draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-02.txt   draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-03.txt 
lpwan S. Farrell, Ed. lpwan S. Farrell, Ed.
Internet-Draft Trinity College Dublin Internet-Draft Trinity College Dublin
Intended status: Informational May 14, 2017 Intended status: Informational May 25, 2017
Expires: November 15, 2017 Expires: November 26, 2017
LPWAN Overview LPWAN Overview
draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-02 draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-03
Abstract Abstract
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are wireless technologies with Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are wireless technologies with
characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly
very small packet and application layer data sizes and long battery very small packet and application layer data sizes and long battery
life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of
LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that
exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running
IP in LPWANs. IP in LPWANs.
skipping to change at page 1, line 36 skipping to change at page 1, line 36
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 15, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on November 26, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. LPWAN Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. LPWAN Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. LoRaWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. LoRaWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2. Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3. SIGFOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3. SIGFOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) . . . . . . . . 19 2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) . . . . . . . . 20
2.4.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.4.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.4.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3. Generic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3. Generic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4. Gap Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4. Gap Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1. Naive application of IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.1. Naive application of IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2. 6LoWPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.2. 6LoWPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.2.1. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.2.1. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2.4. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2.4. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.3. 6lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.3. 6lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.4. 6tisch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.4. 6tisch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.5. RoHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.5. RoHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.6. ROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.6. ROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.7. CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.7. CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.8. Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.8. Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Appendix A. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Appendix A. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 A.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 A.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 A.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
[[Ed: Editor comments/queries are in double square brackets like
this.]]
This document provides background material and an overview of the This document provides background material and an overview of the
technologies being considered in the IETF's Low Power Wide-Area technologies being considered in the IETF's Low Power Wide-Area
Networking (LPWAN) working group. We also provide a gap analysis Networking (LPWAN) working group. We also provide a gap analysis
between the needs of these technologies and currently available IETF between the needs of these technologies and currently available IETF
specifications. specifications.
Most technologies in this space aim for similar goals of supporting Most technologies in this space aim for similar goals of supporting
large numbers of low-cost, low-throughput devices at very low-cost large numbers of very low-cost, low-throughput devices with very-low
and with very-low power consumption, so that even battery-powered power consumption, so that even battery-powered devices can be
devices can be deployed for years. LPWAN devices also tend to be deployed for years. LPWAN devices also tend to be constrained in
constrained in their use of bandwidth, for example with limited their use of bandwidth, for example with limited frequencies being
frequencies being allowed to be used within limited duty-cycles allowed to be used within limited duty-cycles (usually expressed as a
(usually expressed as a percentage of time per-hour that the device percentage of time per-hour that the device is allowed to transmit.)
is allowed to transmit.) And as the name implies, coverage of large And as the name implies, coverage of large areas is also a common
areas is also a common goal. So, by and large, the different goal. So, by and large, the different technologies aim for
technologies aim for deployment in very similar circumstances. deployment in very similar circumstances.
Existing pilot deployments have shown huge potential and created much Existing pilot deployments have shown huge potential and created much
industrial interest in these technolgies. As of today, essentially industrial interest in these technologies. As of today, essentially
no LPWAN devices have IP capabilities. Connecting LPWANs to the no LPWAN devices have IP capabilities. Connecting LPWANs to the
Internet would provide significant benefits to these networks in Internet would provide significant benefits to these networks in
terms of interoperability, application deployment, and management, terms of interoperability, application deployment, and management,
among others. The goal of the LPWAN WG is to, where necessary, adapt among others. The goal of the IETF LPWAN working group is to, where
IETF defined protocols, addressing schemes and naming to this necessary, adapt IETF-defined protocols, addressing schemes and
particular constrained environment. naming to this particular constrained environment.
This document is largely the work of the people listed in Section 7. This document is largely the work of the people listed in Section 7.
Discussion of this document should take place on the lp-wan@ietf.org
list.
2. LPWAN Technologies 2. LPWAN Technologies
This section provides an overview of the set of LPWAN technologies This section provides an overview of the set of LPWAN technologies
that are being considered in the LPWAN working group. The text for that are being considered in the LPWAN working group. The text for
each was mainly contributed by proponents of each technology. each was mainly contributed by proponents of each technology.
Note that this text is not intended to be normative in any sesne, but Note that this text is not intended to be normative in any sense, but
simply to help the reader in finding the relevant layer 2 simply to help the reader in finding the relevant layer 2
specifications and in understanding how those integrate with IETF- specifications and in understanding how those integrate with IETF-
defined technologies. Similarly, there is no attempt here to set out defined technologies. Similarly, there is no attempt here to set out
the pros and cons of the relevant technologies. the pros and cons of the relevant technologies.
Note that some of the technology-specific drafts referenced below may
have been updated since publication of this document.
2.1. LoRaWAN 2.1. LoRaWAN
Text here is largely from [I-D.farrell-lpwan-lora-overview] which may Text here is largely from [I-D.farrell-lpwan-lora-overview]
have been updated since this was published.
2.1.1. Provenance and Documents 2.1.1. Provenance and Documents
LoRaWAN is a wireless technology for long-range low-power low-data- LoRaWAN is a wireless technology for long-range low-power low-data-
rate applications developed by the LoRa Alliance, a membership rate applications developed by the LoRa Alliance, a membership
consortium. <https://www.lora-alliance.org/> This draft is based on consortium. <https://www.lora-alliance.org/> This draft is based on
version 1.0.2 [LoRaSpec] of the LoRa specification. Version 1.0, version 1.0.2 [LoRaSpec] of the LoRa specification. Version 1.0,
which has also seen some deployment, is available at [LoRaSpec1.0]. which has also seen some deployment, is available at [LoRaSpec1.0].
2.1.2. Characteristics 2.1.2. Characteristics
LoRaWAN networks are typically organized in a star-of-stars topology LoRaWAN networks are typically organized in a star-of-stars topology
in which gateways relay messages between end-devices and a central in which gateways relay messages between end-devices and a central
"network server" in the backend. Gateways are connected to the "network server" in the backend. Gateways are connected to the
network server via IP links while end-devices use single-hop LoRaWAN network server via IP links while end-devices use single-hop LoRaWAN
communication that can be received at one or more gateways. All communication that can be received at one or more gateways. All
communication is generally bi-directional, although uplink communication is generally bi-directional, although uplink
communication from end-devices to the network server are favoured in communication from end-devices to the network server are favored in
terms of overall bandwidth availability. terms of overall bandwidth availability.
Figure 1 shows the entities involved in a LoRaWAN network. Figure 1 shows the entities involved in a LoRaWAN network.
+----------+ +----------+
|End-device| * * * |End-device| * * *
+----------+ * +---------+ +----------+ * +---------+
* | Gateway +---+ * | Gateway +---+
+----------+ * +---------+ | +---------+ +----------+ * +---------+ | +---------+
|End-device| * * * +---+ Network +--- Application |End-device| * * * +---+ Network +--- Application
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o Gateway: a radio on the infrastructure-side, sometimes called a o Gateway: a radio on the infrastructure-side, sometimes called a
concentrator or base-station. Communicates with end-devices and, concentrator or base-station. Communicates with end-devices and,
via IP, with a network server. via IP, with a network server.
o Network Server: The Network Server (NS) terminates the LoRaWAN MAC o Network Server: The Network Server (NS) terminates the LoRaWAN MAC
layer for the end-devices connected to the network. It is the layer for the end-devices connected to the network. It is the
center of the star topology. center of the star topology.
o Uplink message: refers to communications from end-device to o Uplink message: refers to communications from end-device to
network server or appliction via one or more gateways. network server or application via one or more gateways.
o Downlink message: refers to communications from network server or o Downlink message: refers to communications from network server or
application via one gateway to a single end-device or a group of application via one gateway to a single end-device or a group of
end-devices (considering multicasting). end-devices (considering multicasting).
o Application: refers to application layer code both on the end- o Application: refers to application layer code both on the end-
device and running "behind" the network server. For LoRaWAN, device and running "behind" the network server. For LoRaWAN,
there will generally only be one application running on most end- there will generally only be one application running on most end-
devices. Interfaces between the network server and application devices. Interfaces between the network server and application
are not further described here. are not further described here.
