draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-05.txt   draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-06.txt 
lpwan S. Farrell, Ed. lpwan S. Farrell, Ed.
Internet-Draft Trinity College Dublin Internet-Draft Trinity College Dublin
Intended status: Informational July 1, 2017 Intended status: Informational July 21, 2017
Expires: January 2, 2018 Expires: January 22, 2018
LPWAN Overview LPWAN Overview
draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-05 draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-06
Abstract Abstract
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are wireless technologies with Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are wireless technologies with
characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly
very small packet and application layer data sizes and long battery very small packet and application layer data sizes and long battery
life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of
LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that
exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running
IP in LPWANs. IP in LPWANs.
skipping to change at page 1, line 36 skipping to change at page 1, line 36
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This Internet-Draft will expire on January 2, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on January 22, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
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publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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2.2.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3. SIGFOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3. SIGFOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) . . . . . . . . 20 2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) . . . . . . . . 20
2.4.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.4.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.4.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3. Generic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3. Generic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4. Gap Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4. Gap Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1. Naive application of IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.1. Naive application of IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.2. 6LoWPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2. 6LoWPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.2.1. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2.1. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2.4. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.2.4. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.3. 6lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.3. 6lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.4. 6tisch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.4. 6tisch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.5. RoHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.5. RoHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.6. ROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.6. ROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.7. CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.7. CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.8. Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.8. Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Appendix A. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Appendix A. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 A.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 A.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 A.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.5. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A.5. From -04 to -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.6. From -05 to -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document provides background material and an overview of the This document provides background material and an overview of the
technologies being considered in the IETF's Low Power Wide-Area technologies being considered in the IETF's Low Power Wide-Area
Networking (LPWAN) working group. We also provide a gap analysis Networking (LPWAN) working group. We also provide a gap analysis
between the needs of these technologies and currently available IETF between the needs of these technologies and currently available IETF
specifications. specifications.
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consortium. <https://www.lora-alliance.org/> This draft is based on consortium. <https://www.lora-alliance.org/> This draft is based on
version 1.0.2 [LoRaSpec] of the LoRa specification. Version 1.0, version 1.0.2 [LoRaSpec] of the LoRa specification. Version 1.0,
which has also seen some deployment, is available at [LoRaSpec1.0]. which has also seen some deployment, is available at [LoRaSpec1.0].
2.1.2. Characteristics 2.1.2. Characteristics
LoRaWAN networks are typically organized in a star-of-stars topology LoRaWAN networks are typically organized in a star-of-stars topology
in which gateways relay messages between end-devices and a central in which gateways relay messages between end-devices and a central
"network server" in the backend. Gateways are connected to the "network server" in the backend. Gateways are connected to the
network server via IP links while end-devices use single-hop LoRaWAN network server via IP links while end-devices use single-hop LoRaWAN
communication that can be received at one or more gateways. All communication that can be received at one or more gateways.
communication is generally bi-directional, although uplink Communication is generally bi-directional; uplink communication from
communication from end-devices to the network server are favored in end-devices to the network server is favored in terms of overall
terms of overall bandwidth availability. bandwidth availability.
Figure 1 shows the entities involved in a LoRaWAN network. Figure 1 shows the entities involved in a LoRaWAN network.
+----------+ +----------+
|End-device| * * * |End-device| * * *
+----------+ * +---------+ +----------+ * +---------+
* | Gateway +---+ * | Gateway +---+
+----------+ * +---------+ | +---------+ +----------+ * +---------+ | +---------+
|End-device| * * * +---+ Network +--- Application |End-device| * * * +---+ Network +--- Application
+----------+ * | | Server | +----------+ * | | Server |
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Communicates with gateways. Communicates with gateways.
o Gateway: a radio on the infrastructure-side, sometimes called a o Gateway: a radio on the infrastructure-side, sometimes called a
concentrator or base-station. Communicates with end-devices and, concentrator or base-station. Communicates with end-devices and,
via IP, with a network server. via IP, with a network server.
o Network Server: The Network Server (NS) terminates the LoRaWAN MAC o Network Server: The Network Server (NS) terminates the LoRaWAN MAC
layer for the end-devices connected to the network. It is the layer for the end-devices connected to the network. It is the
center of the star topology. center of the star topology.
o - Join Server: The Join Server (JS) is a server on the Internet
side of an NS that processes join requests from end-devices.
o Uplink message: refers to communications from end-device to o Uplink message: refers to communications from end-device to
network server or application via one or more gateways. network server or application via one or more gateways.
