draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-08.txt   draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-09.txt 
lpwan S. Farrell, Ed. lpwan S. Farrell, Ed.
Internet-Draft Trinity College Dublin Internet-Draft Trinity College Dublin
Intended status: Informational January 30, 2018 Intended status: Informational February 6, 2018
Expires: August 3, 2018 Expires: August 10, 2018
LPWAN Overview LPWAN Overview
draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-08 draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-09
Abstract Abstract
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are wireless technologies with Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are wireless technologies with
characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly
very small packet and application layer data sizes and long battery very small packet and application layer data sizes and long battery
life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of
LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that
exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running
IP in LPWANs. IP in LPWANs.
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 3, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on August 10, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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4.5. RoHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.5. RoHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.6. ROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.6. ROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.7. CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.7. CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.8. Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.8. Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Appendix A. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Appendix A. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 A.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.5. From -04 to -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A.5. From -04 to -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.6. From -05 to -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A.6. From -05 to -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.7. From -06 to -07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A.7. From -06 to -07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.8. From -07 to -08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A.8. From -07 to -08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.9. From -08 to -09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document provides background material and an overview of the This document provides background material and an overview of the
technologies being considered in the IETF's Low Power Wide-Area technologies being considered in the IETF's Low Power Wide-Area
Networking (LPWAN) working group. We also provide a gap analysis Networking (LPWAN) working group. We also provide a gap analysis
between the needs of these technologies and currently available IETF between the needs of these technologies and currently available IETF
specifications. specifications.
Most technologies in this space aim for similar goals of supporting Most technologies in this space aim for similar goals of supporting
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| Parameters | Default Value | | Parameters | Default Value |
+------------------------+------------------------------------------+ +------------------------+------------------------------------------+
| Rx delay 1 | 1 s | | Rx delay 1 | 1 s |
| | | | | |
| Rx delay 2 | 2 s (must be RECEIVE_DELAY1 + 1s) | | Rx delay 2 | 2 s (must be RECEIVE_DELAY1 + 1s) |
| | | | | |
| join delay 1 | 5 s | | join delay 1 | 5 s |
| | | | | |
| join delay 2 | 6 s | | join delay 2 | 6 s |
| | | | | |
| 868MHz Default | 3 (868.1,868.2,868.3), data rate: 0.3-5 | | 868MHz Default | 3 (868.1,868.2,868.3), data rate: |
| channels | kbps | | channels | 0.3-50kbps |
+------------------------+------------------------------------------+ +------------------------+------------------------------------------+
Table 1: Default settings for EU 868MHz band Table 1: Default settings for EU 868MHz band
+-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+ +-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+
| Parameter/Notes | Min | Max | | Parameter/Notes | Min | Max |
+-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+ +-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+
| Duty Cycle: some but not all ISM bands impose | 1% | no-limit | | Duty Cycle: some but not all ISM bands impose | 1% | no-limit |
| a limit in terms of how often an end-device | | | | a limit in terms of how often an end-device | | |
| can transmit. In some cases LoRaWAN is more | | | | can transmit. In some cases LoRaWAN is more | | |
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receiver is open for downlink connectivity, of for periodical "keep- receiver is open for downlink connectivity, of for periodical "keep-
alive" signaling (PSM uses periodic TAU signaling with additional alive" signaling (PSM uses periodic TAU signaling with additional
reception window for downlink reachability). reception window for downlink reachability).
Since NB-IoT operates in licensed spectrum, it has no channel access Since NB-IoT operates in licensed spectrum, it has no channel access
restrictions allowing up to a 100% duty-cycle. restrictions allowing up to a 100% duty-cycle.
3GPP access security is specified in [TGPP33203]. 3GPP access security is specified in [TGPP33203].
