draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-10.txt   rfc8376.txt 
lpwan S. Farrell, Ed. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) S. Farrell, Ed.
Internet-Draft Trinity College Dublin Request for Comments: 8376 Trinity College Dublin
Intended status: Informational February 7, 2018 Category: Informational May 2018
Expires: August 11, 2018 ISSN: 2070-1721
LPWAN Overview Low-Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) Overview
draft-ietf-lpwan-overview-10
Abstract Abstract
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) are wireless technologies with Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LPWANs) are wireless technologies with
characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly characteristics such as large coverage areas, low bandwidth, possibly
very small packet and application layer data sizes and long battery very small packet and application-layer data sizes, and long battery
life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of life operation. This memo is an informational overview of the set of
LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that LPWAN technologies being considered in the IETF and of the gaps that
exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running exist between the needs of those technologies and the goal of running
IP in LPWANs. IP in LPWANs.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. published for informational purposes.
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approved by the IESG are candidates for any level of Internet
Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 7841.
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 11, 2018. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
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Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. LPWAN Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. LPWAN Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1. LoRaWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. LoRaWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.2. Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2. Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3. SIGFOX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3. Sigfox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.3.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) . . . . . . . . 20 2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) . . . . . . . . 20
2.4.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.4.1. Provenance and Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.4.2. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3. Generic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3. Generic Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4. Gap Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4. Gap Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.1. Naive application of IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.1. Naive Application of IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.2. 6LoWPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.2. 6LoWPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.2.1. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2.1. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2.3. Fragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.2.4. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.2.4. Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.3. 6lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.3. 6lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.4. 6tisch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.4. 6tisch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.5. RoHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.5. RoHC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.6. ROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.6. ROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.7. CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.7. CoAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.8. Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.8. Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.9. DNS and LPWAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
9. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Appendix A. Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.1. From -00 to -01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.2. From -01 to -02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.3. From -02 to -03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
A.4. From -03 to -04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.5. From -04 to -05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.6. From -05 to -06 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.7. From -06 to -07 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.8. From -07 to -08 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
A.9. From -08 to -09 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
A.10. From -09 to -10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document provides background material and an overview of the This document provides background material and an overview of the
technologies being considered in the IETF's Low Power Wide-Area technologies being considered in the IETF's IPv6 over Low Power Wide-
Networking (LPWAN) working group. We also provide a gap analysis Area Networks (LPWAN) Working Group (WG). It also provides a gap
between the needs of these technologies and currently available IETF analysis between the needs of these technologies and currently
specifications. available IETF specifications.
Most technologies in this space aim for similar goals of supporting Most technologies in this space aim for a similar goal of supporting
large numbers of very low-cost, low-throughput devices with very-low large numbers of very low-cost, low-throughput devices with very low
power consumption, so that even battery-powered devices can be power consumption, so that even battery-powered devices can be
deployed for years. LPWAN devices also tend to be constrained in deployed for years. LPWAN devices also tend to be constrained in
their use of bandwidth, for example with limited frequencies being their use of bandwidth, for example, with limited frequencies being
allowed to be used within limited duty-cycles (usually expressed as a allowed to be used within limited duty cycles (usually expressed as a
percentage of time per-hour that the device is allowed to transmit.) percentage of time per hour that the device is allowed to transmit).
And as the name implies, coverage of large areas is also a common As the name implies, coverage of large areas is also a common goal.
goal. So, by and large, the different technologies aim for So, by and large, the different technologies aim for deployment in
deployment in very similar circumstances. very similar circumstances.
What mainly distinguishes LPWANs from other constrained networks is While all constrained networks must balance power consumption /
that in LPWANs the balancing act related to power consumption/battery battery life, cost, and bandwidth, LPWANs prioritize power and cost
life, cost and bandwidth tends to prioritise doing better with benefits by accepting severe bandwidth and duty cycle constraints
respect to power and cost and we are more willing to live with when making the required trade-offs. This prioritization is made in
extremely low bandwidth and constrained duty-cycles when making the order to get the multiple-kilometer radio links implied by "Wide
various trade-offs required, in order to get the multiple-kilometre Area" in LPWAN's name.
radio links implied by the "wide area" aspect of the LPWAN term.
Existing pilot deployments have shown huge potential and created much Existing pilot deployments have shown huge potential and created much
industrial interest in these technologies. As of today, essentially industrial interest in these technologies. At the time of writing,
no LPWAN end-devices (other than for Wi-SUN) have IP capabilities. essentially no LPWAN end devices (other than for Wi-SUN) have IP
Connecting LPWANs to the Internet would provide significant benefits capabilities. Connecting LPWANs to the Internet would provide
to these networks in terms of interoperability, application significant benefits to these networks in terms of interoperability,
deployment, and management, among others. The goal of the IETF LPWAN application deployment, and management (among others). The goal of
working group is to, where necessary, adapt IETF-defined protocols, the LPWAN WG is to, where necessary, adapt IETF-defined protocols,
addressing schemes and naming to this particular constrained addressing schemes, and naming conventions to this particular
environment. constrained environment.
This document is largely the work of the people listed in Section 7. This document is largely the work of the people listed in the
Contributors section.
2. LPWAN Technologies 2. LPWAN Technologies
This section provides an overview of the set of LPWAN technologies This section provides an overview of the set of LPWAN technologies
that are being considered in the LPWAN working group. The text for that are being considered in the LPWAN WG. The text for each was
each was mainly contributed by proponents of each technology. mainly contributed by proponents of each technology.
Note that this text is not intended to be normative in any sense, but Note that this text is not intended to be normative in any sense; it
simply to help the reader in finding the relevant layer 2 simply exists to help the reader in finding the relevant Layer 2 (L2)
specifications and in understanding how those integrate with IETF- specifications and in understanding how those integrate with IETF-
defined technologies. Similarly, there is no attempt here to set out defined technologies. Similarly, there is no attempt here to set out
the pros and cons of the relevant technologies. the pros and cons of the relevant technologies.
Note that some of the technology-specific drafts referenced below may
have been updated since publication of this document.
2.1. LoRaWAN 2.1. LoRaWAN
2.1.1. Provenance and Documents 2.1.1. Provenance and Documents
LoRaWAN is an ISM-based wireless technology for long-range low-power LoRaWAN is a wireless technology based on Industrial, Scientific, and
low-data-rate applications developed by the LoRa Alliance, a Medical (ISM) that is used for long-range low-power low-data-rate
membership consortium. <https://www.lora-alliance.org/> This draft applications developed by the LoRa Alliance, a membership consortium
is based on version 1.0.2 [LoRaSpec] of the LoRa specification. That <https://www.lora-alliance.org/>. This document is based on Version
specification is publicly available and has already seen several 1.0.2 of the LoRa specification [LoRaSpec]. That specification is
deployments across the globe. publicly available and has already seen several deployments across
the globe.
2.1.2. Characteristics 2.1.2. Characteristics
LoRaWAN aims to support end-devices operating on a single battery for LoRaWAN aims to support end devices operating on a single battery for
an extended period of time (e.g., 10 years or more), extended an extended period of time (e.g., 10 years or more), extended
coverage through 155 dB maximum coupling loss, and reliable and coverage through 155 dB maximum coupling loss, and reliable and
efficient file download (as needed for remote software/firmware efficient file download (as needed for remote software/firmware
upgrade). upgrade).
LoRaWAN networks are typically organized in a star-of-stars topology LoRaWAN networks are typically organized in a star-of-stars topology
in which gateways relay messages between end-devices and a central in which Gateways relay messages between end devices and a central
"network server" in the backend. Gateways are connected to the "network server" in the backend. Gateways are connected to the
network server via IP links while end-devices use single-hop LoRaWAN network server via IP links while end devices use single-hop LoRaWAN
communication that can be received at one or more gateways. communication that can be received at one or more Gateways.
Communication is generally bi-directional; uplink communication from Communication is generally bidirectional; uplink communication from
end-devices to the network server is favored in terms of overall end devices to the network server is favored in terms of overall
bandwidth availability. bandwidth availability.
Figure 1 shows the entities involved in a LoRaWAN network. Figure 1 shows the entities involved in a LoRaWAN network.
+----------+ +----------+
|End-device| * * * |End Device| * * *
+----------+ * +---------+ +----------+ * +---------+
* | Gateway +---+ * | Gateway +---+
+----------+ * +---------+ | +---------+ +----------+ * +---------+ | +---------+
|End-device| * * * +---+ Network +--- Application |End Device| * * * +---+ Network +--- Application
+----------+ * | | Server | +----------+ * | | Server |
* +---------+ | +---------+ * +---------+ | +---------+
+----------+ * | Gateway +---+ +----------+ * | Gateway +---+
|End-device| * * * * +---------+ |End Device| * * * * +---------+
+----------+ +----------+
Key: * LoRaWAN Radio Key: * LoRaWAN Radio
+---+ IP connectivity +---+ IP connectivity
Figure 1: LoRaWAN architecture Figure 1: LoRaWAN Architecture
o End-device: a LoRa client device, sometimes called a mote. o End Device: a LoRa client device, sometimes called a "mote".
Communicates with gateways. Communicates with Gateways.
o Gateway: a radio on the infrastructure-side, sometimes called a o Gateway: a radio on the infrastructure side, sometimes called a
concentrator or base-station. Communicates with end-devices and, "concentrator" or "base station". Communicates with end devices
via IP, with a network server. and, via IP, with a network server.
o Network Server: The Network Server (NS) terminates the LoRaWAN MAC o Network Server: The Network Server (NS) terminates the LoRaWAN
layer for the end-devices connected to the network. It is the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer for the end devices connected to
center of the star topology. the network. It is the center of the star topology.
o Join Server: The Join Server (JS) is a server on the Internet side o Join Server: The Join Server (JS) is a server on the Internet side
of an NS that processes join requests from an end-devices. of an NS that processes join requests from an end devices.
o Uplink message: refers to communications from an end-device to a o Uplink message: refers to communications from an end device to a
network server or application via one or more gateways. network server or application via one or more Gateways.
o Downlink message: refers to communications from a network server o Downlink message: refers to communications from a network server
or application via one gateway to a single end-device or a group or application via one Gateway to a single end device or a group
of end-devices (considering multicasting). of end devices (considering multicasting).
o Application: refers to application layer code both on the end- o Application: refers to application-layer code both on the end
device and running "behind" the network server. For LoRaWAN, device and running "behind" the NS. For LoRaWAN, there will
there will generally only be one application running on most end- generally only be one application running on most end devices.
devices. Interfaces between the network server and application Interfaces between the NS and the application are not further
are not further described here. described here.
In LoRaWAN networks, end-device transmissions may be received at In LoRaWAN networks, end device transmissions may be received at
multiple gateways, so during nominal operation a network server may multiple Gateways, so, during nominal operation, a network server may
see multiple instances of the same uplink message from an end-device. see multiple instances of the same uplink message from an end device.
The LoRaWAN network infrastructure manages the data rate and RF The LoRaWAN network infrastructure manages the data rate and Radio
output power for each end-device individually by means of an adaptive Frequency (RF) output power for each end device individually by means
data rate (ADR) scheme. End-devices may transmit on any channel of an Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) scheme. End devices may transmit on
allowed by local regulation at any time. any channel allowed by local regulation at any time.