o Downlink message: refers to communications from network server or o Downlink message: refers to communications from network server or
application via one gateway to a single end-device or a group of application via one gateway to a single end-device or a group of
end-devices (considering multicasting). end-devices (considering multicasting).
o Application: refers to application layer code both on the end- o Application: refers to application layer code both on the end-
device and running "behind" the network server. For LoRaWAN, device and running "behind" the network server. For LoRaWAN,
there will generally only be one application running on most end- there will generally only be one application running on most end-
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+------------------------+------------------------------------------+ +------------------------+------------------------------------------+
Table 1: Default settings for EU868MHz band Table 1: Default settings for EU868MHz band
+-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+ +-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+
| Parameter/Notes | Min | Max | | Parameter/Notes | Min | Max |
+-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+ +-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+
| Duty Cycle: some but not all ISM bands impose | 1% | no-limit | | Duty Cycle: some but not all ISM bands impose | 1% | no-limit |
| a limit in terms of how often an end-device | | | | a limit in terms of how often an end-device | | |
| can transmit. In some cases LoRaWAN is more | | | | can transmit. In some cases LoRaWAN is more | | |
| stringent in an attempt to avoid congestion. | | | | restrictive in an attempt to avoid | | |
| congestion. | | |
| | | | | | | |
| EU 868MHz band data rate/frame-size | 250 | 50000 | | EU 868MHz band data rate/frame-size | 250 | 50000 |
| | bits/s | bits/s : | | | bits/s | bits/s : |
| | : 59 | 250 | | | : 59 | 250 |
| | octets | octets | | | octets | octets |
| | | | | | | |
| US 915MHz band data rate/frame-size | 980 | 21900 | | US 915MHz band data rate/frame-size | 980 | 21900 |
| | bits/s | bits/s : | | | bits/s | bits/s : |
| | : 19 | 250 | | | : 19 | 250 |
| | octets | octets | | | octets | octets |
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transmitting. This is achievable in many cases via out-of-band means transmitting. This is achievable in many cases via out-of-band means
given the nature of LoRaWAN networks. Table 3 summarizes these given the nature of LoRaWAN networks. Table 3 summarizes these
values. values.
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| Value | Description | | Value | Description |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| DevAddr | DevAddr (32-bits) = device-specific network address | | DevAddr | DevAddr (32-bits) = device-specific network address |
| | generated from the NwkID | | | generated from the NwkID |
| | | | | |
| AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application | | AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 corresponding to the join server for an |
| | application |
| | | | | |
| NwkSKey | 128-bit network session key used with AES-CMAC | | NwkSKey | 128-bit network session key used with AES-CMAC |
| | | | | |
| AppSKey | 128-bit application session key used with AES-CTR | | AppSKey | 128-bit application session key used with AES-CTR |
| | | | | |
| AppKey | 128-bit application session key used with AES-ECB | | AppKey | 128-bit application session key used with AES-ECB |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
Table 3: Values required for nominal operation Table 3: Values required for nominal operation
As an alternative, end-devices can use the LoRaWAN join procedure in As an alternative, end-devices can use the LoRaWAN join procedure
order to setup some of these values and dynamically gain access to with a join server behind the NS in order to setup some of these
the network. To use the join procedure, an end-device must still values and dynamically gain access to the network. To use the join
know the AppEUI, and in addition, a different (long-term) symmetric procedure, an end-device must still know the AppEUI, and in addition,
key that is bound to the AppEUI - this is the application key a different (long-term) symmetric key that is bound to the AppEUI -
(AppKey), and is distinct from the application session key (AppSKey). this is the application key (AppKey), and is distinct from the
The AppKey is required to be specific to the device, that is, each application session key (AppSKey). The AppKey is required to be
end-device should have a different AppKey value. And finally, the specific to the device, that is, each end-device should have a
end-device also needs a long-term identifier for itself, different AppKey value. And finally, the end-device also needs a
syntactically also an EUI-64, and known as the device EUI or DevEUI. long-term identifier for itself, syntactically also an EUI-64, and
Table 4 summarizes these values. known as the device EUI or DevEUI. Table 4 summarizes these values.
+---------+----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
| Value | Description | | Value | Description |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
| DevEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the device | | DevEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the device |
| | | | | |
| AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application | | AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application |
| | | | | |
| AppKey | 128-bit long term application key for use with AES | | AppKey | 128-bit long term application key for use with AES |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
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of less than 10 seconds. of less than 10 seconds.