+--+ +--+
|UE| \ +------+ +------+ |UE| \ +------+ +------+
+--+ \ | MME |------| HSS | +--+ \ | MME |------| HSS |
\ / +------+ +------+ \ / +------+ +------+
+--+ \+-----+ / | +--+ \+--------+ / |
|UE| ----| eNB |- | |UE| ----| eNodeB |- |
+--+ /+-----+ \ | +--+ /+--------+ \ |
/ \ +--------+ / \ +--------+
/ \| | +------+ Service PDN / \| | +------+ Service PDN
+--+ / | S-GW |----| P-GW |---- e.g. Internet +--+ / | S-GW |----| P-GW |---- e.g. Internet
|UE| | | +------+ |UE| | | +------+
+--+ +--------+ +--+ +--------+
Figure 3: 3GPP network architecture Figure 3: 3GPP network architecture
Figure 3 shows the 3GPP network architecture, which applies to NB- Figure 3 shows the 3GPP network architecture, which applies to NB-
IoT. Mobility Management Entity (MME) is responsible for handling IoT. Mobility Management Entity (MME) is responsible for handling
the mobility of the UE. MME tasks include tracking and paging UEs, the mobility of the UE. MME tasks include tracking and paging UEs,
session management, choosing the Serving gateway for the UE during session management, choosing the Serving gateway for the UE during
initial attachment and authenticating the user. At MME, the Non- initial attachment and authenticating the user. At MME, the Non-
Access Stratum (NAS) signaling from the UE is terminated. Access Stratum (NAS) signaling from the UE is terminated.
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operations can require padding and addition of authenticators that operations can require padding and addition of authenticators that
are problematic when considering LPWAN lower layers. Note that mains are problematic when considering LPWAN lower layers. Note that mains
powered Wi-SUN mesh router nodes will typically be more resource powered Wi-SUN mesh router nodes will typically be more resource
capable than the other LPWAN techs discussed. This can enable use of capable than the other LPWAN techs discussed. This can enable use of
more "chatty" protocols for some aspects of Wi-SUN. more "chatty" protocols for some aspects of Wi-SUN.
4.2. 6LoWPAN 4.2. 6LoWPAN
Several technologies that exhibit significant constraints in various Several technologies that exhibit significant constraints in various
dimensions have exploited the 6LoWPAN suite of specifications dimensions have exploited the 6LoWPAN suite of specifications
[RFC4944], [RFC6282], [RFC6775] to support IPv6 [I-D.hong-6lo-use- [RFC4944], [RFC6282], [RFC6775] to support IPv6
cases]. However, the constraints of LPWANs, often more extreme than [I-D.hong-6lo-use-cases]. However, the constraints of LPWANs, often
those typical of technologies that have (re)used 6LoWPAN, constitute more extreme than those typical of technologies that have (re)used
a challenge for the 6LoWPAN suite in order to enable IPv6 over LPWAN. 6LoWPAN, constitute a challenge for the 6LoWPAN suite in order to
LPWANs are characterized by device constraints (in terms of enable IPv6 over LPWAN. LPWANs are characterized by device
processing capacity, memory, and energy availability), and specially, constraints (in terms of processing capacity, memory, and energy
link constraints, such as: availability), and specially, link constraints, such as:
o very low layer two payload size (from ~10 to ~100 bytes), o tiny layer two payload size (from ~10 to ~100 bytes),
o very low bit rate (from ~10 bit/s to ~100 kbit/s), and o very low bit rate (from ~10 bit/s to ~100 kbit/s), and
o in some specific technologies, further message rate constraints o in some specific technologies, further message rate constraints
(e.g. between ~0.1 message/minute and ~1 message/minute) due to (e.g. between ~0.1 message/minute and ~1 message/minute) due to
regional regulations that limit the duty cycle. regional regulations that limit the duty cycle.
4.2.1. Header Compression 4.2.1. Header Compression
6LoWPAN header compression reduces IPv6 (and UDP) header overhead by 6LoWPAN header compression reduces IPv6 (and UDP) header overhead by
eliding header fields when they can be derived from the link layer, eliding header fields when they can be derived from the link layer,
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802.15.4 networks with a frame size up to 127 bytes and a throughput 802.15.4 networks with a frame size up to 127 bytes and a throughput
of up to 250 kb/s, which may or may not be duty-cycled. of up to 250 kb/s, which may or may not be duty-cycled.
