draft-ietf-lmap-framework-05.txt   draft-ietf-lmap-framework-06.txt 
Network Working Group P. Eardley Network Working Group P. Eardley
Internet-Draft BT Internet-Draft BT
Intended status: Informational A. Morton Intended status: Informational A. Morton
Expires: November 14, 2014 AT&T Labs Expires: December 15, 2014 AT&T Labs
M. Bagnulo M. Bagnulo
UC3M UC3M
T. Burbridge T. Burbridge
BT BT
P. Aitken P. Aitken
A. Akhter A. Akhter
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
May 13, 2014 June 13, 2014
A framework for large-scale measurement platforms (LMAP) A framework for large-scale measurement platforms (LMAP)
draft-ietf-lmap-framework-05 draft-ietf-lmap-framework-06
Abstract Abstract
Measuring broadband service on a large scale requires a description Measuring broadband service on a large scale requires a description
of the logical architecture and standardisation of the key protocols of the logical architecture and standardisation of the key protocols
that coordinate interactions between the components. The document that coordinate interactions between the components. The document
presents an overall framework for large-scale measurements. It also presents an overall framework for large-scale measurements. It also
defines terminology for LMAP (large-scale measurement platforms). defines terminology for LMAP (large-scale measurement platforms).
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 14, 2014. This Internet-Draft will expire on December 15, 2014.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Outline of an LMAP-based measurement system . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Outline of an LMAP-based measurement system . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4. Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1. Measurement system is under the direction of a single 4.1. Measurement system is under the direction of a single
organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2. Each MA may only have a single Controller at any point in 4.2. Each MA may only have a single Controller at any point in
time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5. LMAP Protocol Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5. LMAP Protocol Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1. Bootstrapping process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.1. Bootstrapping process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2. Configuration Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2. Control Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.3. Control Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2.1. Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.3.1. Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.2.2. Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.3.2. Capabilities and Failure information . . . . . . . . 18 5.2.3. Capabilities and Failure information . . . . . . . . 18
5.4. Operation of Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 5.3. Operation of Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5.4.1. Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . 20 5.3.1. Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . 20
5.4.2. Overlapping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.3.2. Overlapping Measurement Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5.5. Report Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.4. Report Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.5.1. Reporting of Subscriber's service parameters . . . . 22 5.4.1. Reporting of Subscriber's service parameters . . . . 23
5.6. Operation of LMAP over the underlying packet transfer 5.5. Operation of LMAP over the underlying packet transfer
mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.7. Items beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work . . . . . 24 5.6. Items beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work . . . . . 24
5.7.1. End-user-controlled measurement system . . . . . . . 25 5.6.1. End-user-controlled measurement system . . . . . . . 25
6. Deployment considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6. Deployment considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.1. Controller and the measurement system . . . . . . . . . . 26 6.1. Controller and the measurement system . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.2. Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 6.2. Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.2.1. Measurement Agent on a networked device . . . . . . . 27 6.2.1. Measurement Agent on a networked device . . . . . . . 27
6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway . . . . . 27 6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway . . . . . 27
6.2.3. Measurement Agent embedded behind site NAT /Firewall 27 6.2.3. Measurement Agent embedded behind site NAT /Firewall 28
6.2.4. Multi-homed Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6.2.4. Multi-homed Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.2.5. Measurement Agent embedded in ISP Network . . . . . . 28 6.2.5. Measurement Agent embedded in ISP Network . . . . . . 29
6.3. Measurement Peer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.3. Measurement Peer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
7. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7. Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
8. Privacy Considerations for LMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 8. Privacy Considerations for LMAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.1. Categories of Entities with Information of Interest . . . 31 8.1. Categories of Entities with Information of Interest . . . 32
8.2. Examples of Sensitive Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8.2. Examples of Sensitive Information . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
8.3. Key Distinction Between Active and Passive Measurement 8.3. Different privacy issues raised by different sorts of
Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Measurement Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
8.4. Privacy analysis of the Communications Models . . . . . . 34 8.4. Privacy analysis of the Communications Models . . . . . . 34
8.4.1. MA Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.4.1. MA Bootstrapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.4.2. Controller <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . 35 8.4.2. Controller <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . 35
8.4.3. Collector <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8.4.3. Collector <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8.4.4. Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . 36 8.4.4. Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent . . . . . . . 36
8.4.5. Passive Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 8.4.5. Measurement Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8.4.6. Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results . . . . 38 8.4.6. Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results . . . . 38
8.5. Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 8.5. Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.5.1. Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8.5.1. Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.5.2. Stored Data Compromise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8.5.2. Stored Data Compromise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.5.3. Correlation and Identification . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8.5.3. Correlation and Identification . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.5.4. Secondary Use and Disclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8.5.4. Secondary Use and Disclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.6. Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8.6. Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.6.1. Data Minimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 8.6.1. Data Minimisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.6.2. Anonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.6.2. Anonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.6.3. Pseudonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.6.3. Pseudonymity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.6.4. Other Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 8.6.4. Other Mitigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
10. Appendix: Deployment examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 10. Appendix: Deployment examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
12. History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 12. History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
12.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 12.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
12.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 12.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
12.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 12.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
12.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 12.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
12.5. From -04 to -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 12.5. From -04 to -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
12.6. From -05 to -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
13. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 13. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
There is a desire to be able to coordinate the execution of broadband There is a desire to be able to coordinate the execution of broadband
measurements and the collection of measurement results across a large measurements and the collection of measurement results across a large
scale set of diverse devices. These devices could be software based scale set of diverse devices. These devices could be software based
agents on PCs, embedded agents in consumer devices (e.g. blu-ray agents on PCs, embedded agents in consumer devices (e.g. blu-ray
players), service provider controlled devices such as set-top players players), service provider controlled devices such as set-top players
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Agents in every home gateway and edge device such as set-top-boxes Agents in every home gateway and edge device such as set-top-boxes
and tablet computers, and located throughout the Internet as well and tablet computers, and located throughout the Internet as well
[I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path]. It is expected that a measurement [I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path]. It is expected that a measurement
system could easily encompass a few hundred thousand or even system could easily encompass a few hundred thousand or even
millions of Measurement Agents. Existing systems have up to a few millions of Measurement Agents. Existing systems have up to a few
thousand MAs (without judging how much further they could scale). thousand MAs (without judging how much further they could scale).
o Diversity - a measurement system should handle different types of o Diversity - a measurement system should handle different types of
Measurement Agents - for example Measurement Agents may come from Measurement Agents - for example Measurement Agents may come from
different vendors, be in wired and wireless networks, have different vendors, be in wired and wireless networks, be able to
different Measurement Task capabilities and be on devices with execute different sorts of Measurement Task and be on devices with
IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.
2. Outline of an LMAP-based measurement system 2. Outline of an LMAP-based measurement system
Figure 1 shows the main components of a measurement system, and the Figure 1 shows the main components of a measurement system, and the
interactions of those components. Some of the components are outside interactions of those components. Some of the components are outside
the scope of initial LMAP work. In this section we provide an the scope of initial LMAP work. In this section we provide an
overview of the whole measurement system and we introduce the main overview of the whole measurement system and we introduce the main
terms needed for the LMAP framework. The new terms are capitalised. terms needed for the LMAP framework. The new terms are capitalised.
In the next section we provide a terminology section with a In the next section we provide a terminology section with a
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Other LMAP specifications will define an information model, the Other LMAP specifications will define an information model, the
associated data models, and select/extend one or more protocols for associated data models, and select/extend one or more protocols for
the secure communication: firstly, a Control Protocol, from a the secure communication: firstly, a Control Protocol, from a
Controller to instruct Measurement Agents what performance metrics to Controller to instruct Measurement Agents what performance metrics to
measure, when to measure them, how/when to report the measurement measure, when to measure them, how/when to report the measurement
results to a Collector; secondly, a Report Protocol, for a results to a Collector; secondly, a Report Protocol, for a
Measurement Agent to report the results to the Collector. Measurement Agent to report the results to the Collector.
The MA performs Measurement Tasks. The MAs are pieces of code that The MA performs Measurement Tasks. The MAs are pieces of code that
can be executed in specialised hardware (hardware probe) or on a can be executed in specialised hardware (hardware probe) or on a
general-purpose device (like a PC or mobile phone). A device with a general-purpose device (like a PC or mobile phone). The MA may
generate Measurement Traffic and measure some metric associated with
its transfer, or the MA may observe existing traffic, or there may be
some kind of hybrid of these two possibilities. A device with a
Measurement Agent may have multiple interfaces (WiFi, Ethernet, DSL, Measurement Agent may have multiple interfaces (WiFi, Ethernet, DSL,
fibre; and non-physical interfaces such as PPPoE or IPsec) and the fibre; and non-physical interfaces such as PPPoE or IPsec) and the
Measurement Tasks may specify any one of these. Measurement Tasks Measurement Tasks may specify any one of these.
may be Active (the MA generates Measurement Traffic and measures some
metric associated with its transfer), Passive (the MA observes
traffic), or some hybrid form of the two.
The Controller manages a MA through use of the Control Protocol, The Controller manages a MA through use of the Control Protocol,
which transfer the Instruction to the MA. This describes the which transfer the Instruction to the MA. This describes the
Measurement Tasks the MA should perform and when. For example the Measurement Tasks the MA should perform and when. For example the
Controller may instruct a MA at a home gateway: "Count the number of Controller may instruct a MA at a home gateway: "Count the number of
TCP SYN packets observed in a 1 minute interval; repeat every hour at TCP SYN packets observed in a 1 minute interval; repeat every hour at
xx.05 + Unif[0,180] seconds". The Measurement Schedule determines xx.05 + Unif[0,180] seconds". The Measurement Schedule determines
when the Measurement Tasks are executed. The Controller also manages when the Measurement Tasks are executed. The Controller also manages
a MA by instructing it how to report the Measurement Results, for a MA by instructing it how to report the Measurement Results, for
example: "Report results once a day in a batch at 4am + Unif[0,180] example: "Report results once a day in a batch at 4am + Unif[0,180]
seconds; if the end user is active then delay the report 5 minutes". seconds; if the end user is active then delay the report 5 minutes".
The Report Schedule determines when the Reports are uploaded to the The Report Schedule determines when the Reports are uploaded to the
Collector. The Measurement Schedule and Report Schedule can define Collector. The Measurement Schedule and Report Schedule can define
one-off (non-recurring) actions ("Do measurement now", "Report as one-off (non-recurring) actions ("Do measurement now", "Report as
soon as possible"), as well as recurring ones. soon as possible"), as well as recurring ones.
The Collector accepts a Report from a MA with the Measurement Results The Collector accepts a Report from a MA with the Measurement Results
from its Measurement Tasks. It then provides the Results to a from its Measurement Tasks. It then provides the Results to a
repository (see below). repository (see below).
Some Measurement Tasks involve several MAs acting in a coordinated
fashion. This coordination is achieved by the Controller instructing
the multiple MAs in a coherent manner. In some Measurement Tasks the
MA(s) is assisted by one or more network entities that are not
managed by the Controller. The entities that help the MA in the
Measurement Tasks but are not managed by the Controller are called
Measurement Peers (MPs). For example consider the case of a "ping"
Measurement Task, to measure the round trip delay between the MA and
a given ICMP ECHO responder in the Internet. In this case, the
responder is the Measurement Peer. The ICMP ECHO request and ICMP
ECHO Requests and Replies flowing between the MA and the MP is called
Active Measurement Traffic. The Appendix has some other examples of
possible arrangements of Measurement Agents and Peers.
A Measurement Method defines how to measure a Metric of interest. It A Measurement Method defines how to measure a Metric of interest. It
is very useful to standardise Measurement Methods, so that it is is very useful to standardise Measurement Methods, so that it is
meaningful to compare measurements of the same Metric made at meaningful to compare measurements of the same Metric made at
different times and places. It is also useful to define a registry different times and places. It is also useful to define a registry
for commonly-used Metrics [I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry] so for commonly-used Metrics [I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry] so
that a Measurement Method can be referred to simply by its identifier that a Metric with its associated Measurement Method can be referred
in the registry. The Measurement Methods and registry will hopefully to simply by its identifier in the registry. The Measurement Methods
be referenced by other standards organisations. and registry will hopefully be referenced by other standards
organisations.
A Measurement Task is a specific instantiation of a Measurement Broadly speaking there are two types of Measurement Method. It may
Method. It generates a Measurement Result. An Active Measurement involve a single MA simply observing existing traffic - for example,
Task involves either a Measurement Agent (MA) injecting Active the Measurement Agent could count bytes or calculate the average loss
Measurement Traffic into the network destined for a Measurement Peer for a particular flow. On the other hand, a Measurement Method may
or for another Measurement Agent, and/or another Measurement Agent involve multiple network entities, which perform different roles.