LoRaWAN radios make use of industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) LoRaWAN radios make use of ISM bands, for example, 433 MHz and 868
bands, for example, 433MHz and 868MHz within the European Union and MHz within the European Union and 915 MHz in the Americas.
915MHz in the Americas.
The end-device changes channel in a pseudo-random fashion for every The end device changes channels in a pseudorandom fashion for every
transmission to help make the system more robust to interference and/ transmission to help make the system more robust to interference and/
or to conform to local regulations. or to conform to local regulations.
Figure 2 below shows that after a transmission slot a Class A device Figure 2 shows that after a transmission slot, a Class A device turns
turns on its receiver for two short receive windows that are offset on its receiver for two short receive windows that are offset from
from the end of the transmission window. End-devices can only the end of the transmission window. End devices can only transmit a
transmit a subsequent uplink frame after the end of the associated subsequent uplink frame after the end of the associated receive
receive windows. When a device joins a LoRaWAN network, there are windows. When a device joins a LoRaWAN network, there are similar
similar timeouts on parts of that process. timeouts on parts of that process.
|----------------------------| |--------| |--------| |----------------------------| |--------| |--------|
| Tx | | Rx | | Rx | | Tx | | Rx | | Rx |
|----------------------------| |--------| |--------| |----------------------------| |--------| |--------|
|---------| |---------|
Rx delay 1 Rx delay 1
|------------------------| |------------------------|
Rx delay 2 Rx delay 2
Figure 2: LoRaWAN Class A transmission and reception window Figure 2: LoRaWAN Class A Transmission and Reception Window
Given the different regional requirements the detailed specification Given the different regional requirements, the detailed specification
for the LoRaWAN physical layer (taking up more than 30 pages of the for the LoRaWAN Physical layer (PHY) (taking up more than 30 pages of
specification) is not reproduced here. Instead and mainly to the specification) is not reproduced here. Instead, and mainly to
illustrate the kinds of issue encountered, in Table 1 we present some illustrate the kinds of issue encountered, Table 1 presents some of
of the default settings for one ISM band (without fully explaining the default settings for one ISM band (without fully explaining those
those here) and in Table 2 we describe maxima and minima for some here); Table 2 describes maxima and minima for some parameters of
parameters of interest to those defining ways to use IETF protocols interest to those defining ways to use IETF protocols over the
over the LoRaWAN MAC layer. LoRaWAN MAC layer.
+------------------------+------------------------------------------+ +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Parameters | Default Value | | Parameters | Default Value |
+------------------------+------------------------------------------+ +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Rx delay 1 | 1 s | | Rx delay 1 | 1 s |
| | | | | |
| Rx delay 2 | 2 s (must be RECEIVE_DELAY1 + 1s) | | Rx delay 2 | 2 s (must be RECEIVE_DELAY1 + 1 s) |
| | | | | |
| join delay 1 | 5 s | | join delay 1 | 5 s |
| | | | | |
| join delay 2 | 6 s | | join delay 2 | 6 s |
| | | | | |
| 868MHz Default | 3 (868.1,868.2,868.3), data rate: | | 868MHz Default | 3 (868.1,868.2,868.3), data rate: 0.3-50 |
| channels | 0.3-50kbps | | channels | kbit/s |
+------------------------+------------------------------------------+ +-----------------------+-------------------------------------------+
Table 1: Default settings for EU 868MHz band Table 1: Default Settings for EU 868 MHz Band
+-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+ +------------------------------------------------+--------+---------+
| Parameter/Notes | Min | Max | | Parameter/Notes | Min | Max |
+-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+ +------------------------------------------------+--------+---------+
| Duty Cycle: some but not all ISM bands impose | 1% | no-limit | | Duty Cycle: some but not all ISM bands impose | 1% | no |
| a limit in terms of how often an end-device | | | | a limit in terms of how often an end device | | limit |
| can transmit. In some cases LoRaWAN is more | | | | can transmit. In some cases, LoRaWAN is more | | |
| restrictive in an attempt to avoid | | | | restrictive in an attempt to avoid congestion. | | |
| congestion. | | | | | | |
| | | | | EU 868 MHz band data rate/frame size | 250 | 50000 |
| EU 868MHz band data rate/frame-size | 250 | 50000 | | | bits/s | bits/s |
| | bits/s | bits/s : | | | : 59 | : 250 |
| | : 59 | 250 | | | octets | octets |
| | octets | octets | | | | |
| | | | | US 915 MHz band data rate/frame size | 980 | 21900 |
| US 915MHz band data rate/frame-size | 980 | 21900 | | | bits/s | bits/s |
| | bits/s | bits/s : | | | : 19 | : 250 |
| | : 19 | 250 | | | octets | octets |
| | octets | octets | +------------------------------------------------+--------+---------+
+-----------------------------------------------+--------+----------+
Table 2: Minima and Maxima for various LoRaWAN Parameters Table 2: Minima and Maxima for Various LoRaWAN Parameters
Note that in the case of the smallest frame size (19 octets), 8 Note that, in the case of the smallest frame size (19 octets), 8
octets are required for LoRa MAC layer headers leaving only 11 octets octets are required for LoRa MAC layer headers, leaving only 11
for payload (including MAC layer options). However, those settings octets for payload (including MAC layer options). However, those
do not apply for the join procedure - end-devices are required to use settings do not apply for the join procedure -- end devices are
a channel and data rate that can send the 23-byte Join-request required to use a channel and data rate that can send the 23-byte
message for the join procedure. Join-Request message for the join procedure.
Uplink and downlink higher layer data is carried in a MACPayload. Uplink and downlink higher-layer data is carried in a MACPayload.
There is a concept of "ports" (an optional 8-bit value) to handle There is a concept of "ports" (an optional 8-bit value) to handle
different applications on an end-device. Port zero is reserved for different applications on an end device. Port zero is reserved for
LoRaWAN specific messaging, such as the configuration of the end LoRaWAN-specific messaging, such as the configuration of the end
device's network parameters (available channels, data rates, ADR device's network parameters (available channels, data rates, ADR
parameters, RX1/2 delay, etc.). parameters, Rx Delay 1 and 2, etc.).
In addition to carrying higher layer PDUs there are Join-Request and In addition to carrying higher-layer PDUs, there are Join-Request and
Join-Response (aka Join-Accept) messages for handling network access. Join-Response (aka Join-Accept) messages for handling network access.
And so-called "MAC commands" (see below) up to 15 bytes long can be And so-called "MAC commands" (see below) up to 15 bytes long can be
piggybacked in an options field ("FOpts"). piggybacked in an options field ("FOpts").
There are a number of MAC commands for link and device status There are a number of MAC commands for link and device status
checking, ADR and duty-cycle negotiation, managing the RX windows and checking, ADR and duty cycle negotiation, and managing the RX windows
radio channel settings. For example, the link check response message and radio channel settings. For example, the link check response
allows the network server (in response to a request from an end- message allows the NS (in response to a request from an end device)
device) to inform an end-device about the signal attenuation seen to inform an end device about the signal attenuation seen most
most recently at a gateway, and to also tell the end-device how many recently at a Gateway and to tell the end device how many Gateways
gateways received the corresponding link request MAC command. received the corresponding link request MAC command.
Some MAC commands are initiated by the network server. For example, Some MAC commands are initiated by the network server. For example,
one command allows the network server to ask an end-device to reduce one command allows the network server to ask an end device to reduce
its duty-cycle to only use a proportion of the maximum allowed in a its duty cycle to only use a proportion of the maximum allowed in a
region. Another allows the network server to query the end-device's region. Another allows the network server to query the end device's
power status with the response from the end-device specifying whether power status with the response from the end device specifying whether
it has an external power source or is battery powered (in which case it has an external power source or is battery powered (in which case,
a relative battery level is also sent to the network server). a relative battery level is also sent to the network server).
In order to operate nominally on a LoRaWAN network, a device needs a In order to operate nominally on a LoRaWAN network, a device needs a
32-bit device address, that is assigned when the device "joins" the 32-bit device address, which is assigned when the device "joins" the
network (see below for the join procedure) or that is pre-provisioned network (see below for the join procedure) or that is pre-provisioned
into the device. In case of roaming devices, the device address is into the device. In case of roaming devices, the device address is
assigned based on the 24-bit network identifier (NetID) that is assigned based on the 24-bit network identifier (NetID) that is
allocated to the network by the LoRa Alliance. Non-roaming devices allocated to the network by the LoRa Alliance. Non-roaming devices
can be assigned device addresses by the network without relying on a can be assigned device addresses by the network without relying on a
LoRa Alliance-assigned NetID. NetID assigned by the LoRa Alliance.
End-devices are assumed to work with one or a quite limited number of End devices are assumed to work with one or quite a limited number of
applications, identified by a 64-bit AppEUI, which is assumed to be a applications, identified by a 64-bit AppEUI, which is assumed to be a
registered IEEE EUI64 value. In addition, a device needs to have two registered IEEE EUI64 value [EUI64]. In addition, a device needs to
symmetric session keys, one for protecting network artifacts have two symmetric session keys, one for protecting network artifacts
(port=0), the NwkSKey, and another for protecting application layer (port=0), the NwkSKey, and another for protecting application-layer
traffic, the AppSKey. Both keys are used for 128-bit AES traffic, the AppSKey. Both keys are used for 128-bit AES
cryptographic operations. So, one option is for an end-device to cryptographic operations. So, one option is for an end device to
have all of the above, plus channel information, somehow have all of the above plus channel information, somehow
(pre-)provisioned, in which case the end-device can simply start (pre-)provisioned; in that case, the end device can simply start
transmitting. This is achievable in many cases via out-of-band means transmitting. This is achievable in many cases via out-of-band means
given the nature of LoRaWAN networks. Table 3 summarizes these given the nature of LoRaWAN networks. Table 3 summarizes these
values. values.
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| Value | Description | | Value | Description |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
| DevAddr | DevAddr (32-bits) = device-specific network address | | DevAddr | DevAddr (32 bits) = device-specific network address |
| | generated from the NetID | | | generated from the NetID |
| | | | | |
| AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 corresponding to the join server for an | | AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 value corresponding to the join server for |
| | application | | | an application |
| | | | | |
| NwkSKey | 128-bit network session key used with AES-CMAC | | NwkSKey | 128-bit network session key used with AES-CMAC |
| | | | | |
| AppSKey | 128-bit application session key used with AES-CTR | | AppSKey | 128-bit application session key used with AES-CTR |
| | | | | |
| AppKey | 128-bit application session key used with AES-ECB | | AppKey | 128-bit application session key used with AES-ECB |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------+ +---------+---------------------------------------------------------+
Table 3: Values required for nominal operation Table 3: Values Required for Nominal Operation
As an alternative, end-devices can use the LoRaWAN join procedure As an alternative, end devices can use the LoRaWAN join procedure
with a join server behind the NS in order to setup some of these with a join server behind the NS in order to set up some of these
values and dynamically gain access to the network. To use the join values and dynamically gain access to the network. To use the join
procedure, an end-device must still know the AppEUI, and in addition, procedure, an end device must still know the AppEUI and a different
a different (long-term) symmetric key that is bound to the AppEUI - (long-term) symmetric key that is bound to the AppEUI (this is the
this is the application key (AppKey), and is distinct from the application key (AppKey), and it is distinct from the application
application session key (AppSKey). The AppKey is required to be session key (AppSKey)). The AppKey is required to be specific to the
specific to the device, that is, each end-device should have a device; that is, each end device should have a different AppKey
different AppKey value. And finally, the end-device also needs a value. Finally, the end device also needs a long-term identifier for
long-term identifier for itself, syntactically also an EUI-64, and itself, which is syntactically also an EUI-64 and is known as the
known as the device EUI or DevEUI. Table 4 summarizes these values. device EUI or DevEUI. Table 4 summarizes these values.