4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration 4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration
Traditionally, Interface Identifiers (IIDs) have been derived from Traditionally, Interface Identifiers (IIDs) have been derived from
link layer identifiers [RFC4944] . This allows optimizations such as link layer identifiers [RFC4944] . This allows optimizations such as
header compression. Nevertheless, recent guidance has given advice header compression. Nevertheless, recent guidance has given advice
on the fact that, due to privacy concerns, 6LoWPAN devices should not on the fact that, due to privacy concerns, 6LoWPAN devices should not
be configured to embed their link layer addresses in the IID by be configured to embed their link layer addresses in the IID by
default. default. [RFC8065] provides guidance on better methods for
generating IIDs.
4.2.3. Fragmentation 4.2.3. Fragmentation
As stated above, IPv6 requires the layer below to support an MTU of As stated above, IPv6 requires the layer below to support an MTU of
1280 bytes [RFC2460]. Therefore, given the low maximum payload size 1280 bytes [RFC2460]. Therefore, given the low maximum payload size
of LPWAN technologies, fragmentation is needed. of LPWAN technologies, fragmentation is needed.
If a layer of an LPWAN technology supports fragmentation, proper If a layer of an LPWAN technology supports fragmentation, proper
analysis has to be carried out to decide whether the fragmentation analysis has to be carried out to decide whether the fragmentation
functionality provided by the lower layer or fragmentation at the functionality provided by the lower layer or fragmentation at the
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Thanks to all those listed in Section 7 for the excellent text. Thanks to all those listed in Section 7 for the excellent text.
Errors in the handling of that are solely the editor's fault. Errors in the handling of that are solely the editor's fault.
[[RFC editor: Please surnames below for I18N, at least Mirja's does [[RFC editor: Please surnames below for I18N, at least Mirja's does
need fixing.]] need fixing.]]
In addition to the contributors above, thanks are due to (in In addition to the contributors above, thanks are due to (in
alphabetical order): Abdussalam Baryun, Andy Malis, Arun alphabetical order): Abdussalam Baryun, Andy Malis, Arun
(arun@acklio.com), Behcet SariKaya, Dan Garcia Carrillo, Jiazi Yi, (arun@acklio.com), Behcet SariKaya, Dan Garcia Carrillo, Jiazi Yi,
Mirja Kuehlewind, Paul Duffy, Russ Housley, Thad Guidry, Warren Mirja Kuehlewind, Paul Duffy, Russ Housley, Samita Chakrabarti, Thad
Kumari, for comments. Guidry, Warren Kumari, for comments.
Alexander Pelov and Pascal Thubert were the LPWAN WG chairs while Alexander Pelov and Pascal Thubert were the LPWAN WG chairs while
this document was developed. this document was developed.
Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by Pervasive Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by Pervasive
Nation, the Science Foundation Ireland's CONNECT centre national IoT Nation, the Science Foundation Ireland's CONNECT centre national IoT
network. <https://connectcentre.ie/pervasive-nation/> network. <https://connectcentre.ie/pervasive-nation/>
9. Informative References 9. Informative References
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[RFC7452] Tschofenig, H., Arkko, J., Thaler, D., and D. McPherson, [RFC7452] Tschofenig, H., Arkko, J., Thaler, D., and D. McPherson,
"Architectural Considerations in Smart Object Networking", "Architectural Considerations in Smart Object Networking",
RFC 7452, DOI 10.17487/RFC7452, March 2015, RFC 7452, DOI 10.17487/RFC7452, March 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7452>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7452>.
[RFC7668] Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B., [RFC7668] Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B.,
Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low
Energy", RFC 7668, DOI 10.17487/RFC7668, October 2015, Energy", RFC 7668, DOI 10.17487/RFC7668, October 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668>.