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| | : 19 | 250 | | | : 19 | 250 |
| | octets | octets | | | octets | octets |
+-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+ +-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+
Table 2: Minima and Maxima for various LoRaWAN Parameters Table 2: Minima and Maxima for various LoRaWAN Parameters
Note that in the case of the smallest frame size (19 octets), 8 Note that in the case of the smallest frame size (19 octets), 8
octets are required for LoRa MAC layer headers leaving only 11 octets octets are required for LoRa MAC layer headers leaving only 11 octets
for payload (including MAC layer options). However, those settings for payload (including MAC layer options). However, those settings
do not apply for the join procedure - end-devices are required to use do not apply for the join procedure - end-devices are required to use
a channel and data rate that can send the 23 byte Join-request a channel and data rate that can send the 23-byte Join-request
message for the join procedure. message for the join procedure.
Uplink and downlink higher layer data is carried in a MACPayload. Uplink and downlink higher layer data is carried in a MACPayload.
There is a concept of "ports" (an optional 8 bit value) to handle There is a concept of "ports" (an optional 8-bit value) to handle
different applications on an end-device. Port zero is reserved for different applications on an end-device. Port zero is reserved for
LoRaWAN specific messaging, such as the configuration of device's LoRaWAN specific messaging, such as the configuration of the end
network parameters (available channels, data rates, ADR parameters, device's network parameters (available channels, data rates, ADR
RX1/2 delay, etc.). parameters, RX1/2 delay, etc.).
In addition to carrying higher layer PDUs there are Join-Request and In addition to carrying higher layer PDUs there are Join-Request and
Join-Response (aka Join-Accept) messages for handling network access. Join-Response (aka Join-Accept) messages for handling network access.
And so-called "MAC commands" (see below) up to 15 bytes long can be And so-called "MAC commands" (see below) up to 15 bytes long can be
piggybacked in an options field ("FOpts"). piggybacked in an options field ("FOpts").
There are a number of MAC commands for: link and device status There are a number of MAC commands for link and device status
checking, ADR and duty-cycle negotiation, managing the RX windows and checking, ADR and duty-cycle negotiation, managing the RX windows and
radio channel settings. For example, the link check response message radio channel settings. For example, the link check response message
allows the network server (in response to a request from an end- allows the network server (in response to a request from an end-
device) to inform an end-device about the signal attenuation seen device) to inform an end-device about the signal attenuation seen
most recently at a gateway, and to also tell the end-device how many most recently at a gateway, and to also tell the end-device how many
gateways received the corresponding link request MAC command. gateways received the corresponding link request MAC command.
Some MAC commands are initiated by the network server. For example, Some MAC commands are initiated by the network server. For example,
one command allows the network server to ask an end-device to reduce one command allows the network server to ask an end-device to reduce
its duty-cycle to only use a proportion of the maximum allowed in a its duty-cycle to only use a proportion of the maximum allowed in a
region. Another allows the network server to query the end-device's region. Another allows the network server to query the end-device's
power status with the response from the end-device specifying whether power status with the response from the end-device specifying whether
it has an external power source or is battery powered (in which case it has an external power source or is battery powered (in which case
a relative battery level is also sent to the network server). a relative battery level is also sent to the network server).
A LoRaWAN network has a short network identifier ("NwkID") which is a A LoRaWAN network has a short network identifier ("NwkID") which is a
seven bit value. A private network (common for LoRaWAN) can use the seven-bit value. A private network (common for LoRaWAN) can use the
value zero. If a network wishes to support "foreign" end-devices value zero. If a network wishes to support "foreign" end-devices
then the NwkID needs to be registered with the LoRA Alliance, in then the NwkID needs to be registered with the LoRA Alliance, in
which case the NwkID is the seven least significant bits of a which case the NwkID is the seven least significant bits of a
registered 24-bit NetID. (Note however, that the methods for registered 24-bit NetID. (Note however, that the methods for
"roaming" are defined in the upcoming LoRaWAN 1.1 specification.) "roaming" are defined in the upcoming LoRaWAN 1.1 specification.)
In order to operate nominally on a LoRaWAN network, a device needs a In order to operate nominally on a LoRaWAN network, a device needs a
32-bit device address, which is the catentation of the NwkID and a 32-bit device address, which is the catenation of the NwkID and a
25-bit device-specific network address that is assigned when the 25-bit device-specific network address that is assigned when the
device "joins" the network (see below for the join procedure) or that device "joins" the network (see below for the join procedure) or that
is pre-provisioned into the device. is pre-provisioned into the device.
End-devices are assumed to work with one or a quite limited number of End-devices are assumed to work with one or a quite limited number of
applications, identified by a 64-bit AppEUI, which is assumed to be a applications, identified by a 64-bit AppEUI, which is assumed to be a
registered IEEE EUI64 value. In addition, a device needs to have two registered IEEE EUI64 value. In addition, a device needs to have two
symmetric session keys, one for protecting network artefacts symmetric session keys, one for protecting network artifacts
(port=0), the NwkSKey, and another for protecting application layer (port=0), the NwkSKey, and another for protecting application layer
traffic, the AppSKey. Both keys are used for 128 bit AES traffic, the AppSKey. Both keys are used for 128-bit AES
cryptographic operations. So, one option is for an end-device to cryptographic operations. So, one option is for an end-device to
have all of the above, plus channel information, somehow have all of the above, plus channel information, somehow
(pre-)provisioned, in which case the end-device can simply start (pre-)provisioned, in which case the end-device can simply start
transmitting. This is achievable in many cases via out-of-band means transmitting. This is achievable in many cases via out-of-band means
given the nature of LoRaWAN networks. Table 3 summarises these given the nature of LoRaWAN networks. Table 3 summarizes these
values. values.
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| Value | Description | | Value | Description |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| DevAddr | DevAddr (32-bits) = NwkId (7-bits) + device-specific | | DevAddr | DevAddr (32-bits) = NwkId (7-bits) + device-specific |
| | network address (25 bits) | | | network address (25 bits) |
| | | | | |
| AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application | | AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application |
| | | | | |
| NwkSKey | 128 bit network session key for use with AES | | NwkSKey | 128-bit network session key for use with AES |
| | | | | |
| AppSKey | 128 bit application session key for use with AES | | AppSKey | 128-bit application session key for use with AES |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
Table 3: Values required for nominal operation Table 3: Values required for nominal operation
As an alternative, end-devices can use the LoRaWAN join procedure in As an alternative, end-devices can use the LoRaWAN join procedure in
order to setup some of these values and dynamically gain access to order to setup some of these values and dynamically gain access to
the network. To use the join procedure, an end-device must still the network. To use the join procedure, an end-device must still
know the AppEUI, and in addition, a different (long-term) symmetric know the AppEUI, and in addition, a different (long-term) symmetric
key that is bound to the AppEUI - this is the application key key that is bound to the AppEUI - this is the application key
(AppKey), and is distinct from the application session key (AppSKey). (AppKey), and is distinct from the application session key (AppSKey).
The AppKey is required to be specific to the device, that is, each The AppKey is required to be specific to the device, that is, each
end-device should have a different AppKey value. And finally, the end-device should have a different AppKey value. And finally, the
end-device also needs a long-term identifier for itself, end-device also needs a long-term identifier for itself,
syntactically also an EUI-64, and known as the device EUI or DevEUI. syntactically also an EUI-64, and known as the device EUI or DevEUI.
Table 4 summarises these values. Table 4 summarizes these values.
+---------+----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
| Value | Description | | Value | Description |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
| DevEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the device | | DevEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the device |
| | | | | |
| AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application | | AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application |
| | | | | |
| AppKey | 128 bit long term application key for use with AES | | AppKey | 128-bit long term application key for use with AES |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
Table 4: Values required for join procedure Table 4: Values required for join procedure
The join procedure involves a special exchange where the end-device The join procedure involves a special exchange where the end-device
asserts the AppEUI and DevEUI (integrity protected with the long-term asserts the AppEUI and DevEUI (integrity protected with the long-term
AppKey, but not encrypted) in a Join-request uplink message. This is AppKey, but not encrypted) in a Join-request uplink message. This is
then routed to the network server which interacts with an entity that then routed to the network server which interacts with an entity that
knows that AppKey to verify the Join-request. All going well, a knows that AppKey to verify the Join-request. All going well, a
Join-accept downlink message is returned from the network server to Join-accept downlink message is returned from the network server to
the end-device that specifies the 24-bit NetID, 32-bit DevAddr and the end-device that specifies the 24-bit NetID, 32-bit DevAddr and
channel information and from which the AppSKey and NwkSKey can be channel information and from which the AppSKey and NwkSKey can be
derived based on knowledge of the AppKey. This provides the end- derived based on knowledge of the AppKey. This provides the end-
device with all the values listed in Table 3. device with all the values listed in Table 3.