NB-IoT supports Half Duplex FDD operation mode with 60 kbps peak rate NB-IoT supports Half Duplex FDD operation mode with 60 kbps peak rate
in uplink and 30 kbps peak rate in downlink, and a maximum in uplink and 30 kbps peak rate in downlink, and a maximum
transmission unit (MTU) size of 1600 bytes limited by PDCP layer (see transmission unit (MTU) size of 1600 bytes limited by PDCP layer (see
Figure 4 for the protocol structure), which is the highest layer in Figure 4 for the protocol structure), which is the highest layer in
the user plane, as explained later. Any packet size up to the said the user plane, as explained later. Any packet size up to the said
MTU size can be passed to the NB-IoT stack from higher layers, MTU size can be passed to the NB-IoT stack from higher layers,
segmentation of the packet is performed in the RLC layer, which can segmentation of the packet is performed in the RLC layer, which can
segment the data to transmission blocks with size as small as 16 segment the data to transmission blocks with size as small as 16
bits. As the name suggests, NB-IoT uses narrowbands with the bits. As the name suggests, NB-IoT uses narrowbands with bandwidth
bandwidth of 180 kHz in both downlink and uplink. The multiple of 180 kHz in both downlink and uplink. The multiple access scheme
access scheme used in the downlink is OFDMA with 15 kHz sub-carrier used in the downlink is OFDMA with 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing. In
spacing. In uplink SC-FDMA single tone with either 15kHz or 3.75 kHz uplink, SC-FDMA single tone with either 15kHz or 3.75 kHz tone
tone spacing is used, or optionally multi-tone SC- FDMA can be used spacing is used, or optionally multi-tone SC- FDMA can be used with
with 15 kHz tone spacing. 15 kHz tone spacing.
NB-IoT can be deployed in three ways. In-band deployment means that NB-IoT can be deployed in three ways. In-band deployment means that
the narrowband is deployed inside the LTE band and radio resources the narrowband is deployed inside the LTE band and radio resources
are flexibly shared between NB-IoT and normal LTE carrier. In Guard- are flexibly shared between NB-IoT and normal LTE carrier. In Guard-
band deployment the narrowband uses the unused resource blocks band deployment the narrowband uses the unused resource blocks
between two adjacent LTE carriers. Standalone deployment is also between two adjacent LTE carriers. Standalone deployment is also
supported, where the narrowband can be located alone in dedicated supported, where the narrowband can be located alone in dedicated
spectrum, which makes it possible for example to reframe a GSM spectrum, which makes it possible for example to reframe a GSM
carrier at 850/900 MHz for NB-IoT. All three deployment modes are carrier at 850/900 MHz for NB-IoT. All three deployment modes are
used in licensed frequency bands. The maximum transmission power is used in licensed frequency bands. The maximum transmission power is
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network and external networks. network and external networks.
The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) contains user-related and The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) contains user-related and
subscription- related information. It is a database, which performs subscription- related information. It is a database, which performs
mobility management, session establishment support, user mobility management, session establishment support, user
authentication and access authorization. authentication and access authorization.
E-UTRAN consists of components of a single type, eNodeB. eNodeB is a E-UTRAN consists of components of a single type, eNodeB. eNodeB is a
base station, which controls the UEs in one or several cells. base station, which controls the UEs in one or several cells.
The illustration of 3GPP radio protocol architecture can be seen from The 3GPP radio protocol architecture is illustration in Figure 4.
Figure 4.
+---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+
| NAS |----|-----------------------------|----| NAS | | NAS |----|-----------------------------|----| NAS |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| RRC |----|----| RRC | S1-AP |----|----| S1-AP | | RRC |----|----| RRC | S1-AP |----|----| S1-AP |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| PDCP |----|----| PDCP | SCTP |----|----| SCTP | | PDCP |----|----| PDCP | SCTP |----|----| SCTP |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| RLC |----|----| RLC | IP |----|----| IP | | RLC |----|----| RLC | IP |----|----| IP |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
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Figure 4: 3GPP radio protocol architecture for control plane Figure 4: 3GPP radio protocol architecture for control plane
Control plane protocol stack Control plane protocol stack
The radio protocol architecture of NB-IoT (and LTE) is separated into The radio protocol architecture of NB-IoT (and LTE) is separated into
control plane and user plane. The control plane consists of control plane and user plane. The control plane consists of
protocols which control the radio access bearers and the connection protocols which control the radio access bearers and the connection
between the UE and the network. The highest layer of control plane between the UE and the network. The highest layer of control plane
is called Non-Access Stratum (NAS), which conveys the radio signaling is called Non-Access Stratum (NAS), which conveys the radio signaling
between the UE and the EPC, passing transparently through the radio between the UE and the EPC, passing transparently through the radio
network. It is responsible for authentication, security control, network. NAS responsible for authentication, security control,
mobility management and bearer management. mobility management and bearer management.
