examines the mitigations listed in section 6 of This section examines the mitigations listed in section 6 of
[RFC6973] and their applicability to LMAP systems. Note that each [RFC6973] and their applicability to LMAP systems. Note that each
section in [RFC6973] identifies the threat categories that each section in [RFC6973] identifies the threat categories that each
technique mitigates. technique mitigates.
8.6.1. Data Minimisation 8.6.1. Data Minimisation
Section 6.1 of [RFC6973] encourages collecting and storing the Section 6.1 of [RFC6973] encourages collecting and storing the
minimal information needed to perform a task. minimal information needed to perform a task.
There are two levels of information needed for LMAP results to be There are two levels of information detail needed for LMAP results to
useful for a specific task: troubleshooting and general results be useful for a specific task: troubleshooting and general results
reporting. reporting, as explained in the paragraphs below.
For general results, the results can be aggregated into large For general results, the results can be aggregated into large
categories (the month of March, all subscribers West of the categories (the month of March, all subscribers West of the
Mississippi River). In this case, all individual identifications Mississippi River). In this case, all individual identifications
(including IP address of the MA) can be excluded, and only relevant (including IP address of the MA) can be excluded, and only relevant
results are provided. However, this implies a filtering process to results are provided. However, this implies a filtering process to
reduce the information fields, because greater detail was needed to reduce the information fields, because greater detail was needed to
conduct the Measurement Tasks in the first place. conduct the Measurement Tasks in the first place.
For troubleshooting, so that a network operator or end user can For troubleshooting, so that a network operator or end user can
identify a performance issue or failure, potentially all the network identify a performance issue or failure, potentially all the network
information (IP addresses, equipment IDs, location), Measurement information (IP addresses, equipment IDs, location), Measurement
Schedule, service configuration, Measurement Results, and other Schedule, service configuration, Measurement Results, and other
information may assist in the process. This includes the information information may assist in the process. This includes the information
needed to conduct the Measurements Tasks, and represents a need where needed to conduct the Measurements Tasks, and represents a need where
the maximum relevant information is desirable, therefore the greatest the maximum relevant information is desirable, therefore the greatest
protections should be applied. protections should be applied. This level of detail is greater than
needed for general results.
We note that a user may give temporary permission for Passive We note that a user may give temporary permission for Passive
Measurement Tasks to enable detailed troubleshooting, but withhold Measurement Tasks to enable detailed troubleshooting, but withhold
permission for them in general. Here the greatest breadth of permission for them in general. Here the greatest breadth of
sensitive information is potentially exposed, and the maximum privacy sensitive information is potentially exposed, and the maximum privacy
protection must be provided. protection must be provided.
For MAs with access to the sensitive information of users (e.g., For MAs with access to the sensitive information of users (e.g.,
within a home or a personal host/handset), it is desirable for the within a home or a personal host/handset), it is desirable for the
results collection to minimise the data reported, but also to balance results collection to minimise the data reported, but also to balance
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synthetic data, data-swapping, or perturbing the values in ways that synthetic data, data-swapping, or perturbing the values in ways that
can be reversed or corrected. can be reversed or corrected.
Sections 6.2 and 6.3 of [RFC6973] describe User Participation and Sections 6.2 and 6.3 of [RFC6973] describe User Participation and
Security, respectively. Security, respectively.
Where LMAP measurements involve devices on the Subscriber's premises Where LMAP measurements involve devices on the Subscriber's premises
or Subscriber-owned equipment, it is essential to secure the or Subscriber-owned equipment, it is essential to secure the
Subscriber's permission with regard to the specific information that Subscriber's permission with regard to the specific information that
will be collected. The informed consent of the Subscriber (and, if will be collected. The informed consent of the Subscriber (and, if
different, the end user) is needed, including the specific purpose of different, the end user) may be needed, including the specific
the measurements. The approval process could involve showing the purpose of the measurements. The approval process could involve
Subscriber their measured information and results before instituting showing the Subscriber their measured information and results before
periodic collection, or before all instances of collection, with the instituting periodic collection, or before all instances of
option to cancel collection temporarily or permanently. collection, with the option to cancel collection temporarily or
permanently.
It should also be clear who is legally responsible for data It should also be clear who is legally responsible for data
protection (privacy); in some jurisdictions this role is called the protection (privacy); in some jurisdictions this role is called the
'data controller'. It is good practice to time limit the storage of 'data controller'. It is always good practice to limit the time of
personal information. personal information storage.