All payloads are encrypted and have data integrity. MAC commands, All payloads are encrypted and have data integrity. MAC commands,
when sent as a payload (port zero), are therefore protected. MAC when sent as a payload (port zero), are therefore protected. MAC
commands piggy-backed as frame options ("FOpts") are however sent in commands piggy-backed as frame options ("FOpts") are however sent in
clear. Any MAC commands sent as frame options and not only as clear. Any MAC commands sent as frame options and not only as
payload, are visible to a passive attacker but are not malleable for payload, are visible to a passive attacker but are not malleable for
an active attacker due to the use of the MIC. an active attacker due to the use of the Message Integrity Check
(MIC) described below..
For LoRaWAN version 1.0.x, the NWkSkey session key is used to provide For LoRaWAN version 1.0.x, the NWkSkey session key is used to provide
data integrity between the end-device and the network server. The data integrity between the end-device and the network server. The
AppSKey is used to provide data confidentiality between the end- AppSKey is used to provide data confidentiality between the end-
device and network server, or to the application "behind" the network device and network server, or to the application "behind" the network
server, depending on the implementation of the network. server, depending on the implementation of the network.
All MAC layer messages have an outer 32-bit Message Integrity Code All MAC layer messages have an outer 32-bit MIC calculated using AES-
(MIC) calculated using AES-CMAC calculated over the ciphertext CMAC calculated over the ciphertext payload and other headers and
payload and other headers and using the NwkSkey. Payloads are using the NwkSkey. Payloads are encrypted using AES-128, with a
encrypted using AES-128, with a counter-mode derived from IEEE counter-mode derived from IEEE 802.15.4 using the AppSKey. Gateways
802.15.4 using the AppSKey. Gateways are not expected to be provided are not expected to be provided with the AppSKey or NwkSKey, all of
with the AppSKey or NwkSKey, all of the infrastructure-side the infrastructure-side cryptography happens in (or "behind") the
cryptography happens in (or "behind") the network server. When network server. When session keys are derived from the AppKey as a
session keys are derived from the AppKey as a result of the join result of the join procedure the Join-accept message payload is
procedure the Join-accept message payload is specially handled. specially handled.
The long-term AppKey is directly used to protect the Join-accept The long-term AppKey is directly used to protect the Join-accept
message content, but the function used is not an aes-encrypt message content, but the function used is not an AES-encrypt
operation, but rather an aes-decrypt operation. The justification is operation, but rather an AES-decrypt operation. The justification is
that this means that the end-device only needs to implement the aes- that this means that the end-device only needs to implement the AES-
encrypt operation. (The counter mode variant used for payload encrypt operation. (The counter mode variant used for payload
decryption means the end-device doesn't need an aes-decrypt decryption means the end-device doesn't need an AES-decrypt
primitive.) primitive.)
The Join-accept plaintext is always less than 16 bytes long, so The Join-accept plaintext is always less than 16 bytes long, so
electronic code book (ECB) mode is used for protecting Join-accept electronic code book (ECB) mode is used for protecting Join-accept
messages. The Join-accept contains an AppNonce (a 24 bit value) that messages. The Join-accept contains an AppNonce (a 24 bit value) that
is recovered on the end-device along with the other Join-accept is recovered on the end-device along with the other Join-accept
content (e.g. DevAddr) using the aes-encrypt operation. Once the content (e.g. DevAddr) using the AEs-encrypt operation. Once the
Join-accept payload is available to the end-device the session keys Join-accept payload is available to the end-device the session keys
are derived from the AppKey, AppNonce and other values, again using are derived from the AppKey, AppNonce and other values, again using
an ECB mode aes-encrypt operation, with the plaintext input being a an ECB mode AES-encrypt operation, with the plaintext input being a
maximum of 16 octets. maximum of 16 octets.
2.2. Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) 2.2. Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT)
Text here is largely from [I-D.ratilainen-lpwan-nb-iot] which may Text here is largely from [I-D.ratilainen-lpwan-nb-iot]
have been updated since this was published.
2.2.1. Provenance and Documents 2.2.1. Provenance and Documents
Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) is developed and standardized Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) is developed and standardized
by 3GPP. The standardization of NB-IoT was finalized with 3GPP by 3GPP. The standardization of NB-IoT was finalized with 3GPP
Release-13 in June 2016, but further enhancements for NB-IoT are Release 13 in June 2016, and further enhancements for NB-IoT are
worked on in the following releases, for example in the form of specified in 3GPP Release 14 in 2017, for example in the form of
multicast support. For more information of what has been specified multicast support. Further features and improvements will be
for NB-IoT, 3GPP specification 36.300 [TGPP36300] provides an developed in the following releases, but NB-IoT has been ready to be
overview and overall description of the E-UTRAN radio interface deployed since 2016, and is rather simple to deploy especially in the
protocol architecture, while specifications 36.321 [TGPP36321], existing LTE networks with a software upgrade in the operator's base
36.322 [TGPP36322], 36.323 [TGPP36323] and 36.331 [TGPP36331] give stations. For more information of what has been specified for NB-
more detailed description of MAC, RLC, PDCP and RRC protocol layers IoT, 3GPP specification 36.300 [TGPP36300] provides an overview and
overall description of the E-UTRAN radio interface protocol
architecture, while specifications 36.321 [TGPP36321], 36.322
[TGPP36322], 36.323 [TGPP36323] and 36.331 [TGPP36331] give more
detailed description of MAC, RLC, PDCP and RRC protocol layers,
respectively. Note that the description below assumes familiarity respectively. Note that the description below assumes familiarity
with numerous 3GPP terms. with numerous 3GPP terms.
2.2.2. Characteristics 2.2.2. Characteristics
[[Ed: Not clear what minimum/worst-case MTU might be.]]
Specific targets for NB-IoT include: Less than US$5 module cost, Specific targets for NB-IoT include: Less than US$5 module cost,
extended coverage of 164 dB maximum coupling loss, battery life of extended coverage of 164 dB maximum coupling loss, battery life of
over 10 years, ~55000 devices per cell and uplink reporting latency over 10 years, ~55000 devices per cell and uplink reporting latency
of less than 10 seconds. of less than 10 seconds.
NB-IoT supports Half Duplex FDD operation mode with 60 kbps peak rate NB-IoT supports Half Duplex FDD operation mode with 60 kbps peak rate
in uplink and 30 kbps peak rate in downlink, and a maximum size MTU in uplink and 30 kbps peak rate in downlink, and a maximum
of 1600 bytes. As the name suggests, NB-IoT uses narrowbands with transmission unit (MTU) size of 1600 bytes limited by PDCP layer (see
the bandwidth of 180 kHz in both, downlink and uplink. The multiple Figure 4 for the protocol structure), which is the highest layer in
the user plane, as explained later. Any packet size up to the said
MTU size can be passed to the NB-IoT stack from higher layers,
segmentation of the packet is performed in the RLC layer, which can
segment the data to transmission blocks with size as small as 16
bits. As the name suggests, NB-IoT uses narrowbands with the
bandwidth of 180 kHz in both downlink and uplink. The multiple
access scheme used in the downlink is OFDMA with 15 kHz sub-carrier access scheme used in the downlink is OFDMA with 15 kHz sub-carrier
spacing. On uplink multi-tone SC-FDMA is used with 15 kHz tone spacing. In uplink SC-FDMA single tone with either 15kHz or 3.75 kHz
spacing or as a special case of SC-FDMA single tone with either 15kHz tone spacing is used, or optionally multi-tone SC- FDMA can be used
or 3.75 kHz tone spacing may be used. with 15 kHz tone spacing.
NB-IoT can be deployed in three ways. In-band deployment means that NB-IoT can be deployed in three ways. In-band deployment means that
the narrowband is multiplexed within normal LTE carrier. In Guard- the narrowband is deployed inside the LTE band and radio resources
are flexibly shared between NB-IoT and normal LTE carrier. In Guard-
band deployment the narrowband uses the unused resource blocks band deployment the narrowband uses the unused resource blocks
between two adjacent LTE carriers. Also standalone deployment is between two adjacent LTE carriers. Standalone deployment is also
supported, where the narrowband can be located alone in dedicated supported, where the narrowband can be located alone in dedicated
spectrum, which makes it possible for example to refarm the GSM spectrum, which makes it possible for example to reframe a GSM
carrier at 850/900 MHz for NB-IoT. All three deployment modes are carrier at 850/900 MHz for NB-IoT. All three deployment modes are
meant to be used in licensed bands. The maximum transmission power used in licensed frequency bands. The maximum transmission power is
is either 20 or 23 dBm for uplink transmissions, while for downlink either 20 or 23 dBm for uplink transmissions, while for downlink
transmission the eNodeB may use higher transmission power, up to 46 transmission the eNodeB may use higher transmission power, up to 46
dBm depending on the deployment. dBm depending on the deployment.