Access Stratum (AS) is the functional layer below NAS, and in control Access Stratum (AS) is the functional layer below NAS, and in the
plane it consists of Radio Resource Control protocol (RRC) control plane it consists of Radio Resource Control protocol (RRC)
[TGPP36331], which handles connection establishment and release [TGPP36331], which handles connection establishment and release
functions, broadcast of system information, radio bearer functions, broadcast of system information, radio bearer
establishment, reconfiguration and release. RRC configures the user establishment, reconfiguration and release. RRC configures the user
and control planes according to the network status. There exists two and control planes according to the network status. There exists two
RRC states, RRC_Idle or RRC_Connected, and RRC entity controls the RRC states, RRC_Idle or RRC_Connected, and RRC entity controls the
switching between these states. In RRC_Idle, the network knows that switching between these states. In RRC_Idle, the network knows that
the UE is present in the network and the UE can be reached in case of the UE is present in the network and the UE can be reached in case of
incoming call/downlink data. In this state, the UE monitors paging, incoming call/downlink data. In this state, the UE monitors paging,
performs cell measurements and cell selection and acquires system performs cell measurements and cell selection and acquires system
information. Also the UE can receive broadcast and multicast data, information. Also the UE can receive broadcast and multicast data,
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detection, RLC SDU discard, RLC-re-establishment and protocol error detection, RLC SDU discard, RLC-re-establishment and protocol error
detection and recovery. detection and recovery.
Medium Access Control protocol (MAC) [TGPP36321] provides mapping Medium Access Control protocol (MAC) [TGPP36321] provides mapping
between logical channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC between logical channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC
SDUs, scheduling information reporting, error correction with HARQ, SDUs, scheduling information reporting, error correction with HARQ,
priority handling and transport format selection. priority handling and transport format selection.
Physical layer [TGPP36201] provides data transport services to higher Physical layer [TGPP36201] provides data transport services to higher
layers. These include error detection and indication to higher layers. These include error detection and indication to higher
layers, FEC encoding, HARQ soft-combining. Rate matching and mapping layers, FEC encoding, HARQ soft-combining, rate matching and mapping
of the transport channels onto physical channels, power weighting and of the transport channels onto physical channels, power weighting and
modulation of physical channels, frequency and time synchronization modulation of physical channels, frequency and time synchronization
and radio characteristics measurements. and radio characteristics measurements.
User plane protocol stack User plane protocol stack
User plane is responsible for transferring the user data through the User plane is responsible for transferring the user data through the
Access Stratum. It interfaces with IP and the highest layer of user Access Stratum. It interfaces with IP and the highest layer of user
plane is PDCP, which in user plane performs header compression using plane is PDCP, which in user plane performs header compression using
Robust Header Compression (RoHC), transfer of user plane data between Robust Header Compression (RoHC), transfer of user plane data between
skipping to change at page 17, line 38 skipping to change at page 17, line 31
o Channelization mask: 1.5 kHz o Channelization mask: 1.5 kHz
o Downlink baud rate: 600 baud o Downlink baud rate: 600 baud
o Modulation scheme: GFSK o Modulation scheme: GFSK
o Downlink transmission power: 500 mW / 4W (depending on the region) o Downlink transmission power: 500 mW / 4W (depending on the region)
o Link budget: 153 dB (or better) o Link budget: 153 dB (or better)
o Central frequency accuracy: Centre frequency of downlink o Central frequency accuracy: the center frequency of downlink
transmission are set by the network according to the corresponding transmission is set by the network according to the corresponding
uplink transmission uplink transmission
For example, in Europe the UNB downlink frequency band is limited to For example, in Europe the UNB downlink frequency band is limited to
869.40 to 869.65 MHz, with a maximum output power of 500 mW with 10% 869.40 to 869.65 MHz, with a maximum output power of 500 mW with 10%
duty cycle. duty cycle.
The format of the downlink frame is the following: The format of the downlink frame is the following:
+------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+ +------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+
| Preamble |Frame| ECC | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS | | Preamble |Frame| ECC | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS |
skipping to change at page 20, line 14 skipping to change at page 20, line 14
Devices (or EPs) can be static or nomadic, as they associate with the Devices (or EPs) can be static or nomadic, as they associate with the
SC and they do not attach to any specific BS. Hence, they can SC and they do not attach to any specific BS. Hence, they can
communicate with the SC through one or multiple BSs. communicate with the SC through one or multiple BSs.