+---------+----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
| Value | Description | | Value | Description |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
| DevEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the device | | DevEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the device |
| | | | | |
| AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application | | AppEUI | IEEE EUI64 naming the application |
| | | | | |
| AppKey | 128-bit long term application key for use with AES | | AppKey | 128-bit long-term application key for use with AES |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+----------------------------------------------------+
Table 4: Values required for join procedure Table 4: Values Required for Join Procedure
The join procedure involves a special exchange where the end-device The join procedure involves a special exchange where the end device
asserts the AppEUI and DevEUI (integrity protected with the long-term asserts the AppEUI and DevEUI (integrity protected with the long-term
AppKey, but not encrypted) in a Join-request uplink message. This is AppKey, but not encrypted) in a Join-Request uplink message. This is
then routed to the network server which interacts with an entity that then routed to the network server, which interacts with an entity
knows that AppKey to verify the Join-request. All going well, a that knows that AppKey to verify the Join-Request. If all is going
Join-accept downlink message is returned from the network server to well, a Join-Accept downlink message is returned from the network
the end-device that specifies the 24-bit NetID, 32-bit DevAddr and server to the end device. That message specifies the 24-bit NetID,
channel information and from which the AppSKey and NwkSKey can be 32-bit DevAddr, and channel information and from which the AppSKey
derived based on knowledge of the AppKey. This provides the end- and NwkSKey can be derived based on knowledge of the AppKey. This
device with all the values listed in Table 3. provides the end device with all the values listed in Table 3.
All payloads are encrypted and have data integrity. MAC commands, All payloads are encrypted and have data integrity. MAC commands,
when sent as a payload (port zero), are therefore protected. MAC when sent as a payload (port zero), are therefore protected.
commands piggy-backed as frame options ("FOpts") are however sent in However, MAC commands piggybacked as frame options ("FOpts") are sent
clear. Any MAC commands sent as frame options and not only as in clear. Any MAC commands sent as frame options and not only as
payload, are visible to a passive attacker but are not malleable for payload, are visible to a passive attacker, but they are not
an active attacker due to the use of the Message Integrity Check malleable for an active attacker due to the use of the Message
(MIC) described below. Integrity Check (MIC) described below.
For LoRaWAN version 1.0.x, the NWkSkey session key is used to provide For LoRaWAN version 1.0.x, the NwkSKey session key is used to provide
data integrity between the end-device and the network server. The data integrity between the end device and the network server. The
AppSKey is used to provide data confidentiality between the end- AppSKey is used to provide data confidentiality between the end
device and network server, or to the application "behind" the network device and network server, or to the application "behind" the network
server, depending on the implementation of the network. server, depending on the implementation of the network.
All MAC layer messages have an outer 32-bit MIC calculated using AES- All MAC-layer messages have an outer 32-bit MIC calculated using AES-
CMAC calculated over the ciphertext payload and other headers and CMAC with the input being the ciphertext payload and other headers
using the NwkSkey. Payloads are encrypted using AES-128, with a and using the NwkSkey. Payloads are encrypted using AES-128, with a
counter-mode derived from IEEE 802.15.4 using the AppSKey. Gateways counter-mode derived from [IEEE.802.15.4] using the AppSKey.
are not expected to be provided with the AppSKey or NwkSKey, all of Gateways are not expected to be provided with the AppSKey or NwkSKey,
the infrastructure-side cryptography happens in (or "behind") the all of the infrastructure-side cryptography happens in (or "behind")
network server. When session keys are derived from the AppKey as a the network server. When session keys are derived from the AppKey as
result of the join procedure the Join-accept message payload is a result of the join procedure, the Join-Accept message payload is
specially handled. specially handled.
The long-term AppKey is directly used to protect the Join-accept The long-term AppKey is directly used to protect the Join-Accept
message content, but the function used is not an AES-encrypt message content, but the function used is not an AES-encrypt
operation, but rather an AES-decrypt operation. The justification is operation, but rather an AES-decrypt operation. The justification is
that this means that the end-device only needs to implement the AES- that this means that the end device only needs to implement the AES-
encrypt operation. (The counter mode variant used for payload encrypt operation. (The counter-mode variant used for payload
decryption means the end-device doesn't need an AES-decrypt decryption means the end device doesn't need an AES-decrypt
primitive.) primitive.)
The Join-accept plaintext is always less than 16 bytes long, so The Join-Accept plaintext is always less than 16 bytes long, so
electronic code book (ECB) mode is used for protecting Join-accept Electronic Code Book (ECB) mode is used for protecting Join-Accept
messages. The Join-accept contains an AppNonce (a 24 bit value) that messages. The Join-Accept message contains an AppNonce (a 24-bit
is recovered on the end-device along with the other Join-accept value) that is recovered on the end device along with the other Join-
content (e.g. DevAddr) using the AES-encrypt operation. Once the Accept content (e.g., DevAddr) using the AES-encrypt operation. Once
Join-accept payload is available to the end-device the session keys the Join-Accept payload is available to the end device, the session
are derived from the AppKey, AppNonce and other values, again using keys are derived from the AppKey, AppNonce, and other values, again
an ECB mode AES-encrypt operation, with the plaintext input being a using an ECB mode AES-encrypt operation, with the plaintext input
maximum of 16 octets. being a maximum of 16 octets.
2.2. Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) 2.2. Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT)
2.2.1. Provenance and Documents 2.2.1. Provenance and Documents
Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) is developed and standardized Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) has been developed and
by 3GPP. The standardization of NB-IoT was finalized with 3GPP standardized by 3GPP. The standardization of NB-IoT was finalized
Release 13 in June 2016, and further enhancements for NB-IoT are with 3GPP Release 13 in June 2016, and further enhancements for
specified in 3GPP Release 14 in 2017, for example in the form of NB-IoT are specified in 3GPP Release 14 in 2017 (for example, in the
multicast support. Further features and improvements will be form of multicast support). Further features and improvements will
developed in the following releases, but NB-IoT has been ready to be be developed in the following releases, but NB-IoT has been ready to
deployed since 2016, and is rather simple to deploy especially in the be deployed since 2016; it is rather simple to deploy, especially in
existing LTE networks with a software upgrade in the operator's base the existing LTE networks with a software upgrade in the operator's
stations. For more information of what has been specified for NB- base stations. For more information of what has been specified for
IoT, 3GPP specification 36.300 [TGPP36300] provides an overview and NB-IoT, 3GPP specification 36.300 [TGPP36300] provides an overview
overall description of the E-UTRAN radio interface protocol and overall description of the Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio
architecture, while specifications 36.321 [TGPP36321], 36.322 Access Network (E-UTRAN) radio interface protocol architecture, while
[TGPP36322], 36.323 [TGPP36323] and 36.331 [TGPP36331] give more specifications 36.321 [TGPP36321], 36.322 [TGPP36322], 36.323
detailed description of MAC, Radio Link Control (RLC), Packet Data [TGPP36323], and 36.331 [TGPP36331] give more detailed descriptions
Convergence Protocol (PDCP) and Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol of MAC, Radio Link Control (RLC), Packet Data Convergence Protocol
layers, respectively. Note that the description below assumes (PDCP), and Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol layers,
familiarity with numerous 3GPP terms. respectively. Note that the description below assumes familiarity
with numerous 3GPP terms.
For a general overview of NB-IoT, see [nbiot-ov]. For a general overview of NB-IoT, see [nbiot-ov].
2.2.2. Characteristics 2.2.2. Characteristics
Specific targets for NB-IoT include: Less than US$5 module cost, Specific targets for NB-IoT include: module cost that is Less than US
extended coverage of 164 dB maximum coupling loss, battery life of $5, extended coverage of 164 dB maximum coupling loss, battery life
over 10 years, ~55000 devices per cell and uplink reporting latency of over 10 years, ~55000 devices per cell, and uplink reporting
of less than 10 seconds. latency of less than 10 seconds.
NB-IoT supports Half Duplex FDD operation mode with 60 kbps peak rate NB-IoT supports Half Duplex Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) operation
in uplink and 30 kbps peak rate in downlink, and a maximum mode with 60 kbit/s peak rate in uplink and 30 kbit/s peak rate in
transmission unit (MTU) size of 1600 bytes limited by PDCP layer (see downlink, and a Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) size of 1600 bytes,
Figure 4 for the protocol structure), which is the highest layer in limited by PDCP layer (see Figure 4 for the protocol structure),
the user plane, as explained later. Any packet size up to the said which is the highest layer in the user plane, as explained later.
MTU size can be passed to the NB-IoT stack from higher layers, Any packet size up to the said MTU size can be passed to the NB-IoT
segmentation of the packet is performed in the RLC layer, which can stack from higher layers, segmentation of the packet is performed in
segment the data to transmission blocks with size as small as 16 the RLC layer, which can segment the data to transmission blocks with
bits. As the name suggests, NB-IoT uses narrowbands with bandwidth a size as small as 16 bits. As the name suggests, NB-IoT uses
of 180 kHz in both downlink and uplink. The multiple access scheme narrowbands with bandwidth of 180 kHz in both downlink and uplink.
used in the downlink is OFDMA with 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing. In The multiple access scheme used in the downlink is Orthogonal
uplink, SC-FDMA single tone with either 15kHz or 3.75 kHz tone Frequency-Division Multiplex (OFDMA) with 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing.
spacing is used, or optionally multi-tone SC- FDMA can be used with In uplink, Sub-Carrier Frequency-Division Multiplex (SC-FDMA) single
15 kHz tone spacing. tone with either 15kHz or 3.75 kHz tone spacing is used, or
optionally multi-tone SC-FDMA can be used with 15 kHz tone spacing.
NB-IoT can be deployed in three ways. In-band deployment means that NB-IoT can be deployed in three ways. In-band deployment means that
the narrowband is deployed inside the LTE band and radio resources the narrowband is deployed inside the LTE band and radio resources
are flexibly shared between NB-IoT and normal LTE carrier. In Guard- are flexibly shared between NB-IoT and normal LTE carrier. In Guard-
band deployment the narrowband uses the unused resource blocks band deployment, the narrowband uses the unused resource blocks
between two adjacent LTE carriers. Standalone deployment is also between two adjacent LTE carriers. Standalone deployment is also
supported, where the narrowband can be located alone in dedicated supported, where the narrowband can be located alone in dedicated
spectrum, which makes it possible for example to reframe a GSM spectrum, which makes it possible, for example, to reframe a GSM
carrier at 850/900 MHz for NB-IoT. All three deployment modes are carrier at 850/900 MHz for NB-IoT. All three deployment modes are
used in licensed frequency bands. The maximum transmission power is used in licensed frequency bands. The maximum transmission power is
either 20 or 23 dBm for uplink transmissions, while for downlink either 20 or 23 dBm for uplink transmissions, while for downlink
transmission the eNodeB may use higher transmission power, up to 46 transmission the eNodeB may use higher transmission power, up to 46
dBm depending on the deployment. dBm depending on the deployment.