A maximum coupling loss (MCL) target for NB-IoT coverage enhancements
defined by 3GPP is 164 dB. With this MCL, the performance of NB-IoT
in downlink varies between 200 bps and 2-3 kbps, depending on the
deployment mode. Stand-alone operation may achieve the highest data
rates, up to few kbps, while in-band and guard-band operations may
reach several hundreds of bps. NB-IoT may even operate with MCL
higher than 170 dB with very low bit rates.
For signaling optimization, two options are introduced in addition to For signaling optimization, two options are introduced in addition to
legacy RRC connection setup, mandatory Data-over-NAS (Control Plane legacy LTE RRC connection setup; mandatory Data-over-NAS (Control
optimization, solution 2 in [TGPP23720]) and optional RRC Suspend/ Plane optimization, solution 2 in [TGPP23720]) and optional RRC
Resume (User Plane optimization, solution 18 in [TGPP23720]). In the Suspend/Resume (User Plane optimization, solution 18 in [TGPP23720]).
control plane optimization the data is sent over Non Access Stratum, In the control plane optimization the data is sent over Non-Access
directly from Mobility Management Entity (MME) in core network to the Stratum, directly to/from Mobility Management Entity (MME) (see
UE without interaction from base station. This means there are no Figure 3 for the network architecture) in the core network to the UE
Access Stratum security or header compression, as the Access Stratum without interaction from the base station. This means there are no
is bypassed, and only limited RRC procedures. Access Stratum security or header compression provided by the PDCP
layer in the eNodeB, as the Access Stratum is bypassed, and only
limited RRC procedures. RoHC based header compression may still
optionally be provided and terminated in MME.
The RRC Suspend/Resume procedures reduce the signaling overhead The RRC Suspend/Resume procedures reduce the signaling overhead
required for UE state transition from Idle to Connected mode in order required for UE state transition from RRC Idle to RRC Connected mode
to have a user plane transaction with the network and back to Idle compared to legacy LTE operation in order to have quicker user plane
state by reducing the signaling messages required compared to legacy transaction with the network and return to RRC Idle mode faster.
operation
With extended DRX the RRC Connected mode DRX cycle is up to 10.24 In order to prolong device battery life, both power-saving mode (PSM)
seconds and in RRC Idle the DRX cycle can be up to 3 hours. and extended DRX (eDRX) are available to NB-IoT. With eDRX the RRC
Connected mode DRX cycle is up to 10.24 seconds and in RRC Idle the
eDRX cycle can be up to 3 hours. In PSM the device is in a deep
sleep state and only wakes up for uplink reporting, after which there
is a window, configured by the network, during which the device
receiver is open for downlink connectivity, of for periodical "keep-
alive" signaling (PSM uses periodic TAU signaling with additional
reception window for downlink reachability).
NB-IoT has no channel access restrictions allowing up to a 100% duty- Since NB-IoT operates in licensed spectrum, it has no channel access
cycle. restrictions allowing up to a 100% duty-cycle.
3GPP access security is specified in [TGPP33203]. 3GPP access security is specified in [TGPP33203].
+--+ +--+
|UE| \ +------+ +------+ |UE| \ +------+ +------+
+--+ \ | MME |------| HSS | +--+ \ | MME |------| HSS |
\ / +------+ +------+ \ / +------+ +------+
+--+ \+-----+ / | +--+ \+-----+ / |
|UE| ----| eNB |- | |UE| ----| eNB |- |
+--+ /+-----+ \ | +--+ /+-----+ \ |
/ \ +--------+ / \ +--------+
/ \| | +------+ Service PDN / \| | +------+ Service PDN
+--+ / | S-GW |----| P-GW |---- e.g. Internet +--+ / | S-GW |----| P-GW |---- e.g. Internet
|UE| | | +------+ |UE| | | +------+
+--+ +--------+ +--+ +--------+
Figure 3: 3GPP network architecture Figure 3: 3GPP network architecture
Mobility Management Entity (MME) is responsible for handling the Figure 3 shows the 3GPP network architecture, which applies to NB-
mobility of the UE. MME tasks include tracking and paging UEs, IoT. Mobility Management Entity (MME) is responsible for handling
the mobility of the UE. MME tasks include tracking and paging UEs,
session management, choosing the Serving gateway for the UE during session management, choosing the Serving gateway for the UE during
initial attachment and authenticating the user. At MME, the Non initial attachment and authenticating the user. At MME, the Non-
Access Stratum (NAS) signaling from the UE is terminated. Access Stratum (NAS) signaling from the UE is terminated.
Serving Gateway (S-GW) routes and forwards the user data packets Serving Gateway (S-GW) routes and forwards the user data packets
through the access network and acts as a mobility anchor for UEs through the access network and acts as a mobility anchor for UEs
during handover between base stations known as eNodeBs and also during handover between base stations known as eNodeBs and also
during handovers between other 3GPP technologies. during handovers between NB-IoT and other 3GPP technologies.
Packet Data Node Gateway (P-GW) works as an interface between 3GPP Packet Data Node Gateway (P-GW) works as an interface between 3GPP
network and external networks. network and external networks.
Home Subscriber Server (HSS) contains user-related and subscription- The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) contains user-related and
related information. It is a database, which performs mobility subscription- related information. It is a database, which performs
management, session establishment support, user authentication and mobility management, session establishment support, user
access authorization. authentication and access authorization.
E-UTRAN consists of components of a single type, eNodeB. eNodeB is a E-UTRAN consists of components of a single type, eNodeB. eNodeB is a
base station, which controls the UEs in one or several cells. base station, which controls the UEs in one or several cells.
The illustration of 3GPP radio protocol architecture can be seen from The illustration of 3GPP radio protocol architecture can be seen from
Figure 4. Figure 4.
+---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+
| NAS |----|-----------------------------|----| NAS | | NAS |----|-----------------------------|----| NAS |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
skipping to change at page 13, line 40 skipping to change at page 14, line 21
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| RLC |----|----| RLC | IP |----|----| IP | | RLC |----|----| RLC | IP |----|----| IP |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| MAC |----|----| MAC | L2 |----|----| L2 | | MAC |----|----| MAC | L2 |----|----| L2 |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| PHY |----|----| PHY | PHY |----|----| PHY | | PHY |----|----| PHY | PHY |----|----| PHY |
+---------+ +---------+---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+---------+ +---------+
LTE-Uu S1-MME LTE-Uu S1-MME
UE eNodeB MME UE eNodeB MME
Figure 4: 3GPP radio protocol architecture Figure 4: 3GPP radio protocol architecture for control plane
Control plane protocol stack
The radio protocol architecture of NB-IoT (and LTE) is separated into The radio protocol architecture of NB-IoT (and LTE) is separated into
control plane and user plane. Control plane consists of protocols control plane and user plane. The control plane consists of
which control the radio access bearers and the connection between the protocols which control the radio access bearers and the connection
UE and the network. The highest layer of control plane is called between the UE and the network. The highest layer of control plane
Non-Access Stratum (NAS), which conveys the radio signaling between is called Non-Access Stratum (NAS), which conveys the radio signaling
the UE and the EPC, passing transparently through radio network. It between the UE and the EPC, passing transparently through the radio
is responsible for authentication, security control, mobility network. It is responsible for authentication, security control,
management and bearer management. mobility management and bearer management.
