draft-ietf-lmap-use-cases-02.txt   draft-ietf-lmap-use-cases-03.txt 
INTERNET-DRAFT Marc Linsner INTERNET-DRAFT Marc Linsner
Intended Status: Informational Cisco Systems Intended Status: Informational Cisco Systems
Expires: July 28, 2014 Philip Eardley Expires: October 4, 2014 Philip Eardley
Trevor Burbridge Trevor Burbridge
BT BT
Frode Sorensen Frode Sorensen
NPT NPT
January 24, 2014 April 2, 2014
Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases
draft-ietf-lmap-use-cases-02 draft-ietf-lmap-use-cases-03
Abstract Abstract
Measuring broadband performance on a large scale is important for Measuring broadband performance on a large scale is important for
network diagnostics by providers and users, as well as for public network diagnostics by providers and users, as well as for public
policy. To conduct such measurements, user networks gather data policy. Understanding the various scenarios and users of measuring
instructed by a measurement controller, and then upload the broadband performance is essential to development of the framework,
measurement results to a designated measurement server. Understanding information model and protocol. This document details two use cases
the various scenarios and users of measuring broadband performance is that can assist to developing that framework. The details of the
essential to development of the framework, information model and measurement metrics themselves are beyond the scope of this document.
protocol. The details of the measurement metrics themselves are
beyond the scope of this document.
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
other groups may also distribute working documents as other groups may also distribute working documents as
Internet-Drafts. Internet-Drafts.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1 Internet Service Provider (ISP) Use Case . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Internet Service Provider (ISP) Use Case . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3 Implementation options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Implementation options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3 Details of ISP Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Details of ISP Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1 Understanding the quality experienced by customers . . . . . 7 3.1 Understanding the quality experienced by customers . . . . . 6
3.2 Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and 3.2 Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and
technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3 Design and planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.3 Design and planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.4 Identifying, isolating and fixing network problems . . . . . 9 3.4 Monitoring Service Level Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4 Details of Regulator Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.5 Identifying, isolating and fixing network problems . . . . . 8
4.1 Promoting competition through transparency . . . . . . . . . 10 4 Details of Regulator Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2 Promoting broadband deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.1 Promoting competition through transparency . . . . . . . . . 9
4.3 Monitoring "net neutrality" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.2 Promoting broadband deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3 Monitoring "net neutrality" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6 Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6 Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
7 IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7 IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1 Introduction 1 Introduction
This document describes some use cases for the Large-scale This document describes two use cases for the Large-scale Measurement
Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP), in particular use cases of Broadband Performance (LMAP), in particular use cases for ISPs and
for ISPs and regulators. regulators. Although there are many other use cases for large-scale
measurements systems, the two described here are the consensus
1.1 Terminology starting point for defining the system.
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].
2 Use Cases 2 Use Cases
The LMAP architecture utilizes metrics for instructions on how to From the LMAP perspective, there is no difference between fixed
execute a particular measurement. Although layer 2 specific metrics service and mobile (cellular) service used for Internet access.
can and will be defined, from the LMAP perspective, there is no Hence, like measurements will take place on both fixed and mobile
difference between fixed service and mobile (cellular) service used networks. Fixed services, commonly known as "Last Mile" include
for Internet access. Hence, like measurements will take place on technologies like DSL, Cable, and Carrier Ethernet. Mobile services
both fixed and mobile networks. Fixed services, commonly known as include all those advertised as 2G, 3G, 4G, and LTE. A metric
"Last Mile" include technologies like DSL, Cable, and Carrier defined to measure end-to-end services will execute similarly on all
Ethernet. Mobile services include all those advertised as 2G, 3G, access technologies. Other metrics may be access technology specific.
4G, and LTE. A metric defined to measure over-the-top services will The LMAP architecture also covers both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
execute similarly on all layer 2 technologies. The LMAP architecture
covers networks utilizing both IPv4 and IPv6.
