draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-03.txt   draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-04.txt 
lpwan S. Farrell, Ed. lpwan S. Farrell, Ed.
Internet-Draft Trinity College Dublin Internet-Draft Trinity College Dublin
Intended status: Informational May 25, 2017 Intended status: Informational June 13, 2017
Expires: November 26, 2017 Expires: December 15, 2017
LPWAN Overview LPWAN Overview
draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-03 draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-04
Abstract Abstract
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are wireless technologies with Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are wireless technologies with
characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly
very small packet and application layer data sizes and long battery very small packet and application layer data sizes and long battery
life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of
LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that
exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running
IP in LPWANs. IP in LPWANs.
skipping to change at page 1, line 36 skipping to change at page 1, line 36
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on November 26, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on December 15, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Appendix A. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Appendix A. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 A.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 A.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 A.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document provides background material and an overview of the This document provides background material and an overview of the
technologies being considered in the IETF's Low Power Wide-Area technologies being considered in the IETF's Low Power Wide-Area
Networking (LPWAN) working group. We also provide a gap analysis Networking (LPWAN) working group. We also provide a gap analysis
between the needs of these technologies and currently available IETF between the needs of these technologies and currently available IETF
specifications. specifications.
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gateways received the corresponding link request MAC command. gateways received the corresponding link request MAC command.
Some MAC commands are initiated by the network server. For example, Some MAC commands are initiated by the network server. For example,
one command allows the network server to ask an end-device to reduce one command allows the network server to ask an end-device to reduce
its duty-cycle to only use a proportion of the maximum allowed in a its duty-cycle to only use a proportion of the maximum allowed in a
region. Another allows the network server to query the end-device's region. Another allows the network server to query the end-device's
power status with the response from the end-device specifying whether power status with the response from the end-device specifying whether
it has an external power source or is battery powered (in which case it has an external power source or is battery powered (in which case
a relative battery level is also sent to the network server). a relative battery level is also sent to the network server).
A LoRaWAN network has a short network identifier ("NwkID") which is a A LoRaWAN network has a network identifier ("NwkID"), currently a
seven-bit value. A private network (common for LoRaWAN) can use the seven-bit value. A private network (common for LoRaWAN) can use the
value zero. If a network wishes to support "foreign" end-devices value zero or one. If a network wishes to support "foreign" end-
then the NwkID needs to be registered with the LoRA Alliance, in devices then the NwkID needs to be registered with the LoRA Alliance,
which case the NwkID is the seven least significant bits of a in which case the NwkID is the seven least significant bits of a
registered 24-bit NetID. (Note however, that the methods for registered 24-bit NetID. (Note however, that the methods for
"roaming" are defined in the upcoming LoRaWAN 1.1 specification.) "roaming" are defined in the upcoming LoRaWAN 1.1 specification.)
In order to operate nominally on a LoRaWAN network, a device needs a In order to operate nominally on a LoRaWAN network, a device needs a
32-bit device address, which is the catenation of the NwkID and a 32-bit device address, which is the catenation of the NwkID and a
25-bit device-specific network address that is assigned when the 25-bit device-specific network address that is assigned when the
device "joins" the network (see below for the join procedure) or that device "joins" the network (see below for the join procedure) or that
is pre-provisioned into the device. is pre-provisioned into the device.
End-devices are assumed to work with one or a quite limited number of End-devices are assumed to work with one or a quite limited number of
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cryptographic operations. So, one option is for an end-device to cryptographic operations. So, one option is for an end-device to
have all of the above, plus channel information, somehow have all of the above, plus channel information, somehow
(pre-)provisioned, in which case the end-device can simply start (pre-)provisioned, in which case the end-device can simply start
transmitting. This is achievable in many cases via out-of-band means transmitting. This is achievable in many cases via out-of-band means
given the nature of LoRaWAN networks. Table 3 summarizes these given the nature of LoRaWAN networks. Table 3 summarizes these
values. values.