Access Stratum (AS) is the functional layer below NAS, and in control Access Stratum (AS) is the functional layer below NAS, and in control
plane it consists of Radio Resource Control protocol (RRC) plane it consists of Radio Resource Control protocol (RRC)
[TGPP36331], which handles connection establishment and release [TGPP36331], which handles connection establishment and release
functions, broadcast of system information, radio bearer functions, broadcast of system information, radio bearer
establishment, reconfiguration and release. RRC configures the user establishment, reconfiguration and release. RRC configures the user
and control planes according to the network status. There exists two and control planes according to the network status. There exists two
RRC states, RRC_Idle or RRC_Connected, and RRC entity controls the RRC states, RRC_Idle or RRC_Connected, and RRC entity controls the
switching between these states. In RRC_Idle, the network knows that switching between these states. In RRC_Idle, the network knows that
the UE is present in the network and the UE can be reached in case of the UE is present in the network and the UE can be reached in case of
incoming call. In this state the UE monitors paging, performs cell incoming call/downlink data. In this state, the UE monitors paging,
measurements and cell selection and acquires system information. performs cell measurements and cell selection and acquires system
Also the UE can receive broadcast and multicast data, but it is not information. Also the UE can receive broadcast and multicast data,
expected to transmit or receive singlecast data. In RRC_Connected but it is not expected to transmit or receive unicast data. In
the UE has a connection to the eNodeB, the network knows the UE RRC_Connected the UE has a connection to the eNodeB, the network
location on cell level and the UE may receive and transmit singlecast knows the UE location on the cell level and the UE may receive and
data. RRC_Connected mode is established, when the UE is expected to transmit unicast data. An RRC connection is established when the UE
be active in the network, to transmit or receive data. Connection is is expected to be active in the network, to transmit or receive data.
released, switching to RRC_Idle, when there is no traffic to save the The RRC connection is released, switching back to RRC_Idle, when
UE battery and radio resources. However, a new feature was there is no more traffic in order to preserve UE battery life and
introduced for NB-IoT, as mentioned earlier, which allows data to be radio resources. However, a new feature was introduced for NB-IoT,
transmitted from the MME directly to the UE, while the UE is in as mentioned earlier, which allows data to be transmitted from the
RRC_Idle transparently to the eNodeB. MME directly to the UE transparently to the eNodeB, thus bypassing AS
functions.
Packet Data Convergence Protocol's (PDCP) [TGPP36323] main services Packet Data Convergence Protocol's (PDCP) [TGPP36323] main services
in control plane are transfer of control plane data, ciphering and in control plane are transfer of control plane data, ciphering and
integrity protection. integrity protection.
Radio Link Control protocol (RLC) [TGPP36322] performs transfer of Radio Link Control protocol (RLC) [TGPP36322] performs transfer of
upper layer PDUs and optionally error correction with Automatic upper layer PDUs and optionally error correction with Automatic
Repeat reQuest (ARQ), concatenation, segmentation and reassembly of Repeat reQuest (ARQ), concatenation, segmentation, and reassembly of
RLC SDUs, in-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs, duplicate RLC SDUs, in-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs, duplicate
detection, RLC SDU discard, RLC-re-establishment and protocol error detection, RLC SDU discard, RLC-re-establishment and protocol error
detection and recovery. detection and recovery.
Medium Access Control protocol (MAC) [TGPP36321] provides mapping Medium Access Control protocol (MAC) [TGPP36321] provides mapping
between logical channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC between logical channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC
SDUs, scheduling information reporting, error correction with HARQ, SDUs, scheduling information reporting, error correction with HARQ,
priority handling and transport format selection. priority handling and transport format selection.
Physical layer [TGPP36201] provides data transport services to higher Physical layer [TGPP36201] provides data transport services to higher
layers. These include error detection and indication to higher layers. These include error detection and indication to higher
layers, FEC encoding, HARQ soft-combining. Rate matching and mapping layers, FEC encoding, HARQ soft-combining. Rate matching and mapping
of the transport channels onto physical channels, power weighting and of the transport channels onto physical channels, power weighting and
modulation of physical channels, frequency and time synchronization modulation of physical channels, frequency and time synchronization
and radio characteristics measurements. and radio characteristics measurements.
User plane is responsible for transferring the user data through the User plane protocol stack
Access Stratum. It interfaces with IP and consists of PDCP, which in
user plane performs header compression using Robust Header
Compression (RoHC), transfer of user plane data between eNodeB and
UE, ciphering and integrity protection. Lower layers in user plane
are similarly RLC, MAC and physical layer performing tasks mentioned
above.
Under worst-case conditions, NB-IoT may achieve data rate of roughly User plane is responsible for transferring the user data through the
200 bps. For downlink with 164 dB coupling loss, NB-IoT may achieve Access Stratum. It interfaces with IP and the highest layer of user
higher data rates, depending on the deployment mode. Stand-alone plane is PDCP, which in user plane performs header compression using
operation may achieve the highest data rates, up to few kbps, while Robust Header Compression (RoHC), transfer of user plane data between
in-band and guard-band operations may reach several hundreds of bps. eNodeB and UE, ciphering and integrity protection. Similar to
NB-IoT may even operate with higher maximum coupling loss than 170 dB control plane, lower layers in user plane include RLC, MAC and
with very low bit rates. physical layer performing the same tasks as in control plane.
2.3. SIGFOX 2.3. SIGFOX
Text here is largely from Text here is largely from
[I-D.zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description] which may have been [I-D.zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description] which may have been
updated since this was published. updated since this was published.
2.3.1. Provenance and Documents 2.3.1. Provenance and Documents
The SIGFOX LPWAN is in line with the terminology and specifications The SIGFOX LPWAN is in line with the terminology and specifications
skipping to change at page 19, line 44 skipping to change at page 20, line 29
ID and a message authentication code, which allow ensuring that the ID and a message authentication code, which allow ensuring that the
message has been generated and sent by the device with the ID claimed message has been generated and sent by the device with the ID claimed
in the message. in the message.
Security keys are independent for each device. These keys are Security keys are independent for each device. These keys are
associated with the device ID and they are pre-provisioned. associated with the device ID and they are pre-provisioned.
Application data can be encrypted by the application provider. Application data can be encrypted by the application provider.
2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) 2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN)
[[Ed: Text here is via personal communication from Bob Heile Text here is via personal communication from Bob Heile
(bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Sean. The (bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Sean. Duffy
editor thanks Paul Duffy (paduffy@cisco.com) for forwarding updated (paduffy@cisco.com) also provided additional comments/input on this
text from Bob and additional comments/input on this section. ]] section.
2.4.1. Provenance and Documents 2.4.1. Provenance and Documents
The Wi-SUN Alliance <https://www.wi-sun.org/> is an industry alliance The Wi-SUN Alliance <https://www.wi-sun.org/> is an industry alliance
for smart city, smart grid, smart utility, and a broad set of general for smart city, smart grid, smart utility, and a broad set of general
IoT applications. The Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) IoT applications. The Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN)
profile is open standards based (primarily on IETF and IEEE802 profile is open standards based (primarily on IETF and IEEE802
standards) and was developed to address applications like smart standards) and was developed to address applications like smart
municipality/city infrastructure monitoring and management, electric municipality/city infrastructure monitoring and management, electric
vehicle (EV) infrastructure, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), vehicle (EV) infrastructure, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI),
distribution automation (DA), supervisory control and data distribution automation (DA), supervisory control and data
acquisition (SCADA) protection/management, distributed generation acquisition (SCADA) protection/management, distributed generation
monitoring and management, and many more IoT applications. monitoring and management, and many more IoT applications.
Additionally, the Alliance has created a certification program to Additionally, the Alliance has created a certification program to
promote global multi-vendor interoperability. promote global multi-vendor interoperability.
The FAN profiile is currently being specified within ANSI/TIA as an The FAN profile is currently being specified within ANSI/TIA as an
extension of work previously done on Smart Utility Networks. extension of work previously done on Smart Utility Networks.
[ANSI-4957-000]. Updates to those specifications intended to be [ANSI-4957-000]. Updates to those specifications intended to be
published in 2017 will contain details of the FAN profile. A current published in 2017 will contain details of the FAN profile. A current
snapshot of the work to produce that profile is presented in snapshot of the work to produce that profile is presented in
[wisun-pressie1] [wisun-pressie2] . [wisun-pressie1] [wisun-pressie2] .
2.4.2. Characteristics 2.4.2. Characteristics
The FAN profile is an IPv6 frequency hopping wireless mesh network The FAN profile is an IPv6 frequency hopping wireless mesh network
with support for enterprise level security. The frequency hopping with support for enterprise level security. The frequency hopping
skipping to change at page 20, line 50 skipping to change at page 21, line 30
Router providing Wide Area Network (WAN) connectivity to the network. Router providing Wide Area Network (WAN) connectivity to the network.
The Border Router maintains source routing tables for all nodes The Border Router maintains source routing tables for all nodes
within its network, provides node authentication and key management within its network, provides node authentication and key management
services, and disseminates network-wide information such as broadcast services, and disseminates network-wide information such as broadcast
schedules. Secondly, Router nodes, which provide upward and downward schedules. Secondly, Router nodes, which provide upward and downward
packet forwarding (within a network). A Router also provides packet forwarding (within a network). A Router also provides
services for relaying security and address management protocols. services for relaying security and address management protocols.