[RFC8065] Thaler, D., "Privacy Considerations for IPv6 Adaptation-
Layer Mechanisms", RFC 8065, DOI 10.17487/RFC8065,
February 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8065>.
[RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200, (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017, <https://www.rfc- DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017, <https://www.rfc-
editor.org/info/rfc8200>. editor.org/info/rfc8200>.
[RFC8240] Tschofenig, H. and S. Farrell, "Report from the Internet [RFC8240] Tschofenig, H. and S. Farrell, "Report from the Internet
of Things Software Update (IoTSU) Workshop 2016", of Things Software Update (IoTSU) Workshop 2016",
RFC 8240, DOI 10.17487/RFC8240, September 2017, RFC 8240, DOI 10.17487/RFC8240, September 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8240>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8240>.
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[I-D.garcia-dime-diameter-lorawan] [I-D.garcia-dime-diameter-lorawan]
Garcia, D., Lopez, R., Kandasamy, A., and A. Pelov, Garcia, D., Lopez, R., Kandasamy, A., and A. Pelov,
"LoRaWAN Authentication in Diameter", draft-garcia-dime- "LoRaWAN Authentication in Diameter", draft-garcia-dime-
diameter-lorawan-00 (work in progress), May 2016. diameter-lorawan-00 (work in progress), May 2016.
[I-D.garcia-radext-radius-lorawan] [I-D.garcia-radext-radius-lorawan]
Garcia, D., Lopez, R., Kandasamy, A., and A. Pelov, Garcia, D., Lopez, R., Kandasamy, A., and A. Pelov,
"LoRaWAN Authentication in RADIUS", draft-garcia-radext- "LoRaWAN Authentication in RADIUS", draft-garcia-radext-
radius-lorawan-03 (work in progress), May 2017. radius-lorawan-03 (work in progress), May 2017.
[I-D.hong-6lo-use-cases]
Hong, Y. and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over Constrained Node
Networks(6lo) Applicability & Use cases", draft-hong-6lo-
use-cases-03 (work in progress), October 2016.
[TGPP36300] [TGPP36300]
3GPP, "TS 36.300 v13.4.0 Evolved Universal Terrestrial 3GPP, "TS 36.300 v13.4.0 Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage
2", 2016, 2", 2016,
<http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/2016-09/Rel-14/36_series/>. <http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/2016-09/Rel-14/36_series/>.
[TGPP36321] [TGPP36321]
3GPP, "TS 36.321 v13.2.0 Evolved Universal Terrestrial 3GPP, "TS 36.321 v13.2.0 Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access (E-UTRA); Medium Access Control (MAC) Radio Access (E-UTRA); Medium Access Control (MAC)
skipping to change at page 42, line 47 skipping to change at page 43, line 15
Added a sentence in intro trying to say what's "special" about Added a sentence in intro trying to say what's "special" about
LPWAN compared to other constrained networks. (As suggested by LPWAN compared to other constrained networks. (As suggested by
Warren.) Warren.)
Added text @ start of gap analysis referring to RFCs 7252 and Added text @ start of gap analysis referring to RFCs 7252 and
8240, as suggested by a few folks (AB, Warren, Mirja) 8240, as suggested by a few folks (AB, Warren, Mirja)
Added nbiot-ov reference for those who'd like a more polished Added nbiot-ov reference for those who'd like a more polished
presentation of NB-IoT presentation of NB-IoT
A.9. From -08 to -09
Changes due to IoT-DIR review from Samita Chakrabarti: fixed error
on max rate between tables 1 and 2; s/eNb/eNodeB/; fixed
references to hong-6lo-use-cases; added RFC8065 reference
Author's Address Author's Address
Stephen Farrell (editor) Stephen Farrell (editor)
Trinity College Dublin Trinity College Dublin
Dublin 2 Dublin 2
Ireland Ireland
Phone: +353-1-896-2354 Phone: +353-1-896-2354
Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie
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