A maximum coupling loss (MCL) target for NB-IoT coverage enhancements A Maximum Coupling Loss (MCL) target for NB-IoT coverage enhancements
defined by 3GPP is 164 dB. With this MCL, the performance of NB-IoT defined by 3GPP is 164 dB. With this MCL, the performance of NB-IoT
in downlink varies between 200 bps and 2-3 kbps, depending on the in downlink varies between 200 bps and 2-3 kbit/s, depending on the
deployment mode. Stand-alone operation may achieve the highest data deployment mode. Stand-alone operation may achieve the highest data
rates, up to few kbps, while in-band and guard-band operations may rates, up to a few kbit/s, while in-band and guard-band operations
reach several hundreds of bps. NB-IoT may even operate with MCL may reach several hundreds of bps. NB-IoT may even operate with an
higher than 170 dB with very low bit rates. MCL higher than 170 dB with very low bit rates.
For signaling optimization, two options are introduced in addition to For signaling optimization, two options are introduced in addition to
legacy LTE RRC connection setup; mandatory Data-over-NAS (Control the legacy LTE RRC connection setup; mandatory Data-over-NAS (Control
Plane optimization, solution 2 in [TGPP23720]) and optional RRC Plane optimization, solution 2 in [TGPP23720]) and optional RRC
Suspend/Resume (User Plane optimization, solution 18 in [TGPP23720]). Suspend/Resume (User Plane optimization, solution 18 in [TGPP23720]).
In the control plane optimization the data is sent over Non-Access In the control-plane optimization, the data is sent over Non-Access
Stratum, directly to/from Mobility Management Entity (MME) (see Stratum (NAS), directly to/from the Mobile Management Entity (MME)
Figure 3 for the network architecture) in the core network to the (see Figure 3 for the network architecture) in the core network to
User Equipment (UE) without interaction from the base station. This the User Equipment (UE) without interaction from the base station.
means there are no Access Stratum security or header compression This means there is no Access Stratum security or header compression
provided by the PDCP layer in the eNodeB, as the Access Stratum is provided by the PDCP layer in the eNodeB, as the Access Stratum is
bypassed, and only limited RRC procedures. RoHC based header bypassed, and only limited RRC procedures. Header compression based
compression may still optionally be provided and terminated in MME. on Robust Header Compression (RoHC) may still optionally be provided
and terminated in the MME.
The RRC Suspend/Resume procedures reduce the signaling overhead The RRC Suspend/Resume procedures reduce the signaling overhead
required for UE state transition from RRC Idle to RRC Connected mode required for UE state transition from RRC Idle to RRC Connected mode
compared to legacy LTE operation in order to have quicker user plane compared to a legacy LTE operation in order to have quicker user-
transaction with the network and return to RRC Idle mode faster. plane transaction with the network and return to RRC Idle mode
faster.
In order to prolong device battery life, both power-saving mode (PSM) In order to prolong device battery life, both Power-Saving Mode (PSM)
and extended DRX (eDRX) are available to NB-IoT. With eDRX the RRC and extended DRX (eDRX) are available to NB-IoT. With eDRX, the RRC
Connected mode DRX cycle is up to 10.24 seconds and in RRC Idle the Connected mode DRX cycle is up to 10.24 seconds; in RRC Idle, the
eDRX cycle can be up to 3 hours. In PSM the device is in a deep eDRX cycle can be up to 3 hours. In PSM, the device is in a deep
sleep state and only wakes up for uplink reporting, after which there sleep state and only wakes up for uplink reporting. After the
is a window, configured by the network, during which the device reporting, there is a window (configured by the network) during which
receiver is open for downlink connectivity, of for periodical "keep- the device receiver is open for downlink connectivity or for
alive" signaling (PSM uses periodic TAU signaling with additional periodical "keep-alive" signaling (PSM uses periodic TAU signaling
reception window for downlink reachability). with additional reception windows for downlink reachability).
Since NB-IoT operates in licensed spectrum, it has no channel access Since NB-IoT operates in a licensed spectrum, it has no channel
restrictions allowing up to a 100% duty-cycle. access restrictions allowing up to a 100% duty cycle.
3GPP access security is specified in [TGPP33203]. 3GPP access security is specified in [TGPP33203].
+--+ +--+
|UE| \ +------+ +------+ |UE| \ +------+ +------+
+--+ \ | MME |------| HSS | +--+ \ | MME |------| HSS |
\ / +------+ +------+ \ / +------+ +------+
+--+ \+--------+ / | +--+ \+--------+ / |
|UE| ----| eNodeB |- | |UE| ----| eNodeB |- |
+--+ /+--------+ \ | +--+ /+--------+ \ |
/ \ +--------+ / \ +--------+
/ \| | +------+ Service PDN / \| | +------+ Service Packet
+--+ / | S-GW |----| P-GW |---- e.g. Internet +--+ / | S-GW |----| P-GW |---- Data Network (PDN)
|UE| | | +------+ |UE| | | +------+ e.g., Internet
+--+ +--------+ +--+ +--------+
Figure 3: 3GPP network architecture Figure 3: 3GPP Network Architecture
Figure 3 shows the 3GPP network architecture, which applies to NB- Figure 3 shows the 3GPP network architecture, which applies to
IoT. Mobility Management Entity (MME) is responsible for handling NB-IoT. The MME is responsible for handling the mobility of the UE.
the mobility of the UE. MME tasks include tracking and paging UEs, The MME tasks include tracking and paging UEs, session management,
session management, choosing the Serving gateway for the UE during choosing the Serving Gateway for the UE during initial attachment and
initial attachment and authenticating the user. At MME, the Non- authenticating the user. At the MME, the NAS signaling from the UE
Access Stratum (NAS) signaling from the UE is terminated. is terminated.
Serving Gateway (S-GW) routes and forwards the user data packets The Serving Gateway (S-GW) routes and forwards the user data packets
through the access network and acts as a mobility anchor for UEs through the access network and acts as a mobility anchor for UEs
during handover between base stations known as eNodeBs and also during handover between base stations known as eNodeBs and also
during handovers between NB-IoT and other 3GPP technologies. during handovers between NB-IoT and other 3GPP technologies.
Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW) works as an interface between 3GPP The Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW) works as an interface between
network and external networks. the 3GPP network and external networks.
The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) contains user-related and The Home Subscriber Server (HSS) contains user-related and
subscription- related information. It is a database, which performs subscription-related information. It is a database that performs
mobility management, session establishment support, user mobility management, session-establishment support, user
authentication and access authorization. authentication, and access authorization.
E-UTRAN consists of components of a single type, eNodeB. eNodeB is a E-UTRAN consists of components of a single type, eNodeB. eNodeB is a
base station, which controls the UEs in one or several cells. base station that controls the UEs in one or several cells.
The 3GPP radio protocol architecture is illustrated in Figure 4. The 3GPP radio protocol architecture is illustrated in Figure 4.
+---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+
| NAS |----|-----------------------------|----| NAS | | NAS |----|-----------------------------|----| NAS |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| RRC |----|----| RRC | S1-AP |----|----| S1-AP | | RRC |----|----| RRC | S1-AP |----|----| S1-AP |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| PDCP |----|----| PDCP | SCTP |----|----| SCTP | | PDCP |----|----| PDCP | SCTP |----|----| SCTP |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| RLC |----|----| RLC | IP |----|----| IP | | RLC |----|----| RLC | IP |----|----| IP |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| MAC |----|----| MAC | L2 |----|----| L2 | | MAC |----|----| MAC | L2 |----|----| L2 |
+---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+ +---------+ | +---------+---------+ | +---------+
| PHY |----|----| PHY | PHY |----|----| PHY | | PHY |----|----| PHY | PHY |----|----| PHY |
+---------+ +---------+---------+ +---------+ +---------+ +---------+---------+ +---------+
LTE-Uu S1-MME LTE-Uu S1-MME
UE eNodeB MME UE eNodeB MME
Figure 4: 3GPP radio protocol architecture for control plane Figure 4: 3GPP Radio Protocol Architecture for the Control Plane
Control plane protocol stack
The radio protocol architecture of NB-IoT (and LTE) is separated into The radio protocol architecture of NB-IoT (and LTE) is separated into
control plane and user plane. The control plane consists of the control plane and the user plane. The control plane consists of
protocols which control the radio access bearers and the connection protocols that control the radio-access bearers and the connection
between the UE and the network. The highest layer of control plane between the UE and the network. The highest layer of control plane
is called Non-Access Stratum (NAS), which conveys the radio signaling is called the Non-Access Stratum (NAS), which conveys the radio
between the UE and the Evolved Packet Core (EPC), passing signaling between the UE and the Evolved Packet Core (EPC), passing
transparently through the radio network. NAS responsible for transparently through the radio network. The NAS is responsible for
authentication, security control, mobility management and bearer authentication, security control, mobility management, and bearer
management. management.
Access Stratum (AS) is the functional layer below NAS, and in the The Access Stratum (AS) is the functional layer below the NAS; in the
control plane it consists of Radio Resource Control protocol (RRC) control plane, it consists of the Radio Resource Control (RRC)
[TGPP36331], which handles connection establishment and release protocol [TGPP36331], which handles connection establishment and
functions, broadcast of system information, radio bearer release functions, broadcast of system information, radio-bearer
establishment, reconfiguration and release. RRC configures the user establishment, reconfiguration, and release. The RRC configures the
and control planes according to the network status. There exists two user and control planes according to the network status. There exist
RRC states, RRC_Idle or RRC_Connected, and RRC entity controls the two RRC states, RRC_Idle or RRC_Connected, and the RRC entity
switching between these states. In RRC_Idle, the network knows that controls the switching between these states. In RRC_Idle, the
the UE is present in the network and the UE can be reached in case of network knows that the UE is present in the network, and the UE can
incoming call/downlink data. In this state, the UE monitors paging, be reached in case of an incoming call/downlink data. In this state,
performs cell measurements and cell selection and acquires system the UE monitors paging, performs cell measurements and cell
information. Also the UE can receive broadcast and multicast data, selection, and acquires system information. Also, the UE can receive
but it is not expected to transmit or receive unicast data. In broadcast and multicast data, but it is not expected to transmit or
RRC_Connected the UE has a connection to the eNodeB, the network receive unicast data. In RRC_Connected state, the UE has a
knows the UE location on the cell level and the UE may receive and connection to the eNodeB, the network knows the UE location on the
transmit unicast data. An RRC connection is established when the UE cell level, and the UE may receive and transmit unicast data. An RRC
is expected to be active in the network, to transmit or receive data. connection is established when the UE is expected to be active in the
The RRC connection is released, switching back to RRC_Idle, when network, to transmit or receive data. The RRC connection is
there is no more traffic in order to preserve UE battery life and released, switching back to RRC_Idle, when there is no more traffic;
radio resources. However, a new feature was introduced for NB-IoT, this is in order to preserve UE battery life and radio resources.
as mentioned earlier, which allows data to be transmitted from the
MME directly to the UE transparently to the eNodeB, thus bypassing AS However, as mentioned earlier, a new feature was introduced for
NB-IoT that allows data to be transmitted from the MME directly to
the UE and then transparently to the eNodeB, thus bypassing AS
functions. functions.