(or a Measurement Peer, in response to a packet from a MA) sending For example, a "ping" Measurement Method, to measure the round trip
Active Measurement Traffic to a MA; one of them measures some delay , would consist of an MA sending an ICMP ECHO request to a
parameter associated with the transfer of the packet(s). A Passive responder in the Internet. In LMAP terms, the responder is termed a
Measurement Task involves a MA simply observing traffic - for Measurement Peer (MP), meaning that it helps the MA but is not
example, it could count bytes or it might calculate the average loss managed by the Controller. Other Measurement Methods involve a
for a particular flow. second MA, with the Controller instructing the MAs in a coordinated
manner. Traffic generated specifically as part of the Measurement
Method is termed Measurement Traffic; in the ping example, it is the
ICMP ECHO Requests and Replies. The protocols used for the
Measurement Traffic are out of the scope of initial LMAP work, and
fall within the scope of other IETF WGs such as IPPM. The
Appendix has some other examples of possible arrangements of
Measurement Agents and Peers.
In order for a Measurement Agent and a Measurement Peer (or another A Measurement Task is the action performed by a particular MA at a
Measurement Agent) to execute an Active Measurement Task, they particular time, as the specific instance of its role in a
exchange Active Measurement Traffic. The protocols used for the Measurement Method. LMAP is mainly concerned with Measurement Tasks,
Active Measurement Traffic are out of the scope of initial LMAP work; for instance in terms of its Information Model and Protocols.
they fall within the scope of other IETF WGs such as IPPM.
For Measurement Results to be truly comparable, as might be required For Measurement Results to be truly comparable, as might be required
by a regulator, not only do the same Measurement Methods need to be by a regulator, not only do the same Measurement Methods need to be
used but also the set of Measurement Tasks should follow a similar used to assess Metrics, but also the set of Measurement Tasks should
Measurement Schedule and be of similar number. The details of such a follow a similar Measurement Schedule and be of similar number. The
characterisation plan are beyond the scope of work in IETF although details of such a characterisation plan are beyond the scope of work
certainly facilitated by IETF's work. in IETF although certainly facilitated by IETF's work.
Messages are transferred over a secure Channel. A Control Channel is Messages are transferred over a secure Channel. A Control Channel is
between the Controller and a MA; the Control Protocol delivers between the Controller and a MA; the Control Protocol delivers
Instruction Messages to the MA and Capabilities, Failure and logging Instruction Messages to the MA and Capabilities, Failure and Logging
Information in the reverse direction. A Report Channel is between a Information in the reverse direction. A Report Channel is between a
MA and Collector, and the Report Protocol delivers Reports to the MA and Collector, and the Report Protocol delivers Reports to the
Collector. Collector.
Finally we introduce several components that are outside the scope of Finally we introduce several components that are outside the scope of
initial LMAP work and will be provided through existing protocols or initial LMAP work and will be provided through existing protocols or
applications. They affect how the measurement system uses the applications. They affect how the measurement system uses the
Measurement Results and how it decides what set of Measurement Tasks Measurement Results and how it decides what set of Measurement Tasks
to perform. to perform.
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The data analysis tools receive the results from the Collector or via The data analysis tools receive the results from the Collector or via
the Results repository. They might visualise the data or identify the Results repository. They might visualise the data or identify
which component or link is likely to be the cause of a fault or which component or link is likely to be the cause of a fault or
degradation. This information could help the Controller decide what degradation. This information could help the Controller decide what
follow-up Measurement Task to perform in order to diagnose a fault. follow-up Measurement Task to perform in order to diagnose a fault.
The data analysis tools also need to understand the Subscriber's The data analysis tools also need to understand the Subscriber's
service information, for example the broadband contract. service information, for example the broadband contract.
^ ^
| |
Active +-------------+ IPPM +-------------+ IPPM
+---------------+ Measurement | Measurement | Scope +---------------+ Measurement | Measurement | Scope
| Measurement |<------------>| Peer | | | Measurement |<------------>| Peer | |
| Agent | Traffic +-------------+ v | Agent | Traffic +-------------+ v
+------->| | ^ +------->| | ^
| +---------------+ | | +---------------+ |
| ^ | | | ^ | |
| Instruction | | Report | | Instruction | | Report |
| | +-----------------+ | | | +-----------------+ |
| | | | | | | |
| | v LMAP | | v LMAP
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Figure 1: Schematic of main elements of an LMAP-based Figure 1: Schematic of main elements of an LMAP-based
measurement system measurement system
(showing the elements in and out of the scope of initial LMAP work) (showing the elements in and out of the scope of initial LMAP work)
3. Terminology 3. Terminology
This section defines terminology for LMAP. Please note that defined This section defines terminology for LMAP. Please note that defined
terms are capitalized. terms are capitalized.
Active Measurement Method: A generalisation of an Active Measurement
Task.
Active Measurement Task: A Measurement Task in which a Measurement
Agent creates or receives Active Measurement Traffic, by coordinating
with one or more other Measurement Agents or Measurement Peers using
protocols outside the initial LMAP work scope.
Active Measurement Traffic: the packet(s) generated in order to
execute an Active Measurement Task.
Bootstrap: A process that integrates a Measurement Agent into a Bootstrap: A process that integrates a Measurement Agent into a
measurement system. measurement system.
Capabilities: Information about the performance measurement Capabilities: Information about the performance measurement
capabilities of the MA, in particular the Measurement Methods that it capabilities of the MA, in particular the Measurement Method roles
can perform, and the device hosting the MA, for example its interface and measurement protocol roles that it can perform, and the device
type and speed, but not dynamic information. hosting the MA, for example its interface type and speed, but not
dynamic information.
Channel: A bi-directional logical connection that is defined by a Channel: A bi-directional logical connection that is defined by a
specific Controller and MA, or Collector and MA, plus associated specific Controller and MA, or Collector and MA, plus associated
security. security.
Collector: A function that receives a Report from a Measurement Collector: A function that receives a Report from a Measurement
Agent. Agent.
Configuration Protocol: The protocol delivering information, from a
Controller to a Measurement Agent, that updates the information
obtained during Bootstrapping.
Controller: A function that provides a Measurement Agent with its Controller: A function that provides a Measurement Agent with its
Instruction. Instruction.
Control Channel: a Channel between a Controller and a MA over which Control Channel: a Channel between a Controller and a MA over which
Instruction Messages and Capabilities and Failure information are Instruction Messages and Capabilities, Failure and Logging
sent. Information are sent.
Control Protocol: The protocol delivering Instruction(s) from a Control Protocol: The protocol delivering Instruction(s) from a
Controller to a Measurement Agent. It also delivers Failure Controller to a Measurement Agent. It also delivers Capabilities,
Information and Capabilities Information from the Measurement Agent Failure and Logging Information from the Measurement Agent to the
to the Controller. Controller.
Cycle-ID: A tag that is sent by the Controller in an Instruction and Cycle-ID: A tag that is sent by the Controller in an Instruction and
echoed by the MA in its Report. The same Cycle-ID is used by several echoed by the MA in its Report. The same Cycle-ID is used by several
MAs that use the same Measurement Method with the same Input MAs that use the same Measurement Method for a Metric with the same
Parameters. Hence the Cycle-ID allows the Collector to easily Input Parameters. Hence the Cycle-ID allows the Collector to easily
identify Measurement Results that should be comparable. identify Measurement Results that should be comparable.
Data Model: The implementation of an Information Model in a Data Model: The implementation of an Information Model in a
particular data modelling language [RFC3444]. particular data modelling language [RFC3444].
Environmental Constraint: A parameter that is measured as part of the Environmental Constraint: A parameter that is measured as part of the
Measurement Task, its value determining whether the rest of the Measurement Task, its value determining whether the rest of the
Measurement Task proceeds. Measurement Task proceeds.
Failure Information: Information about the MA's failure to action or Failure Information: Information about the MA's failure to action or
execute an Instruction, whether concerning Measurement Tasks or execute an Instruction, whether concerning Measurement Tasks or
Reporting. Reporting.
Group-ID: An identifier of a group of MAs. Group-ID: An identifier of a group of MAs.
Information Model: The protocol-neutral definition of the semantics Information Model: The protocol-neutral definition of the semantics
of the Instructions, the Report, the status of the different elements of the Instructions, the Report, the status of the different elements
of the measurement system as well of the events in the system of the measurement system as well of the events in the system
[RFC3444]. [RFC3444].
Input Parameter: A parameter whose value is left open by the Input Parameter: A parameter whose value is left open by the Metric
Measurement Method and is set to a specific value in a Measurement and its Measurement Method and is set to a specific value in a
Task. Altering the value of an Input Parameter does not change the Measurement Task. Altering the value of an Input Parameter does not
fundamental nature of the Measurement Method. change the fundamental nature of the Measurement Task.
Instruction: The description of Measurement Tasks for a MA to perform Instruction: The description of Measurement Tasks for a MA to perform
and the details of the Report for it to send. It is the collective and the details of the Report for it to send. It is the collective
description of the Measurement Task configurations, the configuration description of the Measurement Task configurations, the configuration
of the Measurement Schedules, the configuration of the Report of the Measurement Schedules, the configuration of the Report
Channel(s), the configuration of Report Schedule(s), and the details Channel(s), the configuration of Report Schedule(s), and the details
of any suppression. of any suppression.
Instruction Message: The message that carries an Instruction from a Instruction Message: The message that carries an Instruction from a
Controller to a Measurement Agent. Controller to a Measurement Agent.
Logging Information: Information about the operation of the
Measurement Agent and which may be useful for debugging.
Measurement Agent (MA): The function that receives Instruction Measurement Agent (MA): The function that receives Instruction
Messages from a Controller and operates the Instruction by executing Messages from a Controller and operates the Instruction by executing
Measurement Tasks (using protocols outside the initial LMAP work Measurement Tasks (using protocols outside the initial LMAP work
scope and perhaps in concert with one or more other Measurement scope and perhaps in concert with one or more other Measurement
Agents or Measurement Peers) and (if part of the Instruction) by Agents or Measurement Peers) and (if part of the Instruction) by
reporting Measurement Results to a Collector or Collectors. reporting Measurement Results to a Collector or Collectors.
Measurement Agent Identifier (MA-ID): a UUID [RFC4122] that Measurement Agent Identifier (MA-ID): a UUID [RFC4122] that
identifies a particular MA and is configured as part of the identifies a particular MA and is configured as part of the
Bootstrapping process. Bootstrapping process.
Measurement Method: The process for assessing the value of a Metric; Measurement Method: The process for assessing the value of a Metric;
the process of measuring some performance or reliability parameter the process of measuring some performance or reliability parameter
associated with the transfer of traffic; the generalisation of a associated with the transfer of traffic; where this process involves
Measurement Task. multiple MAs or MPs, each may perform different roles.
Measurement Peer (MP): The function that assists a Measurement Agent Measurement Peer (MP): The function that assists a Measurement Agent
with Measurement Tasks and does not have an interface to the with Measurement Tasks and does not have an interface to the
Controller or Collector. Controller or Collector.
Measurement Result: The output of a single Measurement Task (the Measurement Result: The output of a single Measurement Task (the
value obtained for the parameter of interest or Metric). value obtained for the parameter of interest or Metric).
Measurement Schedule: The schedule for performing Measurement Tasks. Measurement Schedule: The schedule for performing Measurement Tasks.
Measurement Task: The act that consists of the single operation of Measurement Task: The action performed by a particular Measurement
the Measurement Method at a particular time and with all its Input Agent that consists of the single assessment of a Metric through
Parameters set to specific values. operation of a Measurement Method role at a particular time, with all
of the role's Input Parameters set to specific values.
Measurement Traffic: the packet(s) generated by some types of
Measurement Method that involve measuring some parameter associated
with the transfer of the packet(s).
Metric: The quantity related to the performance and reliability of Metric: The quantity related to the performance and reliability of
the network that we'd like to know the value of, and that is the network that we'd like to know the value of, and that is
carefully specified. carefully specified.
Passive Measurement Method (Task): A Measurement Method (Task) in
which a Measurement Agent observes existing traffic but does not
inject Active Measurement Traffic.
Report: The set of Measurement Results and other associated Report: The set of Measurement Results and other associated
information (as defined by the Instruction). The Report is sent by a information (as defined by the Instruction). The Report is sent by a
Measurement Agent to a Collector. Measurement Agent to a Collector.
Report Channel: a communications channel between a MA and a Report Channel: a communications channel between a MA and a
Collector, which is defined by a specific MA, Collector, Report Collector, which is defined by a specific MA, Collector, Report
Schedule and associated security, and over which Reports are sent. Schedule and associated security, and over which Reports are sent.
