draft-ietf-lmap-use-cases-04.txt   draft-ietf-lmap-use-cases-05.txt 
INTERNET-DRAFT Marc Linsner INTERNET-DRAFT Marc Linsner
Intended Status: Informational Cisco Systems Intended Status: Informational Cisco Systems
Expires: March 27, 2015 Philip Eardley Expires: May 14, 2015 Philip Eardley
Trevor Burbridge Trevor Burbridge
BT BT
Frode Sorensen Frode Sorensen
NPT NPT
September 23, 2014 November 10, 2014
Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases Large-Scale Broadband Measurement Use Cases
draft-ietf-lmap-use-cases-04 draft-ietf-lmap-use-cases-05
Abstract Abstract
Measuring broadband performance on a large scale is important for Measuring broadband performance on a large scale is important for
network diagnostics by providers and users, as well as for public network diagnostics by providers and users, as well as for public
policy. Understanding the various scenarios and users of measuring policy. Understanding the various scenarios and users of measuring
broadband performance is essential to development of the Large-scale broadband performance is essential to development of the Large-scale
Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP) framework, information Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP) framework, information
model and protocol. This document details two use cases that can model and protocol. This document details two use cases that can
assist to developing that framework. The details of the measurement assist to developing that framework. The details of the measurement
skipping to change at page 2, line 35 skipping to change at page 2, line 35
2.2 Regulator Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Regulator Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3 Details of ISP Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 Details of ISP Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1 Understanding the quality experienced by customers . . . . . 5 3.1 Understanding the quality experienced by customers . . . . . 5
3.2 Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and 3.2 Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and
technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3 Design and planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.3 Design and planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4 Monitoring Service Level Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.4 Monitoring Service Level Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.5 Identifying, isolating and fixing network problems . . . . . 7 3.5 Identifying, isolating and fixing network problems . . . . . 7
4 Details of Regulator Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 Details of Regulator Use Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1 Promoting competition through transparency . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1 Promoting competition through transparency . . . . . . . . . 8
4.2 Promoting broadband deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2 Promoting broadband deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3 Monitoring "net neutrality" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.3 Monitoring "net neutrality" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5 Implementation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5 Implementation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7 Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7 Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8 IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 8 IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1 Introduction 1 Introduction
This document describes two use cases for the Large-scale Measurement This document describes two use cases for the Large-scale Measurement
of Broadband Performance (LMAP). Firstly, to enable network operators of Broadband Performance (LMAP). The use cases contained in this
to understand the performance of the network and the quality document are (1) the Internet Service Provider Use Case and (2) the
experienced by customers. Secondly, to enable regulators to provide Regulator Use Case. In the first, a network operator wants to
understand the performance of the network and the quality experienced
by customers, whilst in the second, a regulator wants to provide
information on the performance of the ISPs in their jurisdiction. information on the performance of the ISPs in their jurisdiction.
There are other use cases that are not the focus of the initial LMAP There are other use cases that are not the focus of the initial LMAP
work, for example end users would like to use measurements to help work, for example end users would like to use measurements to help
identify problems in their home network and to monitor the identify problems in their home network and to monitor the
performance of their broadband provider; it is expected that the same performance of their broadband provider; it is expected that the same
mechanisms are applicable. mechanisms are applicable.
2 Use Cases 2 Use Cases
From the LMAP perspective, there is no difference between fixed From the LMAP perspective, there is no difference between fixed
service and mobile (cellular) service used for Internet access. service and mobile (cellular) service used for Internet access.
Hence, like measurements will take place on both fixed and mobile Hence, like measurements will take place on both fixed and mobile
networks. Fixed services, commonly known as "Last Mile" include networks. Fixed services include technologies like Digital
technologies like DSL, Cable, and Carrier Ethernet. Mobile services Subscriber Line (DSL), Cable, and Carrier Ethernet. Mobile services
include all those advertised as 2G, 3G, 4G, and LTE. A metric include all those advertised as 2G, 3G, 4G, and Long-Term Evolution
defined to measure end-to-end services will execute similarly on all (LTE). A metric defined to measure end-to-end services will execute
access technologies. Other metrics may be access technology specific. similarly on all access technologies. Other metrics may be access
The LMAP architecture also covers both IPv4 and IPv6 networks. technology specific. The LMAP architecture covers both IPv4 and IPv6
networks.