Packet Data Convergence Protocol's (PDCP) [TGPP36323] main services The PDCP's [TGPP36323] main services in the control plane are
in control plane are transfer of control plane data, ciphering and transfer of control-plane data, ciphering, and integrity protection.
integrity protection.
Radio Link Control protocol (RLC) [TGPP36322] performs transfer of The RLC protocol [TGPP36322] performs transfer of upper-layer PDUs
upper layer PDUs and optionally error correction with Automatic and, optionally, error correction with Automatic Repeat reQuest
Repeat reQuest (ARQ), concatenation, segmentation, and reassembly of (ARQ), concatenation, segmentation, and reassembly of RLC Service
RLC SDUs, in-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs, duplicate Data Units (SDUs), in-sequence delivery of upper-layer PDUs,
detection, RLC SDU discard, RLC-re-establishment and protocol error duplicate detection, RLC SDU discarding, RLC-re-establishment, and
detection and recovery. protocol error detection and recovery.
Medium Access Control protocol (MAC) [TGPP36321] provides mapping The MAC protocol [TGPP36321] provides mapping between logical
between logical channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC channels and transport channels, multiplexing of MAC SDUs, scheduling
SDUs, scheduling information reporting, error correction with HARQ, information reporting, error correction with Hybrid ARQ (HARQ),
priority handling and transport format selection. priority handling, and transport format selection.
Physical layer [TGPP36201] provides data transport services to higher The PHY [TGPP36201] provides data-transport services to higher
layers. These include error detection and indication to higher layers. These include error detection and indication to higher
layers, FEC encoding, HARQ soft-combining, rate matching and mapping layers, Forward Error Correction (FEC) encoding, HARQ soft-combining,
of the transport channels onto physical channels, power weighting and rate-matching, mapping of the transport channels onto physical
modulation of physical channels, frequency and time synchronization channels, power-weighting and modulation of physical channels,
and radio characteristics measurements. frequency and time synchronization, and radio characteristics
measurements.
User plane is responsible for transferring the user data through the The user plane is responsible for transferring the user data through
Access Stratum. It interfaces with IP and the highest layer of user the Access Stratum. It interfaces with IP and the highest layer of
plane is PDCP, which in user plane performs header compression using the user plane is the PDCP, which, in the user plane, performs header
Robust Header Compression (RoHC), transfer of user plane data between compression using RoHC, transfer of user-plane data between eNodeB
eNodeB and UE, ciphering and integrity protection. Similar to and the UE, ciphering, and integrity protection. Similar to the
control plane, lower layers in user plane include RLC, MAC and control plane, lower layers in the user plane include RLC, MAC, and
physical layer performing the same tasks as in control plane. the PHY performing the same tasks as they do in the control plane.
2.3. SIGFOX 2.3. Sigfox
2.3.1. Provenance and Documents 2.3.1. Provenance and Documents
The SIGFOX LPWAN is in line with the terminology and specifications The Sigfox LPWAN is in line with the terminology and specifications
being defined by ETSI [etsi_unb]. As of today, SIGFOX's network has being defined by ETSI [etsi_unb]. As of today, Sigfox's network has
been fully deployed in 12 countries, with ongoing deployments on 26 been fully deployed in 12 countries, with ongoing deployments in 26
other countries, giving in total a geography of 2 million square other countries, giving in total a geography of 2 million square
kilometers, containing 512 million people. kilometers, containing 512 million people.
2.3.2. Characteristics 2.3.2. Characteristics
SIGFOX LPWAN autonomous battery-operated devices send only a few Sigfox LPWAN autonomous battery-operated devices send only a few
bytes per day, week or month, in principle allowing them to remain on bytes per day, week, or month, in principle, allowing them to remain
a single battery for up to 10-15 years. Hence, the system is on a single battery for up to 10-15 years. Hence, the system is
designed as to allow devices to last several years, sometimes even designed as to allow devices to last several years, sometimes even
buried underground. buried underground.
Since the radio protocol is connection-less and optimized for uplink Since the radio protocol is connectionless and optimized for uplink
communications, the capacity of a SIGFOX base station depends on the communications, the capacity of a Sigfox base station depends on the
number of messages generated by devices, and not on the actual number number of messages generated by devices, and not on the actual number
of devices. Likewise, the battery life of devices depends on the of devices. Likewise, the battery life of devices depends on the
number of messages generated by the device. Depending on the use number of messages generated by the device. Depending on the use
case, devices can vary from sending less than one message per device case, devices can vary from sending less than one message per device
per day, to dozens of messages per device per day. per day to dozens of messages per device per day.
The coverage of the cell depends on the link budget and on the type The coverage of the cell depends on the link budget and on the type
of deployment (urban, rural, etc.). The radio interface is compliant of deployment (urban, rural, etc.). The radio interface is compliant
with the following regulations: with the following regulations:
Spectrum allocation in the USA [fcc_ref] Spectrum allocation in the USA [fcc_ref]
Spectrum allocation in Europe [etsi_ref] Spectrum allocation in Europe [etsi_ref1] [etsi_ref2]
Spectrum allocation in Japan [arib_ref] Spectrum allocation in Japan [arib_ref]
The SIGFOX radio interface is also compliant with the local The Sigfox radio interface is also compliant with the local
regulations of the following countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, regulations of the following countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada,
Kenya, Lebanon, Mauritius, Mexico, New Zealand, Oman, Peru, Kenya, Lebanon, Mauritius, Mexico, New Zealand, Oman, Peru,
Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, and Thailand. Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, and Thailand.
The radio interface is based on Ultra Narrow Band (UNB) The radio interface is based on Ultra Narrow Band (UNB)
communications, which allow an increased transmission range by communications, which allow an increased transmission range by
spending a limited amount of energy at the device. Moreover, UNB spending a limited amount of energy at the device. Moreover, UNB
allows a large number of devices to coexist in a given cell without allows a large number of devices to coexist in a given cell without
significantly increasing the spectrum interference. significantly increasing the spectrum interference.
skipping to change at page 17, line 13 skipping to change at page 17, line 13
o Uplink baud rate: 100 baud / 600 baud (depending on the region) o Uplink baud rate: 100 baud / 600 baud (depending on the region)
o Modulation scheme: DBPSK o Modulation scheme: DBPSK
o Uplink transmission power: compliant with local regulation o Uplink transmission power: compliant with local regulation
o Link budget: 155 dB (or better) o Link budget: 155 dB (or better)
o Central frequency accuracy: not relevant, provided there is no o Central frequency accuracy: not relevant, provided there is no
significant frequency drift within an uplink packet transmission significant frequency drift within an uplink packet transmission
For example, in Europe the UNB uplink frequency band is limited to For example, in Europe, the UNB uplink frequency band is limited to
868.00 to 868.60 MHz, with a maximum output power of 25 mW and a duty 868.00 to 868.60 MHz, with a maximum output power of 25 mW and a duty
cycle of 1%. cycle of 1%.
The format of the uplink frame is the following: The format of the uplink frame is the following:
+--------+--------+--------+------------------+-------------+-----+ +--------+--------+--------+------------------+-------------+-----+
|Preamble| Frame | Dev ID | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS | |Preamble| Frame | Dev ID | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS |
| | Sync | | | | | | | Sync | | | | |
+--------+--------+--------+------------------+-------------+-----+ +--------+--------+--------+------------------+-------------+-----+
skipping to change at page 17, line 38 skipping to change at page 17, line 38
o Preamble: 19 bits o Preamble: 19 bits
o Frame sync and header: 29 bits o Frame sync and header: 29 bits
o Device ID: 32 bits o Device ID: 32 bits
o Payload: 0-96 bits o Payload: 0-96 bits
o Authentication: 16-40 bits o Authentication: 16-40 bits
o Frame check sequence: 16 bits (CRC) o Frame check sequence: 16 bits (Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC))
The main radio characteristics of the UNB downlink transmission are: The main radio characteristics of the UNB downlink transmission are:
o Channelization mask: 1.5 kHz o Channelization mask: 1.5 kHz
o Downlink baud rate: 600 baud o Downlink baud rate: 600 baud
o Modulation scheme: GFSK o Modulation scheme: GFSK
o Downlink transmission power: 500 mW / 4W (depending on the region) o Downlink transmission power: 500 mW / 4W (depending on the region)
o Link budget: 153 dB (or better) o Link budget: 153 dB (or better)
o Central frequency accuracy: the center frequency of downlink o Central frequency accuracy: the center frequency of downlink
transmission is set by the network according to the corresponding transmission is set by the network according to the corresponding
uplink transmission uplink transmission.
For example, in Europe the UNB downlink frequency band is limited to For example, in Europe, the UNB downlink frequency band is limited to
869.40 to 869.65 MHz, with a maximum output power of 500 mW with 10% 869.40 to 869.65 MHz, with a maximum output power of 500 mW with 10%
duty cycle. duty cycle.
The format of the downlink frame is the following: The format of the downlink frame is the following:
+------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+ +------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+
| Preamble |Frame| ECC | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS | | Preamble |Frame| ECC | Payload |Msg Auth Code| FCS |
| |Sync | | | | | | |Sync | | | | |
+------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+ +------------+-----+---------+------------------+-------------+-----+
skipping to change at page 18, line 43 skipping to change at page 18, line 43
o Frame check sequence: 8 bits (CRC) o Frame check sequence: 8 bits (CRC)
The radio interface is optimized for uplink transmissions, which are The radio interface is optimized for uplink transmissions, which are
asynchronous. Downlink communications are achieved by devices asynchronous. Downlink communications are achieved by devices
querying the network for available data. querying the network for available data.
A device willing to receive downlink messages opens a fixed window A device willing to receive downlink messages opens a fixed window
for reception after sending an uplink transmission. The delay and for reception after sending an uplink transmission. The delay and
duration of this window have fixed values. The network transmits the duration of this window have fixed values. The network transmits the
downlink message for a given device during the reception window, and downlink message for a given device during the reception window, and
the network also selects the base station (BS) for transmitting the the network also selects the BS for transmitting the corresponding
corresponding downlink message. downlink message.
Uplink and downlink transmissions are unbalanced due to the Uplink and downlink transmissions are unbalanced due to the
regulatory constraints on ISM bands. Under the strictest regulatory constraints on ISM bands. Under the strictest
regulations, the system can allow a maximum of 140 uplink messages regulations, the system can allow a maximum of 140 uplink messages
and 4 downlink messages per device per day. These restrictions can and 4 downlink messages per device per day. These restrictions can
be slightly relaxed depending on system conditions and the specific be slightly relaxed depending on system conditions and the specific
regulatory domain of operation. regulatory domain of operation.