Report Protocol: The protocol delivering Report(s) from a Measurement Report Protocol: The protocol delivering Report(s) from a Measurement
Agent to a Collector. Agent to a Collector.
Report Schedule: the schedule for sending Reports to a Collector. Report Schedule: the schedule for sending Reports to a Collector.
Subscriber: An entity (associated with one or more users) that is Subscriber: An entity (associated with one or more users) that is
engaged in a subscription with a service provider. engaged in a subscription with a service provider.
Suppression: the temporary cessation of Active Measurement Tasks. Suppression: the temporary cessation of Measurement Tasks.
4. Constraints 4. Constraints
The LMAP framework makes some important assumptions, which constrain The LMAP framework makes some important assumptions, which constrain
the scope of the initial LMAP work. the scope of the initial LMAP work.
4.1. Measurement system is under the direction of a single organisation 4.1. Measurement system is under the direction of a single organisation
In the LMAP framework, the measurement system is under the direction In the LMAP framework, the measurement system is under the direction
of a single organisation that is responsible for any impact that its of a single organisation that is responsible for any impact that its
skipping to change at page 13, line 9 skipping to change at page 12, line 35
An LMAP system goes through the following phases: An LMAP system goes through the following phases:
o a bootstrapping process before the MA can take part in the other o a bootstrapping process before the MA can take part in the other
three phases three phases
o a Control Protocol, which delivers Instruction Messages from a o a Control Protocol, which delivers Instruction Messages from a
Controller to a MA, detailing what Measurement Tasks the MA should Controller to a MA, detailing what Measurement Tasks the MA should
perform and when, and how it should report the Measurement perform and when, and how it should report the Measurement
Results. It also delivers Capabilities, Failure and logging Results. It also delivers Capabilities, Failure and logging
Information from a MA to its Controller. Information from a MA to its Controller. Finally, it allows the
Controller to update the MA's configuration.
o the actual Measurement Tasks, which measure some performance or o the actual Measurement Tasks, which measure some performance or
reliability parameter(s) associated with the transfer of packets. reliability parameter(s) associated with the transfer of packets.
The LMAP work does not define Measurement Methods, these are The LMAP work does not define Metrics and Measurement Methods,
define elsewhere (e.g. IPPM). these are define elsewhere (e.g. IPPM).
o a Report Protocol, which delivers Reports from a MA to a o a Report Protocol, which delivers Reports from a MA to a
Collector. The Report contains the Measurement Results. Collector. The Report contains the Measurement Results.
The diagrams show the various LMAP messages and uses the following The diagrams show the various LMAP messages and uses the following
convention: convention:
o (optional): indicated by round brackets o (optional): indicated by round brackets
o [potentially repeated]: indicated by square brackets o [potentially repeated]: indicated by square brackets
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Controller) Controller)
The details of the bootstrapping process are device /access specific. The details of the bootstrapping process are device /access specific.
For example, the information could be in the firmware, manually For example, the information could be in the firmware, manually
configured or transferred via a protocol like TR-069 [TR-069]. There configured or transferred via a protocol like TR-069 [TR-069]. There
may be a multi-stage process where the MA contacts the device at a may be a multi-stage process where the MA contacts the device at a
'hard-coded' address, which replies with the bootstrapping 'hard-coded' address, which replies with the bootstrapping
information. information.
The MA must learn its MA-ID before getting an Instruction, either The MA must learn its MA-ID before getting an Instruction, either
during Bootstrapping or via the Configuration Protocol. during Bootstrapping or via configuration (Section 5.2.1).
5.2. Configuration Protocol 5.2. Control Protocol
The Configuration Protocol allows the Controller to update the MA The primary purpose of the Control Protocol is to allow the
about some or all of the information that it obtained during the Controller to configure a Measurement Agent with an Instruction about
bootstrapping process: the MA-ID, the (optional) Group-ID and the what Measurement Tasks to do, when to do them, and how to report the
Control Channel. The measurement system might use Configuration for Measurement Results (Section 5.2.2). The Measurement Agent then acts
several reasons. For example, the bootstrapping process could 'hard on the Instruction autonomously. The Control Protocol also enables
code' the MA with details of an initial Controller, and then the the MA to inform the Controller about its Capabilities and any
initial Controller could configure the MA with details about the Failure and logging Information (Section 5.2.2). Finally, the
Controller that sends Instruction Messages. (Note that a MA only has Control Protocol allows the Controller to update the MA's
one Control Channel, and so is associated with only one Controller, configuration.
at any moment.)
5.2.1. Configuration
Configuration allows the Controller to update the MA about some or
all of the information that it obtained during the bootstrapping
process: the MA-ID, the (optional) Group-ID and the Control Channel.
The measurement system might use Configuration for several reasons.
For example, the bootstrapping process could 'hard code' the MA with
details of an initial Controller, and then the initial Controller
could configure the MA with details about the Controller that sends
Instruction Messages. (Note that a MA only has one Control Channel,
and so is associated with only one Controller, at any moment.)
Note that an implementation may choose to combine Configuration Note that an implementation may choose to combine Configuration
information and an Instruction Message into a single message. information and an Instruction Message into a single message.
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
| | | Measurement | | | | Measurement |
| Controller |======================================| Agent | | Controller |======================================| Agent |
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
Configuration information: -> Configuration information: ->
(MA-ID), (MA-ID),
(Group-ID), (Group-ID),
(Control Channel) (Control Channel)
<- Response(details) <- Response(details)
5.3. Control Protocol 5.2.2. Instruction
The primary purpose of the Control Protocol is to allow the
Controller to configure a Measurement Agent with an Instruction about
what Measurement Tasks to do, when to do them, and how to report the
Measurement Results (Section 5.2.1). The Measurement Agent then acts
on the Instruction autonomously. The Control Protocol also enables
the MA to inform the Controller about its Capabilities and any
Failure and logging Information (Section 5.3.2).
5.3.1. Instruction
The Instruction is the description of the Measurement Tasks for a The Instruction is the description of the Measurement Tasks for a
Measurement Agent to do and the details of the Measurement Reports Measurement Agent to do and the details of the Measurement Reports
for it to send. In order to update the Instruction the Controller for it to send. In order to update the Instruction the Controller
uses the Control Protocol to send an Instruction Message over the uses the Control Protocol to send an Instruction Message over the
Control Channel. Control Channel.
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
| | | Measurement | | | | Measurement |
| Controller |======================================| Agent | | Controller |======================================| Agent |
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information elements): information elements):
o the Measurement Task configurations, each of which needs: o the Measurement Task configurations, each of which needs:
* the Metric, specified as a URI to a registry entry; it includes * the Metric, specified as a URI to a registry entry; it includes
the specification of a Measurement Method. The registry could the specification of a Measurement Method. The registry could
be defined by the IETF [I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry], be defined by the IETF [I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry],
locally by the operator of the measurement system or perhaps by locally by the operator of the measurement system or perhaps by
another standards organisation. another standards organisation.
* any Input Parameters that need to be set for the Measurement * the Measurement Method role. For some Measurement Methods,
Method, such as the address of the Measurement Peer (or other different parties play different roles; for example (figure A3
Measurement Agent) that are involved in an Active Measurement in the Appendix) an iperf sender and receiver. Each Metric and
Task its associated Measurement Method will describe all measurement
roles involved in the process. Thus, the Measurement Method
role is an Input Parameter.
* a boolean flag (supppress or do-not-suppress) indicating how
such a Measurement Task is impacted by a Suppression message
(see Section 5.2.2.1). Thus, the flag is an Input Parameter.
* any Input Parameters that need to be set for the Metric and the
Measurement Method, such as the address of a Measurement Peer
(or other Measurement Agent) that may be involved in a
Measurement Task, and for the measurement protocol used, such
as protocol role(s).
* if the device with the MA has multiple interfaces, then the * if the device with the MA has multiple interfaces, then the
interface to use (if not defined, then the default interface is interface to use (if not defined, then the default interface is
used) used)
o configuration of the Measurement Schedules, each of which needs: o configuration of the Measurement Schedules, each of which needs:
* the timing of when the Measurement Tasks are to be performed. * the timing of when the Measurement Tasks are to be performed.
Possible types of timing are periodic, calendar-based periodic, Possible types of timing are periodic, calendar-based periodic,
one-off immediate and one-off at a future time one-off immediate and one-off at a future time
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Message is determined by the implementation and operation of the Message is determined by the implementation and operation of the
Control Protocol. For example, a single Instruction Message may add Control Protocol. For example, a single Instruction Message may add
or update an individual Measurement Schedule - or it may only update or update an individual Measurement Schedule - or it may only update
the complete set of Measurement Schedules; a single Instruction the complete set of Measurement Schedules; a single Instruction
Message may update both Measurement Schedules and Measurement Task Message may update both Measurement Schedules and Measurement Task
configurations - or only one at a time; and so on. configurations - or only one at a time; and so on.
The MA informs the Controller that it has successfully understood the The MA informs the Controller that it has successfully understood the
Instruction Message, or that it cannot action the Instruction - for Instruction Message, or that it cannot action the Instruction - for
example, if it doesn't include a parameter that is mandatory for the example, if it doesn't include a parameter that is mandatory for the
requested Measurement Method, or it is missing details of the target requested Metric and Measurement Method, or it is missing details of
Collector. the target Collector.
The Instruction Message instructs the MA; the Control Protocol does The Instruction Message instructs the MA; the Control Protocol does
not allow the MA to negotiate, as this would add complexity to the not allow the MA to negotiate, as this would add complexity to the
MA, Controller and Control Protocol for little benefit. MA, Controller and Control Protocol for little benefit.
5.3.1.1. Suppression 5.2.2.1. Suppression
The Instruction may include Suppression information. Suppression is The Instruction may include Suppression information. The purpose of
used if the measurement system wants to eliminate inessential Suppression is to enable the Controller to instruct the MA not to
traffic, because there is some unexpected network issue for example. perform Measurement Tasks. It is used if the measurement system
By default, Suppression means that the MA does not begin any new wants to eliminate inessential traffic, because there is some
Active Measurement Task. The impact on other Measurement Tasks is unexpected network issue for example.
not defined by LMAP; since they do not involve the MA creating any
Active Measurement Traffic there is no need to suppress them, however The Suppression information may include any of the following optional
it may be simpler for an implementation to do so. Also, by default fields:
Suppression starts immediately and continues until an un-suppress
message is received. Optionally the Suppression information may
include:
o a set of Measurement Tasks to suppress; the others are not o a set of Measurement Tasks to suppress; the others are not
suppressed. For example, this could be useful if a particular suppressed. For example, this could be useful if a particular
Measurement Task is overloading a Measurement Peer. Measurement Task is overloading a Measurement Peer.
o a set of Measurement Schedules to suppress; the others are not o a set of Measurement Schedules to suppress; the others are not
suppressed. For example, suppose the measurement system has suppressed. For example, suppose the measurement system has
defined two Schedules, one with the most critical Measurement defined two Schedules, one with the most critical Measurement
Tasks and the other with less critical ones that create a lot of Tasks and the other with less critical ones that create a lot of
Active Measurement Traffic, then it may only want to suppress the Active Measurement Traffic, then it may only want to suppress the
second. second.
o a start time, at which suppression begins o if the Suppression information includes neither a set of
Measurement Tasks nor a set of Measurement Schedules, then the MA
does not begin new Measurement Tasks that have the boolean flag
set to "suppress"; however, the MA does begin new Measurement
Tasks that have the flag set to "do-not-suppress".
o an end time, at which suppression ends o a start time, at which suppression begins. If absent, then
Suppression begins immediately.
o an end time, at which suppression ends. If absent, then
Suppression continues until the MA receives an un-Suppress
message.
o a demand that the MA ends its on-going Active Measurement Task(s) o a demand that the MA ends its on-going Active Measurement Task(s)
(and deletes the associated partial Measurement Result(s)). immediately (and deletes the associated partial Measurement
Result(s)). If absent, the MA completes on-going Measurement
Tasks.
So the default action (if none of the optional fields is set) is that
the MA does not begin any new Measurement Task with the "suppress"
flag.
An un-Suppress message instructs the MA no longer to suppress,
meaning that the MA once again begins new Measurement Tasks,
according to its Measurement Schedule.
Note that Suppression is not intended to permanently stop a Note that Suppression is not intended to permanently stop a
Measurement Task (instead, the Controller should send a new Measurement Task (instead, the Controller should send a new
Measurement Schedule), nor to permanently disable a MA (instead, some Measurement Schedule), nor to permanently disable a MA (instead, some
kind of management action is suggested). kind of management action is suggested).