2.1 Internet Service Provider (ISP) Use Case 2.1 Internet Service Provider (ISP) Use Case
A network operator needs to understand the performance of their A network operator needs to understand the performance of their
networks, the performance of the suppliers (downstream and upstream networks, the performance of the suppliers (downstream and upstream
networks), the performance of services, and the impact that such networks), the performance of Internet access services, and the
performance has on the experience of their customers. Largely, the impact that such performance has on the experience of their
processes that ISPs operate (which are based on network measurement) customers. Largely, the processes that ISPs operate (which are based
include: on network measurement) include:
o Identifying, isolating and fixing problems, which may be in the o Identifying, isolating and fixing problems, which may be in the
network, with the service provider, or in the end user equipment. network, with the service provider, or in the end user equipment.
Such problems may be common to a point in the network topology Such problems may be common to a point in the network topology
(e.g. a single exchange), common to a vendor or equipment type (e.g. a single exchange), common to a vendor or equipment type
(e.g. line card or home gateway) or unique to a single user line (e.g. line card or home gateway) or unique to a single user line
(e.g. copper access). Part of this process may also be helping (e.g. copper access). Part of this process may also be helping
users understand whether the problem exists in their home network users understand whether the problem exists in their home network
or with an over-the-top service instead of with their broadband or with a third party application service instead of with their
(BB) product. broadband (BB) product.
o Design and planning. Through identifying the end user experience o Design and planning. Through monitoring the end user experience
the ISP can design and plan their network to ensure specified the ISP can design and plan their network to ensure specified
levels of user experience. Services may be moved closer to end levels of user experience. Services may be moved closer to end
users, services upgraded, the impact of QoS assessed or more users, services upgraded, the impact of QoS assessed or more
capacity deployed at certain locations. Service Level Agreements capacity deployed at certain locations. Service Level Agreements
(SLAs) may be defined at network or product boundaries. (SLAs) may be defined at network or product boundaries.
o Understanding the quality experienced by customers. Alongside o Understanding the quality experienced by customers. Alongside
benchmarking competitors, gaining better insight into the user's benchmarking competitors, gaining better insight into the user's
service through a sample panel of the operator's own customers. service through a sample panel of the operator's own customers.
The end-to-end perspective matters, across home/enterprise The ISP requires a performance viewpoint of the end-to-end
networks, peering points, Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), etc. perspective, which includes: home/enterprise networks; peering
points; Content Delivery Networks (CDNs); etc.
o Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and o Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and
technology. As a new product is deployed, or a new technology technology. As a new product is deployed, or a new technology
introduced into the network, it is essential that its operation introduced into the network, it is essential that its operation
and its impact is measured. This also helps to quantify the and its impact is measured. This also helps to quantify the
advantage that the new technology is bringing and support the advantage that the new technology is bringing and support the
business case for larger roll-out. business case for larger roll-out.
2.2 Regulator Use Case 2.2 Regulator Use Case
Regulators in jurisdictions around the world are responding to Regulators in jurisdictions around the world are responding to
consumers' adoption of Internet access services for traditional consumers' adoption of Internet access services for traditional
telecommunications and media services by promoting competition among telecommunications and media services by promoting competition among
providers of electronic communications, to ensure that users derive providers of electronic communications, to ensure that users derive
maximum benefit in terms of choice, price, and quality. maximum benefit in terms of choice, price, and quality.
Some jurisdictions have responded to a need for greater information Competition is more effective with better information, so some
about Internet access service performance in the development of regulators have developed large-scale measurement programs. For
regulatory policies and approaches for broadband technologies by example, programs such as the U.S. Federal Communications
developing large-scale measurement programs. Programs such as the Commission's (FCC) Measuring Broadband America (MBA), European
U.S. Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) Measuring Broadband Commission's Quality of Broadband Services in the EU reports and a
America (MBA), European Commission's Quality of Broadband Services in growing list of other programs employ a diverse set of operational
the EU reports and a growing list of other programs employ a diverse and technical approaches to gathering data to perform analysis and
set of operational and technical approaches to gathering data to reporting on diverse aspects of broadband performance.
perform analysis and reporting on diverse aspects of broadband
performance.