2.1 Internet Service Provider (ISP) Use Case 2.1 Internet Service Provider (ISP) Use Case
An ISP, or indeed another network operator, needs to understand the An ISP, or indeed another network operator, needs to understand the
performance of their networks, the performance of the suppliers performance of their networks, the performance of the suppliers
(downstream and upstream networks), the performance of services, and (downstream and upstream networks), the performance of services, and
the impact that such performance has on the experience of their the impact that such performance has on the experience of their
customers. In addition they may also desire visibility of their customers. Largely, the processes that ISPs operate (which are based
competitor's networks and services in order to be able to benchmark on network measurement) include:
and improve their own offerings. Largely the processes that ISPs
operate (which are based on network measurement) include:
o Identifying, isolating and fixing problems in the network, o Identifying, isolating and fixing problems in the network,
services or with CPE and end user equipment. Such problems may be services or with CPE and end user equipment. Such problems may be
common to a point in the network topology (e.g. a single common to a point in the network topology (e.g. a single
exchange), common to a vendor or equipment type (e.g. line card or exchange), common to a vendor or equipment type (e.g. line card or
home gateway) or unique to a single user line (e.g. copper home gateway) or unique to a single user line (e.g. copper
access). Part of this process may also be helping users understand access). Part of this process may also be helping users understand
whether the problem exists in their home network or with an over- whether the problem exists in their home network or with an over-
the-top service instead of with their BB product. the-top service instead of with their broadband (BB) product.
o Design and planning. Through identifying the end user experience o Design and planning. Through identifying the end user experience
the ISP can design and plan their network to ensure specified the ISP can design and plan their network to ensure specified
levels of user experience. Services may be moved closer to end levels of user experience. Services may be moved closer to end
users, services upgraded, the impact of QoS assessed or more users, services upgraded, the impact of QoS assessed or more
capacity deployed at certain locations. SLAs may be defined at capacity deployed at certain locations. Service Level Agreements
network or product boundaries. (SLAs) may be defined at network or product boundaries.
o Understanding the quality experienced by customers. Alongside o Understanding the quality experienced by customers. Alongside
benchmarking competitors, gaining better insight into the user's benchmarking competitors, gaining better insight into the user's
service through a sample panel of the operator's own customers. service through a sample panel of the operator's own customers.
The end-to-end perspective matters, across home /enterprise
networks, peering points, CDNs etc. The end-to-end perspective matters, across home/enterprise
networks, peering points, Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), etc.
o Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and o Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and
technology. As a new product is deployed, or a new technology technology. As a new product is deployed, or a new technology
introduced into the network, it is essential that its operation introduced into the network, it is essential that its operation
and impact on other services is measured. This also helps to and impact on other services is measured. This also helps to
quantify the advantage that the new technology is bringing and quantify the advantage that the new technology is bringing and
support the business case for larger roll-out. support the business case for larger roll-out.
2.2 Regulators 2.2 Regulators
Regulators in jurisdictions around the world are responding to Regulators in jurisdictions around the world are responding to
consumers' adoption of Internet access services for traditional consumers' adoption of Internet access services for traditional
telecommunications and media services by promoting competition among telecommunications and media services by promoting competition among
providers of electronic communications, to ensure that users derive providers of electronic communications, to ensure that users derive
maximum benefit in terms of choice, price, and quality. maximum benefit in terms of choice, price, and quality.
Some jurisdictions have responded to a need for greater information Some jurisdictions have responded to a need for greater information
about Internet access service performance in the development of about Internet access service performance in the development of
regulatory policies and approaches for broadband technologies by regulatory policies and approaches for broadband technologies by
developing large-scale measurement programs. Programs such as the developing large-scale measurement programs. Programs such as the
U.S. Federal Communications Commission's Measuring Broadband America, U.S. Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) Measuring Broadband
European Commission's Quality of Broadband Services in the EU reports America (MBA), European Commission's Quality of Broadband Services in
and a growing list of other programs employ a diverse set of the EU reports and a growing list of other programs employ a diverse
operational and technical approaches to gathering data to perform set of operational and technical approaches to gathering data to
analysis and reporting on diverse aspects of broadband performance. perform analysis and reporting on diverse aspects of broadband
performance.