Lastly, Leaf nodes provide minimum capabilities: discovering and Lastly, Leaf nodes provide minimum capabilities: discovering and
joining a network, send/receive IPv6 packets, etc. A low power joining a network, send/receive IPv6 packets, etc. A low power
network may contain a mesh topology with Routers at the edges that network may contain a mesh topology with Routers at the edges that
construct star topology with Leaf nodes. construct a star topology with Leaf nodes.
The FAN profile is based on various open standards developed by the The FAN profile is based on various open standards developed by the
IETF (including [RFC0768], [RFC2460], [RFC4443] and [RFC6282]), IETF (including [RFC0768], [RFC2460], [RFC4443] and [RFC6282]),
IEEE802 (including [IEEE-802-15-4] and [IEEE-802-15-9]) and ANSI/TIA IEEE802 (including [IEEE-802-15-4] and [IEEE-802-15-9]) and ANSI/TIA
[ANSI-4957-210] for low power and lossy networks. [ANSI-4957-210] for low power and lossy networks.
The FAN profile specification provides an application-independent The FAN profile specification provides an application-independent
IPv6-based transport service for both connectionless (i.e. UDP) and IPv6-based transport service for both connectionless (i.e. UDP) and
connection-oriented (i.e. TCP) services. There are two possible connection-oriented (i.e. TCP) services. There are two possible
methods for establishing the IPv6 packet routing: mandatory Routing methods for establishing the IPv6 packet routing: mandatory Routing
Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) at the Network layer Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) at the Network layer
or optional Multi-Hop Delivery Service (MHDS) at the Data Link layer. or optional Multi-Hop Delivery Service (MHDS) at the Data Link layer.
Table 5 provides an overview of the FAN network stack. Table 5 provides an overview of the FAN network stack.
The Transport service is based on User Datagram Protocol (UDP) The Transport service is based on User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
defined in RFC768 or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) defined in defined in RFC768 or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) defined in
RFC793. RFC793.
The Network service is provided by IPv6 defined in RFC2460 with The Network service is provided by IPv6 defined in RFC2460 with
6LoWPAN adaptation as defined in RC4944 and RFC6282. Additionally, 6LoWPAN adaptation as defined in RC4944 and RFC6282. Additionally,
ICMPv6 as defined in RFC4443 is used for control plane in information ICMPv6, as defined in RFC4443, is used for control plane in
exchange. information exchange.
The Data Link service provides both control/management of the The Data Link service provides both control/management of the
Physical layer and data transfer/management services to the Network Physical layer and data transfer/management services to the Network
layer. These services are divided into Media Access Control (MAC) layer. These services are divided into Media Access Control (MAC)
and Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layers. The LLC sub-layer and Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layers. The LLC sub-layer
provides a protocol dispatch service which supports 6LoWPAN and an provides a protocol dispatch service which supports 6LoWPAN and an
optional MAC sub-layer mesh service. The MAC sub-layer is optional MAC sub-layer mesh service. The MAC sub-layer is
constructed using data structures defined in IEEE802.15.4-2015. constructed using data structures defined in IEEE802.15.4-2015.
Multiple modes of frequency hopping are defined. The entire MAC Multiple modes of frequency hopping are defined. The entire MAC
payload is encapsulated in an IEEE802.15.9 Information Element to payload is encapsulated in an IEEE802.15.9 Information Element to
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(End Device, User Equipment or End Point). There can be a high (End Device, User Equipment or End Point). There can be a high
density of end devices per radio gateway. density of end devices per radio gateway.
o The Radio Gateway, which is the end point of the constrained link. o The Radio Gateway, which is the end point of the constrained link.
It is known as: Gateway, Evolved Node B or Base station. It is known as: Gateway, Evolved Node B or Base station.
o The Network Gateway or Router is the interconnection node between o The Network Gateway or Router is the interconnection node between
the Radio Gateway and the Internet. It is known as: Network the Radio Gateway and the Internet. It is known as: Network
Server, Serving GW or Service Center. Server, Serving GW or Service Center.
o AAA Server, which controls the user authentication, the o LPWAN-AAA Server, which controls the user authentication, the
applications. It is known as: Join-Server, Home Subscriber Server applications. It is known as: Join-Server, Home Subscriber Server
or Registration Authority. [[Ed: I'm not clear that AAA server is or Registration Authority. (We use the term LPWAN-AAA server
the right generic term here.]] because we're not assuming that this entity speaks RADIUS or
Diameter as many/most AAA servers do, but equally we don't want to
rule that out, as the functionality will be similar.
o At last we have the Application Server, known also as Packet Data o At last we have the Application Server, known also as Packet Data
Node Gateway or Network Application. Node Gateway or Network Application.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Function/ | | | | | | Function/ | | | | |
| Technology | LORAWAN | NB-IOT | SIGFOX | IETF | | Technology | LORAWAN | NB-IOT | SIGFOX | IETF |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ +--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+
| Sensor, | | | | | | Sensor, | | | | |
| Actuator, | End | User | End | Thing | | Actuator, | End | User | End | Device |
|device, object| Device | Equipment | Point | (HOST) | |device, object| Device | Equipment | Point | (Dev) |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ +--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+
| Transceiver | | Evolved | Base | RADIO | | Transceiver | | Evolved | Base | RADIO |
| Antenna | Gateway | Node B | Station | GATEWAY | | Antenna | Gateway | Node B | Station | GATEWAY |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ +--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+
| Server | Network | Serving- | Service |Network Gateway| | Server | Network | PDN GW/ | Service |Network Gateway|
| | Server | Gateway | Center | (ROUTER) | | | Server | SCEF | Center | (NGW) |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ +--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+
| Security | Join | Home |Registration | | | Security | Join | Home |Registration | LPWAN- |
| Server | Server | Subscriber | Authority | AAA | | Server | Server | Subscriber | Authority | AAA |
| | | Server | | SERVER | | | | Server | | SERVER |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ +--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+
| Application |Application| Packet Data| Network | APPLICATION | | Application |Application| Application| Network | APPLICATION |
| | Server |Node Gateway| Application | SERVER | | | Server | Server | Application | (App) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 8: LPWAN Architecture Terminology Figure 8: LPWAN Architecture Terminology
() () () | +------+ +------+
() () () | |LPWAN-|
() () () () / \ +---------+ | AAA | () () () () / \ +---------+ | AAA |
() () () () () () / \========| /\ |====|Server| +-----------+ () () () () () () / \========| /\ |====|Server| +-----------+
() () () | | <--|--> | +------+ |Application| () () () | | <--|--> | +------+ |APPLICATION|
() () () () / \============| v |==============| Server | () () () () / \============| v |==============| (App) |
() () () / \ +---------+ +-----------+ () () () / \ +---------+ +-----------+
HOSTS Radio Gateways Network Gateway Dev Radio Gateways NGW
Figure 9: LPWAN Architecture Figure 9: LPWAN Architecture
In addition to the names of entities, LPWANs are also subject to In addition to the names of entities, LPWANs are also subject to
possibly regional frequency band regulations. Those may include possibly regional frequency band regulations. Those may include
restrictions on the duty-cycle, for example requiring that hosts only restrictions on the duty-cycle, for example requiring that hosts only
transmit for a certain percentage of each hour. transmit for a certain percentage of each hour.
4. Gap Analysis 4. Gap Analysis
4.1. Naive application of IPv6 4.1. Naive application of IPv6
IPv6 [RFC2460] has been designed to allocate addresses to all the IPv6 [RFC2460] has been designed to allocate addresses to all the
nodes connected to the Internet. Nevertheless, the header overhead nodes connected to the Internet. Nevertheless, the header overhead
of at least 40 bytes introduced by the protocol is incompatible with of at least 40 bytes introduced by the protocol is incompatible with
LPWAN constraints. If IPv6 with no further optimization were used, LPWAN constraints. If IPv6 with no further optimization were used,
several LPWAN frames would be needed just to carry the IP header. several LPWAN frames could be needed just to carry the IP header.
Another problem arises from IPv6 MTU requirements, which require the Another problem arises from IPv6 MTU requirements, which require the
layer below to support at least 1280 byte packets [RFC2460]. layer below to support at least 1280 byte packets [RFC2460].