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| Value | Description | | Value | Description |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| DevAddr | DevAddr (32-bits) = NwkId (7-bits) + device-specific | | DevAddr | DevAddr (32-bits) = device-specific network address |
| | network address (25 bits) | | | generated from the NwkID |
| | | | | |
| AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application | | AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application |
| | | | | |
| NwkSKey | 128-bit network session key for use with AES | | NwkSKey | 128-bit network session key for use with AES |
| | | | | |
| AppSKey | 128-bit application session key for use with AES | | AppSKey | 128-bit application session key for use with AES |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
Table 3: Values required for nominal operation Table 3: Values required for nominal operation
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rates, up to few kbps, while in-band and guard-band operations may rates, up to few kbps, while in-band and guard-band operations may
reach several hundreds of bps. NB-IoT may even operate with MCL reach several hundreds of bps. NB-IoT may even operate with MCL
higher than 170 dB with very low bit rates. higher than 170 dB with very low bit rates.
For signaling optimization, two options are introduced in addition to For signaling optimization, two options are introduced in addition to
legacy LTE RRC connection setup; mandatory Data-over-NAS (Control legacy LTE RRC connection setup; mandatory Data-over-NAS (Control
Plane optimization, solution 2 in [TGPP23720]) and optional RRC Plane optimization, solution 2 in [TGPP23720]) and optional RRC
Suspend/Resume (User Plane optimization, solution 18 in [TGPP23720]). Suspend/Resume (User Plane optimization, solution 18 in [TGPP23720]).
In the control plane optimization the data is sent over Non-Access In the control plane optimization the data is sent over Non-Access
Stratum, directly to/from Mobility Management Entity (MME) (see Stratum, directly to/from Mobility Management Entity (MME) (see
Figure 3 for the network architecture) in the core network to the UE Figure 3 for the network architecture) in the core network to the
without interaction from the base station. This means there are no User Equipment (UE) without interaction from the base station. This
Access Stratum security or header compression provided by the PDCP means there are no Access Stratum security or header compression
layer in the eNodeB, as the Access Stratum is bypassed, and only provided by the PDCP layer in the eNodeB, as the Access Stratum is
limited RRC procedures. RoHC based header compression may still bypassed, and only limited RRC procedures. RoHC based header
optionally be provided and terminated in MME. compression may still optionally be provided and terminated in MME.
The RRC Suspend/Resume procedures reduce the signaling overhead The RRC Suspend/Resume procedures reduce the signaling overhead
required for UE state transition from RRC Idle to RRC Connected mode required for UE state transition from RRC Idle to RRC Connected mode
compared to legacy LTE operation in order to have quicker user plane compared to legacy LTE operation in order to have quicker user plane
transaction with the network and return to RRC Idle mode faster. transaction with the network and return to RRC Idle mode faster.
In order to prolong device battery life, both power-saving mode (PSM) In order to prolong device battery life, both power-saving mode (PSM)
and extended DRX (eDRX) are available to NB-IoT. With eDRX the RRC and extended DRX (eDRX) are available to NB-IoT. With eDRX the RRC
Connected mode DRX cycle is up to 10.24 seconds and in RRC Idle the Connected mode DRX cycle is up to 10.24 seconds and in RRC Idle the
eDRX cycle can be up to 3 hours. In PSM the device is in a deep eDRX cycle can be up to 3 hours. In PSM the device is in a deep
skipping to change at page 16, line 8 skipping to change at page 16, line 8
2.3. SIGFOX 2.3. SIGFOX
Text here is largely from Text here is largely from
[I-D.zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description] which may have been [I-D.zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description] which may have been
updated since this was published. updated since this was published.
2.3.1. Provenance and Documents 2.3.1. Provenance and Documents
The SIGFOX LPWAN is in line with the terminology and specifications The SIGFOX LPWAN is in line with the terminology and specifications
being defined by the ETSI ERM TG28 Low Throughput Networks (LTN) being defined by ETSI [etsi_unb]. As of today, SIGFOX's network has
group [etsi_ltn]. As of today, SIGFOX's network has been fully been fully deployed in 12 countries, with ongoing deployments on 26
deployed in 6 countries, with ongoing deployments on 18 other other countries, giving in total a geography of 2 million square
countries, in total a geography containing 397M people. kilometers, containing 512 million people.
2.3.2. Characteristics 2.3.2. Characteristics
SIGFOX LPWAN autonomous battery-operated devices send only a few SIGFOX LPWAN autonomous battery-operated devices send only a few
bytes per day, week or month, in principle allowing them to remain on bytes per day, week or month, in principle allowing them to remain on
a single battery for up to 10-15 years. The capacity of a SIGFOX a single battery for up to 10-15 years. Hence, the system is
base station mainly depends on the number of messages generated by designed as to allow devices to last several years, sometimes even
the devices, and not on the number of devices. The battery life of buried underground.
devices also depends on the number of messages generated by the
device, but it is important to keep in mind that these devices are
designed to last several years, some of them even buried underground.