While each jurisdiction responds to distinct consumer, industry, and While each jurisdiction responds to distinct consumer, industry, and
regulatory concerns, much commonality exists in the need to produce regulatory concerns, much commonality exists in the need to produce
datasets that are able to compare multiple Internet access service datasets that can be used to compare multiple Internet access service
providers, diverse technical solutions, geographic and regional providers, diverse technical solutions, geographic and regional
distributions, and marketed and provisioned levels and combinations distributions, and marketed and provisioned levels and combinations
of broadband Internet access services. In some jurisdictions, the of broadband Internet access services. In some jurisdictions, the
role of measuring is provided by a measurement provider. role of measuring is provided by a measurement provider.
Measurement providers measure network performance from users towards Measurement providers measure network performance from users towards
multiple content and application providers, including dedicated test multiple content and application providers, including dedicated test
measurement servers, to show a performance of the actual Internet measurement servers, to show the performance of the actual Internet
access service provided by different ISPs. Users need to know the access service provided by different ISPs. Users need to know the
performance that they are achieving from their own ISP. In addition, performance that they are achieving from their own ISP. In addition,
they need to know the performance of other ISPs of same location as they need to know the performance of other ISPs of same location as
background information for selecting their ISP. Measurement providers background information for selecting their ISP. Measurement providers
will provide measurement results with associated measurement methods will provide measurement results with associated measurement methods
and measurement metrics. and measurement metrics.
From a consumer perspective, the differentiation between fixed and From a consumer perspective, the differentiation between fixed and
mobile (cellular) Internet access services is blurring as the mobile (cellular) Internet access services is blurring as the
applications used are very similar. Hence, regulators are measuring applications used are very similar. Hence, regulators are measuring
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scalable, cost-effective, scientifically robust solutions to the scalable, cost-effective, scientifically robust solutions to the
measurement and collection of broadband Internet access service measurement and collection of broadband Internet access service
performance information. performance information.
3 Details of ISP Use Case 3 Details of ISP Use Case
3.1 Understanding the quality experienced by customers 3.1 Understanding the quality experienced by customers
Operators want to understand the quality of experience (QoE) of their Operators want to understand the quality of experience (QoE) of their
broadband customers. The understanding can be gained through a broadband customers. The understanding can be gained through a
"panel", i.e., a measurement probe is deployed to a few 100 or 1000 "panel", i.e. measurement probes deployed to a few 100 or 1000
of its customers. The panel needs to include a representative sample customers. The panel needs to include a representative sample for
for each of the operator's technologies (Fiber To The Premise (FTTP), each of the operator's technologies (fiber, Hybrid Fibre-coaxial
Fiber To The Curb (FTTC), DSL...) and broadband options (80Mb/s, (HFC), DSL...) and broadband speeds (80Mb/s, 20Mb/s, basic...). For
20Mb/s, basic...), ~100 probes for each. The operator would like the reasonable statistical validity, approximately 100 probes are needed
end-to-end view of the service, rather than (say) just the access for each ISP product. The operator would like the end-to-end view of
portion. So as well as simple network statistics like speed and loss the service, rather than (say) just the access portion. So as well as
rates they want to understand what the service feels like to the simple network statistics like speed and loss rates, they want to
customer. This involves relating the pure network parameters to understand what the service feels like to the customer. This involves
something like a 'mean opinion score' which will be service dependent relating the pure network parameters to something like a 'mean
(for instance web browsing QoE is largely determined by latency above opinion score' which will be service dependent (for instance web
a few Mb/s). browsing QoE is largely determined by latency above a few Mb/s).
An operator will also want compound metrics such as "reliability", An operator will also want compound metrics such as "reliability",
which might involve packet loss, DNS failures, re-training of the which might involve packet loss, DNS failures, re-training of the
line, video streaming under-runs etc. line, video streaming under-runs etc.
The operator really wants to understand the end-to-end service The operator really wants to understand the end-to-end service
experience. However, the home network (Ethernet, WiFi, powerline) is experience. However, the home network (Ethernet, WiFi, powerline) is
highly variable and outside its control. To date, operators (and highly variable and outside its control. To date, operators (and
regulators) have instead measured performance from the home gateway. regulators) have instead measured performance from the home gateway.
However, mobile operators clearly must include the wireless link in However, mobile operators clearly must include the wireless link in
the measurement. the measurement.