IPv6 has a configuration protocol - neighbor discovery protocol, IPv6 has a configuration protocol - neighbor discovery protocol,
(NDP) [RFC4861]). For a node to learn network parameters NDP (NDP) [RFC4861]). For a node to learn network parameters NDP
generates regular traffic with a relatively large message size that generates regular traffic with a relatively large message size that
does not fit LPWAN constraints. does not fit LPWAN constraints.
In some LPWAN technologies, layer two multicast is not supported. In In some LPWAN technologies, layer two multicast is not supported. In
that case, if the network topology is a star, the solution and that case, if the network topology is a star, the solution and
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are problematic when considering LPWAN lower layers. are problematic when considering LPWAN lower layers.
4.2. 6LoWPAN 4.2. 6LoWPAN
Several technologies that exhibit significant constraints in various Several technologies that exhibit significant constraints in various
dimensions have exploited the 6LoWPAN suite of specifications dimensions have exploited the 6LoWPAN suite of specifications
[RFC4944], [RFC6282], [RFC6775] to support IPv6 [I-D.hong-6lo-use- [RFC4944], [RFC6282], [RFC6775] to support IPv6 [I-D.hong-6lo-use-
cases]. However, the constraints of LPWANs, often more extreme than cases]. However, the constraints of LPWANs, often more extreme than
those typical of technologies that have (re)used 6LoWPAN, constitute those typical of technologies that have (re)used 6LoWPAN, constitute
a challenge for the 6LoWPAN suite in order to enable IPv6 over LPWAN. a challenge for the 6LoWPAN suite in order to enable IPv6 over LPWAN.
LPWANs are characterised by device constraints (in terms of LPWANs are characterized by device constraints (in terms of
processing capacity, memory, and energy availability), and specially, processing capacity, memory, and energy availability), and specially,
link constraints, such as: link constraints, such as:
o very low layer two payload size (from ~10 to ~100 bytes), o very low layer two payload size (from ~10 to ~100 bytes),
o very low bit rate (from ~10 bit/s to ~100 kbit/s), and o very low bit rate (from ~10 bit/s to ~100 kbit/s), and
o in some specific technologies, further message rate constraints o in some specific technologies, further message rate constraints
(e.g. between ~0.1 message/minute and ~1 message/minute) due to (e.g. between ~0.1 message/minute and ~1 message/minute) due to
regional regulations that limit the duty cycle. regional regulations that limit the duty cycle.
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compressed) or 19 bytes (both source and destination prefixes compressed) or 19 bytes (both source and destination prefixes
compressed). These headers are large considering the link layer compressed). These headers are large considering the link layer
payload size of LPWAN technologies, and in some cases are even bigger payload size of LPWAN technologies, and in some cases are even bigger
than the LPWAN PDUs. 6LoWPAN has been initially designed for IEEE than the LPWAN PDUs. 6LoWPAN has been initially designed for IEEE
802.15.4 networks with a frame size up to 127 bytes and a throughput 802.15.4 networks with a frame size up to 127 bytes and a throughput
of up to 250 kb/s, which may or may not be duty-cycled. of up to 250 kb/s, which may or may not be duty-cycled.
4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration 4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration
Traditionally, Interface Identifiers (IIDs) have been derived from Traditionally, Interface Identifiers (IIDs) have been derived from
link layer identifiers [RFC4944] . This allows optimisations such as link layer identifiers [RFC4944] . This allows optimizations such as
header compression. Nevertheless, recent guidance has given advice header compression. Nevertheless, recent guidance has given advice
on the fact that, due to privacy concerns, 6LoWPAN devices should not on the fact that, due to privacy concerns, 6LoWPAN devices should not
be configured to embed their link layer addresses in the IID by be configured to embed their link layer addresses in the IID by
default. default.
4.2.3. Fragmentation 4.2.3. Fragmentation
As stated above, IPv6 requires the layer below to support an MTU of As stated above, IPv6 requires the layer below to support an MTU of
1280 bytes [RFC2460]. Therefore, given the low maximum payload size 1280 bytes [RFC2460]. Therefore, given the low maximum payload size
of LPWAN technologies, fragmentation is needed. of LPWAN technologies, fragmentation is needed.
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4.5. RoHC 4.5. RoHC
Robust header compression (RoHC) is a header compression mechanism Robust header compression (RoHC) is a header compression mechanism
[RFC3095] developed for multimedia flows in a point to point channel. [RFC3095] developed for multimedia flows in a point to point channel.
RoHC uses 3 levels of compression, each level having its own header RoHC uses 3 levels of compression, each level having its own header
format. In the first level, RoHC sends 52 bytes of header, in the format. In the first level, RoHC sends 52 bytes of header, in the
second level the header could be from 34 to 15 bytes and in the third second level the header could be from 34 to 15 bytes and in the third
level header size could be from 7 to 2 bytes. The level of level header size could be from 7 to 2 bytes. The level of
compression is managed by a sequence number, which varies in size compression is managed by a sequence number, which varies in size
from 2 bytes to 4 bits in the minimal compression. SN compression is from 2 bytes to 4 bits in the minimal compression. SN compression is
done with an algorithm called W-LSB (Window- Least Signifiant Bits). done with an algorithm called W-LSB (Window- Least Significant Bits).
This window has a 4 bit size representing 15 packets, so every 15 This window has a 4-bit size representing 15 packets, so every 15
packets RoHC needs to slide the window in order to receive the packets RoHC needs to slide the window in order to receive the
correct sequence number, and sliding the window implies a reduction correct sequence number, and sliding the window implies a reduction
of the level of compression. When packets are lost or errored, the of the level of compression. When packets are lost or errored, the
decompressor loses context and drops packets until a bigger header is decompressor loses context and drops packets until a bigger header is
sent with more complete information. To estimate the performance of sent with more complete information. To estimate the performance of
RoHC, an average header size is used. This average depends on the RoHC, an average header size is used. This average depends on the
transmission conditions, but most of the time is between 3 and 4 transmission conditions, but most of the time is between 3 and 4
bytes. bytes.
RoHC has not been adapted specifically to the constrained hosts and RoHC has not been adapted specifically to the constrained hosts and
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ROLL WG and other routing protocols are out of scope of the LPWAN WG. ROLL WG and other routing protocols are out of scope of the LPWAN WG.
4.7. CoAP 4.7. CoAP
CoAP [RFC7252] provides a RESTful framework for applications intended CoAP [RFC7252] provides a RESTful framework for applications intended
to run on constrained IP networks. It may be necessary to adapt CoAP to run on constrained IP networks. It may be necessary to adapt CoAP
or related protocols to take into account for the extreme duty cycles or related protocols to take into account for the extreme duty cycles
and the potentially extremely limited throughput of LPWANs. and the potentially extremely limited throughput of LPWANs.
For example, some of the timers in CoAP may need to be redefined. For example, some of the timers in CoAP may need to be redefined.
Taking into account CoAP acknowledgements may allow the reduction of Taking into account CoAP acknowledgments may allow the reduction of
L2 acknowledgements. On the other hand, the current work in progress L2 acknowledgments. On the other hand, the current work in progress
in the CoRE WG where the COMI/CoOL network management interface in the CoRE WG where the COMI/CoOL network management interface
which, uses Structured Identifiers (SID) to reduce payload size over which, uses Structured Identifiers (SID) to reduce payload size over
CoAP proves to be a good solution for the LPWAN technologies. The CoAP may prove to be a good solution for the LPWAN technologies. The
overhead is reduced by adding a dictionary which matches a URI to a overhead is reduced by adding a dictionary which matches a URI to a
small identifier and a compact mapping of the YANG model into the small identifier and a compact mapping of the YANG model into the
CBOR binary representation. CBOR binary representation.
4.8. Mobility 4.8. Mobility
LPWANs nodes can be mobile. However, LPWAN mobility is different LPWANs nodes can be mobile. However, LPWAN mobility is different
from the one specified for Mobile IP. LPWAN implies sporadic traffic from the one specified for Mobile IP. LPWAN implies sporadic traffic
and will rarely be used for high-frequency, real-time communications. and will rarely be used for high-frequency, real-time communications.
The applications do not generate a flow, they need to save energy and The applications do not generate a flow, they need to save energy and
most of the time the node will be down. The mobility will imply most most of the time the node will be down.
of the time a group of devices, which represent a network itself.
The mobility concerns more the gateway than the devices.
NEMO [RFC3963] Mobility solutions may be used in the case where some In addition, LPWAN mobility may mostly apply to groups of devices,
hosts belonging to the same Network gateway will move from one point that represent a network in which case mobility is more a concern for
to another and that they are not aware of this mobility. the gateway than the devices. NEMO [RFC3963] Mobility solutions may
be used in the case where some end-devices belonging to the same
network gateway move from one point to another such that they are not
aware of being mobile.