While each jurisdiction responds to distinct consumer, industry, and While each jurisdiction responds to distinct consumer, industry, and
regulatory concerns, much commonality exists in the need to produce regulatory concerns, much commonality exists in the need to produce
datasets that are able to compare multiple Internet access service datasets that are able to compare multiple Internet access service
providers, diverse technical solutions, geographic and regional providers, diverse technical solutions, geographic and regional
distributions, and marketed and provisioned levels and combinations distributions, and marketed and provisioned levels and combinations
of broadband Internet access services. In some jurisdictions, the of broadband Internet access services. In some jurisdictions, the
role of measuring is provided by a measurement provider. role of measuring is provided by a measurement provider.
Measurement providers measure network performance from users towards Measurement providers measure network performance from users towards
multiple content and application providers, included dedicated test multiple content and application providers, including dedicated test
measurement servers, to show a performance of the actual Internet measurement servers, to show a performance of the actual Internet
access service provided by different ISPs. Users need to know the access service provided by different ISPs. Users need to know the
performance that are achieving from their own ISP. In addition, they performance that they are achieving from their own ISP. In addition,
need to know the performance of other ISPs of same location as they need to know the performance of other ISPs of same location as
background information for selecting their ISP. Measurement providers background information for selecting their ISP. Measurement providers
will provide measurement results with associated measurement methods will provide measurement results with associated measurement methods
and measurement metrics. and measurement metrics.
From a consumer perspective, the differentiation between fixed and From a consumer perspective, the differentiation between fixed and
mobile (cellular) Internet access services is blurring as the mobile (cellular) Internet access services is blurring as the
applications used are very similar. Hence, regulators are measuring applications used are very similar. Hence, regulators are measuring
both fixed and mobile Internet access services. both fixed and mobile Internet access services.
Regulators role in the development and enforcement of broadband A regulator's role in the development and enforcement of broadband
Internet access service policies also require that the measurement Internet access service policies also requires that the measurement
approaches meet a high level of verifiability, accuracy and provider- approaches meet a high level of verifiability, accuracy and provider-
independence to support valid and meaningful comparisons of Internet independence to support valid and meaningful comparisons of Internet
access service performance access service performance
LMAP standards could answer regulators shared needs by providing LMAP standards could answer regulators shared needs by providing
scalable, cost-effective, scientifically robust solutions to the scalable, cost-effective, scientifically robust solutions to the
measurement and collection of broadband Internet access service measurement and collection of broadband Internet access service
performance information. performance information.
2.3 Implementation options 2.3 Implementation options
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second approach, the end user could initiate measurements in response second approach, the end user could initiate measurements in response
to a request from the measurement system. to a request from the measurement system.
3 Details of ISP Use Case 3 Details of ISP Use Case
3.1 Understanding the quality experienced by customers 3.1 Understanding the quality experienced by customers
Operators want to understand the quality of experience (QoE) of their Operators want to understand the quality of experience (QoE) of their
broadband customers. The understanding can be gained through a broadband customers. The understanding can be gained through a
"panel", i.e., a measurement probe is deployed to a few 100 or 1000 "panel", i.e., a measurement probe is deployed to a few 100 or 1000
of its customers. The panel needs to be a representative sample for of its customers. The panel needs to include a representative sample
each of the operator's technologies (FTTP, FTTC, ADSL...) and for each of the operator's technologies (Fiber To The Premise (FTTP),
broadband options (80Mb/s, 20Mb/s, basic...), ~100 probes for each. Fiber To The Curb (FTTC), DSL...) and broadband options (80Mb/s,
The operator would like the end-to-end view of the service, rather 20Mb/s, basic...), ~100 probes for each. The operator would like the
than (say) just the access portion. So as well as simple network end-to-end view of the service, rather than (say) just the access
statistics like speed and loss rates they want to understand what the portion. So as well as simple network statistics like speed and loss
service feels like to the customer. This involves relating the pure rates they want to understand what the service feels like to the
network parameters to something like a 'mean opinion score' which customer. This involves relating the pure network parameters to
will be service dependent (for instance web browsing QoE is largely something like a 'mean opinion score' which will be service dependent
determined by latency above a few Mb/s). (for instance web browsing QoE is largely determined by latency above
a few Mb/s).