Although the details of verification would be impenetrable to most Although the details of verification would be impenetrable to most
subscribers, the MA could be architected as an "app" with open subscribers, the MA could be architected as an "app" with open
source-code, pre-download and embedded terms of use and agreement on source-code, pre-download and embedded terms of use and agreement on
measurements, and protection from code modifications usually provided measurements, and protection from code modifications usually provided
by the app-stores. Further, the app itself could provide data by the app-stores. Further, the app itself could provide data
reduction and temporary storage mitigations as appropriate and reduction and temporary storage mitigations as appropriate and
certified through code review. certified through code review.
LMAP protocols, devices, and the information they store clearly need LMAP protocols, devices, and the information they store clearly need
skipping to change at page 43, line 7 skipping to change at page 44, line 26
has no interface with the Controller/Collector. There are many has no interface with the Controller/Collector. There are many
elements in the network that can fall into this broad definition of elements in the network that can fall into this broad definition of
MP. We believe that the MP terminology is useful to allow us to MP. We believe that the MP terminology is useful to allow us to
refer an element of the network that plays a role that is refer an element of the network that plays a role that is
conceptually important to understand and describe the measurement conceptually important to understand and describe the measurement
task being performed. We next illustrate these concepts by task being performed. We next illustrate these concepts by
describing several deployment scenarios. describing several deployment scenarios.
A very simple example of a Measurement Peer is a web server that the A very simple example of a Measurement Peer is a web server that the
MA is downloading a web page from (such as www.example.com) in order MA is downloading a web page from (such as www.example.com) in order
to perform a speed test. The web server is an MP and from its to perform a speed test. The web server is a MP and from its
perspective, the MA is just another customer; the MP doesn't have a perspective, the MA is just another client; the MP doesn't have a
specific function for assisting measurements. This is described in specific function for assisting measurements. This is described in
the figure A1. the figure A1.
^ ^
+----------------+ Web Traffic +----------------+ IPPM +----------------+ Web Traffic +----------------+ IPPM
| Web Client |<------------>| MP: Web Server | Scope | Web Client |<------------>| MP: Web Server | Scope
| | +----------------+ | | | +----------------+ |
...|................|....................................V... ...|................|....................................V...
| LMAP interface | ^ | LMAP interface | ^
+----------------+ | +----------------+ |
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| | | | | |
| v LMAP | v LMAP
+------------+ +------------+ Scope +------------+ +------------+ Scope
| Controller | | Collector | | | Controller | | Collector | |
+------------+ +------------+ V +------------+ +------------+ V
Figure A1: Schematic of LMAP-based measurement system, Figure A1: Schematic of LMAP-based measurement system,
with Web server as Measurement Peer with Web server as Measurement Peer
Another case that is slightly different than this would be the one of Another case that is slightly different than this would be the one of
a ping responder. This is also an MP, with a helper function, the a TWAMP-responder. This is also a MP, with a helper function, the
ping server, which is specially deployed to assist the MAs that TWAMP server, which is specially deployed to assist the MAs that
perform pings. It only has the data plane interface. This example perform TWAMP tests. Another example is with a ping server, as
is described in Section 2. described in Section 2.
A third related example would be the case of a traceroute like A further example is the case of a traceroute like measurement. In
measurement. In this case, for each packet sent, the router where this case, for each packet sent, the router where the TTL expires is
the TTL expires is performing the MP function. So for a given performing the MP function. So for a given Measurement Task, there
Measurement Task, there is one MA involved and several MPs, one per is one MA involved and several MPs, one per hop.
hop.
In figure A2 we depict the case of an OWAMP responder acting as an In figure A2 we depict the case of an OWAMP responder acting as an
MP. In this case, the helper function in addition reports results MP. In this case, the helper function in addition reports results
back to the MA. So it has both a data plane and control interface back to the MA. So it has both a data plane and control interface
with the MA. with the MA.