+---+ +---+
|DEV| * +------+ |DEV| * +------+
skipping to change at page 19, line 27 skipping to change at page 19, line 28
+---+ * / | | +---+ * / | |
* +----+ / +--------+ * +----+ / +--------+
+---+ * | BS |/ +---+ * | BS |/
|DEV| * * * * +----+ |DEV| * * * * +----+
+---+ * +---+ *
* *
+---+ * +---+ *
|DEV| * * |DEV| * *
+---+ +---+
Figure 7: SIGFOX network architecture Figure 7: Sigfox Network Architecture
Figure 7 depicts the different elements of the SIGFOX network Figure 7 depicts the different elements of the Sigfox network
architecture. architecture.
SIGFOX has a "one-contract one-network" model allowing devices to Sigfox has a "one-contract one-network" model allowing devices to
connect in any country, without any need or notion of either roaming connect in any country, without any need or notion of either roaming
or handover. or handover.
The architecture consists of a single cloud-based core network, which The architecture consists of a single cloud-based core network, which
allows global connectivity with minimal impact on the end device and allows global connectivity with minimal impact on the end device and
radio access network. The core network elements are the Service radio access network. The core network elements are the Service
Center (SC) and the Registration Authority (RA). The SC is in charge Center (SC) and the Registration Authority (RA). The SC is in charge
of the data connectivity between the Base Station (BS) and the of the data connectivity between the BS and the Internet, as well as
Internet, as well as the control and management of the BSs and End the control and management of the BSs and End Points (EPs). The RA
Points. The RA is in charge of the End Point network access is in charge of the EP network access authorization.
authorization.
The radio access network is comprised of several BSs connected The radio access network is comprised of several BSs connected
directly to the SC. Each BS performs complex L1/L2 functions, directly to the SC. Each BS performs complex L1/L2 functions,
leaving some L2 and L3 functionalities to the SC. leaving some L2 and L3 functionalities to the SC.
The Devices (DEVs) or End Points (EPs) are the objects that The Devices (DEVs) or EPs are the objects that communicate
communicate application data between local device applications (DAs) application data between local Device Applications (DAs) and Network
and network applications (NAs). Applications (NAs).
Devices (or EPs) can be static or nomadic, as they associate with the Devices (or EPs) can be static or nomadic, as they associate with the
SC and they do not attach to any specific BS. Hence, they can SC and they do not attach to any specific BS. Hence, they can
communicate with the SC through one or multiple BSs. communicate with the SC through one or multiple BSs.
Due to constraints in the complexity of the Device, it is assumed Due to constraints in the complexity of the Device, it is assumed
that Devices host only one or very few device applications, which that Devices host only one or very few device applications, which
most of the time communicate each to a single network application at most of the time communicate each to a single network application at
a time. a time.
The radio protocol authenticates and ensures the integrity of each The radio protocol authenticates and ensures the integrity of each
message. This is achieved by using a unique device ID and an AES-128 message. This is achieved by using a unique device ID and an
based message authentication code, ensuring that the message has been AES-128-based message authentication code, ensuring that the message
generated and sent by the device with the ID claimed in the message. has been generated and sent by the device with the ID claimed in the
Application data can be encrypted at the application level or not, message. Application data can be encrypted at the application level
depending on the criticality of the use case, to provide a balance or not, depending on the criticality of the use case, to provide a
between cost and effort vs. risk. AES-128 in counter mode is used balance between cost and effort versus risk. AES-128 in counter mode
for encryption. Cryptographic keys are independent for each device. is used for encryption. Cryptographic keys are independent for each
These keys are associated with the device ID and separate integrity device. These keys are associated with the device ID and separate
and confidentiality keys are pre-provisioned. A confidentiality key integrity and confidentiality keys are pre-provisioned. A
is only provisioned if confidentiality is to be used. At the time of confidentiality key is only provisioned if confidentiality is to be
writing the algorithms and keying details for this are not published. used. At the time of writing, the algorithms and keying details for
this are not published.
2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) 2.4. Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN)
Text here is via personal communication from Bob Heile Text here is via personal communication from Bob Heile
(bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Sean. Duffy (bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Sean. Paul
(paduffy@cisco.com) also provided additional comments/input on this Duffy (paduffy@cisco.com) also provided additional comments/input on
section. this section.
2.4.1. Provenance and Documents 2.4.1. Provenance and Documents
The Wi-SUN Alliance <https://www.wi-sun.org/> is an industry alliance The Wi-SUN Alliance <https://www.wi-sun.org/> is an industry alliance
for smart city, smart grid, smart utility, and a broad set of general for smart city, smart grid, smart utility, and a broad set of general
IoT applications. The Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) IoT applications. The Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN)
profile is open standards based (primarily on IETF and IEEE802 profile is open-standards based (primarily on IETF and IEEE 802
standards) and was developed to address applications like smart standards) and was developed to address applications like smart
municipality/city infrastructure monitoring and management, electric municipality/city infrastructure monitoring and management, Electric
vehicle (EV) infrastructure, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), Vehicle (EV) infrastructure, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI),
distribution automation (DA), supervisory control and data Distribution Automation (DA), Supervisory Control and Data
acquisition (SCADA) protection/management, distributed generation Acquisition (SCADA) protection/management, distributed generation
monitoring and management, and many more IoT applications. monitoring and management, and many more IoT applications.
Additionally, the Alliance has created a certification program to Additionally, the Alliance has created a certification program to
promote global multi-vendor interoperability. promote global multi-vendor interoperability.
The FAN profile is specified within ANSI/TIA as an extension of work The FAN profile is specified within ANSI/TIA as an extension of work
previously done on Smart Utility Networks. [ANSI-4957-000]. Updates previously done on Smart Utility Networks [ANSI-4957-000]. Updates
to those specifications intended to be published in 2017 will contain to those specifications intended to be published in 2017 will contain
details of the FAN profile. A current snapshot of the work to details of the FAN profile. A current snapshot of the work to
produce that profile is presented in [wisun-pressie1] produce that profile is presented in [wisun-pressie1] and
[wisun-pressie2] . [wisun-pressie2].
2.4.2. Characteristics 2.4.2. Characteristics
The FAN profile is an IPv6 wireless mesh network with support for The FAN profile is an IPv6 wireless mesh network with support for
enterprise level security. The frequency hopping wireless mesh enterprise-level security. The frequency-hopping wireless mesh
topology aims to offer superior network robustness, reliability due topology aims to offer superior network robustness, reliability due
to high redundancy, good scalability due to the flexible mesh to high redundancy, good scalability due to the flexible mesh
configuration and good resilience to interference. Very low power configuration, and good resilience to interference. Very low power
modes are in development permitting long term battery operation of modes are in development permitting long-term battery operation of
network nodes. network nodes.
The following list contains some overall characteristics of Wi-SUN The following list contains some overall characteristics of Wi-SUN
that are relevant to LPWAN applications. that are relevant to LPWAN applications.
o Coverage: The range of Wi-SUN FAN is typically 2 -- 3 km in line o Coverage: The range of Wi-SUN FAN is typically 2 - 3 km in line of
of sight, matching the needs of neighborhood area networks, campus sight, matching the needs of neighborhood area networks, campus
area networks, or corporate area networks. The range can also be area networks, or corporate area networks. The range can also be
extended via multi-hop networking. extended via multi-hop networking.
o High bandwidth, low link latency: Wi-SUN supports relatively high o High-bandwidth, low-link latency: Wi-SUN supports relatively high
bandwidth, i.e. up to 300 kbps [FANTPS], enables remote update and bandwidth, i.e., up to 300 kbit/s [FANOV], enables remote update
upgrade of devices so that they can handle new applications, and upgrade of devices so that they can handle new applications,
extending their working life. Wi-SUN supports LPWAN IoT extending their working life. Wi-SUN supports LPWAN IoT
applications that require on-demand control by providing low link applications that require on-demand control by providing low link
latency (0.02s) and bi-directional communication. latency (0.02 s) and bidirectional communication.
o Low power consumption: FAN devices draw less than 2 uA when o Low-power consumption: FAN devices draw less than 2 uA when
resting and only 8 mA when listening. Such devices can maintain a resting and only 8 mA when listening. Such devices can maintain a
long lifetime even if they are frequently listening. For long lifetime, even if they are frequently listening. For
instance, suppose the device transmits data for 10 ms once every instance, suppose the device transmits data for 10 ms once every
10 s; theoretically, a battery of 1000 mAh can last more than 10 10 s; theoretically, a battery of 1000 mAh can last more than 10
years. years.
o Scalability: Tens of millions Wi-SUN FAN devices have been o Scalability: Tens of millions of Wi-SUN FAN devices have been
deployed in urban, suburban and rural environments, including deployed in urban, suburban, and rural environments, including
deployments with more than 1 million devices. deployments with more than 1 million devices.
A FAN contains one or more networks. Within a network, nodes assume A FAN contains one or more networks. Within a network, nodes assume
one of three operational roles. First, each network contains a one of three operational roles. First, each network contains a
Border Router providing Wide Area Network (WAN) connectivity to the Border Router providing WAN connectivity to the network. The Border
network. The Border Router maintains source routing tables for all Router maintains source-routing tables for all nodes within its
nodes within its network, provides node authentication and key network, provides node authentication and key management services,
management services, and disseminates network-wide information such and disseminates network-wide information such as broadcast
as broadcast schedules. Secondly, Router nodes, which provide upward schedules. Second, Router nodes, which provide upward and downward
and downward packet forwarding (within a network). A Router also packet forwarding (within a network). A Router also provides
provides services for relaying security and address management services for relaying security and address management protocols.
protocols. Lastly, Leaf nodes provide minimum capabilities: Finally, Leaf nodes provide minimum capabilities: discovering and
discovering and joining a network, send/receive IPv6 packets, etc. A joining a network, sending/receiving IPv6 packets, etc. A low-power
low power network may contain a mesh topology with Routers at the network may contain a mesh topology with Routers at the edges that
edges that construct a star topology with Leaf nodes. construct a star topology with Leaf nodes.
The FAN profile is based on various open standards developed by the The FAN profile is based on various open standards developed by the
IETF (including [RFC0768], [RFC2460], [RFC4443] and [RFC6282]), IETF (including [RFC768], [RFC2460], [RFC4443], and [RFC6282]).
IEEE802 (including [IEEE-802-15-4] and [IEEE-802-15-9]) and ANSI/TIA Related IEEE 802 standards include [IEEE.802.15.4] and
[ANSI-4957-210] for low power and lossy networks. [IEEE.802.15.9]. For Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs), see ANSI/
TIA [ANSI-4957-210].
The FAN profile specification provides an application-independent The FAN profile specification provides an application-independent
IPv6-based transport service. There are two possible methods for IPv6-based transport service. There are two possible methods for
establishing the IPv6 packet routing: Routing Protocol for Low-Power establishing IPv6 packet routing: the Routing Protocol for Low-Power
and Lossy Networks (RPL) at the Network layer is mandatory, and and Lossy Networks (RPL) at the Network layer is mandatory, and
Multi-Hop Delivery Service (MHDS) is optional at the Data Link layer. Multi-Hop Delivery Service (MHDS) is optional at the Data Link layer.
Table 5 provides an overview of the FAN network stack. Figure 8 provides an overview of the FAN network stack.