An operator will also want compound metrics such as "reliability", An operator will also want compound metrics such as "reliability",
which might involve packet loss, DNS failures, re-training of the which might involve packet loss, DNS failures, re-training of the
line, video streaming under-runs etc. line, video streaming under-runs etc.
The operator really wants to understand the end-to-end service The operator really wants to understand the end-to-end service
experience. However, the home network (Ethernet, wifi, powerline) is experience. However, the home network (Ethernet, WiFi, powerline) is
highly variable and outside its control. To date, operators (and highly variable and outside its control. To date, operators (and
regulators) have instead measured performance from the home gateway. regulators) have instead measured performance from the home gateway.
However, mobile operators clearly must include the wireless link in However, mobile operators clearly must include the wireless link in
the measurement. the measurement.
Active measurements are the most obvious approach, i.e., special Active measurements are the most obvious approach, i.e., special
measurement traffic is sent by - and to - the probe. In order not to measurement traffic is sent by - and to - the probe. In order not to
degrade the service of the customer, the measurement data should only degrade the service of the customer, the measurement data should only
be sent when the user is silent, and it shouldn't reduce the be sent when the user is silent, and it shouldn't reduce the
customer's data allowance. The other approach is passive measurements customer's data allowance. The other approach is passive measurements
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From an operator's viewpoint, understanding customers better enables From an operator's viewpoint, understanding customers better enables
it to offer better services. Also, simple metrics can be more easily it to offer better services. Also, simple metrics can be more easily
understood by senior managers who make investment decisions and by understood by senior managers who make investment decisions and by
sales and marketing. sales and marketing.
3.2 Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and technology 3.2 Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and technology
Another type of measurement is to test new capabilities and services Another type of measurement is to test new capabilities and services
before they are rolled out. For example, the operator may want to: before they are rolled out. For example, the operator may want to:
check whether a customer can be upgraded to a new broadband option; check whether a customer can be upgraded to a new broadband option;
understand the impact of IPv6 before it makes it available to its understand the impact of IPv6 before it makes it available to its
customers (will v6 packets get through, what will the latency be to customers (will v6 packets get through, what will the latency be to
major websites, what transition mechanisms will be most is major websites, what transition mechanisms will be most
appropriate?); check whether a new capability can be signaled using appropriate?); check whether a new capability can be signaled using
TCP options (how often it will be blocked by a middlebox? - along the TCP options (how often it will be blocked by a middlebox? - along the
lines of some existing experiments) [Extend TCP]; investigate a lines of some existing experiments) [Extend TCP]; investigate a
quality of service mechanism (eg checking whether Diffserv markings quality of service mechanism (e.g. checking whether Diffserv markings
are respected on some path); and so on. are respected on some path); and so on.
3.3 Design and planning 3.3 Design and planning
Operators can use large scale measurements to help with their network Operators can use large scale measurements to help with their network
planning - proactive activities to improve the network. planning - proactive activities to improve the network.
For example, by probing from several different vantage points the For example, by probing from several different vantage points the
operator can see that a particular group of customers has performance operator can see that a particular group of customers has performance
below that expected during peak hours, which should help capacity below that expected during peak hours, which should help capacity
planning. Naturally operators already have tools to help this - a planning. Naturally operators already have tools to help this - a
network element reports its individual utilisation (and perhaps other network element reports its individual utilization (and perhaps other
parameters). However, making measurements across a path rather than parameters). However, making measurements across a path rather than
at a point may make it easier to understand the network. There may at a point may make it easier to understand the network. There may
also be parameters like bufferbloat that aren't currently reported by also be parameters like bufferbloat that aren't currently reported by
equipment and/or that are intrinsically path metrics. equipment and/or that are intrinsically path metrics.