Due to constraints in the complexity of the Device, it is assumed Due to constraints in the complexity of the Device, it is assumed
that Devices host only one or very few device applications, which that Devices host only one or very few device applications, which
most of the time communicate each to a single network application at most of the time communicate each to a single network application at
a time. a time.
The radio protocol provides mechanisms to authenticate and ensure The radio protocol authenticates and ensures the integrity of each
integrity of the message. This is achieved by using a unique device message. This is achieved by using a unique device ID and an AES-128
ID and a message authentication code, which allow ensuring that the based message authentication code, ensuring that the message has been
message has been generated and sent by the device with the ID claimed generated and sent by the device with the ID claimed in the message.
in the message. At the time of writing the algorithms and keying
details for this are not published.
Security keys are independent for each device. These keys are
associated with the device ID and they are pre-provisioned.
Application data can be encrypted at the application level or not, Application data can be encrypted at the application level or not,
depending on the criticality of the use case, allowing hence to depending on the criticality of the use case, to provide a balance
balance cost and effort vs. risk. The sigfox network itself provides between cost and effort vs. risk. AES-128 in counter mode is used
no support for application layer confidentiality mechanisms. for encryption. Cryptographic keys are independent for each device.
These keys are associated with the device ID and separate integrity
and confidentiality keys are pre-provisioned. A confidentiality key
is only provisioned if confidentiality is to be used. At the time of
writing the algorithms and keying details for this are not published.
2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) 2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN)
Text here is via personal communication from Bob Heile Text here is via personal communication from Bob Heile
(bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Sean. Duffy (bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Sean. Duffy
(paduffy@cisco.com) also provided additional comments/input on this (paduffy@cisco.com) also provided additional comments/input on this
section. section.
2.4.1. Provenance and Documents 2.4.1. Provenance and Documents
skipping to change at page 20, line 50 skipping to change at page 20, line 49
profile is open standards based (primarily on IETF and IEEE802 profile is open standards based (primarily on IETF and IEEE802
standards) and was developed to address applications like smart standards) and was developed to address applications like smart
municipality/city infrastructure monitoring and management, electric municipality/city infrastructure monitoring and management, electric
vehicle (EV) infrastructure, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), vehicle (EV) infrastructure, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI),
distribution automation (DA), supervisory control and data distribution automation (DA), supervisory control and data
acquisition (SCADA) protection/management, distributed generation acquisition (SCADA) protection/management, distributed generation
monitoring and management, and many more IoT applications. monitoring and management, and many more IoT applications.
Additionally, the Alliance has created a certification program to Additionally, the Alliance has created a certification program to
promote global multi-vendor interoperability. promote global multi-vendor interoperability.
The FAN profile is currently being specified within ANSI/TIA as an The FAN profile is specified within ANSI/TIA as an extension of work
extension of work previously done on Smart Utility Networks. previously done on Smart Utility Networks. [ANSI-4957-000]. Updates
[ANSI-4957-000]. Updates to those specifications intended to be to those specifications intended to be published in 2017 will contain
published in 2017 will contain details of the FAN profile. A current details of the FAN profile. A current snapshot of the work to
snapshot of the work to produce that profile is presented in produce that profile is presented in [wisun-pressie1]
[wisun-pressie1] [wisun-pressie2] . [wisun-pressie2] .
2.4.2. Characteristics 2.4.2. Characteristics
The FAN profile is an IPv6 frequency hopping wireless mesh network The FAN profile is an IPv6 wireless mesh network with support for
with support for enterprise level security. The frequency hopping enterprise level security. The frequency hopping wireless mesh
wireless mesh topology aims to offer superior network robustness, topology aims to offer superior network robustness, reliability due
reliability due to high redundancy, good scalability due to the to high redundancy, good scalability due to the flexible mesh
flexible mesh configuration and good resilience to interference. configuration and good resilience to interference. Very low power
Very low power modes are in development permitting long term battery modes are in development permitting long term battery operation of
operation of network nodes. network nodes.