+----------------+ OWAMP +----------------+ ^ +----------------+ OWAMP +----------------+ ^
| OWAMP |<--control--->| MP: | | | OWAMP |<--control--->| MP: | |
| control-client |>test-traffic>| OWAMP server & | IPPM | control-client |>test-traffic>| OWAMP server & | IPPM
| fetch-client & |<----fetch----| session-rec'ver| Scope | fetch-client & |<----fetch----| session-rec'ver| Scope
skipping to change at page 46, line 46 skipping to change at page 47, line 46
Thanks to Juergen Schoenwaelder for his detailed review of the Thanks to Juergen Schoenwaelder for his detailed review of the
terminology. Thanks to Charles Cook for a very detailed review of terminology. Thanks to Charles Cook for a very detailed review of
-02. -02.
Thanks to numerous people for much discussion, directly and on the Thanks to numerous people for much discussion, directly and on the
LMAP list (apologies to those unintentionally omitted): Alan Clark, LMAP list (apologies to those unintentionally omitted): Alan Clark,
Alissa Cooper, Andrea Soppera, Barbara Stark, Benoit Claise, Brian Alissa Cooper, Andrea Soppera, Barbara Stark, Benoit Claise, Brian
Trammell, Charles Cook, Dave Thorne, Frode Soerensen, Greg Mirsky, Trammell, Charles Cook, Dave Thorne, Frode Soerensen, Greg Mirsky,
Guangqing Deng, Jason Weil, Jean-Francois Tremblay, Jerome Benoit, Guangqing Deng, Jason Weil, Jean-Francois Tremblay, Jerome Benoit,
Joachim Fabini, Juergen Schoenwaelder, Jukka Manner, Ken Ko, Michael Joachim Fabini, Juergen Schoenwaelder, Jukka Manner, Ken Ko, Lingli
Bugenhagen, Rolf Winter, Sam Crawford, Sharam Hakimi, Steve Miller, Deng, Michael Bugenhagen, Rolf Winter, Sam Crawford, Sharam Hakimi,
Ted Lemon, Timothy Carey, Vaibhav Bajpai, William Lupton. Steve Miller, Ted Lemon, Timothy Carey, Vaibhav Bajpai, William
Lupton.
Philip Eardley, Trevor Burbridge and Marcelo Bagnulo work in part on Philip Eardley, Trevor Burbridge and Marcelo Bagnulo work in part on
the Leone research project, which receives funding from the European the Leone research project, which receives funding from the European
Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant
agreement number 317647. agreement number 317647.
12. History 12. History
First WG version, copy of draft-folks-lmap-framework-00. First WG version, copy of draft-folks-lmap-framework-00.
skipping to change at page 48, line 33 skipping to change at page 49, line 33
Tasks Tasks
o clarified various aspects of the privacy section o clarified various aspects of the privacy section
o updated references o updated references
o minor tweaks o minor tweaks
12.3. From -02 to -03 12.3. From -02 to -03
o alignment with the Information Model o alignment with the Information Model [burbridge-lmap-information-
[I-D.burbridge-lmap-information-model] as this is agreed as a WG model] as this is agreed as a WG document
document
o One-off and periodic Measurement Schedules are kept separate, so o One-off and periodic Measurement Schedules are kept separate, so
that they can be updated independently that they can be updated independently
o Measurement Suppression in a separate sub-section. Can now o Measurement Suppression in a separate sub-section. Can now
optionally include particular Measurement Tasks &/or Schedules to optionally include particular Measurement Tasks &/or Schedules to
suppress, and start/stop time suppress, and start/stop time
o for clarity, concept of Channel split into Control, Report and MA- o for clarity, concept of Channel split into Control, Report and MA-
to-Controller Channels to-Controller Channels
skipping to change at page 49, line 39 skipping to change at page 50, line 39
o enhancement of Results with Subscriber's service parameters - o enhancement of Results with Subscriber's service parameters -
could be useful, don't define how but can be included in Report to could be useful, don't define how but can be included in Report to
various other sections various other sections
o various other smaller improvements, arising from the WGLC o various other smaller improvements, arising from the WGLC
o Appendix added with examples of Measurement Agents and Peers in o Appendix added with examples of Measurement Agents and Peers in
various deployment scenarios. To help clarify what these terms various deployment scenarios. To help clarify what these terms
mean. mean.
o 12.5. From -04 to -05
o clarified various scoping comments by using the phrase "scope of
initial LMAP work" (avoiding "scope of LMAP WG" since this may
change in the future)
o added a Configuration Protocol - allows the Controller to update
the MA about information that it obtained during the bootstrapping
process (for consistency with Information Model)
o Removed over-detailed information about the relationship between
the different items in Instruction, as this seems more appropriate
for the information model. Clarified that the lists given are
about the aims and not a list of information elements (these will
be defined in draft-ietf-information-model).