Active measurements are the most obvious approach, i.e., special Active measurements are the most obvious approach, i.e., special
measurement traffic is sent by - and to - the probe. In order not to measurement traffic is sent by - and to - the probe. In order not to
degrade the service of the customer, the measurement data should only degrade the service of the customer, the measurement data should only
be sent when the user is silent, and it shouldn't reduce the be sent when the user is silent, and it shouldn't reduce the
customer's data allowance. The other approach is passive measurements customer's data allowance. The other approach is passive measurements
on the customer's ordinary traffic; the advantage is that it measures on the customer's ordinary traffic; the advantage is that it measures
what the customer actually does, but it creates extra variability what the customer actually does, but it creates extra variability
(different traffic mixes give different results) and especially it (different traffic mixes give different results) and especially it
raises privacy concerns. [RFC6973] discusses privacy considerations raises privacy concerns. RFC6973] discusses privacy considerations
for Internet protocols in general, whilst [framework] discusses them for Internet protocols in general, whilst [framework] discusses them
specifically for large-scale measurement systems. specifically for large-scale measurement systems.
From an operator's viewpoint, understanding customers better enables From an operator's viewpoint, understanding customer experience
it to offer better services. Also, simple metrics can be more easily enables it to offer better services. Also, simple metrics can be more
understood by senior managers who make investment decisions and by easily understood by senior managers who make investment decisions
sales and marketing. and by sales and marketing.
3.2 Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and technology 3.2 Understanding the impact and operation of new devices and technology
Another type of measurement is to test new capabilities before they Another type of measurement is to test new capabilities before they
are rolled out. For example, the operator may want to: check whether are rolled out. For example, the operator may want to:
a customer can be upgraded to a new broadband option; understand the
impact of IPv6 before it makes it available to its customers (will v6 o Check whether a customer can be upgraded to a new broadband
packets get through, what will the latency be to major websites, what option
transition mechanisms will be most appropriate?); check whether a new
capability can be signaled using TCP options (how often it will be o Understand the impact of IPv6 before it makes it available to
blocked by a middlebox? - along the lines of some existing customers (will v6 packets get through, what will the latency be
experiments) [Extend TCP]; investigate a quality of service mechanism to major websites, what transition mechanisms will be most
(e.g. checking whether Diffserv markings are respected on some path); appropriate?)
and so on.
o Check whether a new capability can be signaled using TCP options
(how often it will be blocked by a middlebox? - along the lines of
the experiments described in [ExtendTCP]);
o Investigate a quality of service mechanism (e.g. checking
whether Diffserv markings are respected on some path); and so on.
3.3 Design and planning 3.3 Design and planning
Operators can use large scale measurements to help with their network Operators can use large scale measurements to help with their network
planning - proactive activities to improve the network. planning - proactive activities to improve the network.
For example, by probing from several different vantage points the For example, by probing from several different vantage points the
operator can see that a particular group of customers has performance operator can see that a particular group of customers has performance
below that expected during peak hours, which should help capacity below that expected during peak hours, which should help capacity
planning. Naturally operators already have tools to help this - a planning. Naturally operators already have tools to help this - a
network element reports its individual utilization (and perhaps other network element reports its individual utilization (and perhaps other
parameters). However, making measurements across a path rather than parameters). However, making measurements across a path rather than
at a point may make it easier to understand the network. There may at a point may make it easier to understand the network. There may
also be parameters like bufferbloat that aren't currently reported by also be parameters like bufferbloat that aren't currently reported by
equipment and/or that are intrinsically path metrics. equipment and/or that are intrinsically path metrics.
With information gained from measurement results, capacity planning With information gained from measurement results, capacity planning
and network design can be more effective. Such planning typically and network design can be more effective. Such planning typically
uses simulations to emulate the measured performance of the current uses simulations to emulate the measured performance of the current
network and understand the likely impact of new capacity and network and understand the likely impact of new capacity and
potential changes to the topology. Simulations - informed by data potential changes to the topology. Simulations, informed by data from
from a limited panel of probes - can help quantify the advantage that a limited panel of probes, can help quantify the advantage that a new
a new technology brings and support the business case for larger technology brings and support the business case for larger roll-out.
roll-out.
It may also be possible to use probes to run stress tests for risk It may also be possible to use probes to run stress tests for risk
analysis. For example, an operator could run a carefully controlled analysis. For example, an operator could run a carefully controlled
and limited experiment in which probing is used to assess the and limited experiment in which probing is used to assess the
potential impact if some new application becomes popular. potential impact if some new application becomes popular.