The core architecture of Wi-SUN FAN is a mesh network. A FAN The following list contains some overall characteristics of Wi-SUN
contains one or more networks. Within a network, nodes assume one of that are relevant to LPWAN applications.
three operational roles. First, each network contains a Border
Router providing Wide Area Network (WAN) connectivity to the network. o Coverage The range of Wi-SUN FAN is typically 2 -- 3 km in line of
The Border Router maintains source routing tables for all nodes sight, matching the needs of neighborhood area networks, campus
within its network, provides node authentication and key management area networks, or corporate area networks. The range can also be
services, and disseminates network-wide information such as broadcast extended via multi-hop networking.
schedules. Secondly, Router nodes, which provide upward and downward
packet forwarding (within a network). A Router also provides o High bandwidth, low link latency: Wi-SUN supports relatively high
services for relaying security and address management protocols. bandwidth, i.e. up to 300 kbps [FANTPS], enables remote update and
Lastly, Leaf nodes provide minimum capabilities: discovering and upgrade of devices so that they can handle new applications,
joining a network, send/receive IPv6 packets, etc. A low power extending their working life. Wi-SUN supports LPWAN IoT
network may contain a mesh topology with Routers at the edges that applications that require on-demand control by providing low link
construct a star topology with Leaf nodes. latency (0.02s) and bi-directional communication.
o Low power consumption: FAN devices draw less than 2 uA when
resting and only 8 mA when listening. Such devices can maintain a
long lifetime even if they are frequently listening. For
instance, suppose the device transmits data for 10 ms once every
10 s; theoretically, a battery of 1000 mAh can last more than 10
years.
o Scalability: Tens of millions Wi-SUN FAN devices have been
deployed in urban, suburban and rural environments, including
deployments with more than 1 million devices.
A FAN contains one or more networks. Within a network, nodes assume
one of three operational roles. First, each network contains a
Border Router providing Wide Area Network (WAN) connectivity to the
network. The Border Router maintains source routing tables for all
nodes within its network, provides node authentication and key
management services, and disseminates network-wide information such
as broadcast schedules. Secondly, Router nodes, which provide upward
and downward packet forwarding (within a network). A Router also
provides services for relaying security and address management
protocols. Lastly, Leaf nodes provide minimum capabilities:
discovering and joining a network, send/receive IPv6 packets, etc. A
low power network may contain a mesh topology with Routers at the
edges that construct a star topology with Leaf nodes.
The FAN profile is based on various open standards developed by the The FAN profile is based on various open standards developed by the
IETF (including [RFC0768], [RFC2460], [RFC4443] and [RFC6282]), IETF (including [RFC0768], [RFC2460], [RFC4443] and [RFC6282]),
IEEE802 (including [IEEE-802-15-4] and [IEEE-802-15-9]) and ANSI/TIA IEEE802 (including [IEEE-802-15-4] and [IEEE-802-15-9]) and ANSI/TIA
[ANSI-4957-210] for low power and lossy networks. [ANSI-4957-210] for low power and lossy networks.
The FAN profile specification provides an application-independent The FAN profile specification provides an application-independent
IPv6-based transport service for both connectionless (i.e. UDP) and IPv6-based transport service. There are two possible methods for
connection-oriented (i.e. TCP) services. There are two possible establishing the IPv6 packet routing: Routing Protocol for Low-Power
methods for establishing the IPv6 packet routing: mandatory Routing and Lossy Networks (RPL) at the Network layer is mandatory, and
Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) at the Network layer Multi-Hop Delivery Service (MHDS) is optional at the Data Link layer.
or optional Multi-Hop Delivery Service (MHDS) at the Data Link layer.
Table 5 provides an overview of the FAN network stack. Table 5 provides an overview of the FAN network stack.
The Transport service is based on User Datagram Protocol (UDP) The Transport service is based on User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
defined in RFC768 or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) defined in defined in RFC768 or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) defined in
RFC793. RFC793.
The Network service is provided by IPv6 defined in RFC2460 with The Network service is provided by IPv6 as defined in RFC2460 with
6LoWPAN adaptation as defined in RC4944 and RFC6282. Additionally, 6LoWPAN adaptation as defined in RFC4944 and RFC6282. ICMPv6, as
ICMPv6, as defined in RFC4443, is used for control plane in defined in RFC4443, is used for the control plane during information
information exchange. exchange.
The Data Link service provides both control/management of the The Data Link service provides both control/management of the
Physical layer and data transfer/management services to the Network Physical layer and data transfer/management services to the Network
layer. These services are divided into Media Access Control (MAC) layer. These services are divided into Media Access Control (MAC)
and Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layers. The LLC sub-layer and Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layers. The LLC sub-layer
provides a protocol dispatch service which supports 6LoWPAN and an provides a protocol dispatch service which supports 6LoWPAN and an
optional MAC sub-layer mesh service. The MAC sub-layer is optional MAC sub-layer mesh service. The MAC sub-layer is
constructed using data structures defined in IEEE802.15.4-2015. constructed using data structures defined in IEEE802.15.4-2015.