4.9. DNS and LPWAN 4.9. DNS and LPWAN
The Domain Name System (DNS) DNS [RFC1035], enables applications to The Domain Name System (DNS) DNS [RFC1035], enables applications to
name things with a globallly resolvable name. Many protocols use the name things with a globally resolvable name. Many protocols use the
DNS to identify hosts for example applications using CoAP. DNS to identify hosts, for example applications using CoAP.
The DNS query/answer protocol as a pre-cursor to other communication The DNS query/answer protocol as a pre-cursor to other communication
within the time-to-live (TTL) of a DNS answer is clearly problematic within the time-to-live (TTL) of a DNS answer is clearly problematic
in an LPWAN, say where only one round-trip per hour can be used, and in an LPWAN, say where only one round-trip per hour can be used, and
with a TTL that is less than 3600. It is currently unclear whether with a TTL that is less than 3600. It is currently unclear whether
and how DNS-like functionality might be provided in LPWANs. and how DNS-like functionality might be provided in LPWANs.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Most LPWAN technologies integrate some authentication or encryption Most LPWAN technologies integrate some authentication or encryption
mechanisms that were defined outside the IETF. The working group may mechanisms that were defined outside the IETF. The working group may
need to do work to integrate these mechanisms to unify management. A need to do work to integrate these mechanisms to unify management. A
standardized Authentication, Accounting and Authorization (AAA) standardized Authentication, Accounting, and Authorization (AAA)
infrastructure [RFC2904] may offer a scalable solution for some of infrastructure [RFC2904] may offer a scalable solution for some of
the security and management issues for LPWANs. AAA offers the security and management issues for LPWANs. AAA offers
centralized management that may be of use in LPWANs, for example centralized management that may be of use in LPWANs, for example
[I-D.garcia-dime-diameter-lorawan] and [I-D.garcia-dime-diameter-lorawan] and
[I-D.garcia-radext-radius-lorawan] suggest possible security [I-D.garcia-radext-radius-lorawan] suggest possible security
processes for a LoRaWAN network. Similar mechanisms may be useful to processes for a LoRaWAN network. Similar mechanisms may be useful to
explore for other LPWAN technologies. explore for other LPWAN technologies.
Some applications using LPWANs may raise few or no privacy Some applications using LPWANs may raise few or no privacy
considerations. For example, temperature sensors in a large office considerations. For example, temperature sensors in a large office
building may not raise privacy issues. However, the same sensors, if building may not raise privacy issues. However, the same sensors, if
deployed in a home environment and especially if triggered due to deployed in a home environment and especially if triggered due to
human presence, can raise significant privacy issues - if an end- human presence, can raise significant privacy issues - if an end-
device emits (an encrypted) packet every time someone enters a room device emits (an encrypted) packet every time someone enters a room
in a home, then that traffic is privacy sensitive. And the more that in a home, then that traffic is privacy sensitive. And the more that
the existence of that traffic is visible to network entities, the the existence of that traffic is visible to network entities, the
more privacy sensitivities arise. At this point, it is not clear more privacy sensitivities arise. At this point, it is not clear
whether there are workable mitigations for problems like this - in a whether there are workable mitigations for problems like this - in a
more typical network, one would cosider defining padding mechanisms more typical network, one would consider defining padding mechanisms
and allowing for cover traffic. In some LPWANs, those mechanisms may and allowing for cover traffic. In some LPWANs, those mechanisms may
not be feasible. Nonetheless, the privacy challenges do exist and not be feasible. Nonetheless, the privacy challenges do exist and
can be real and so some solutions will be needed. Note that many can be real and so some solutions will be needed. Note that many
aspects of solutions in this space may not be visible in IETF aspects of solutions in this space may not be visible in IETF
specifications, but can be e.g. implementation or deployment specifications, but can be e.g. implementation or deployment
specific. specific.
Another challenge for LPWANs will be how to handle key management and Another challenge for LPWANs will be how to handle key management and
associated protocols. In a more traditional network (e.g. the web), associated protocols. In a more traditional network (e.g. the web),
servers can stable OCSP responses in order to allow browsers to check servers can "staple" OCSP responses in order to allow browsers to
revocation status for presented certificates. [RFC6961] While the check revocation status for presented certificates. [RFC6961] While
"stapling" approach is likely something that would help in an LPWAN, the stapling approach is likely something that would help in an
as it avoids an RTT, certificates and OCSP responses are bulky items LPWAN, as it avoids an RTT, certificates and OCSP responses are bulky
and will prove challenging to handle in LPWANs with bounded items and will prove challenging to handle in LPWANs with bounded
bandwidth. bandwidth.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
There are no IANA considerations related to this memo. There are no IANA considerations related to this memo.
7. Contributors 7. Contributors
As stated above this document is mainly a collection of content As stated above this document is mainly a collection of content
developed by the full set of contributors listed below. The main developed by the full set of contributors listed below. The main
input documents and their authors were: input documents and their authors were:
o Text for Section 2.1 was provieded by Alper Yegin and Stephen o Text for Section 2.1 was provided by Alper Yegin and Stephen
Farrell in [I-D.farrell-lpwan-lora-overview]. Farrell in [I-D.farrell-lpwan-lora-overview].
o Text for Section 2.2 was provided by Antti Ratilainen in o Text for Section 2.2 was provided by Antti Ratilainen in
[I-D.ratilainen-lpwan-nb-iot]. [I-D.ratilainen-lpwan-nb-iot].
o Text for Section 2.3 was provided by Juan Carlos Zuniga and Benoit o Text for Section 2.3 was provided by Juan Carlos Zuniga and Benoit
Ponsard in [I-D.zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description]. Ponsard in [I-D.zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description].
o Text for Section 2.4 was provided via personal communication from o Text for Section 2.4 was provided via personal communication from
Bob Heile (bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Bob Heile (bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin
skipping to change at page 33, line 25 skipping to change at page 34, line 32
Juan Carlos Zuniga Juan Carlos Zuniga
SIGFOX SIGFOX
425 rue Jean Rostand 425 rue Jean Rostand
Labege 31670 Labege 31670
France France
Email: JuanCarlos.Zuniga@sigfox.com Email: JuanCarlos.Zuniga@sigfox.com
URI: http://www.sigfox.com/ URI: http://www.sigfox.com/
8. Acknowledgements 8. Acknowledgments
Thanks to all those listed in Section 7 for the excellent text. Thanks to all those listed in Section 7 for the excellent text.
Errors in the handling of that are solely the editor's fault. Errors in the handling of that are solely the editor's fault.
In addition to the contributors above, thanks are due to Jiazi Yi, In addition to the contributors above, thanks are due to Arun
[your name here] for comments. (arun@acklio.com), Dan Garcia Carrillo, Paul Duffy, Jiazi Yi, for
comments.
[[Ed: If I omitted anyone, sorry and just let me know and I'll add
you here.]]
Alexander Pelov and Pascal Thubert were the LPWAN WG chairs while
this document was developed.
Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by the Science Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by the Science
Foundation Ireland funded CONNECT centre <https://connectcentre.ie/>. Foundation Ireland funded CONNECT centre <https://connectcentre.ie/>.
9. Informative References 9. Informative References
[RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, [RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980, DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>.
skipping to change at page 39, line 24 skipping to change at page 40, line 43
https://www.ietf.org/proceedings/98/slides/slides-98-lpwan- https://www.ietf.org/proceedings/98/slides/slides-98-lpwan-
aggregated-slides-07.pdf) aggregated-slides-07.pdf)
o Got new text wrt Wi-SUN via email from Paul Duffy and merged that o Got new text wrt Wi-SUN via email from Paul Duffy and merged that
in in
o Reflected list discussion wrt terminology and "end-device" o Reflected list discussion wrt terminology and "end-device"
o Merged PR's: #3... o Merged PR's: #3...
A.3. From -02 to -03
o Editorial changes and typo fixes thanks to Fred Baker running
something called Grammerly and sending me it's report.
o Merged PR's: #4, #6, #7...
o Editor did an editing pass on the lot.
Author's Address Author's Address
Stephen Farrell (editor) Stephen Farrell (editor)
Trinity College Dublin Trinity College Dublin
Dublin 2 Dublin 2
Ireland Ireland
Phone: +353-1-896-2354 Phone: +353-1-896-2354
Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie
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