3.4 Monitoring Service Level Agreements 3.4 Monitoring Service Level Agreements
Another example is that the operator may want to monitor performance Another example is that the operator may want to monitor performance
where there is a service level agreement. This could be with its own where there is a service level agreement (SLA). This could be with
customers, especially enterprises may have an SLA. The operator can its own customers, especially enterprises may have an SLA. The
proactively spot when the service is degrading near to the SLA limit, operator can proactively spot when the service is degrading near to
and get information that will enable more informed conversations with the SLA limit, and get information that will enable more informed
the customer at contract renewal. conversations with the customer at contract renewal.
An operator may also want to monitor the performance of its An operator may also want to monitor the performance of its
suppliers, to check whether they meet their SLA or to compare two suppliers, to check whether they meet their SLA or to compare two
suppliers if it is dual-sourcing. This could include its transit suppliers if it is dual-sourcing. This could include its transit
operator, CDNs, peering, video source, local network provider (for a operator, CDNs, peering, video source, local network provider (for a
global operator in countries where it doesn't have its own network), global operator in countries where it doesn't have its own network),
even the whole network for a virtual operator. even the whole network for a virtual operator.
Through a better understanding of its own network and its suppliers, Through a better understanding of its own network and its suppliers,
the operator should be able to focus investment more effectively - in the operator should be able to focus investment more effectively - in
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wider and so will trigger too many alarms, whilst other issues will wider and so will trigger too many alarms, whilst other issues will
cause degradation rather than failure and so not trigger any alarm. cause degradation rather than failure and so not trigger any alarm.
Large-scale measurements can help provide a more nuanced view that Large-scale measurements can help provide a more nuanced view that
helps network management to identify and fix problems more rapidly helps network management to identify and fix problems more rapidly
and accurately. The network management tools may use simulations to and accurately. The network management tools may use simulations to
emulate the network and so help identify a fault and assess possible emulate the network and so help identify a fault and assess possible
solutions. solutions.
An operator can obtain useful information without measuring the An operator can obtain useful information without measuring the
performance on every broadband line. By measuring a subset, the performance on every broadband line. By measuring a subset, the
operator identify problems that affect a group of customers. For operator can identify problems that affect a group of customers. For
example, the issue could be at a shared point in the network topology example, the issue could be at a shared point in the network topology
(such as an exchange) or common to a vendor or equipment type (such as an exchange), or common to a vendor, or equipment type; for
[IETF85-Plenary] describes a case where a particular home gateway instance, [IETF85-Plenary] describes a case where a particular home
upgrade had caused a (mistaken!) drop in line rate. A more extensive gateway upgrade had caused a (mistaken!) drop in line rate.
deployment of the measurement capability to every broadband line
would enable an operator to identify issues unique to a single A more extensive deployment of the measurement capability to every
customer. Overall, large-scale measurements can help an operator help broadband line would enable an operator to identify issues unique to
an operator fix the fault more rapidly and/or allow the affected a single customer. Overall, large-scale measurements can help an
customers to be informed what's happening. More accurate information operator help an operator fix the fault more rapidly and/or allow the
enables the operator to reassure customers and take more rapid and affected customers to be informed what's happening. More accurate
effective action to cure the problem. information enables the operator to reassure customers and take more
rapid and effective action to cure the problem.
Often customers experience poor broadband due to problems in the home Often customers experience poor broadband due to problems in the home
network - the ISP's network is fine. For example they may have moved network - the ISP's network is fine. For example they may have moved
too far away from their wireless access point. Perhaps 80% of too far away from their wireless access point. Perhaps 80% of
customer calls about fixed BB problems are due to in-home wireless customer calls about fixed BB problems are due to in-home wireless
issues. These issues are expensive and frustrating for an operator, issues. These issues are expensive and frustrating for an operator,
as they are extremely hard to diagnose and solve. The operator would as they are extremely hard to diagnose and solve. The operator would
like to narrow down whether the problem is in the home (with the home like to narrow down whether the problem is in the home (with the home
network or edge device or home gateway), in the operator's network, network or edge device or home gateway), in the operator's network,
or with an over-the-top service. The operator would like two or with an application service. The operator would like two
capabilities. Firstly, self-help tools that customers use to improve capabilities. Firstly, self-help tools that customers use to improve
their own service or understand its performance better, for example their own service or understand its performance better, for example
to re-position their devices for better WiFi coverage. Secondly, on- to re-position their devices for better WiFi coverage. Secondly, on-
demand tests that can the operator can run instantly - so the call demand tests that can the operator can run instantly - so the call
center person answering the phone (or e-chat) could trigger a test center person answering the phone (or e-chat) could trigger a test
and get the result whilst the customer is still in an on-line and get the result whilst the customer is still in an on-line
session. session.