The Transport service is based on User Datagram Protocol (UDP) The Transport service is based on UDP (defined in [RFC768]) or TCP
defined in RFC768 or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) defined in (defined in [RFC793].
RFC793.
The Network service is provided by IPv6 as defined in RFC2460 with The Network service is provided by IPv6 as defined in [RFC2460] with
6LoWPAN adaptation as defined in RFC4944 and RFC6282. ICMPv6, as an IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN)
defined in RFC4443, is used for the control plane during information adaptation as defined in [RFC4944] and [RFC6282]. ICMPv6, as defined
in [RFC4443], is used for the control plane during information
exchange. exchange.
The Data Link service provides both control/management of the The Data Link service provides both control/management of the PHY and
Physical layer and data transfer/management services to the Network data transfer/management services to the Network layer. These
layer. These services are divided into Media Access Control (MAC) services are divided into MAC and Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-
and Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layers. The LLC sub-layer layers. The LLC sub-layer provides a protocol dispatch service that
provides a protocol dispatch service which supports 6LoWPAN and an supports 6LoWPAN and an optional MAC sub-layer mesh service. The MAC
optional MAC sub-layer mesh service. The MAC sub-layer is sub-layer is constructed using data structures defined in
constructed using data structures defined in IEEE802.15.4-2015. [IEEE.802.15.4]. Multiple modes of frequency hopping are defined.
Multiple modes of frequency hopping are defined. The entire MAC The entire MAC payload is encapsulated in an [IEEE.802.15.9]
payload is encapsulated in an IEEE802.15.9 Information Element to Information Element to enable LLC protocol dispatch between upper-
enable LLC protocol dispatch between upper layer 6LoWPAN processing, layer 6LoWPAN processing and MAC sub-layer mesh processing, etc.
MAC sublayer mesh processing, etc. These areas will be expanded once These areas will be expanded once [IEEE.802.15.12] is completed.
IEEE802.15.12 is completed.
The PHY service is derived from a sub-set of the SUN FSK The PHY service is derived from a subset of the SUN FSK specification
specification in IEEE802.15.4-2015. The 2-FSK modulation schemes, in [IEEE.802.15.4]. The 2-FSK modulation schemes, with a channel-
with channel spacing range from 200 to 600 kHz, are defined to spacing range from 200 to 600 kHz, are defined to provide data rates
provide data rates from 50 to 300 kbps, with Forward Error Coding from 50 to 300 kbit/s, with FEC as an optional feature. Towards
(FEC) as an optional feature. Towards enabling ultra-low-power enabling ultra-low-power applications, the PHY layer design is also
applications, the PHY layer design is also extendable to low energy extendable to low-energy and critical infrastructure-monitoring
and critical infrastructure monitoring networks. networks.
+----------------------+--------------------------------------------+ +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
| Layer | Description | | Layer | Description |
+----------------------+--------------------------------------------+ +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
| IPv6 protocol suite | TCP/UDP | | IPv6 protocol suite | TCP/UDP |
| | | | | |
| | 6LoWPAN Adaptation + Header Compression | | | 6LoWPAN Adaptation + Header Compression |
| | | | | |
| | DHCPv6 for IP address management. | | | DHCPv6 for IP address management |
| | |
| | Routing using RPL. |
| | |
| | ICMPv6. |
| | | | | |
| | Unicast and Multicast forwarding. | | | Routing using RPL |
| | | | | |
| MAC based on IEEE | Frequency hopping | | | ICMPv6 |
| 802.15.4e + IE | |
| extensions | |
| | | | | |
| | Discovery and Join | | | Unicast and Multicast forwarding |
+----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
| MAC based on | Frequency hopping |
| [IEEE.802.15.4e] + | |
| IE extensions | Discovery and Join |
| | | | | |
| | Protocol Dispatch (IEEE 802.15.9) | | | Protocol Dispatch ([IEEE.802.15.9]) |
| | | | | |
| | Several Frame Exchange patterns | | | Several Frame Exchange patterns |
| | | | | |
| | Optional Mesh Under routing (ANSI | | | Optional Mesh Under routing |
| | 4957.210). | | | ([ANSI-4957-210]) |
| | | +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
| PHY based on | Various data rates and regions | | PHY based on | Various data rates and regions |
| 802.15.4g | | | [IEEE.802.15.4g] | |
| | | +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
| Security | 802.1X/EAP-TLS/PKI Authentication. | | Security | [IEEE.802.1x]/EAP-TLS/PKI Authentication |
| | TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8 | | | TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8 |
| | required for EAP-TLS. | | | required for EAP-TLS |
| | | | | |
| | 802.11i Group Key Management | | | 802.11i Group Key Management |
| | | | | |
| | Frame security is implemented as AES-CCM* | | | Frame security is implemented as AES-CCM* |
| | as specified in IEEE 802.15.4 | | | as specified in [IEEE.802.15.4] |
| | | | | |
| | Optional ETSI-TS-102-887-2 Node 2 Node Key | | | Optional [ETSI-TS-102-887-2] Node 2 Node |
| | Management | | | Key Management |
+----------------------+--------------------------------------------+ +----------------------+--------------------------------------------+
Table 5: Wi-SUN Stack Overview Figure 8: Wi-SUN Stack Overview
The FAN security supports Data Link layer network access control, The FAN security supports Data Link layer network access control,
mutual authentication, and establishment of a secure pairwise link mutual authentication, and establishment of a secure pairwise link
between a FAN node and its Border Router, which is implemented with between a FAN node and its Border Router, which is implemented with
an adaptation of IEEE802.1X and EAP-TLS as described in [RFC5216] an adaptation of [IEEE.802.1x] and EAP-TLS as described in [RFC5216]
using secure device identity as described in IEEE802.1AR. using secure device identity as described in [IEEE.802.1AR].
Certificate formats are based upon [RFC5280]. A secure group link Certificate formats are based upon [RFC5280]. A secure group link
between a Border Router and a set of FAN nodes is established using between a Border Router and a set of FAN nodes is established using
an adaptation of the IEEE802.11 Four-Way Handshake. A set of 4 group an adaptation of the [IEEE.802.11] Four-Way Handshake. A set of four
keys are maintained within the network, one of which is the current group keys are maintained within the network, one of which is the
transmit key. Secure node to node links are supported between one- current transmit key. Secure node-to-node links are supported
hop FAN neighbors using an adaptation of ETSI-TS-102-887-2. FAN between one-hop FAN neighbors using an adaptation of
nodes implement Frame Security as specified in IEEE802.15.4-2015. [ETSI-TS-102-887-2]. FAN nodes implement Frame Security as specified
in [IEEE.802.15.4].
3. Generic Terminology 3. Generic Terminology
LPWAN technologies, such as those discussed above, have similar LPWAN technologies, such as those discussed above, have similar
architectures but different terminology. We can identify different architectures but different terminology. We can identify different
types of entities in a typical LPWAN network: types of entities in a typical LPWAN network:
o End-Devices are the devices or the "things" (e.g. sensors, o End devices are the devices or the "things" (e.g., sensors,
actuators, etc.); they are named differently in each technology actuators, etc.); they are named differently in each technology
(End Device, User Equipment or End Point). There can be a high (End Device, User Equipment, or EP). There can be a high density
density of end devices per radio gateway. of end devices per Radio Gateway.
o The Radio Gateway, which is the end point of the constrained link. o The Radio Gateway, which is the EP of the constrained link. It is
It is known as: Gateway, Evolved Node B or Base station. known as: Gateway, Evolved Node B or base station.
o The Network Gateway or Router is the interconnection node between o The Network Gateway or Router is the interconnection node between
the Radio Gateway and the Internet. It is known as: Network the Radio Gateway and the Internet. It is known as the Network
Server, Serving GW or Service Center. Server, Serving GW, or Service Center.
o LPWAN-AAA Server, which controls the user authentication, the o LPWAN-AAA server, which controls user authentication. It is known
applications. It is known as: Join-Server, Home Subscriber Server as the Join-Server, Home Subscriber Server, or Registration
or Registration Authority. (We use the term LPWAN-AAA server Authority. (We use the term LPWAN-AAA server because we're not
because we're not assuming that this entity speaks RADIUS or assuming that this entity speaks RADIUS or Diameter as many/most
Diameter as many/most AAA servers do, but equally we don't want to AAA servers do; but, equally, we don't want to rule that out, as
rule that out, as the functionality will be similar. the functionality will be similar.)
o At last we have the Application Server, known also as Packet Data o At last we have the Application Server, known also as Packet Data
Node Gateway or Network Application. Node Gateway or Network Application.
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Function/ | | | | | | | Function/ | | | | | |
|Technology | LORAWAN | NB-IOT | SIGFOX | Wi-SUN | IETF | |Technology | LoRaWAN | NB-IoT | Sigfox | Wi-SUN | IETF |
+-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+ +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
| Sensor, | | | | | | |Sensor, | | | | | |
|Actuator, | End | User | End | Leaf | Device | |Actuator, | End | User | End | Leaf | Device |
|device, | Device | Equipment | Point | Node | (Dev) | |device, | Device | Equipment | Point | Node | (DEV) |
| object | | | | | | |object | | | | | |
+-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+ +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
|Transceiver| | Evolved | Base | Router | RADIO | |Transceiver| | Evolved | Base | Router | Radio |
| Antenna | Gateway | Node B | Station | Node | Gateway | |Antenna | Gateway | Node B | Station | Node | Gateway |
+-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+ +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
| Server | Network | PDN GW/ | Service | Border | Network | |Server | Network | PDN GW/ | Service | Border | Network |
| | Server | SCEF | Center | Router | Gateway | | | Server | SCEF* | Center | Router | Gateway |
| | | | | | (NGW) | | | | | | | (NGW) |
+-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+ +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
| Security | Join | Home |Registration|Authent.| LPWAN- | |Security | Join | Home |Registration|Authent.| LPWAN- |
| Server | Server | Subscriber| Authority | Server | AAA | |Server | Server | Subscriber| Authority | Server | AAA |
| | | Server | | | SERVER | | | | Server | | | Server |
+-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+ +-----------+-----------+-----------+------------+--------+-----------+
|Application|Application|Application| Network |Appli- |Application| |Application|Application|Application| Network |Appli- |Application|
| | Server | Server | Application| cation | (App) | | | Server | Server | Application| cation | (App) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+ +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 8: LPWAN Architecture Terminology * SCEF = Service Capability Exposure Function
Figure 9: LPWAN Architecture Terminology
+------+ +------+
() () () | |LPWAN-| () () () | |LPWAN-|
() () () () / \ +---------+ | AAA | () () () () / \ +---------+ | AAA |
() () () () () () / \========| /\ |====|Server| +-----------+ () () () () () () / \========| /\ |====|Server| +-----------+
() () () | | <--|--> | +------+ |APPLICATION| () () () | | <--|--> | +------+ |APPLICATION|
() () () () / \============| v |==============| (App) | () () () () / \============| v |==============| (App) |
() () () / \ +---------+ +-----------+ () () () / \ +---------+ +-----------+
Dev Radio Gateways NGW DEV Radio Gateways NGW
Figure 9: LPWAN Architecture Figure 10: LPWAN Architecture
In addition to the names of entities, LPWANs are also subject to In addition to the names of entities, LPWANs are also subject to
possibly regional frequency band regulations. Those may include possibly regional frequency-band regulations. Those may include
restrictions on the duty-cycle, for example requiring that hosts only restrictions on the duty cycle, for example, requiring that hosts
transmit for a certain percentage of each hour. only transmit for a certain percentage of each hour.