With better information, capacity planning and network design can be With information gained from measurement results, capacity planning
more effective. Such planning typically uses simulations to emulate and network design can be more effective. Such planning typically
the measured performance of the current network and understand the uses simulations to emulate the measured performance of the current
likely impact of new capacity and potential changes to the topology. network and understand the likely impact of new capacity and
It may also be possible to run stress tests for risk analysis, for potential changes to the topology. Simulations - informed by data
example 'if whizzy new application (or device) becomes popular, which from a limited panel of probes - can help quantify the advantage that
parts of my network would struggle, what would be the impact on other a new technology brings and support the business case for larger
services and how many customers would be affected'. What-if roll-out.
simulations could help quantify the advantage that a new technology
brings and support the business case for larger roll-out. This It may also be possible to use probes to run stress tests for risk
approach should allow good results with measurements from a limited analysis. For example, an operator could run a carefully controlled
panel of customers. and limited experiment in which probing is used to assess the
potential impact if some new application becomes popular.
3.4 Monitoring Service Level Agreements
Another example is that the operator may want to monitor performance Another example is that the operator may want to monitor performance
where there is a service level agreement. This could be with its own where there is a service level agreement. This could be with its own
customers, especially enterprises may have an SLA. The operator can customers, especially enterprises may have an SLA. The operator can
proactively spot when the service is degrading near to the SLA limit, proactively spot when the service is degrading near to the SLA limit,
and get information that will enable more informed conversations with and get information that will enable more informed conversations with
the customer at contract renewal. the customer at contract renewal.
An operator may also want to monitor the performance of its An operator may also want to monitor the performance of its
suppliers, to check whether they meet their SLA or to compare two suppliers, to check whether they meet their SLA or to compare two
suppliers if it is dual-sourcing. This could include its transit suppliers if it is dual-sourcing. This could include its transit
operator, CDNs, peering, video source, local network provider (for a operator, CDNs, peering, video source, local network provider (for a
global operator in countries where it doesn't have its own network), global operator in countries where it doesn't have its own network),
even the whole network for a virtual operator. even the whole network for a virtual operator.
Through a better understanding of its own network and its suppliers, Through a better understanding of its own network and its suppliers,
the operator should be able to focus investment more effectively - in the operator should be able to focus investment more effectively - in
the right place at the right time with the right technology. the right place at the right time with the right technology.
3.4 Identifying, isolating and fixing network problems 3.5 Identifying, isolating and fixing network problems
Operators can use large scale measurements to help identify a fault Operators can use large scale measurements to help identify a fault
more rapidly and decide how to solve it. more rapidly and decide how to solve it.
Operators already have Test and Diagnostic tools, where a network Operators already have Test and Diagnostic tools, where a network
element reports some problem or failure to a management system. element reports some problem or failure to a management system.
However, many issues are not caused by a point failure but something However, many issues are not caused by a point failure but something
wider and so will trigger too many alarms, whilst other issues will wider and so will trigger too many alarms, whilst other issues will
cause degradation rather than failure and so not trigger any alarm. cause degradation rather than failure and so not trigger any alarm.
Large scale measurements can help provide a more nuanced view that Large scale measurements can help provide a more nuance view that
helps network management to identify and fix problems more rapidly helps network management to identify and fix problems more rapidly
and accurately. The network management tools may use simulations to and accurately. The network management tools may use simulations to
emulate the network and so help identify a fault and assess possible emulate the network and so help identify a fault and assess possible
solutions. solutions.
One example was described in [IETF85-Plenary]. The operator was One example was described in [IETF85-Plenary]. The operator was
running a measurement panel for reasons discussed in sub use case #1. running a measurement panel for reasons discussed in sub use case #1.