4 Details of Regulator Use Case 4 Details of Regulator Use Case
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their own service or understand its performance better, for example their own service or understand its performance better, for example
to re-position their devices for better WiFi coverage. Secondly, on- to re-position their devices for better WiFi coverage. Secondly, on-
demand tests that can the operator can run instantly - so the call demand tests that can the operator can run instantly - so the call
center person answering the phone (or e-chat) could trigger a test center person answering the phone (or e-chat) could trigger a test
and get the result whilst the customer is still in an on-line and get the result whilst the customer is still in an on-line
session. session.
4 Details of Regulator Use Case 4 Details of Regulator Use Case
4.1 Promoting competition through transparency 4.1 Promoting competition through transparency
Competition plays a vital role in regulation of the electronic Competition plays a vital role in regulation of the electronic
communications markets. For competition to successfully discipline communications markets. For competition to successfully discipline
operators' behavior in the interests of their customers, end users operators' behavior in the interests of their customers, end users
must be fully aware of the characteristics of the ISPs' access must be fully aware of the characteristics of the ISPs' access
offers. In some jurisdictions regulators mandate transparent offers. In some jurisdictions regulators mandate that transparent
information made available about service offers. information imade available about service offers.
End users need effective transparency to be able to make informed End users need effective transparency to be able to make informed
choices throughout the different stages of their relationship with choices throughout the different stages of their relationship with
ISPs, when selecting Internet access service offers, and when ISPs, when selecting Internet access service offers, and when
considering switching service offer within an ISP or to an considering switching service offer within an ISP or to an
alternative ISP. Quality information about service offers could alternative ISP. Quality information about service offers could
include speed, delay, and jitter. Regulators can publish such include speed, delay, and jitter. Regulators can publish such
information to facilitate end users' choice of service provider and information to facilitate end users' choice of service provider and
offer. It may also encourage ISPs to use the same metrics in their offer. It may also encourage ISPs to use the same metrics in their
service level contracts, which would further help end users to choose service level contracts, which would further help end users to choose
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widespread downloading of the app and careful post-processing of the widespread downloading of the app and careful post-processing of the
results to reduce biases. results to reduce biases.
There are several other possibilities. For example, as a variant on There are several other possibilities. For example, as a variant on
the first approach, the measurement capability could be implemented the first approach, the measurement capability could be implemented
as software embedded in the home gateway, which would make it more as software embedded in the home gateway, which would make it more
viable to have the capability on every user line. As a variant on the viable to have the capability on every user line. As a variant on the
second approach, the end user could initiate measurements in response second approach, the end user could initiate measurements in response
to a request from the measurement system. to a request from the measurement system.
The operator of the measurement system should be careful to ensure
that measurements do not detrimentally impact users. Potential issues
include:
* Measurement traffic generated on a particular user's line may
impact that end user's quality of experience. The danger is
greater for measurements that generate a lot of traffic over a
lengthy period.
* The measurement traffic may impact that particular user's bill
or traffic cap.
* The measurement traffic from several end users may, in
combination, congest a shared link.
* The traffic associated with the control and reporting of
measurements may overload the network. The danger is greater where
the traffic associated with many end users is synchronized.
6 Conclusions 6 Conclusions
Large-scale measurements of broadband performance are useful for both Large-scale measurements of broadband performance are useful for both
network operators and regulators. Network operators would like to use network operators and regulators. Network operators would like to use
measurements to help them better understand the quality experienced measurements to help them better understand the quality experienced
by their customers, identify problems in the network and design by their customers, identify problems in the network and design
network improvements. Regulators would like to use measurements to network improvements. Regulators would like to use measurements to
help promote competition between network operators, stimulate the help promote competition between network operators, stimulate the
growth of broadband access and monitor 'net neutrality'. There are growth of broadband access and monitor 'net neutrality'. There are
other use cases that are not the focus of the initial LMAP charter other use cases that are not the focus of the initial LMAP charter
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scope of LMAP, as is the key challenge of how to integrate the scope of LMAP, as is the key challenge of how to integrate the
measurement system into a network operator's existing tools for measurement system into a network operator's existing tools for
diagnostics and network planning. diagnostics and network planning.