Multiple modes of frequency hopping are defined. The entire MAC Multiple modes of frequency hopping are defined. The entire MAC
payload is encapsulated in an IEEE802.15.9 Information Element to payload is encapsulated in an IEEE802.15.9 Information Element to
enable LLC protocol dispatch between upper layer 6LoWPAN processing, enable LLC protocol dispatch between upper layer 6LoWPAN processing,
MAC sublayer mesh processing, etc. These areas will be expanded once MAC sublayer mesh processing, etc. These areas will be expanded once
IEEE802.15.12 is completed IEEE802.15.12 is completed.
The PHY service is derived from a sub-set of the SUN FSK The PHY service is derived from a sub-set of the SUN FSK
specification in IEEE802.15.4-2015. The 2-FSK modulation schemes, specification in IEEE802.15.4-2015. The 2-FSK modulation schemes,
with channel spacing range from 200 to 600 kHz, are defined to with channel spacing range from 200 to 600 kHz, are defined to
provide data rates from 50 to 300 kbps, with Forward Error Coding provide data rates from 50 to 300 kbps, with Forward Error Coding
(FEC) as an optional feature. Towards enabling ultra-low-power (FEC) as an optional feature. Towards enabling ultra-low-power
applications, the PHY layer design is also extendable to low energy applications, the PHY layer design is also extendable to low energy
and critical infrastructure monitoring networks. and critical infrastructure monitoring networks.
+----------------------+--------------------------------------------+ +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
skipping to change at page 24, line 22 skipping to change at page 24, line 22
hop FAN neighbors using an adaptation of ETSI-TS-102-887-2. FAN hop FAN neighbors using an adaptation of ETSI-TS-102-887-2. FAN
nodes implement Frame Security as specified in IEEE802.15.4-2015. nodes implement Frame Security as specified in IEEE802.15.4-2015.
3. Generic Terminology 3. Generic Terminology
LPWAN technologies, such as those discussed above, have similar LPWAN technologies, such as those discussed above, have similar
architectures but different terminology. We can identify different architectures but different terminology. We can identify different
types of entities in a typical LPWAN network: types of entities in a typical LPWAN network:
o End-Devices are the devices or the "things" (e.g. sensors, o End-Devices are the devices or the "things" (e.g. sensors,
actuators, etc.), they are named differently in each technology actuators, etc.); they are named differently in each technology
(End Device, User Equipment or End Point). There can be a high (End Device, User Equipment or End Point). There can be a high
density of end devices per radio gateway. density of end devices per radio gateway.
o The Radio Gateway, which is the end point of the constrained link. o The Radio Gateway, which is the end point of the constrained link.
It is known as: Gateway, Evolved Node B or Base station. It is known as: Gateway, Evolved Node B or Base station.
o The Network Gateway or Router is the interconnection node between o The Network Gateway or Router is the interconnection node between
the Radio Gateway and the Internet. It is known as: Network the Radio Gateway and the Internet. It is known as: Network
Server, Serving GW or Service Center. Server, Serving GW or Service Center.
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applications. It is known as: Join-Server, Home Subscriber Server applications. It is known as: Join-Server, Home Subscriber Server
or Registration Authority. (We use the term LPWAN-AAA server or Registration Authority. (We use the term LPWAN-AAA server
because we're not assuming that this entity speaks RADIUS or because we're not assuming that this entity speaks RADIUS or
Diameter as many/most AAA servers do, but equally we don't want to Diameter as many/most AAA servers do, but equally we don't want to
rule that out, as the functionality will be similar. rule that out, as the functionality will be similar.