The coverage of the cell also depends on the link budget and on the
type of deployment (urban, rural, etc.), which can vary from sending
less than one message per device per day to dozens of messages per
device per day.
The radio interface is compliant with the following regulations: Since the radio protocol is connection-less and optimized for uplink
communications, the capacity of a SIGFOX base station depends on the
number of messages generated by devices, and not on the actual number
of devices. Likewise, the battery life of devices depends on the
number of messages generated by the device. Depending on the use
case, devices can vary from sending less than one message per device
per day, to dozens of messages per device per day.
The coverage of the cell depends on the link budget and on the type
of deployment (urban, rural, etc.). The radio interface is compliant
with the following regulations:
Spectrum allocation in the USA [fcc_ref] Spectrum allocation in the USA [fcc_ref]
Spectrum allocation in Europe [etsi_ref] Spectrum allocation in Europe [etsi_ref]
Spectrum allocation in Japan [arib_ref] Spectrum allocation in Japan [arib_ref]
The SIGFOX LTN radio interface is also compliant with the local The SIGFOX radio interface is also compliant with the local
regulations of the following countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, regulations of the following countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada,
Kenya, Lebanon, Mauritius, Mexico, New Zealand, Oman, Peru, Kenya, Lebanon, Mauritius, Mexico, New Zealand, Oman, Peru,
Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, and Thailand. Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, and Thailand.
The radio interface is based on Ultra Narrow Band (UNB) The radio interface is based on Ultra Narrow Band (UNB)
communications, which allow an increased transmission range by communications, which allow an increased transmission range by
spending a limited amount of energy at the device. Moreover, UNB spending a limited amount of energy at the device. Moreover, UNB
allows a large number of devices to coexist in a given cell without allows a large number of devices to coexist in a given cell without
significantly increasing the spectrum interference. significantly increasing the spectrum interference.
Both uplink and downlink communications are possible with the UNB Both uplink and downlink are supported, although the system is
solution. Due to spectrum optimizations, different uplink and optimized for uplink communications. Due to spectrum optimizations,
downlink frames and time synchronization methods are needed. different uplink and downlink frames and time synchronization methods
are needed.
The main radio characteristics of the UNB uplink transmission are: The main radio characteristics of the UNB uplink transmission are:
o Channelization mask: 100 Hz (600 Hz in the USA) o Channelization mask: 100 Hz / 600 Hz (depending on the region)
o Uplink baud rate: 100 baud (600 baud in the USA) o Uplink baud rate: 100 baud / 600 baud (depending on the region)
o Modulation scheme: DBPSK o Modulation scheme: DBPSK
o Uplink transmission power: compliant with local regulation o Uplink transmission power: compliant with local regulation
o Link budget: 155 dB (or better) o Link budget: 155 dB (or better)
o Central frequency accuracy: not relevant, provided there is no o Central frequency accuracy: not relevant, provided there is no
significant frequency drift within an uplink packet significant frequency drift within an uplink packet transmission
In Europe, the UNB uplink frequency band is limited to 868,00 to For example, in Europe the UNB uplink frequency band is limited to
868,60 MHz, with a maximum output power of 25 mW and a maximum mean 868.00 to 868.60 MHz, with a maximum output power of 25 mW and a duty
transmission time of 1%. cycle of 1%.