Finally the test data, along with any associated network, product or Finally the test data, along with any associated network, product or
subscriber contract data is commercial or private information and subscriber contract data is commercial or private information and
needs to be protected. needs to be protected.
7 Security Considerations 7 Security Considerations
This informational document provides an overview of the use cases for Large-scale measurements raise several potential security, privacy
LMAP and so does not, in itself, raise any security issues. (data protection) and business sensitivity issues. Both the network
operator and regulator use cases potentially raise the following
The framework document [framework] discusses the potential security, issues:
privacy (data protection) and business sensitivity issues that LMAP
raises. The main threats are:
1. a malicious party that gains control of Measurement Agents to 1. a malicious party that gains control of Measurement Agents to
launch DoS attacks at a target, or to alter (perhaps subtly) launch DoS attacks at a target, or to alter (perhaps subtly)
Measurement Tasks in order to compromise the end user's privacy, Measurement Tasks in order to compromise the end user's privacy,
the business confidentiality of the network, or the accuracy of the business confidentiality of the network, or the accuracy of
the measurement system. the measurement system.
2. a malicious party that gains control of Measurement Agents to 2. a malicious party that gains control of Measurement Agents to
create a platform for pervasive monitoring [RFC7258], in order to create a platform for pervasive monitoring [RFC7258], in order to
attack the privacy of Internet users and organisations. attack the privacy of Internet users and organisations.
skipping to change at page 14, line 23 skipping to change at page 14, line 44
5. a measurement system that does not obtain the end user's 5. a measurement system that does not obtain the end user's
informed consent, or fails to specify a specific purpose in the informed consent, or fails to specify a specific purpose in the
consent, or uses the collected information for secondary uses consent, or uses the collected information for secondary uses
beyond those specified. beyond those specified.
6. a measurement system that is vague about who is responsible for 6. a measurement system that is vague about who is responsible for
privacy (data protection); this role is often termed the "data privacy (data protection); this role is often termed the "data
controller". controller".
In addition, the regulator use case has the following potential
issue:
7. a malicious network operator could try to identify the
broadband lines that the regulator was measuring and prioritise
that traffic ("game the system").
The [framework] also considers some potential mitigations of these The [framework] also considers some potential mitigations of these
issues. They will need to be considered by an LMAP protocol and more issues. They will need to be considered by an LMAP protocol and more
generally by any measurement system. generally by any measurement system.
8 IANA Considerations 8 IANA Considerations
None None
Contributors Contributors
skipping to change at page 16, line 5 skipping to change at page 16, line 28
[M-Labs NSDI 2010] M-Lab, "Glasnost: Enabling End Users to Detect [M-Labs NSDI 2010] M-Lab, "Glasnost: Enabling End Users to Detect
Traffic Differentiation", Traffic Differentiation",
http://www.measurementlab.net/download/AMIfv945ljiJXzG- http://www.measurementlab.net/download/AMIfv945ljiJXzG-
fgUrZSTu2hs1xRl5Oh-rpGQMWL305BNQh- fgUrZSTu2hs1xRl5Oh-rpGQMWL305BNQh-
BSq5oBoYU4a7zqXOvrztpJhK9gwk5unOe-fOzj4X-vOQz_HRrnYU- BSq5oBoYU4a7zqXOvrztpJhK9gwk5unOe-fOzj4X-vOQz_HRrnYU-
aFd0rv332RDReRfOYkJuagysstN3GZ__lQHTS8_UHJTWkrwyqIUjffVeDxQ/ aFd0rv332RDReRfOYkJuagysstN3GZ__lQHTS8_UHJTWkrwyqIUjffVeDxQ/
[Glasnost] M-Lab tool "Glasnost", http://mlab-live.appspot.com/tools/ [Glasnost] M-Lab tool "Glasnost", http://mlab-live.appspot.com/tools/
glasnost glasnost
[P.800] ITU-T, "SERIES P: TELEPHONE TRANSMISSION QUALITY Methods for
objective and subjective assessment of quality",
https://www.itu.int/rec/dologin_pub.asp?lang=e&id=T-REC-
P.800-199608-I!!PDF-E&type=items
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Marc Linsner Marc Linsner
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
Marco Island, FL Marco Island, FL
USA USA
EMail: mlinsner@cisco.com EMail: mlinsner@cisco.com
Philip Eardley Philip Eardley
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