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
| | | Measurement | | | | Measurement |
| Controller |===================================| Agent | | Controller |===================================| Agent |
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
Suppress: Suppress:
[(Measurement Task), -> [(Measurement Task), ->
(Measurement Schedule), (Measurement Schedule),
start time, start time,
end time, end time,
on-going suppressed?] on-going suppressed?]
Un-suppress -> Un-suppress ->
5.3.2. Capabilities and Failure information 5.2.3. Capabilities and Failure information
The Control Protocol also enables the MA to inform the Controller The Control Protocol also enables the MA to inform the Controller
about various information, such as its Capabilities and any Failures. about various information, such as its Capabilities and any Failures.
It is also possible to use a device-specific mechanism which is It is also possible to use a device-specific mechanism which is
beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work. beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work.
Capabilities are information about the MA that the Controller needs Capabilities are information about the MA that the Controller needs
to know in order to correctly instruct the MA, such as: to know in order to correctly instruct the MA, such as:
o the Measurement Methods that the MA supports o the Measurement Method (roles) that the MA supports
o the measurement protocol types and roles that the MA supports
o the interfaces that the MA has o the interfaces that the MA has
o the version of the MA o the version of the MA
o the version of the hardware, firmware or software of the device o the version of the hardware, firmware or software of the device
with the MA with the MA
o but not dynamic information like the currently unused CPU, memory o but not dynamic information like the currently unused CPU, memory
or battery life of the device with the MA. or battery life of the device with the MA.
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+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
(Instruction: (Instruction:
[(Request Capabilities), [(Request Capabilities),
(Request Failure Information), (Request Failure Information),
(Request Logging Information)]) -> (Request Logging Information)]) ->
<- (Capabilities), <- (Capabilities),
(Failure Information), (Failure Information),
(Logging Information) (Logging Information)
5.4. Operation of Measurement Tasks 5.3. Operation of Measurement Tasks
This LMAP framework is neutral to what the actual Measurement Task This LMAP framework is neutral to what the actual Measurement Task
is. It does not define Measurement Methods, these are defined is. It does not define Metrics and Measurement Methods, these are
elsewhere (e.g. IPPM). defined elsewhere (e.g. IPPM).
The MA carries out the Measurement Tasks as instructed, unless it The MA carries out the Measurement Tasks as instructed, unless it
gets an updated Instruction. The MA acts autonomously, in terms of gets an updated Instruction. The MA acts autonomously, in terms of
operation of the Measurement Tasks and reporting of the Results; it operation of the Measurement Tasks and reporting of the Results; it
doesn't do a 'safety check' with the Controller to ask whether it doesn't do a 'safety check' with the Controller to ask whether it
should still continue with the requested Measurement Tasks. should still continue with the requested Measurement Tasks.
5.4.1. Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks 5.3.1. Starting and Stopping Measurement Tasks
This LMAP framework does not define a generic start and stop process, This LMAP framework does not define a generic start and stop process,
since the correct approach depends on the particular Measurement since the correct approach depends on the particular Measurement
Task; the details are defined as part of each Measurement Method. Task; the details are defined as part of each Measurement Method.
This section provides some general hints. The MA does not inform the This section provides some general hints. The MA does not inform the
Controller about Measurement Tasks starting and stopping. Controller about Measurement Tasks starting and stopping.
Before sending Active Measurement Traffic the MA may run a pre-check. Before sending Measurement Traffic the MA may run a pre-check. (The
(The pre-check could be defined as a separate, preceding Task or as pre-check could be defined as a separate, preceding Task or as the
the first part of a larger Task.) Action could include: first part of a larger Task.) Action could include:
o the MA checking that there is no cross-traffic. In other words, a o the MA checking that there is no cross-traffic. In other words, a
check that the end-user isn't already sending traffic; check that the end-user isn't already sending traffic;
o the MA checking with the Measurement Peer (or other Measurement o the MA checking with the Measurement Peer (or other Measurement
Agent involved in the Measurement Task) that it can handle a new Agent involved in the Measurement Task) that it can handle a new
Measurement Task (in case, for example, the Measurement Peer is Measurement Task (in case, for example, the Measurement Peer is
already handling many Measurement Tasks with other MAs); already handling many Measurement Tasks with other MAs);
o sending traffic that probes the path to check it isn't overloaded; o sending traffic that probes the path to check it isn't overloaded;
skipping to change at page 20, line 38 skipping to change at page 21, line 4
o the MA checking that there is no cross-traffic. In other words, a o the MA checking that there is no cross-traffic. In other words, a
check that the end-user isn't already sending traffic; check that the end-user isn't already sending traffic;
o the MA checking with the Measurement Peer (or other Measurement o the MA checking with the Measurement Peer (or other Measurement
Agent involved in the Measurement Task) that it can handle a new Agent involved in the Measurement Task) that it can handle a new
Measurement Task (in case, for example, the Measurement Peer is Measurement Task (in case, for example, the Measurement Peer is
already handling many Measurement Tasks with other MAs); already handling many Measurement Tasks with other MAs);
o sending traffic that probes the path to check it isn't overloaded; o sending traffic that probes the path to check it isn't overloaded;
o checking that the device with the MA has enough resources to o checking that the device with the MA has enough resources to
execute the Measurement Task reliably. Note that the designer of execute the Measurement Task reliably. Note that the designer of
the measurement system should ensure that the device's the measurement system should ensure that the device's
capabilities are normally sufficient to comfortably operate the capabilities are normally sufficient to comfortably operate the
Measurement Tasks. Measurement Tasks.
It is possible that similar checks continue during the Measurement It is possible that similar checks continue during the Measurement
Task, especially one that is long-running and/or creates a lot of Task, especially one that is long-running and/or creates a lot of
Active Measurement Traffic, and might lead to it being abandoned Measurement Traffic, and might lead to it being abandoned whilst in-
whilst in-progress. A Measurement Task could also be abandoned in progress. A Measurement Task could also be abandoned in response to
response to a "suppress" message (see Section 5.2.1). Action could a "suppress" message (see Section 5.2.1). Action could include:
include:
o For 'upload' tests, the MA not sending traffic o For 'upload' tests, the MA not sending traffic
o For 'download' tests, the MA closing the TCP connection or sending o For 'download' tests, the MA closing the TCP connection or sending
a TWAMP Stop control message [RFC5357]. a TWAMP Stop control message [RFC5357].
The Controller may want a MA to run the same Measurement Task The Controller may want a MA to run the same Measurement Task
indefinitely (for example, "run the 'upload speed' Measurement Task indefinitely (for example, "run the 'upload speed' Measurement Task
once an hour until further notice"). To avoid the MA generating once an hour until further notice"). To avoid the MA generating
traffic forever after a Controller has permanently failed (or traffic forever after a Controller has permanently failed (or
communications with the Controller have failed), the MA can be communications with the Controller have failed), the MA can be
configured with a time limit; if the MA doesn't hear from the configured with a time limit; if the MA doesn't hear from the
Controller for this length of time, then it stops operating Controller for this length of time, then it stops operating
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The Controller may want a MA to run the same Measurement Task The Controller may want a MA to run the same Measurement Task
indefinitely (for example, "run the 'upload speed' Measurement Task indefinitely (for example, "run the 'upload speed' Measurement Task
once an hour until further notice"). To avoid the MA generating once an hour until further notice"). To avoid the MA generating
traffic forever after a Controller has permanently failed (or traffic forever after a Controller has permanently failed (or
communications with the Controller have failed), the MA can be communications with the Controller have failed), the MA can be
configured with a time limit; if the MA doesn't hear from the configured with a time limit; if the MA doesn't hear from the
Controller for this length of time, then it stops operating Controller for this length of time, then it stops operating
Measurement Tasks. Measurement Tasks.
5.4.2. Overlapping Measurement Tasks 5.3.2. Overlapping Measurement Tasks
It is possible that a MA starts a new Measurement Task before another It is possible that a MA starts a new Measurement Task before another
Measurement Task has completed. This may be intentional (the way Measurement Task has completed. This may be intentional (the way
that the measurement system has designed the Measurement Schedules), that the measurement system has designed the Measurement Schedules),
but it could also be unintentional - for instance, if a Measurement but it could also be unintentional - for instance, if a Measurement
Task has a 'wait for X' step which pauses for an unexpectedly long Task has a 'wait for X' step which pauses for an unexpectedly long
time. The operator of the measurement system can handle (or not) time. The operator of the measurement system can handle (or not)
overlapping Measurement Tasks in any way they choose - it is a policy overlapping Measurement Tasks in any way they choose - it is a policy
or implementation issue and not the concern of LMAP. Some possible or implementation issue and not the concern of LMAP. Some possible
approaches are: to configure the MA not to begin the second approaches are: to configure the MA not to begin the second
Measurement Task; to start the second Measurement Task as usual; for Measurement Task; to start the second Measurement Task as usual; for
the action to be an Input Parameter of the Measurement Task; and so the action to be an Input Parameter of the Measurement Task; and so
on. on.
It may be important to include in the Measurement Report the fact It may be important to include in the Measurement Report the fact
that the Measurement Task overlapped with another. that the Measurement Task overlapped with another.
5.5. Report Protocol 5.4. Report Protocol
The primary purpose of the Report Protocol is to allow a Measurement The primary purpose of the Report Protocol is to allow a Measurement
Agent to report its Measurement Results to a Collector, along with Agent to report its Measurement Results to a Collector, along with
the context in which they were obtained. the context in which they were obtained.
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
| | | Measurement | | | | Measurement |
| Collector |===================================| Agent | | Collector |===================================| Agent |
+-----------------+ +-------------+ +-----------------+ +-------------+
<- Report: <- Report:
[MA-ID &/or Group-ID], [MA-ID &/or Group-ID],
[Measurement Result [Measurement Result],
[details of Measurement Task]] [details of Measurement Task]
ACK -> ACK ->
The Report contains: The Report contains:
o the MA-ID or a Group-ID (to anonymise results) o the MA-ID or a Group-ID (to anonymise results)
o the actual Measurement Results, including the time they were o the actual Measurement Results, including the time they were
measured measured
o the details of the Measurement Task (to avoid the Collector having o the details of the Measurement Task (to avoid the Collector having
to ask the Controller for this information later) to ask the Controller for this information later)
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Measurement Agent) being busy Measurement Agent) being busy
o label Measurement Results obtained by a Measurement Task that o label Measurement Results obtained by a Measurement Task that
overlapped with another overlapped with another
o not report the Measurement Results if the MA believes that they o not report the Measurement Results if the MA believes that they
are invalid are invalid
o detail when Suppression started and ended o detail when Suppression started and ended
5.5.1. Reporting of Subscriber's service parameters 5.4.1. Reporting of Subscriber's service parameters
The Subscriber's service parameters are information about his/her The Subscriber's service parameters are information about his/her
broadband contract, line rate and so on. Such information is likely broadband contract, line rate and so on. Such information is likely
to be needed to help analyse the Measurement Results, for example to to be needed to help analyse the Measurement Results, for example to
help decide whether the measured download speed is reasonable. help decide whether the measured download speed is reasonable.
The information could be transferred directly from the Subscriber The information could be transferred directly from the Subscriber
parameter database to the data analysis tools. It may also be parameter database to the data analysis tools. It may also be
possible to transfer the information via the MA. How (and if) the MA possible to transfer the information via the MA. How (and if) the MA
knows such information is likely to depend on the device type. The knows such information is likely to depend on the device type. The
MA could either include the information in a Measurement Report or MA could either include the information in a Measurement Report or
separately. separately.
5.6. Operation of LMAP over the underlying packet transfer mechanism 5.5. Operation of LMAP over the underlying packet transfer mechanism
The above sections have described LMAP's protocol model. Other The above sections have described LMAP's protocol model. Other
specifications will define the actual Control and Report Protocols, specifications will define the actual Control and Report Protocols,
possibly operating over an existing protocol, to be selected, for possibly operating over an existing protocol, to be selected, for
example REST-style HTTP(S). It is also possible that a different example REST-style HTTP(S). It is also possible that a different
choice is made for the Control and Report Protocols, for example choice is made for the Control and Report Protocols, for example
NETCONF-YANG and IPFIX respectively. NETCONF-YANG and IPFIX respectively.
From an LMAP perspective, the Controller needs to know that the MA From an LMAP perspective, the Controller needs to know that the MA
has received the Instruction Message, or at least that it needs to be has received the Instruction Message, or at least that it needs to be
skipping to change at page 24, line 4 skipping to change at page 24, line 23
Controller is unreachable after a certain number of attempts. Controller is unreachable after a certain number of attempts.
o a hybrid protocol. In addition to a pull protocol, the Controller o a hybrid protocol. In addition to a pull protocol, the Controller
can also push an alert to the MA that it should immediately pull a can also push an alert to the MA that it should immediately pull a
new Instruction. new Instruction.