It was noticed that the performance of some lines had unexpectedly It was noticed that the performance of some lines had unexpectedly
degraded. This led to a detailed (off-line) investigation which degraded. This led to a detailed (off-line) investigation which
discovered that a particular home gateway upgrade had caused a discovered that a particular home gateway upgrade had caused a
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network - the ISP's network is fine. For example they may have moved network - the ISP's network is fine. For example they may have moved
too far away from their wireless access point. Perhaps 80% of too far away from their wireless access point. Perhaps 80% of
customer calls about fixed BB problems are due to in-home wireless customer calls about fixed BB problems are due to in-home wireless
issues. These issues are expensive and frustrating for an operator, issues. These issues are expensive and frustrating for an operator,
as they are extremely hard to diagnose and solve. The operator would as they are extremely hard to diagnose and solve. The operator would
like to narrow down whether the problem is in the home (with the home like to narrow down whether the problem is in the home (with the home
network or edge device or home gateway), in the operator's network, network or edge device or home gateway), in the operator's network,
or with an over-the-top service. The operator would like two or with an over-the-top service. The operator would like two
capabilities. Firstly, self-help tools that customers use to improve capabilities. Firstly, self-help tools that customers use to improve
their own service or understand its performance better, for example their own service or understand its performance better, for example
to re-position their devices for better wifi coverage. Secondly, on- to re-position their devices for better WiFi coverage. Secondly, on-
demand tests that can the operator can run instantly - so the call demand tests that can the operator can run instantly - so the call
centre person answering the phone (or e-chat) could trigger a test center person answering the phone (or e-chat) could trigger a test
and get the result whilst the customer is still on-line session. and get the result whilst the customer is still in an on-line
session.
4 Details of Regulator Use Case 4 Details of Regulator Use Case
4.1 Promoting competition through transparency 4.1 Promoting competition through transparency
Competition plays a vital role in regulation of the electronic Competition plays a vital role in regulation of the electronic
communications markets. For competition to successfully discipline communications markets. For competition to successfully discipline
operators' behavior in the interests of their customers, end users operators' behavior in the interests of their customers, end users
must be fully aware of the characteristics of the ISPs' access must be fully aware of the characteristics of the ISPs' access
offers. In some jurisdictions regulators mandate transparent offers. In some jurisdictions regulators mandate transparent
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panel can be built based on operators and packages in the market, panel can be built based on operators and packages in the market,
spread over urban, suburban and rural areas. Probes can then be spread over urban, suburban and rural areas. Probes can then be
distributed to the participants of the campaign. distributed to the participants of the campaign.
Periodic tests running on the probes can for example measure actual Periodic tests running on the probes can for example measure actual
speed at peak and off-peak hours, but also other detailed quality speed at peak and off-peak hours, but also other detailed quality
metrics like delay and jitter. Collected data goes afterwards through metrics like delay and jitter. Collected data goes afterwards through
statistical analysis, deriving estimates for the whole population statistical analysis, deriving estimates for the whole population
which can then be presented and published regularly. which can then be presented and published regularly.
Using a harmonized or standardised measurement methodology, or even a Using a harmonized or standardized measurement methodology, or even a
common quality measurement platform, measurement results could also common quality measurement platform, measurement results could also
be used for benchmarking of providers and/or countries. be used for benchmarking of providers and/or countries.
4.3 Monitoring "net neutrality" 4.3 Monitoring "net neutrality"
Regulatory approaches related to net neutrality and the open Internet Regulatory approaches related to net neutrality and the open Internet
has been introduced in some jurisdictions. Examples of such are the has been introduced in some jurisdictions. Examples of such efforts
Internet policy as outlined by the FCC Preserving the Open Internet are the Internet policy as outlined by the Body of European
Report and Order [FCC R&O] and the Body of European Regulators for Regulators for Electronic Communications Guidelines for quality of
Electronic Communications Guidelines for quality of service [BEREC service [BEREC Guidelines] and US FCC Preserving the Open Internet
Guidelines]. The exact definitions and requirements vary from one Report and Order [FCC R&O]. Although legal challenges can change the
jurisdiction to another; the comments below provide some hints about status of policy such as the court action negating the FCC R&O, the
the potential role of measurements. take away for LMAP purposes are that policy-makers are looking for
measurement solutions to assist them in discovering biased treatment
of traffic flows. The exact definitions and requirements vary from
one jurisdiction to another; the comments below provide some hints
about the potential role of measurements.