o At last we have the Application Server, known also as Packet Data o At last we have the Application Server, known also as Packet Data
Node Gateway or Network Application. Node Gateway or Network Application.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Function/ | | | | | | Function/ | | | | | |
| Technology | LORAWAN | NB-IOT | SIGFOX | IETF | |Technology | LORAWAN | NB-IOT | SIGFOX | Wi-SUN | IETF |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
| Sensor, | | | | | | Sensor, | | | | | |
| Actuator, | End | User | End | Device | |Actuator, | End | User | End | Leaf | Device |
|device, object| Device | Equipment | Point | (Dev) | |device, | Device | Equipment | Point | Node | (Dev) |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ | object | | | | | |
| Transceiver | | Evolved | Base | RADIO | +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
| Antenna | Gateway | Node B | Station | GATEWAY | |Transceiver| | Evolved | Base | Router | RADIO |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ | Antenna | Gateway | Node B | Station | Node | Gateway |
| Server | Network | PDN GW/ | Service |Network Gateway| +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
| | Server | SCEF | Center | (NGW) | | Server | Network | PDN GW/ | Service | Border | Network |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ | | Server | SCEF | Center | Router | Gateway |
| Security | Join | Home |Registration | LPWAN- | | | | | | | (NGW) |
| Server | Server | Subscriber | Authority | AAA | +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
| | | Server | | SERVER | | Security | Join | Home |Registration|Authent.| LPWAN- |
+--------------+-----------+------------+-------------+---------------+ | Server | Server | Subscriber| Authority | Server | AAA |
| Application |Application| Application| Network | APPLICATION | | | | Server | | | SERVER |
| | Server | Server | Application | (App) | +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
|Application|Application|Application| Network |Appli- |Application|
| | Server | Server | Application| cation | (App) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 8: LPWAN Architecture Terminology Figure 8: LPWAN Architecture Terminology
+------+ +------+
() () () | |LPWAN-| () () () | |LPWAN-|
() () () () / \ +---------+ | AAA | () () () () / \ +---------+ | AAA |
() () () () () () / \========| /\ |====|Server| +-----------+ () () () () () () / \========| /\ |====|Server| +-----------+
() () () | | <--|--> | +------+ |APPLICATION| () () () | | <--|--> | +------+ |APPLICATION|
() () () () / \============| v |==============| (App) | () () () () / \============| v |==============| (App) |
skipping to change at page 35, line 5 skipping to change at page 35, line 12
Thanks to all those listed in Section 7 for the excellent text. Thanks to all those listed in Section 7 for the excellent text.
Errors in the handling of that are solely the editor's fault. Errors in the handling of that are solely the editor's fault.
In addition to the contributors above, thanks are due to Arun In addition to the contributors above, thanks are due to Arun
(arun@acklio.com), Dan Garcia Carrillo, Paul Duffy, Russ Housley, (arun@acklio.com), Dan Garcia Carrillo, Paul Duffy, Russ Housley,
Thad Guidry, Jiazi Yi, for comments. Thad Guidry, Jiazi Yi, for comments.
Alexander Pelov and Pascal Thubert were the LPWAN WG chairs while Alexander Pelov and Pascal Thubert were the LPWAN WG chairs while
this document was developed. this document was developed.
Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by the Science Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by Pervasive
Foundation Ireland funded CONNECT centre <https://connectcentre.ie/>. Nation, the Science Foundation Ireland's CONNECT centre national IoT
network. <https://connectcentre.ie/pervasive-nation/>
9. Informative References 9. Informative References
[RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, [RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980, DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>.
[RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and [RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035, specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
November 1987, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>. November 1987, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.
skipping to change at page 36, line 7 skipping to change at page 36, line 11
Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol", Thubert, "Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol",
RFC 3963, DOI 10.17487/RFC3963, January 2005, RFC 3963, DOI 10.17487/RFC3963, January 2005,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3963>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3963>.
[RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the [RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the
Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301, Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301,
December 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>. December 2005, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.
[RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet [RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet
Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", STD 89,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006, RFC 4443, DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman, [RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
"Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007, DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.
[RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler, [RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
"Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007, Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
skipping to change at page 41, line 13 skipping to change at page 41, line 23
o Editor did an editing pass on the lot. o Editor did an editing pass on the lot.
A.4. From -03 to -04 A.4. From -03 to -04
o Picked up a PR that had been wrongly applied that expands UE o Picked up a PR that had been wrongly applied that expands UE
o Editorial changes wrt LoRa suggested by Alper o Editorial changes wrt LoRa suggested by Alper
o Editorial changes wrt SIGFOX provided by Juan-Carlos o Editorial changes wrt SIGFOX provided by Juan-Carlos
A.5. From -03 to -04 A.5. From -04 to -05
o Handled Russ Housley's WGLC review. o Handled Russ Housley's WGLC review.
o Handled Alper Yegin's WGLC review. o Handled Alper Yegin's WGLC review.
A.6. From -05 to -06
o More Alper comments:-)
o Added some more detail about sigfox security.
o Added Wi-SUN changes from Charlie Perkins
Author's Address Author's Address
Stephen Farrell (editor) Stephen Farrell (editor)
Trinity College Dublin Trinity College Dublin
Dublin 2 Dublin 2
Ireland Ireland
Phone: +353-1-896-2354 Phone: +353-1-896-2354
Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie
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