For the Report Protocol, the underlying packet transfer mechanism For the Report Protocol, the underlying packet transfer mechanism
could be: could be:
o a 'push' protocol (that is, from the MA to the Collector) o a 'push' protocol (that is, from the MA to the Collector)
o perhaps supplemented by the ability for the Collector to 'pull' o perhaps supplemented by the ability for the Collector to 'pull'
Measurement Results from a MA. Measurement Results from a MA.
5.7. Items beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work 5.6. Items beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work
There are several potential interactions between LMAP elements that There are several potential interactions between LMAP elements that
are beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work: are beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work:
1. It does not define a coordination process between MAs. Whilst a 1. It does not define a coordination process between MAs. Whilst a
measurement system may define coordinated Measurement Schedules measurement system may define coordinated Measurement Schedules
across its various MAs, there is no direct coordination between across its various MAs, there is no direct coordination between
MAs. MAs.
2. It does not define interactions between the Collector and 2. It does not define interactions between the Collector and
skipping to change at page 24, line 41 skipping to change at page 25, line 13
Control and Report Protocols could be re-used or adapted for this Control and Report Protocols could be re-used or adapted for this
scenario, any form of coordination between different scenario, any form of coordination between different
organisations involves difficult commercial and technical issues organisations involves difficult commercial and technical issues
and so, given the novelty of large-scale measurement efforts, any and so, given the novelty of large-scale measurement efforts, any
form of inter-organisation coordination is outside the scope of form of inter-organisation coordination is outside the scope of
the initial LMAP work. Note that a single MA is instructed by a the initial LMAP work. Note that a single MA is instructed by a
single Controller and is only in one measurement system. single Controller and is only in one measurement system.
* An interesting scenario is where a home contains two * An interesting scenario is where a home contains two
independent MAs, for example one controlled by a regulator and independent MAs, for example one controlled by a regulator and
one controlled by an ISP. Then the Active Measurement Traffic one controlled by an ISP. Then the Measurement Traffic of one
of one MA is treated by the other MA just like any other end- MA is treated by the other MA just like any other end-user
user traffic. traffic.
4. It does not consider how to prevent a malicious party "gaming the 4. It does not consider how to prevent a malicious party "gaming the
system". For example, where a regulator is running a measurement system". For example, where a regulator is running a measurement
system in order to benchmark operators, a malicious operator system in order to benchmark operators, a malicious operator
could try to identify the broadband lines that the regulator was could try to identify the broadband lines that the regulator was
measuring and prioritise that traffic. It is assumed this is a measuring and prioritise that traffic. It is assumed this is a
policy issue and would be dealt with through a code of conduct policy issue and would be dealt with through a code of conduct
for instance. for instance.
5. It does not define how to analyse Measurement Results, including 5. It does not define how to analyse Measurement Results, including
how to interpret missing Results. how to interpret missing Results.
6. It does not specifically define a end-user-controlled measurement 6. It does not specifically define a end-user-controlled measurement
system, see sub-section 5.6.1. system, see sub-section 5.6.1.
5.7.1. End-user-controlled measurement system 5.6.1. End-user-controlled measurement system
This framework concentrates on the cases where an ISP or a regulator This framework concentrates on the cases where an ISP or a regulator
runs the measurement system. However, we expect that LMAP runs the measurement system. However, we expect that LMAP
functionality will also be used in the context of an end-user- functionality will also be used in the context of an end-user-
controlled measurement system. There are at least two ways this controlled measurement system. There are at least two ways this
could happen (they have various pros and cons): could happen (they have various pros and cons):
1. an end-user could somehow request the ISP- (or regulator-) run 1. an end-user could somehow request the ISP- (or regulator-) run
measurement system to test his/her line. The ISP (or regulator) measurement system to test his/her line. The ISP (or regulator)
Controller would then send an Instruction to the MA in the usual Controller would then send an Instruction to the MA in the usual
skipping to change at page 26, line 8 skipping to change at page 26, line 25
privacy in Section 8. privacy in Section 8.
6. Deployment considerations 6. Deployment considerations
The Appendix has some examples of possible deployment arrangements of The Appendix has some examples of possible deployment arrangements of
Measurement Agents and Peers. Measurement Agents and Peers.
6.1. Controller and the measurement system 6.1. Controller and the measurement system
The Controller should understand both the MA's LMAP Capabilities (for The Controller should understand both the MA's LMAP Capabilities (for
instance what Measurement Methods it can perform) and about the MA's instance what Metrics and Measurement Methods it can perform) and
other capabilities like processing power and memory. This allows the about the MA's other capabilities like processing power and memory.
Controller to make sure that the Measurement Schedule of Measurement This allows the Controller to make sure that the Measurement Schedule
Tasks and the Reporting Schedule are sensible for each MA that it of Measurement Tasks and the Reporting Schedule are sensible for each
Instructs. MA that it Instructs.
An Instruction is likely to include several Measurement Tasks. An Instruction is likely to include several Measurement Tasks.
Typically these run at different times, but it is also possible for Typically these run at different times, but it is also possible for
them to run at the same time. Some Tasks may be compatible, in that them to run at the same time. Some Tasks may be compatible, in that
they do not affect each other's Results, whilst with others great they do not affect each other's Results, whilst with others great
care would need to be taken. care would need to be taken.
The Controller should ensure that the Active Measurement Tasks do not The Controller should ensure that the Measurement Tasks do not have
have an adverse effect on the end user. Tasks, especially those that an adverse effect on the end user. Tasks, especially those that
generate a substantial amount of traffic, will often include a pre- generate a substantial amount of traffic, will often include a pre-
check that the user isn't already sending traffic (Section 5.3). check that the user isn't already sending traffic (Section 5.3).
Another consideration is whether Active Measurement Traffic will Another consideration is whether Measurement Traffic will impact a
impact a Subscriber's bill or traffic cap. Subscriber's bill or traffic cap.
The different elements of the Instruction can be updated The different elements of the Instruction can be updated
independently. For example, the Measurement Tasks could be independently. For example, the Measurement Tasks could be
configured with different Input Parameters whilst keeping the same configured with different Input Parameters whilst keeping the same
Measurement Schedule. In general this should not create any issues, Measurement Schedule. In general this should not create any issues,
since Measurement Methods should be defined so their fundamental since Metrics and their associated Measurement Methods should be
nature does not change for a new value of Input Parameter. There defined so their fundamental nature does not change for a new value
could be a problem if, for example, a Measurement Task involving a of Input Parameter. There could be a problem if, for example, a
1kB file upload could be changed into a 1GB file upload. Measurement Task involving a 1kB file upload could be changed into a
1GB file upload.
A measurement system may have multiple Controllers (but note the A measurement system may have multiple Controllers (but note the
overriding principle that a single MA is instructed by a single overriding principle that a single MA is instructed by a single
Controller at any point in time (Section 4.2)). For example, there Controller at any point in time (Section 4.2)). For example, there
could be different Controllers for different types of MA (home could be different Controllers for different types of MA (home
gateways, tablets) or locations (Ipswich, Edinburgh), for load gateways, tablets) or locations (Ipswich, Edinburgh), for load
balancing or to cope with failure of one Controller. balancing or to cope with failure of one Controller.
The measurement system also needs to consider carefully how to The measurement system also needs to consider carefully how to
interpret missing Results; for example, if the missing Results are interpret missing Results; for example, if the missing Results are
skipping to change at page 27, line 34 skipping to change at page 27, line 49
downloaded and installed on a subscriber's laptop computer or tablet downloaded and installed on a subscriber's laptop computer or tablet
when the network service is provided on wired or other wireless radio when the network service is provided on wired or other wireless radio
technologies, such as Wi-Fi. technologies, such as Wi-Fi.
6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway 6.2.2. Measurement Agent embedded in site gateway
A Measurement Agent embedded with the site gateway, for example a A Measurement Agent embedded with the site gateway, for example a
home router or the edge router of a branch office in a managed home router or the edge router of a branch office in a managed
service environment, is one of better places the Measurement Agent service environment, is one of better places the Measurement Agent
could be deployed. All site-to-ISP traffic would traverse through could be deployed. All site-to-ISP traffic would traverse through
the gateway and passive measurements could easily be performed. the gateway. So, Measurement Methods that measure user traffic could
Similarly, due to this user traffic visibility, an Active Measurement easily be performed. Similarly, due to this user traffic visibility,
Task could be rescheduled so as not to compete with user traffic. a Measurement Method that generates Measurement Traffic could ensure
Generally NAT and firewall services are built into the gateway, it does not compete with user traffic. Generally NAT and firewall
allowing the Measurement Agent the option to offer its Controller- services are built into the gateway, allowing the Measurement Agent
facing management interface outside of the NAT/firewall. This the option to offer its Controller-facing management interface
placement of the management interface allows the Controller to outside of the NAT/firewall. This placement of the management
unilaterally contact the Measurement Agent for instructions. interface allows the Controller to unilaterally contact the
However, a Measurement Agent on a site gateway (whether end-user Measurement Agent for instructions. However, a Measurement Agent on
service-provider owned) will generally not be directly available for a site gateway (whether end-user service-provider owned) will
over the top providers, the regulator, end users or enterprises. generally not be directly available for over the top providers, the
regulator, end users or enterprises.
6.2.3. Measurement Agent embedded behind site NAT /Firewall 6.2.3. Measurement Agent embedded behind site NAT /Firewall
The Measurement Agent could also be embedded behind a NAT, a The Measurement Agent could also be embedded behind a NAT, a
firewall, or both. In this case the Controller may not be able to firewall, or both. In this case the Controller may not be able to
unilaterally contact the Measurement Agent unless either static port unilaterally contact the Measurement Agent unless either static port
forwarding or firewall pin holing is configured. Configuring port forwarding or firewall pin holing is configured. Configuring port
forwarding could use protocols such as PCP [RFC6887], TR-069 forwarding could use protocols such as PCP [RFC6887], TR-069
[TR-069]or UPnP [UPnP]. To prop open the firewall, the Measurement [TR-069]or UPnP [UPnP]. To prop open the firewall, the Measurement
Agent could send keepalives towards the Controller (and perhaps use Agent could send keepalives towards the Controller (and perhaps use
these also as a network reachability test). these also as a network reachability test).
6.2.4. Multi-homed Measurement Agent 6.2.4. Multi-homed Measurement Agent
If the device with the Measurement Agent is single homed then there If the device with the Measurement Agent is single homed then there
is no confusion about what interface to measure. Similarly, if the is no confusion about what interface to measure. Similarly, if the
MA is at the gateway and the gateway only has a single WAN-side and a MA is at the gateway and the gateway only has a single WAN-side and a
single LAN-side interface, there is little confusion - for an Active single LAN-side interface, there is little confusion - for
Measurement Task, the location of the other MA or Measurement Peer Measurement Methods that generate Measurement Traffic, the location
determines whether the WAN or LAN is measured. of the other MA or Measurement Peer determines whether the WAN or LAN
is measured.
However, the device with the Measurement Agent may be multi-homed. However, the device with the Measurement Agent may be multi-homed.
For example, a home or campus may be connected to multiple broadband For example, a home or campus may be connected to multiple broadband
ISPs, such as a wired and wireless broadband provider, perhaps for ISPs, such as a wired and wireless broadband provider, perhaps for
redundancy or load- sharing. It may also be helpful to think of dual redundancy or load- sharing. It may also be helpful to think of dual
stack IPv4 and IPv6 broadband devices as multi-homed. More stack IPv4 and IPv6 broadband devices as multi-homed. More
generally, Section 3.2 of [I-D.ietf-homenet-arch] describes dual- generally, Section 3.2 of [I-D.ietf-homenet-arch] describes dual-
stack and multi-homing topologies that might be encountered in a home stack and multi-homing topologies that might be encountered in a home
network, [RFC6419] provides the current practices of multi-interfaces network, [RFC6419] provides the current practices of multi-interfaces
hosts, and the Multiple Interfaces (mif) working group covers cases hosts, and the Multiple Interfaces (mif) working group covers cases
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such as a router or switch. Usually the network devices with an such as a router or switch. Usually the network devices with an
embedded MA will be strategically located, such as a Carrier Grade embedded MA will be strategically located, such as a Carrier Grade
NAT or ISP Gateway. [I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path] gives many examples NAT or ISP Gateway. [I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path] gives many examples
where a MA might be located within a network to provide an where a MA might be located within a network to provide an
intermediate measurement point on the end-to-end path. Other intermediate measurement point on the end-to-end path. Other
examples include a network device whose primary role is to host MA examples include a network device whose primary role is to host MA
functions and the necessary measurement protocol. functions and the necessary measurement protocol.