The format of the uplink frame is the following: The format of the uplink frame is the following:
+--------+--------+--------+------------------+-------------+-----+ +--------+--------+--------+------------------+-------------+-----+
|Preamble| Frame | Dev ID | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS | |Preamble| Frame | Dev ID | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS |
| | Sync | | | | | | | Sync | | | | |
+--------+--------+--------+------------------+-------------+-----+ +--------+--------+--------+------------------+-------------+-----+
Figure 5: Uplink Frame Format Figure 5: Uplink Frame Format
skipping to change at page 18, line 4 skipping to change at page 18, line 10
o Frame check sequence: 16 bits (CRC) o Frame check sequence: 16 bits (CRC)
The main radio characteristics of the UNB downlink transmission are: The main radio characteristics of the UNB downlink transmission are:
o Channelization mask: 1.5 kHz o Channelization mask: 1.5 kHz
o Downlink baud rate: 600 baud o Downlink baud rate: 600 baud
o Modulation scheme: GFSK o Modulation scheme: GFSK
o Downlink transmission power: 500 mW (4W in the USA)
o Downlink transmission power: 500 mW / 4W (depending on the region)
o Link budget: 153 dB (or better) o Link budget: 153 dB (or better)
o Central frequency accuracy: Centre frequency of downlink o Central frequency accuracy: Centre frequency of downlink
transmission are set by the network according to the corresponding transmission are set by the network according to the corresponding
uplink transmission. uplink transmission
In Europe, the UNB downlink frequency band is limited to 869,40 to For example, in Europe the UNB downlink frequency band is limited to
869,65 MHz, with a maximum output power of 500 mW with 10% duty 869.40 to 869.65 MHz, with a maximum output power of 500 mW with 10%
cycle. duty cycle.
The format of the downlink frame is the following: The format of the downlink frame is the following:
+------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+ +------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+
| Preamble |Frame| ECC | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS | | Preamble |Frame| ECC | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS |
| |Sync | | | | | | |Sync | | | | |
+------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+ +------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+
Figure 6: Downlink Frame Format Figure 6: Downlink Frame Format
skipping to change at page 18, line 40 skipping to change at page 18, line 47
o Error Correcting Code (ECC): 32 bits o Error Correcting Code (ECC): 32 bits
o Payload: 0-64 bits o Payload: 0-64 bits
o Authentication: 16 bits o Authentication: 16 bits
o Frame check sequence: 8 bits (CRC) o Frame check sequence: 8 bits (CRC)
The radio interface is optimized for uplink transmissions, which are The radio interface is optimized for uplink transmissions, which are
asynchronous. Downlink communications are achieved by querying the asynchronous. Downlink communications are achieved by devices
network for existing data from the device. querying the network for available data.
A device willing to receive downlink messages opens a fixed window A device willing to receive downlink messages opens a fixed window
for reception after sending an uplink transmission. The delay and for reception after sending an uplink transmission. The delay and
duration of this window have fixed values. The LTN transmits the duration of this window have fixed values. The network transmits the
downlink message for a given device during the reception window. The downlink message for a given device during the reception window, and
LTN selects the base station (BS) for transmitting the corresponding the network also selects the base station (BS) for transmitting the
downlink message. corresponding downlink message.
Uplink and downlink transmissions are unbalanced due to the Uplink and downlink transmissions are unbalanced due to the
regulatory constraints on the ISM bands. Under the strictest regulatory constraints on ISM bands. Under the strictest
regulations, the system can allow a maximum of 140 uplink messages regulations, the system can allow a maximum of 140 uplink messages
and 4 downlink messages per device per day. These restrictions can and 4 downlink messages per device per day. These restrictions can
be slightly relaxed depending on system conditions and the specific be slightly relaxed depending on system conditions and the specific
regulatory domain of operation. regulatory domain of operation.
+--+ +---+
|EP| * +------+ |DEV| * +------+
+--+ * | RA | +---+ * | RA |
* +------+ * +------+
+--+ * | +---+ * |
|EP| * * * * | |DEV| * * * * |
+--+ * +----+ | +---+ * +----+ |
* | BS | \ +--------+ * | BS | \ +--------+
+--+ * +----+ \ | | +---+ * +----+ \ | |
DA -----|EP| * * * | SC |----- NA DA -----|DEV| * * * | SC |----- NA
+--+ * / | | +---+ * / | |
* +----+ / +--------+ * +----+ / +--------+
+--+ * | BS |/ +---+ * | BS |/
|EP| * * * * +----+ |DEV| * * * * +----+
+--+ * +---+ *
* *
+--+ * +---+ *
|EP| * * |DEV| * *
+--+ +---+
Figure 7: SIGFOX architecture Figure 7: SIGFOX network architecture
Figure 7 depicts the different elements of the SIGFOX architecture. Figure 7 depicts the different elements of the SIGFOX network
architecture.
SIGFOX has a "one-contract one-network" model allowing devices to SIGFOX has a "one-contract one-network" model allowing devices to
connect in any country, without any notion of roaming. connect in any country, without any need or notion of either roaming
or handover.