o the Measurement Method, specified as a URI to a registry entry -
rather than a URN
o MA configured with time limit after which, if it hasn't heard from
Controller, then it stops running Measurement Tasks (rather than
this being part of a Schedule)
o clarified there is no distinction between how capabilities,
failure and logging information are transferred (all can be when
requested by Controller or by MA on its own initiative).
o removed mention of Data Transfer Tasks. This abstraction is left
to the information model i-d
o added Deployment sub-section about Measurement Agent embedded in
ISP Network
o various other smaller improvements, arising from the 2nd WGLC
13. Informative References 13. Informative References
[Bur10] Burkhart, M., Schatzmann, D., Trammell, B., and E. Boschi, [Bur10] Burkhart, M., Schatzmann, D., Trammell, B., and E. Boschi,
"The Role of Network Trace anonymisation Under Attack", "The Role of Network Trace anonymisation Under Attack",
January 2010. January 2010.
[Q1741] Q.1741.7, , "IMT-2000 references to Release 9 of GSM- [Q1741] Q.1741.7, , "IMT-2000 references to Release 9 of GSM-
evolved UMTS core network", evolved UMTS core network",
http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Q.1741.7/en, November 2011. http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Q.1741.7/en, November 2011.
skipping to change at page 50, line 30 skipping to change at page 52, line 16
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, July Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, July
2005. 2005.
[RFC5357] Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J. [RFC5357] Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J.
Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)", Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)",
RFC 5357, October 2008. RFC 5357, October 2008.
[I-D.ietf-lmap-use-cases] [I-D.ietf-lmap-use-cases]
Linsner, M., Eardley, P., Burbridge, T., and F. Sorensen, Linsner, M., Eardley, P., Burbridge, T., and F. Sorensen,
"Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases", draft-ietf- "Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases", draft-ietf-
lmap-use-cases-02 (work in progress), January 2014. lmap-use-cases-03 (work in progress), April 2014.
[I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry] [I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry]
Bagnulo, M., Claise, B., Eardley, P., and A. Morton, Bagnulo, M., Claise, B., Eardley, P., and A. Morton,
"Registry for Performance Metrics", draft-manyfolks-ippm- "Registry for Performance Metrics", draft-manyfolks-ippm-
metric-registry-00 (work in progress), February 2014. metric-registry-00 (work in progress), February 2014.
[I-D.ietf-homenet-arch] [I-D.ietf-homenet-arch]
Chown, T., Arkko, J., Brandt, A., Troan, O., and J. Weil, Chown, T., Arkko, J., Brandt, A., Troan, O., and J. Weil,
"IPv6 Home Networking Architecture Principles", draft- "IPv6 Home Networking Architecture Principles", draft-
ietf-homenet-arch-13 (work in progress), March 2014. ietf-homenet-arch-13 (work in progress), March 2014.
[RFC6419] Wasserman, M. and P. Seite, "Current Practices for [RFC6419] Wasserman, M. and P. Seite, "Current Practices for
Multiple-Interface Hosts", RFC 6419, November 2011. Multiple-Interface Hosts", RFC 6419, November 2011.
[RFC6887] Wing, D., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and P. [RFC6887] Wing, D., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and P.
Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887, April Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887, April
2013. 2013.
[I-D.burbridge-lmap-information-model] [I-D.ietf-lmap-information-model]
Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Bagnulo, M., and J. Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Bagnulo, M., and J.
Schoenwaelder, "Information Model for Large-Scale Schoenwaelder, "Information Model for Large-Scale
Measurement Platforms (LMAP)", draft-burbridge-lmap- Measurement Platforms (LMAP)", draft-ietf-lmap-
information-model-01 (work in progress), October 2013. information-model-00 (work in progress), February 2014.
[RFC6235] Boschi, E. and B. Trammell, "IP Flow Anonymization [RFC6235] Boschi, E. and B. Trammell, "IP Flow Anonymization
Support", RFC 6235, May 2011. Support", RFC 6235, May 2011.
[RFC6973] Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J., [RFC6973] Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, July Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, July
2013. 2013.
[I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path] [I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path]
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