6.3. Measurement Peer 6.3. Measurement Peer
A Measurement Peer participates in Active Measurement Tasks. It may A Measurement Peer participates in some Measurement Methods. It may
have specific functionality to enable it to participate in a have specific functionality to enable it to participate in a
particular Measurement Method. On the other hand, other Measurement particular Measurement Method. On the other hand, other Measurement
Methods may require no special functionality, for example if the Methods may require no special functionality, for example if the
Measurement Agent sends a ping to example.com then the server at Measurement Agent sends a ping to example.com then the server at
example.com plays the role of a Measurement Peer. example.com plays the role of a Measurement Peer.
A device may participate in some Measurement Tasks as a Measurement A device may participate in some Measurement Methods as a Measurement
Agent and in others as a Measurement Peer. Agent and in others as a Measurement Peer.
Measurement Schedules should account for limited resources in a Measurement Schedules should account for limited resources in a
Measurement Peer when instructing a MA to execute measurements with a Measurement Peer when instructing a MA to execute measurements with a
Measurement Peer. In some measurement protocols, such as [RFC4656] Measurement Peer. In some measurement protocols, such as [RFC4656]
and [RFC5357], the Measurement Peer can reject a measurement session and [RFC5357], the Measurement Peer can reject a measurement session
or refuse a control connection prior to setting-up a measurement or refuse a control connection prior to setting-up a measurement
session and so protect itself from resource exhaustion. This is a session and so protect itself from resource exhaustion. This is a
valuable capability because the MP may be used by more than one valuable capability because the MP may be used by more than one
organisation. organisation.
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o Sub-IP layer addresses and names (MAC address, base station ID, o Sub-IP layer addresses and names (MAC address, base station ID,
SSID) SSID)
o IP address in use o IP address in use
o Personal Identification (real name) o Personal Identification (real name)
o Location (street address, city) o Location (street address, city)
o Subscribed service parameters o Subscribed service parameters
o Contents of traffic (activity, DNS queries, destinations, o Contents of traffic (activity, DNS queries, destinations,
equipment types, account info for other services, etc.) equipment types, account info for other services, etc.)
o Status as a study volunteer and Schedule of (Active) Measurement o Status as a study volunteer and Schedule of Measurement Tasks
Tasks
Examples of Internet Service Provider sensitive information: Examples of Internet Service Provider sensitive information:
o Measurement device identification (equipment ID and IP address) o Measurement device identification (equipment ID and IP address)
o Measurement Instructions (choice of measurements) o Measurement Instructions (choice of measurements)
o Measurement Results (some may be shared, others may be private) o Measurement Results (some may be shared, others may be private)
o Measurement Schedule (exact times) o Measurement Schedule (exact times)
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information known to the provider. information known to the provider.
o Authentication credentials (such as certificates) o Authentication credentials (such as certificates)
Other organisations will have some combination of the lists above. Other organisations will have some combination of the lists above.
The LMAP system would not typically expose all of the information The LMAP system would not typically expose all of the information
above, but could expose a combination of items which could be above, but could expose a combination of items which could be
correlated with other pieces collected by an attacker (as discussed correlated with other pieces collected by an attacker (as discussed
in the section on Threats below). in the section on Threats below).
8.3. Key Distinction Between Active and Passive Measurement Tasks 8.3. Different privacy issues raised by different sorts of Measurement
Methods
Passive and Active Measurement Tasks raise different privacy issues. Measurement Methods raise different privacy issues depending on
whether they measure traffic created specifically for that purpose,
or whether they measure user traffic.
Passive Measurement Tasks are conducted on one or more user's Measurement Tasks conducted on user traffic store sensitive
traffic, such that sensitive information is present and stored in the information, however briefly this storage may be. We note that some
measurement system (however briefly this storage may be). We note authorities make a distinction on time of storage, and information
that some authorities make a distinction on time of storage, and that is kept only temporarily to perform a communications function is
information that is kept only temporarily to perform a communications not subject to regulation (for example, active queue management, deep
function is not subject to regulation (for example, active queue packet inspection). Such Measurement Tasks could reveal all the
management, deep packet inspection). Passive Measurement Tasks could websites a Subscriber visits and the applications and/or services
reveal all the websites a Subscriber visits and the applications and/ they use.
or services they use.
Active Measurement Tasks are conducted on traffic which is created Other types of Measurement Task are conducted on traffic which is
specifically for the purpose. Even if a user host generates Active created specifically for the purpose. Even if a user host generates
Measurement Traffic, there is limited sensitive information about the Measurement Traffic, there is limited sensitive information about the
Subscriber present and stored in the measurement system compared to Subscriber present and stored in the measurement system:
the passive case, as follows:
o IP address in use (and possibly sub-IP addresses and names) o IP address in use (and possibly sub-IP addresses and names)
o Status as a study volunteer and Schedule of Active Measurement o Status as a study volunteer and Schedule of Measurement Tasks
Tasks
On the other hand, for a service provider the sensitive information On the other hand, for a service provider the sensitive information
like Measurement Results is the same for Passive and Active like Measurement Results is the same for all Measurement Tasks.
Measurement Tasks.
From the Subscriber perspective, both Active and Passive Measurement From the Subscriber perspective, both types of Measurement Task
Tasks potentially expose the description of Internet access service potentially expose the description of Internet access service and
and specific service parameters, such as subscribed rate and type of specific service parameters, such as subscribed rate and type of
access. access.
8.4. Privacy analysis of the Communications Models 8.4. Privacy analysis of the Communications Models
This section examines each of the protocol exchanges described at a This section examines each of the protocol exchanges described at a
high level in Section 5 and some example Measurement Tasks, and high level in Section 5 and some example Measurement Tasks, and
identifies specific sensitive information which must be secured identifies specific sensitive information which must be secured
during communication for each case. With the protocol-related during communication for each case. With the protocol-related
sensitive information identified, we can better consider the threats sensitive information identified, we can better consider the threats
described in the following section. described in the following section.
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8.4.1. MA Bootstrapping 8.4.1. MA Bootstrapping
Section 5.1 provides the communication model for the Bootstrapping Section 5.1 provides the communication model for the Bootstrapping
process. process.
Although the specification of mechanisms for Bootstrapping the MA are Although the specification of mechanisms for Bootstrapping the MA are
beyond the initial LMAP work scope, designers should recognize that beyond the initial LMAP work scope, designers should recognize that
the Bootstrapping process is extremely powerful and could cause an MA the Bootstrapping process is extremely powerful and could cause an MA
to join a new or different LMAP system with a different Controller to join a new or different LMAP system with a different Controller
and Collector, or simply install new Measurement Methods (for example and Collector, or simply install new Metrics with associated
to passively record DNS queries). A Bootstrap attack could result in Measurement Methods (for example to record DNS queries). A Bootstrap
a breach of the LMAP system with significant sensitive information attack could result in a breach of the LMAP system with significant
exposure depending on the capabilities of the MA, so sufficient sensitive information exposure depending on the capabilities of the
security protections are warranted. MA, so sufficient security protections are warranted.
The Bootstrapping process provides sensitive information about the The Bootstrapping process provides sensitive information about the
LMAP system and the organisation that operates it, such as LMAP system and the organisation that operates it, such as
o Initial Controller IP address or FQDN o Initial Controller IP address or FQDN
o Assigned Controller IP address or FQDN o Assigned Controller IP address or FQDN
o Security certificates and credentials o Security certificates and credentials
During the Bootstrap process for an MA located at a single During the Bootstrap process for an MA located at a single
subscriber's service demarcation point, the MA receives a MA-ID which subscriber's service demarcation point, the MA receives a MA-ID which
is a persistent pseudonym for the Subscriber. Thus, the MA-ID is is a persistent pseudonym for the Subscriber. Thus, the MA-ID is
considered sensitive information because it could provide the link considered sensitive information because it could provide the link
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subscriber's service demarcation point, the MA receives a MA-ID which subscriber's service demarcation point, the MA receives a MA-ID which
is a persistent pseudonym for the Subscriber. Thus, the MA-ID is is a persistent pseudonym for the Subscriber. Thus, the MA-ID is
considered sensitive information because it could provide the link considered sensitive information because it could provide the link
between Subscriber identification and Measurements Results. between Subscriber identification and Measurements Results.
Also, the Bootstrap process could assign a Group-ID to the MA. The Also, the Bootstrap process could assign a Group-ID to the MA. The
specific definition of information represented in a Group-ID is to be specific definition of information represented in a Group-ID is to be
determined, but several examples are envisaged including use as a determined, but several examples are envisaged including use as a
pseudonym for a set of Subscribers, a class of service, an access pseudonym for a set of Subscribers, a class of service, an access
technology, or other important categories. Assignment of a Group-ID technology, or other important categories. Assignment of a Group-ID
enables anonymisation sets to be formed on the basis of service type/ enables anonymisation sets to be formed on the basis of service
grade/rates. Thus, the mapping between Group-ID and MA-ID is type/grade/rates. Thus, the mapping between Group-ID and MA-ID is
considered sensitive information. considered sensitive information.
8.4.2. Controller <-> Measurement Agent 8.4.2. Controller <-> Measurement Agent
The high-level communication model for interactions between the LMAP The high-level communication model for interactions between the LMAP
Controller and Measurement Agent is illustrated in Section 5.2. The Controller and Measurement Agent is illustrated in Section 5.2. The
primary purpose of this exchange is to authenticate and task a primary purpose of this exchange is to authenticate and task a
Measurement Agent with Measurement Instructions, which the Measurement Agent with Measurement Instructions, which the
Measurement Agent then acts on autonomously. Measurement Agent then acts on autonomously.
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and stored. and stored.
The Measurement Results are the additional sensitive information The Measurement Results are the additional sensitive information
included in the Collector-MA exchange. Organisations collecting LMAP included in the Collector-MA exchange. Organisations collecting LMAP
measurements have the responsibility for data control. Thus, the measurements have the responsibility for data control. Thus, the
Results and other information communicated in the Collector protocol Results and other information communicated in the Collector protocol
must be secured. must be secured.
8.4.4. Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent 8.4.4. Measurement Peer <-> Measurement Agent
Although the specification of the mechanisms for an Active A Measurement Method involving a Measurement Peer (or second
Measurement Task is beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work, it Measurement Agent) raises potential privacy issues, although the
raises potential privacy issues. The high-level communications model specification of the mechanisms is beyond the scope of the initial
below illustrates the various exchanges to execute Active Measurement LMAP work. The high-level communications model below illustrates the
Tasks and store the Results. various exchanges to execute such a Measurement Method and store the
Results.
We note the potential for additional observers in the figures below We note the potential for additional observers in the figures below
by indicating the possible presence of a NAT, which has additional by indicating the possible presence of a NAT, which has additional
significance to the protocols and direction of initiation. significance to the protocols and direction of initiation.
The various messages are optional, depending on the nature of the The various messages are optional, depending on the nature of the
Active Measurement Task. It may involve sending Active Measurement Measurement Method. It may involve sending Measurement Traffic from
Traffic from the Measurement Peer to MA, MA to Measurement Peer, or the Measurement Peer to MA, MA to Measurement Peer, or both.
both. Similarly, a second (or more) MAs may be involved.
_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________
| | | | | | | |
|Measurement Peer |=========== NAT ? ==========|Measurement Agent| |Measurement Peer |=========== NAT ? ==========|Measurement Agent|
|_________________| |_________________| |_________________| |_________________|
<- (Key Negotiation & <- (Key Negotiation &
Encryption Setup) Encryption Setup)
(Encrypted Channel -> (Encrypted Channel ->
Established) Established)
(Announce capabilities -> (Announce capabilities ->
& status) & status)
<- (Select capabilities) <- (Select capabilities)
ACK -> ACK ->
<- (Measurement Request <- (Measurement Request
(MA+MP IPAddrs,set of (MA+MP IPAddrs,set of
Metrics, Schedule)) Metrics, Schedule))
ACK -> ACK ->
Active Measurement Traffic <> Active Measurement Traffic Measurement Traffic <> Measurement Traffic
(may/may not be encrypted) (may/may not be encrypted) (may/may not be encrypted) (may/may not be encrypted)
<- (Stop Measurement Task) <- (Stop Measurement Task)
Measurement Results -> Measurement Results ->
(if applicable) (if applicable)
<- ACK, Close <- ACK, Close
This exchange primarily exposes the IP addresses of measurement This exchange primarily exposes the IP addresses of measurement
devices and the inference of measurement participation from such devices and the inference of measurement participation from such
traffic. There may be sensitive information on key points in a traffic. There may be sensitive information on key points in a
service provider's network included. There may also be access to service provider's network included. There may also be access to
measurement-related information of interest such as the Metrics, measurement-related information of interest such as the Metrics,
Schedule, and intermediate results carried in the Active Measurement Schedule, and intermediate results carried in the Measurement Traffic
Traffic (usually a set of timestamps). (usually a set of timestamps).