Net neutrality regulations do not necessarily require every packet to Net neutrality regulations do not necessarily require every packet to
be treated equally. Typically they allow "reasonable" traffic be treated equally. Typically they allow "reasonable" traffic
management (for example if there is exceptional congestion) and allow management (for example if there is exceptional congestion) and allow
"specialized services" in parallel to, but separate from, ordinary "specialized services" in parallel to, but separate from, ordinary
Internet access (for example for facilities-based IPTV). A regulator Internet access (for example for facilities-based IPTV). A regulator
may want to monitor such practices as input to the regulatory may want to monitor such practices as input to the regulatory
evaluation. However, these concepts are evolving and differ across evaluation. However, these concepts are evolving and differ across
jurisdictions, so measurement results should be assessed with jurisdictions, so measurement results should be assessed with
caution. caution.
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monitor the performance of their broadband provider. monitor the performance of their broadband provider.
From consideration of the various use cases, several common themes From consideration of the various use cases, several common themes
emerge whilst there are also some detailed differences. These emerge whilst there are also some detailed differences. These
characteristics guide the development of LMAP's framework, characteristics guide the development of LMAP's framework,
information model and protocol. information model and protocol.
A measurement capability is needed across a wide number of A measurement capability is needed across a wide number of
heterogeneous environments. Tests may be needed in the home network, heterogeneous environments. Tests may be needed in the home network,
in the ISP's network or beyond; they may be measuring a fixed or in the ISP's network or beyond; they may be measuring a fixed or
wireless network; they measure just the access network or across wireless network; they may measure just the access network or across
several networks, at least some of which are not operated by the several networks; at least some of which are not operated by the
measurement provider. measurement provider.
There is a role for both standardized and non-standardized There is a role for both standardized and non-standardized
measurements. For example, a regulator would like to publish measurements. For example, a regulator would like to publish
standardized performance metrics for all network operators, whilst an standardized performance metrics for all network operators, whilst an
ISP may need their own tests to understand some feature special to ISP may need their own tests to understand some feature special to
their network. Most use cases need active measurements, which create their network. Most use cases need active measurements, which create
and measure specific test traffic, but some need passive measurements and measure specific test traffic, but some need passive measurements
of the end user's traffic. of the end user's traffic.
Regardless of the tests being operated, there needs to be a way to Regardless of the tests being operated, there needs to be a way to
demand or schedule the tests. Most use cases need a regular schedule demand or schedule the tests. Most use cases need a regular schedule
of measurements, but sometimes ad hoc testing is needed, for example of measurements, but sometimes ad hoc testing is needed, for example
for troubleshooting. It needs to be ensured that measurements do not for troubleshooting. It needs to be ensured that measurements do not
affect the user experience and are not affected by user traffic affect the user experience and are not affected by user traffic
(unless desired). In addition there needs to be a common way to (unless desired). In addition there needs to be a common way to
collect the results. Standardization of this control and reporting collect the results. Standardization of this control and reporting
functionality allows the operator of a measurement system to buy the functionality allows the operator of a measurement system to buy the
various components from different vendors. various components from different vendors.
After the measurements results are collected, they need to be After the measurement results are collected, they need to be
understood and analyzed. Often it is sufficient to measure only a understood and analyzed. Often it is sufficient to measure only a
small subset of end users, but per-line fault diagnosis requires the small subset of end users, but per-line fault diagnosis requires the
ability to test every individual line. Analysis requires accurate ability to test every individual line. Analysis requires accurate
definition and understanding of where the test points are, as well as definition and understanding of where the test points are, as well as
contextual information about the topology, line, product and the contextual information about the topology, line, product and the
subscriber's contract. The actual analysis of results is beyond the subscriber's contract. The actual analysis of results is beyond the
scope of LMAP, as is the key challenge of how to integrate the scope of LMAP, as is the key challenge of how to integrate the
measurement system into a network operator's existing tools for measurement system into a network operator's existing tools for
diagnostics and network planning. diagnostics and network planning.