The architecture consists of a single core network, which allows The architecture consists of a single cloud-based core network, which
global connectivity with minimal impact on the end device and radio allows global connectivity with minimal impact on the end device and
access network. The core network elements are the Service Center radio access network. The core network elements are the Service
(SC) and the Registration Authority (RA). The SC is in charge of the Center (SC) and the Registration Authority (RA). The SC is in charge
data connectivity between the Base Station (BS) and the Internet, as of the data connectivity between the Base Station (BS) and the
well as the control and management of the BSs and End Points. The RA Internet, as well as the control and management of the BSs and End
is in charge of the End Point network access authorization. Points. The RA is in charge of the End Point network access
authorization.
The radio access network is comprised of several BSs connected The radio access network is comprised of several BSs connected
directly to the SC. Each BS performs complex L1/L2 functions, directly to the SC. Each BS performs complex L1/L2 functions,
leaving some L2 and L3 functionalities to the SC. leaving some L2 and L3 functionalities to the SC.
The devices or End Points (EPs) are the objects that communicate The Devices (DEVs) or End Points (EPs) are the objects that
application data between local device applications (DAs) and network communicate application data between local device applications (DAs)
applications (NAs). and network applications (NAs).
EPs (or devices) can be static or nomadic, as they associate with the Devices (or EPs) can be static or nomadic, as they associate with the
SC and they do not attach to a specific BS. Hence, they can SC and they do not attach to any specific BS. Hence, they can
communicate with the SC through one or many BSs. communicate with the SC through one or multiple BSs.
Due to constraints in the complexity of the EP, it is assumed that Due to constraints in the complexity of the Device, it is assumed
EPs host only one or very few device applications, which communicate that Devices host only one or very few device applications, which
to one single network application at a time. most of the time communicate each to a single network application at
a time.
The radio protocol provides mechanisms to authenticate and ensure The radio protocol provides mechanisms to authenticate and ensure
integrity of the message. This is achieved by using a unique device integrity of the message. This is achieved by using a unique device
ID and a message authentication code, which allow ensuring that the ID and a message authentication code, which allow ensuring that the
message has been generated and sent by the device with the ID claimed message has been generated and sent by the device with the ID claimed
in the message. in the message.
Security keys are independent for each device. These keys are Security keys are independent for each device. These keys are
associated with the device ID and they are pre-provisioned. associated with the device ID and they are pre-provisioned.
Application data can be encrypted by the application provider. Application data can be encrypted at the application level or not,
depending on the criticality of the use case, allowing hence to
balance cost and effort vs. risk.
2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) 2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN)
Text here is via personal communication from Bob Heile Text here is via personal communication from Bob Heile
(bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Sean. Duffy (bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Sean. Duffy
(paduffy@cisco.com) also provided additional comments/input on this (paduffy@cisco.com) also provided additional comments/input on this
section. section.
2.4.1. Provenance and Documents 2.4.1. Provenance and Documents
skipping to change at page 34, line 38 skipping to change at page 34, line 38
Email: JuanCarlos.Zuniga@sigfox.com Email: JuanCarlos.Zuniga@sigfox.com
URI: http://www.sigfox.com/ URI: http://www.sigfox.com/
8. Acknowledgments 8. Acknowledgments
Thanks to all those listed in Section 7 for the excellent text. Thanks to all those listed in Section 7 for the excellent text.
Errors in the handling of that are solely the editor's fault. Errors in the handling of that are solely the editor's fault.
In addition to the contributors above, thanks are due to Arun In addition to the contributors above, thanks are due to Arun
(arun@acklio.com), Dan Garcia Carrillo, Paul Duffy, Jiazi Yi, for (arun@acklio.com), Dan Garcia Carrillo, Paul Duffy, Thad Guidry,
comments. Jiazi Yi, for comments.
[[Ed: If I omitted anyone, sorry and just let me know and I'll add [[Ed: If I omitted anyone, sorry and just let me know and I'll add
you here.]] you here.]]
Alexander Pelov and Pascal Thubert were the LPWAN WG chairs while Alexander Pelov and Pascal Thubert were the LPWAN WG chairs while
this document was developed. this document was developed.
Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by the Science Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by the Science
Foundation Ireland funded CONNECT centre <https://connectcentre.ie/>. Foundation Ireland funded CONNECT centre <https://connectcentre.ie/>.
skipping to change at page 38, line 38 skipping to change at page 38, line 38
description", 2016. description", 2016.
[TGPP23720] [TGPP23720]
3GPP, "TR 23.720 v13.0.0 - Study on architecture 3GPP, "TR 23.720 v13.0.0 - Study on architecture
enhancements for Cellular Internet of Things", 2016. enhancements for Cellular Internet of Things", 2016.
[TGPP33203] [TGPP33203]
3GPP, "TS 33.203 v13.1.0 - 3G security; Access security 3GPP, "TS 33.203 v13.1.0 - 3G security; Access security
for IP-based services", 2016. for IP-based services", 2016.
[etsi_ltn]
"ETSI Technical Committee on EMC and Radio Spectrum
Matters (ERM) TG28 Low Throughput Networks (LTN)",
February 2015.
[fcc_ref] "FCC CFR 47 Part 15.247 Telecommunication Radio Frequency [fcc_ref] "FCC CFR 47 Part 15.247 Telecommunication Radio Frequency
Devices - Operation within the bands 902-928 MHz, Devices - Operation within the bands 902-928 MHz,
2400-2483.5 MHz, and 5725-5850 MHz.", June 2016. 2400-2483.5 MHz, and 5725-5850 MHz.", June 2016.
[etsi_ref] [etsi_ref]
"ETSI EN 300-220 (Parts 1 and 2): Electromagnetic "ETSI EN 300-220 (Parts 1 and 2): Electromagnetic
compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Short compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM); Short
Range Devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 25 Range Devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 25
MHz to 1 000 MHz frequency range with power levels ranging MHz to 1 000 MHz frequency range with power levels ranging
up to 500 mW", May 2016. up to 500 mW", May 2016.
skipping to change at page 40, line 11 skipping to change at page 40, line 5
Networks (WPANs)", IEEE Standard 802.15.4, 2015, Networks (WPANs)", IEEE Standard 802.15.4, 2015,
<https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/ <https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
standard/802.15.4-2015.html>. standard/802.15.4-2015.html>.
[IEEE-802-15-9] [IEEE-802-15-9]
"IEEE Recommended Practice for Transport of Key Management "IEEE Recommended Practice for Transport of Key Management
Protocol (KMP) Datagrams", IEEE Standard 802.15.9, 2016, Protocol (KMP) Datagrams", IEEE Standard 802.15.9, 2016,
<https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/ <https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
standard/802.15.9-2016.html>. standard/802.15.9-2016.html>.
[etsi_unb]
"ETSI TR 103 435 System Reference document (SRdoc); Short
Range Devices (SRD); Technical characteristics for Ultra
Narrow Band (UNB) SRDs operating in the UHF spectrum below
1 GHz", February 2017.
Appendix A. Changes Appendix A. Changes
A.1. From -00 to -01 A.1. From -00 to -01
o WG have stated they want this to be an RFC. o WG have stated they want this to be an RFC.
o WG clearly want to keep the RF details. o WG clearly want to keep the RF details.
o Various changes made to remove/resolve a number of editorial notes o Various changes made to remove/resolve a number of editorial notes
from -00 (in some cases as per suggestions from Ana Minaburo) from -00 (in some cases as per suggestions from Ana Minaburo)
skipping to change at page 41, line 5 skipping to change at page 41, line 5
A.3. From -02 to -03 A.3. From -02 to -03
o Editorial changes and typo fixes thanks to Fred Baker running o Editorial changes and typo fixes thanks to Fred Baker running
something called Grammerly and sending me it's report. something called Grammerly and sending me it's report.
o Merged PR's: #4, #6, #7... o Merged PR's: #4, #6, #7...
o Editor did an editing pass on the lot. o Editor did an editing pass on the lot.
A.4. From -03 to -04
o Picked up a PR that had been wrongly applied that expands UE
o Editorial changes wrt LoRa suggested by Alper
o Editorial changes wrt SIGFOX provided by Juan-Carlos
Author's Address Author's Address
Stephen Farrell (editor) Stephen Farrell (editor)
Trinity College Dublin Trinity College Dublin
Dublin 2 Dublin 2
Ireland Ireland
Phone: +353-1-896-2354 Phone: +353-1-896-2354
Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie
 End of changes. 36 change blocks. 
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