If the Active Measurement Traffic is unencrypted, as found in many If the Measurement Traffic is unencrypted, as found in many systems
systems today, then both timing and limited results are open to on- today, then both timing and limited results are open to on-path
path observers. observers.
8.4.5. Passive Measurement Agent 8.4.5. Measurement Agent
Although the specification of the mechanisms for a Passive Some Measurement Methods only involve a single Measurement Agent.
Measurement Task is beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work, it They raise potential privacy issues, although the specification of
raises potential privacy issues. the mechanisms is beyond the scope of the initial LMAP work.
The high-level communications model below illustrates the collection The high-level communications model below illustrates the collection
of user information of interest with the Measurement Agent performing of user information of interest with the Measurement Agent performing
the monitoring and storage of the Results. This particular exchange the monitoring and storage of the Results. This particular exchange
is for passive measurement of DNS Response Time, which most is for measurement of DNS Response Time, which most frequently uses
frequently uses UDP transport. UDP transport.
_________________ ____________ _________________ ____________
| | | | | | | |
| DNS Server |=========== NAT ? ==========*=======| User client| | DNS Server |=========== NAT ? ==========*=======| User client|
|_________________| ^ |____________| |_________________| ^ |____________|
______|_______ ______|_______
| | | |
| Measurement | | Measurement |
| Agent | | Agent |
|______________| |______________|
skipping to change at page 38, line 30 skipping to change at page 38, line 30
Return Record -> Return Record ->
This exchange primarily exposes the IP addresses of measurement This exchange primarily exposes the IP addresses of measurement
devices and the intent to communicate with or access the services of devices and the intent to communicate with or access the services of
"Domain Name". There may be information on key points in a service "Domain Name". There may be information on key points in a service
provider's network, such as the address of one of its DNS servers. provider's network, such as the address of one of its DNS servers.
The Measurement Agent may be embedded in the user host, or it may be The Measurement Agent may be embedded in the user host, or it may be
located in another device capable of observing user traffic. located in another device capable of observing user traffic.
In principle, any of the user sensitive information of interest In principle, any of the user sensitive information of interest
(listed above) can be collected and stored in the passive monitoring (listed above) can be collected and stored in the monitoring scenario
scenario and so must be secured. and so must be secured.
It would also be possible for a Measurement Agent to source the DNS It would also be possible for a Measurement Agent to source the DNS
query itself. But then, as with any active measurement task, there query itself. But then there are few privacy concerns.
are few privacy concerns.
8.4.6. Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results 8.4.6. Storage and Reporting of Measurement Results
Although the mechanisms for communicating results (beyond the initial Although the mechanisms for communicating results (beyond the initial
Collector) are beyond the initial LMAP work scope, there are Collector) are beyond the initial LMAP work scope, there are
potential privacy issues related to a single organisation's storage potential privacy issues related to a single organisation's storage
and reporting of Measurement Results. Both storage and reporting and reporting of Measurement Results. Both storage and reporting
functions can help to preserve privacy by implementing the functions can help to preserve privacy by implementing the
mitigations described below. mitigations described below.
skipping to change at page 39, line 12 skipping to change at page 39, line 11
apply to the LMAP entities and their communication and storage of apply to the LMAP entities and their communication and storage of
"information of interest". Denial of Service (DOS) and other attacks "information of interest". Denial of Service (DOS) and other attacks
described in the Security section represent threats as well, and described in the Security section represent threats as well, and
these attacks are more effective when sensitive information these attacks are more effective when sensitive information
protections have been compromised. protections have been compromised.
8.5.1. Surveillance 8.5.1. Surveillance
Section 5.1.1 of [RFC6973] describes Surveillance as the "observation Section 5.1.1 of [RFC6973] describes Surveillance as the "observation
or monitoring of and individual's communications or activities." or monitoring of and individual's communications or activities."
Hence all Passive Measurement Tasks are a form of surveillance, with Hence all Measurement Methods that measure user traffic are a form of
inherent risks. surveillance, with inherent risks.
Active Measurement Methods which avoid periods of user transmission Measurement Methods which avoid periods of user transmission
indirectly produce a record of times when a subscriber or authorised indirectly produce a record of times when a subscriber or authorised
user has used their network access service. user has used their network access service.
Active Measurement Methods may also utilise and store a Subscriber's Measurement Methods may also utilise and store a Subscriber's
currently assigned IP address when conducting measurements that are currently assigned IP address when conducting measurements that are
relevant to a specific Subscriber. Since the Measurement Results are relevant to a specific Subscriber. Since the Measurement Results are
time-stamped, they could provide a record of IP address assignments time-stamped, they could provide a record of IP address assignments
over time. over time.
Either of the above pieces of information could be useful in Either of the above pieces of information could be useful in
correlation and identification, described below. correlation and identification, described below.
8.5.2. Stored Data Compromise 8.5.2. Stored Data Compromise
skipping to change at page 40, line 7 skipping to change at page 40, line 6
The LMAP Controller may have direct access to storage of Subscriber The LMAP Controller may have direct access to storage of Subscriber
information (location, billing, service parameters, etc.) and other information (location, billing, service parameters, etc.) and other
information which the controlling organisation considers private, and information which the controlling organisation considers private, and
again needs protection. again needs protection.
Note that there is tension between the desire to store all raw Note that there is tension between the desire to store all raw
results in the LMAP Collector (for reproducibility and custom results in the LMAP Collector (for reproducibility and custom
analysis), and the need to protect the privacy of measurement analysis), and the need to protect the privacy of measurement
participants. Many of the compromise mitigations described in participants. Many of the compromise mitigations described in
section 8.6 below are most efficient when deployed at the MA, section 8.6 below are most efficient when deployed at the MA,
therefore minimizing the risks with stored results. therefore minimising the risks with stored results.
8.5.3. Correlation and Identification 8.5.3. Correlation and Identification
Sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 of [RFC6973] describes Correlation as Sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.2 of [RFC6973] describe Correlation as
combining various pieces of information to obtain desired combining various pieces of information to obtain desired
characteristics of an individual, and Identification as using this characteristics of an individual, and Identification as using this
process to infer identity. combination to infer identity.
The main risk is that the LMAP system could unwittingly provide a key The main risk is that the LMAP system could unwittingly provide a key
piece of the correlation chain, starting with an unknown Subscriber's piece of the correlation chain, starting with an unknown Subscriber's
IP address and another piece of information. For example, a IP address and another piece of information. For example, a
Subscriber utilised Internet access from 2000 to 2310 UTC, because Subscriber utilised Internet access from 2000 to 2310 UTC, because
the Active Measurement Tasks were deferred, or sent a name resolution the Measurement Tasks were deferred, or sent a name resolution for
for www.example.com at 2300 UTC. www.example.com at 2300 UTC.
8.5.4. Secondary Use and Disclosure 8.5.4. Secondary Use and Disclosure
Sections 5.2.3 and 5.2.4 of [RFC6973] describes Secondary Use as Sections 5.2.3 and 5.2.4 of [RFC6973] describes Secondary Use as
unauthorised utilisation of an individual's information for a purpose unauthorised utilisation of an individual's information for a purpose
the individual did not intend, and Disclosure is when such the individual did not intend, and Disclosure is when such
information is revealed causing other's notions of the individual to information is revealed causing other's notions of the individual to
change, or confidentiality to be violated. change, or confidentiality to be violated.
Passive Measurement Tasks are a form of Secondary Use, and the Measurement Methods that measure user traffic are a form of Secondary
Subscribers' permission should be obtained beforehand. It may be Use, and the Subscribers' permission should be obtained beforehand.
necessary to obtain the measured ISP's permission to conduct It may be necessary to obtain the measured ISP's permission to
measurements, for example when required by the terms and conditions conduct measurements, for example when required by the terms and
of the service agreement, and notification is considered good conditions of the service agreement, and notification is considered
measurement practice. Although user traffic is only indirectly good measurement practice.
involved, the Measurement Results from Active Measurement Tasks
provide some limited information about the Subscriber or ISP and For Measurement Methods that measure Measurement Traffic the
could result in Secondary Uses. For example, the use of the Results Measurement Results provide some limited information about the
in unauthorised marketing campaigns would qualify as Secondary Use. Subscriber or ISP and could result in Secondary Uses. For example,
Secondary use may break national laws and regulations, and may the use of the Results in unauthorised marketing campaigns would
violate individual's expectations or desires. qualify as Secondary Use. Secondary use may break national laws and
regulations, and may violate individual's expectations or desires.
8.6. Mitigations 8.6. Mitigations
This section examines the mitigations listed in section 6 of This section examines the mitigations listed in section 6 of
[RFC6973] and their applicability to LMAP systems. Note that each [RFC6973] and their applicability to LMAP systems. Note that each
section in [RFC6973] identifies the threat categories that each section in [RFC6973] identifies the threat categories that each
technique mitigates. technique mitigates.
8.6.1. Data Minimisation 8.6.1. Data Minimisation
Section 6.1 of [RFC6973] encourages collecting and storing the Section 6.1 of [RFC6973] encourages collecting and storing the
minimal information needed to perform a task. minimal information needed to perform a task.
There are two levels of information detail needed for LMAP results to LMAP results can be useful for general reporting about performance
be useful for a specific task: troubleshooting and general results and for specific troubleshooting. They need different levels of
reporting, as explained in the paragraphs below. information detail, as explained in the paragraphs below.
For general results, the results can be aggregated into large For general results, the results can be aggregated into large
categories (the month of March, all subscribers West of the categories (the month of March, all subscribers West of the
Mississippi River). In this case, all individual identifications Mississippi River). In this case, all individual identifications
(including IP address of the MA) can be excluded, and only relevant (including IP address of the MA) can be excluded, and only relevant
results are provided. However, this implies a filtering process to results are provided. However, this implies a filtering process to
reduce the information fields, because greater detail was needed to reduce the information fields, because greater detail was needed to
conduct the Measurement Tasks in the first place. conduct the Measurement Tasks in the first place.
For troubleshooting, so that a network operator or end user can For troubleshooting, so that a network operator or end user can
identify a performance issue or failure, potentially all the network identify a performance issue or failure, potentially all the network
information (IP addresses, equipment IDs, location), Measurement information (IP addresses, equipment IDs, location), Measurement
Schedule, service configuration, Measurement Results, and other Schedule, service configuration, Measurement Results, and other
information may assist in the process. This includes the information information may assist in the process. This includes the information
needed to conduct the Measurements Tasks, and represents a need where needed to conduct the Measurements Tasks, and represents a need where
the maximum relevant information is desirable, therefore the greatest the maximum relevant information is desirable, therefore the greatest
protections should be applied. This level of detail is greater than protections should be applied. This level of detail is greater than
needed for general results. needed for general performance monitoring.
We note that a user may give temporary permission for Passive As regards Measurement Methods that measure user traffic, we note
Measurement Tasks to enable detailed troubleshooting, but withhold that a user may give temporary permission (to enable detailed
permission for them in general. Here the greatest breadth of troubleshooting), but withhold permission for them in general. Here
sensitive information is potentially exposed, and the maximum privacy the greatest breadth of sensitive information is potentially exposed,
protection must be provided. and the maximum privacy protection must be provided. The Collector
may perform pre-storage minimisation and other mitigations (below) to
help preserve privacy.
For MAs with access to the sensitive information of users (e.g., For MAs with access to the sensitive information of users (e.g.,
within a home or a personal host/handset), it is desirable for the within a home or a personal host/handset), it is desirable for the
results collection to minimise the data reported, but also to balance results collection to minimise the data reported, but also to balance
this desire with the needs of troubleshooting when a service this desire with the needs of troubleshooting when a service
subscription exists between the user and organisation operating the subscription exists between the user and organisation operating the
measurements. measurements.
For passive measurements where the MA reports flow information to the
Collector, the Collector may perform pre-storage minimisation and
other mitigations (below) to help preserve privacy.
8.6.2. Anonymity 8.6.2. Anonymity
Section 6.1.1 of [RFC6973] describes a way in which anonymity is Section 6.1.1 of [RFC6973] describes a way in which anonymity is
achieved: "there must exist a set of individuals that appear to have achieved: "there must exist a set of individuals that appear to have
the same attributes as the individual", defined as an "anonymity the same attributes as the individual", defined as an "anonymity
set". set".