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6 Security Considerations 6 Security Considerations
This informational document provides an overview of the use cases for This informational document provides an overview of the use cases for
LMAP and so does not, in itself, raise any security issues. LMAP and so does not, in itself, raise any security issues.
The framework document [framework] discusses the potential security, The framework document [framework] discusses the potential security,
privacy (data protection) and business sensitivity issues that LMAP privacy (data protection) and business sensitivity issues that LMAP
raises. The main threats are: raises. The main threats are:
1. a malicious party that gains control of Measurement Agents to 1. a malicious party that gains control of Measurement Agents to
launch DoS attacks at a target, or to alter (perhaps subtly) launch DoS attacks at a target, or to alter (perhaps subtly)
Measurement Tasks in order to compromise the end user's privacy, Measurement Tasks in order to compromise the end user's privacy,
the business confidentiality of the network, or the accuracy of the business confidentiality of the network, or the accuracy of
the measurement system. the measurement system.
2. a malicious party that intercepts or corrupts the Measurement 2. a malicious party that intercepts or corrupts the Measurement
Results &/or other information about the Subscriber, for similar Results &/or other information about the Subscriber, for similar
nefarious purposes. nefarious purposes.
3. a malicious party that uses fingerprinting techniques to 3. a malicious party that uses fingerprinting techniques to
identify individual end users, even from anonymized data identify individual end users, even from anonymized data
4. a measurement system that does not obtain the end user's 4. a measurement system that does not obtain the end user's
informed consent, or fails to specify a specific purpose in the informed consent, or fails to specify a specific purpose in the
consent, or uses the collected information for secondary uses consent, or uses the collected information for secondary uses
beyond those specified. beyond those specified.
5. a measurement system that is vague about who is the "data 5. a measurement system that is vague about who is responsible for
controller": the party legally responsible for privacy (data privacy (data protection); this role is often termed the "data
protection). controller".
The [framework] also considers some potential mitigations of these The [framework] also considers some potential mitigations of these
issues. They will need to be considered by an LMAP protocol and issues. They will need to be considered by an LMAP protocol and more
more generally by any measurement system. generally by any measurement system.
7 IANA Considerations 7 IANA Considerations
None None
Contributors Contributors
The information in this document is partially derived from text The information in this document is partially derived from text
written by the following contributors: written by the following contributors:
James Miller jamesmilleresquire@gmail.com James Miller jamesmilleresquire@gmail.com
Rachel Huang rachel.huang@huawei.com Rachel Huang rachel.huang@huawei.com
Normative References Informative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[IETF85-Plenary] Crawford, S., "Large-Scale Active Measurement of [IETF85-Plenary] Crawford, S., "Large-Scale Active Measurement of
Broadband Networks", Broadband Networks",
http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/85/slides/slides-85-iesg- http://www.ietf.org/proceedings/85/slides/slides-85-iesg-
opsandtech-7.pdf 'example' from slide 18 opsandtech-7.pdf 'example' from slide 18
[Extend TCP] Michio Honda, Yoshifumi Nishida, Costin Raiciu, Adam [Extend TCP] Michio Honda, Yoshifumi Nishida, Costin Raiciu, Adam
Greenhalgh, Mark Handley and Hideyuki Tokuda. "Is it Still Greenhalgh, Mark Handley and Hideyuki Tokuda. "Is it Still
Possible to Extend TCP?" Proc. ACM Internet Measurement Possible to Extend TCP?" Proc. ACM Internet Measurement
Conference (IMC), November 2011, Berlin, Germany. Conference (IMC), November 2011, Berlin, Germany.
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