Experimental methods for anonymisation of user identifiable data Experimental methods for anonymisation of user identifiable data (and
applicable to Passive Measurement Methods have been identified in so particularly applicable to Measurement Methods that measure user
[RFC6235]. However, the findings of several of the same authors is traffic) have been identified in [RFC6235]. However, the findings of
that "there is increasing evidence that anonymisation applied to several of the same authors is that "there is increasing evidence
network trace or flow data on its own is insufficient for many data that anonymisation applied to network trace or flow data on its own
protection applications as in [Bur10]." is insufficient for many data protection applications as in [Bur10]."
Essentially, the details of such Measurement Methods can only be
Essentially, the details of passive measurement tasks can only be
accessed by closed organisations, and unknown injection attacks are accessed by closed organisations, and unknown injection attacks are
always less expensive than the protections from them. However, some always less expensive than the protections from them. However, some
forms of summary may protect the user's sensitive information forms of summary may protect the user's sensitive information
sufficiently well, and so each Metric must be evaluated in the light sufficiently well, and so each Metric must be evaluated in the light
of privacy. of privacy.
The methods in [RFC6235] could be applied more successfully in Active The techniques in [RFC6235] could be applied more successfully in
Measurement Methods, where there are protections from injection Measurement Methods that generate Measurement Traffic, where there
attack. The successful attack would require breaking the integrity are protections from injection attack. The successful attack would
protection of the LMAP Reporting Protocol and injecting Measurement require breaking the integrity protection of the LMAP Reporting
Results (known fingerprint, see section 3.2 of [RFC6973]) for Protocol and injecting Measurement Results (known fingerprint, see
inclusion with the shared and anonymised results, then fingerprinting section 3.2 of [RFC6973]) for inclusion with the shared and
those records to ascertain the anonymisation process. anonymised results, then fingerprinting those records to ascertain
the anonymisation process.
Beside anonymisation of measured Results for a specific user or Beside anonymisation of measured Results for a specific user or
provider, the value of sensitive information can be further diluted provider, the value of sensitive information can be further diluted
by summarising the results over many individuals or areas served by by summarising the results over many individuals or areas served by
the provider. There is an opportunity enabled by forming anonymity the provider. There is an opportunity enabled by forming anonymity
sets [RFC6973] based on the reference path measurement points in sets [RFC6973] based on the reference path measurement points in
[I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path]. For example, all measurements from the [I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path]. For example, all measurements from the
Subscriber device can be identified as "mp000", instead of using the Subscriber device can be identified as "mp000", instead of using the
IP address or other device information. The same anonymisation IP address or other device information. The same anonymisation
applies to the Internet Service Provider, where their Internet applies to the Internet Service Provider, where their Internet
skipping to change at page 46, line 25 skipping to change at page 46, line 25
schedule} | | | | schedule} | | | |
| | v LMAP | | v LMAP
+------------+ +------------+ Scope +------------+ +------------+ Scope
| Controller | | Collector | | | Controller | | Collector | |
+------------+ +------------+ v +------------+ +------------+ v
IPPM IPPM
Figure A3: Schematic of LMAP-based measurement system, Figure A3: Schematic of LMAP-based measurement system,
with two Measurement Agents cooperating to measure UDP traffic with two Measurement Agents cooperating to measure UDP traffic
Next, we consider Passive Measurement Tasks. Traffic generated in Next, we consider Measurement Methods that measure user traffic.
one point in the network flowing towards a given destination and the Traffic generated in one point in the network flowing towards a given
traffic is passively observed in some point along the path. One way destination and the traffic is observed in some point along the path.
to implement this is that the endpoints generating and receiving the One way to implement this is that the endpoints generating and
traffic are not instructed by the Controller; hence they are MPs. receiving the traffic are not instructed by the Controller; hence
The MA is located along the path with a passive monitor function that they are MPs. The MA is located along the path with a monitor
measures the traffic. The MA is instructed by the Controller to function that measures the traffic. The MA is instructed by the
monitor that particular traffic and to send the Report to the Controller to monitor that particular traffic and to send the Report
Collector. It is depicted in figure A4 below. to the Collector. It is depicted in figure A4 below.
+-----+ +----------------+ +------+ ^ +-----+ +----------------+ +------+ ^
| MP | | Passive Monitor| | MP | IPPM | MP | | MA: Monitor | | MP | IPPM
| |<--|----------------|---traffic--->| | Scope | |<--|----------------|---traffic--->| | Scope
+-----+ | | +------+ | +-----+ | | +------+ |
.......|................|.........................v........... .......|................|.........................v...........
| LMAP interface | ^ | LMAP interface | ^
+----------------+ | +----------------+ |
^ | | ^ | |
Instruction | | Report | Instruction | | Report |
| +-----------------+ | | +-----------------+ |
| | | | | |
| v LMAP | v LMAP
+------------+ +------------+ Scope +------------+ +------------+ Scope
| Controller | | Collector | | | Controller | | Collector | |
+------------+ +------------+ v +------------+ +------------+ v
Figure A4: Schematic of LMAP-based measurement system, Figure A4: Schematic of LMAP-based measurement system,
with a Measurement Agent passively monitoring traffic with a Measurement Agent monitoring traffic
Finally, we should consider the case of a router or a switch along Finally, we should consider the case of a router or a switch along
the measurement path. This certainly performs an important role in the measurement path. This certainly performs an important role in
the measurement - if packets are not forwarded, the measurement task the measurement - if packets are not forwarded, the measurement task
will not work. Whilst it doesn't has an interface with the will not work. Whilst it doesn't has an interface with the
Controller or Collector, and so fits into the definition of MP, Controller or Collector, and so fits into the definition of MP,
usually it is not particularly useful to highlight it as a MP. usually it is not particularly useful to highlight it as a MP.
11. Acknowledgments 11. Acknowledgments
skipping to change at page 50, line 8 skipping to change at page 50, line 8
to-Controller Channels to-Controller Channels
o numerous editorial changes, mainly arising from a very detailed o numerous editorial changes, mainly arising from a very detailed
review by Charles Cook review by Charles Cook
o o
12.4. From -03 to -04 12.4. From -03 to -04
o updates following the WG Last Call, with the proposed consensus on o updates following the WG Last Call, with the proposed consensus on
the various issues as detailed in http://tools.ietf.org/agenda/89/ the various issues as detailed in
slides/slides-89-lmap-2.pdf. In particular: http://tools.ietf.org/agenda/89/slides/slides-89-lmap-2.pdf. In
particular:
o tweaked definitions, especially of Measurement Agent and o tweaked definitions, especially of Measurement Agent and
Measurement Peer Measurement Peer
o Instruction - left to each implementation & deployment of LMAP to o Instruction - left to each implementation & deployment of LMAP to
decide on the granularity at which an Instruction Message works decide on the granularity at which an Instruction Message works
o words added about overlapping Measurement Tasks (measurement o words added about overlapping Measurement Tasks (measurement
system can handle any way they choose; Report should mention if system can handle any way they choose; Report should mention if
the Task overlapped with another) the Task overlapped with another)
skipping to change at page 51, line 26 skipping to change at page 51, line 26
requested by Controller or by MA on its own initiative). requested by Controller or by MA on its own initiative).
o removed mention of Data Transfer Tasks. This abstraction is left o removed mention of Data Transfer Tasks. This abstraction is left
to the information model i-d to the information model i-d
o added Deployment sub-section about Measurement Agent embedded in o added Deployment sub-section about Measurement Agent embedded in
ISP Network ISP Network
o various other smaller improvements, arising from the 2nd WGLC o various other smaller improvements, arising from the 2nd WGLC
12.6. From -05 to -06
o clarified terminlogy around Measurement Methods and Tasks. Since
within a Method there may be several different roles (requester
and responder, for instance)
o Suppression: there is now the concept of a flag (boolean) which
indicates whether a Task is by default gets suppressed or not.
The optional suppression message (with list of specific tasks
/schedules to suppress) over-rides this flag.
o The previous bullet also means there is no need to make a
distinction between active and passive Measurement Tasks, so this
distinction is removed.
o removed distinction
o added a Configuration Protocol - allows the Controller to update
the MA about information that it obtained during the bootstrapping
process (for consistency with Information Model)
13. Informative References 13. Informative References
[Bur10] Burkhart, M., Schatzmann, D., Trammell, B., and E. Boschi, [Bur10] Burkhart, M., Schatzmann, D., Trammell, B., and E. Boschi,
"The Role of Network Trace anonymisation Under Attack", "The Role of Network Trace anonymisation Under Attack",
January 2010. January 2010.
[Q1741] Q.1741.7, , "IMT-2000 references to Release 9 of GSM-
evolved UMTS core network",
http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Q.1741.7/en, November 2011.
[TR-069] TR-069, , "CPE WAN Management Protocol", [TR-069] TR-069, , "CPE WAN Management Protocol",
http://www.broadband-forum.org/technical/trlist.php, http://www.broadband-forum.org/technical/trlist.php,
November 2013. November 2013.
[UPnP] ISO/IEC 29341-x, , "UPnP Device Architecture and UPnP [UPnP] ISO/IEC 29341-x, , "UPnP Device Architecture and UPnP
Device Control Protocols specifications", Device Control Protocols specifications",
http://upnp.org/sdcps-and-certification/standards/, 2011. http://upnp.org/sdcps-and-certification/standards/, 2011.
[RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and [RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987. specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.
[RFC4101] Rescorla, E. and IAB, "Writing Protocol Models", RFC 4101, [RFC4101] Rescorla, E. and IAB, "Writing Protocol Models", RFC 4101,
June 2005. June 2005.
[RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally [RFC4122] Leach, P., Mealling, M., and R. Salz, "A Universally
Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, July Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace", RFC 4122, July
2005. 2005.
[RFC5357] Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J.
Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)",
RFC 5357, October 2008.
[I-D.ietf-lmap-use-cases] [I-D.ietf-lmap-use-cases]
Linsner, M., Eardley, P., Burbridge, T., and F. Sorensen, Linsner, M., Eardley, P., Burbridge, T., and F. Sorensen,
"Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases", draft-ietf- "Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases", draft-ietf-
lmap-use-cases-03 (work in progress), April 2014. lmap-use-cases-03 (work in progress), April 2014.
[I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry] [I-D.manyfolks-ippm-metric-registry]
Bagnulo, M., Claise, B., Eardley, P., and A. Morton, Bagnulo, M., Claise, B., Eardley, P., and A. Morton,
"Registry for Performance Metrics", draft-manyfolks-ippm- "Registry for Performance Metrics", draft-manyfolks-ippm-
metric-registry-00 (work in progress), February 2014. metric-registry-00 (work in progress), February 2014.
[I-D.ietf-homenet-arch] [I-D.ietf-homenet-arch]
Chown, T., Arkko, J., Brandt, A., Troan, O., and J. Weil, Chown, T., Arkko, J., Brandt, A., Troan, O., and J. Weil,
"IPv6 Home Networking Architecture Principles", draft- "IPv6 Home Networking Architecture Principles", draft-
ietf-homenet-arch-13 (work in progress), March 2014. ietf-homenet-arch-16 (work in progress), June 2014.
[RFC6419] Wasserman, M. and P. Seite, "Current Practices for [RFC6419] Wasserman, M. and P. Seite, "Current Practices for
Multiple-Interface Hosts", RFC 6419, November 2011. Multiple-Interface Hosts", RFC 6419, November 2011.
[RFC6887] Wing, D., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and P. [RFC6887] Wing, D., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., and P.
Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887, April Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887, April
2013. 2013.
[I-D.ietf-lmap-information-model] [I-D.ietf-lmap-information-model]
Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Bagnulo, M., and J. Burbridge, T., Eardley, P., Bagnulo, M., and J.
skipping to change at page 53, line 8 skipping to change at page 53, line 13
Support", RFC 6235, May 2011. Support", RFC 6235, May 2011.
[RFC6973] Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J., [RFC6973] Cooper, A., Tschofenig, H., Aboba, B., Peterson, J.,
Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy Morris, J., Hansen, M., and R. Smith, "Privacy
Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, July Considerations for Internet Protocols", RFC 6973, July
2013. 2013.
[I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path] [I-D.ietf-ippm-lmap-path]
Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Crawford, S., Eardley, P., and Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T., Crawford, S., Eardley, P., and
A. Morton, "A Reference Path and Measurement Points for A. Morton, "A Reference Path and Measurement Points for
LMAP", draft-ietf-ippm-lmap-path-02 (work in progress), LMAP", draft-ietf-ippm-lmap-path-03 (work in progress),
February 2014. May 2014.
[RFC4656] Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and M. [RFC4656] Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and M.
Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol
(OWAMP)", RFC 4656, September 2006. (OWAMP)", RFC 4656, September 2006.
[RFC5357] Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J. [RFC5357] Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J.
Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)", Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)",
RFC 5357, October 2008. RFC 5357, October 2008.
[RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between [RFC3444] Pras, A. and J. Schoenwaelder, "On the Difference between
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