4. Gap Analysis 4. Gap Analysis
This section considers some of the gaps between current LPWAN This section considers some of the gaps between current LPWAN
technologies and the goals of the LPWAN working group. Many of the technologies and the goals of the LPWAN WG. Many of the generic
generic considerations described in [RFC7452] will also apply in considerations described in [RFC7452] will also apply in LPWANs, as
LPWANs, as end-devices can also be considered as a subclass of (so- end devices can also be considered to be a subclass of (so-called)
called) "smart objects." In addition, LPWAN device implementers will "smart objects". In addition, LPWAN device implementers will also
also need to consider the issues relating to firmware updates need to consider the issues relating to firmware updates described in
described in [RFC8240]. [RFC8240].
4.1. Naive application of IPv6 4.1. Naive Application of IPv6
IPv6 [RFC8200] has been designed to allocate addresses to all the IPv6 [RFC8200] has been designed to allocate addresses to all the
nodes connected to the Internet. Nevertheless, the header overhead nodes connected to the Internet. Nevertheless, the header overhead
of at least 40 bytes introduced by the protocol is incompatible with of at least 40 bytes introduced by the protocol is incompatible with
LPWAN constraints. If IPv6 with no further optimization were used, LPWAN constraints. If IPv6 with no further optimization were used,
several LPWAN frames could be needed just to carry the IP header. several LPWAN frames could be needed just to carry the IP header.
Another problem arises from IPv6 MTU requirements, which require the Another problem arises from IPv6 MTU requirements, which require the
layer below to support at least 1280 byte packets [RFC2460]. layer below to support at least 1280 byte packets [RFC2460].
IPv6 has a configuration protocol - neighbor discovery protocol, IPv6 has a configuration protocol: Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
(NDP) [RFC4861]). For a node to learn network parameters NDP [RFC4861]). For a node to learn network parameters, NDP generates
generates regular traffic with a relatively large message size that regular traffic with a relatively large message size that does not
does not fit LPWAN constraints. fit LPWAN constraints.
In some LPWAN technologies, layer two multicast is not supported. In In some LPWAN technologies, L2 multicast is not supported. In that
that case, if the network topology is a star, the solution and case, if the network topology is a star, the solution and
considerations of section 3.2.5 of [RFC7668] may be applied. considerations from Section 3.2.5 of [RFC7668] may be applied.
Other key protocols such as DHCPv6 [RFC3315], IPsec [RFC4301] and TLS Other key protocols (such as DHCPv6 [RFC3315], IPsec [RFC4301] and
[RFC5246] have similarly problematic properties in this context. TLS [RFC5246]) have similarly problematic properties in this context.
Each of those require relatively frequent round-trips between the Each protocol requires relatively frequent round-trips between the
host and some other host on the network. In the case of host and some other host on the network. In the case of
cryptographic protocols such as IPsec and TLS, in addition to the cryptographic protocols (such as IPsec and TLS), in addition to the
round-trips required for secure session establishment, cryptographic round-trips required for secure session establishment, cryptographic
operations can require padding and addition of authenticators that operations can require padding and addition of authenticators that
are problematic when considering LPWAN lower layers. Note that mains are problematic when considering LPWAN lower layers. Note that mains
powered Wi-SUN mesh router nodes will typically be more resource powered Wi-SUN mesh router nodes will typically be more resource
capable than the other LPWAN techs discussed. This can enable use of capable than the other LPWAN technologies discussed. This can enable
more "chatty" protocols for some aspects of Wi-SUN. use of more "chatty" protocols for some aspects of Wi-SUN.
4.2. 6LoWPAN 4.2. 6LoWPAN
Several technologies that exhibit significant constraints in various Several technologies that exhibit significant constraints in various
dimensions have exploited the 6LoWPAN suite of specifications dimensions have exploited the 6LoWPAN suite of specifications
[RFC4944], [RFC6282], [RFC6775] to support IPv6 ([RFC4944], [RFC6282], and [RFC6775]) to support IPv6 [USES-6LO].
[I-D.hong-6lo-use-cases]. However, the constraints of LPWANs, often However, the constraints of LPWANs, often more extreme than those
more extreme than those typical of technologies that have (re)used typical of technologies that have (re-)used 6LoWPAN, constitute a
6LoWPAN, constitute a challenge for the 6LoWPAN suite in order to challenge for the 6LoWPAN suite in order to enable IPv6 over LPWAN.
enable IPv6 over LPWAN. LPWANs are characterized by device LPWANs are characterized by device constraints (in terms of
constraints (in terms of processing capacity, memory, and energy processing capacity, memory, and energy availability), and
availability), and specially, link constraints, such as: especially, link constraints, such as:
o tiny L2 payload size (from ~10 to ~100 bytes),
o tiny layer two payload size (from ~10 to ~100 bytes),
o very low bit rate (from ~10 bit/s to ~100 kbit/s), and o very low bit rate (from ~10 bit/s to ~100 kbit/s), and
o in some specific technologies, further message rate constraints o in some specific technologies, further message rate constraints
(e.g. between ~0.1 message/minute and ~1 message/minute) due to (e.g., between ~0.1 message/minute and ~1 message/minute) due to
regional regulations that limit the duty cycle. regional regulations that limit the duty cycle.
4.2.1. Header Compression 4.2.1. Header Compression
6LoWPAN header compression reduces IPv6 (and UDP) header overhead by 6LoWPAN header compression reduces IPv6 (and UDP) header overhead by
eliding header fields when they can be derived from the link layer, eliding header fields when they can be derived from the link layer
and by assuming that some of the header fields will frequently carry and by assuming that some of the header fields will frequently carry
expected values. 6LoWPAN provides both stateless and stateful header expected values. 6LoWPAN provides both stateless and stateful header
compression. In the latter, all nodes of a 6LoWPAN are assumed to compression. In the latter, all nodes of a 6LoWPAN are assumed to
share compression context. In the best case, the IPv6 header for share compression context. In the best case, the IPv6 header for
link-local communication can be reduced to only 2 bytes. For global link-local communication can be reduced to only 2 bytes. For global
communication, the IPv6 header may be compressed down to 3 bytes in communication, the IPv6 header may be compressed down to 3 bytes in
the most extreme case. However, in more practical situations, the the most extreme case. However, in more practical situations, the
smallest IPv6 header size may be 11 bytes (one address prefix smallest IPv6 header size may be 11 bytes (one address prefix
compressed) or 19 bytes (both source and destination prefixes compressed) or 19 bytes (both source and destination prefixes
compressed). These headers are large considering the link layer compressed). These headers are large considering the link-layer
payload size of LPWAN technologies, and in some cases are even bigger payload size of LPWAN technologies, and in some cases, are even
than the LPWAN PDUs. 6LoWPAN has been initially designed for IEEE bigger than the LPWAN PDUs. 6LoWPAN was initially designed for
802.15.4 networks with a frame size up to 127 bytes and a throughput [IEEE.802.15.4] networks with a frame size up to 127 bytes and a
of up to 250 kb/s, which may or may not be duty-cycled. throughput of up to 250 kbit/s, which may or may not be duty cycled.
4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration 4.2.2. Address Autoconfiguration
Traditionally, Interface Identifiers (IIDs) have been derived from Traditionally, Interface Identifiers (IIDs) have been derived from
link layer identifiers [RFC4944] . This allows optimizations such as link-layer identifiers [RFC4944]. This allows optimizations such as
header compression. Nevertheless, recent guidance has given advice header compression. Nevertheless, recent guidance has given advice
on the fact that, due to privacy concerns, 6LoWPAN devices should not on the fact that, due to privacy concerns, 6LoWPAN devices should not
be configured to embed their link layer addresses in the IID by be configured to embed their link-layer addresses in the IID by
default. [RFC8065] provides guidance on better methods for default. [RFC8065] provides guidance on better methods for
generating IIDs. generating IIDs.
4.2.3. Fragmentation 4.2.3. Fragmentation
As stated above, IPv6 requires the layer below to support an MTU of As stated above, IPv6 requires the layer below to support an MTU of
1280 bytes [RFC2460]. Therefore, given the low maximum payload size 1280 bytes [RFC8200]. Therefore, given the low maximum payload size
of LPWAN technologies, fragmentation is needed. of LPWAN technologies, fragmentation is needed.
If a layer of an LPWAN technology supports fragmentation, proper If a layer of an LPWAN technology supports fragmentation, proper
analysis has to be carried out to decide whether the fragmentation analysis has to be carried out to decide whether the fragmentation
functionality provided by the lower layer or fragmentation at the functionality provided by the lower layer or fragmentation at the
adaptation layer should be used. Otherwise, fragmentation adaptation layer should be used. Otherwise, fragmentation
functionality shall be used at the adaptation layer. functionality shall be used at the adaptation layer.
6LoWPAN defined a fragmentation mechanism and a fragmentation header 6LoWPAN defined a fragmentation mechanism and a fragmentation header
to support the transmission of IPv6 packets over IEEE 802.15.4 to support the transmission of IPv6 packets over IEEE.802.15.4
networks [RFC4944]. While the 6LoWPAN fragmentation header is networks [RFC4944]. While the 6LoWPAN fragmentation header is
appropriate for IEEE 802.15.4-2003 (which has a frame payload size of appropriate for the 2003 version of [IEEE.802.15.4] (which has a
81-102 bytes), it is not suitable for several LPWAN technologies, frame payload size of 81-102 bytes), it is not suitable for several
many of which have a maximum payload size that is one order of LPWAN technologies, many of which have a maximum payload size that is
magnitude below that of IEEE 802.15.4-2003. The overhead of the one order of magnitude below that of the 2003 version of
6LoWPAN fragmentation header is high, considering the reduced payload [IEEE.802.15.4]. The overhead of the 6LoWPAN fragmentation header is
size of LPWAN technologies and the limited energy availability of the high, considering the reduced payload size of LPWAN technologies, and
devices using such technologies. Furthermore, its datagram offset the limited energy availability of the devices using such
field is expressed in increments of eight octets. In some LPWAN technologies. Furthermore, its datagram offset field is expressed in
technologies, the 6LoWPAN fragmentation header plus eight octets from increments of eight octets. In some LPWAN technologies, the 6LoWPAN
the original datagram exceeds the available space in the layer two fragmentation header plus eight octets from the original datagram
payload. In addition, the MTU in the LPWAN networks could be exceeds the available space in the layer two payload. In addition,
variable which implies a variable fragmentation solution. the MTU in the LPWAN networks could be variable, which implies a
variable fragmentation solution.
4.2.4. Neighbor Discovery 4.2.4. Neighbor Discovery
6LoWPAN Neighbor Discovery [RFC6775] defined optimizations to IPv6 6LoWPAN Neighbor Discovery [RFC6775] defines optimizations to IPv6 ND
Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861], in order to adapt functionality of the [RFC4861], in order to adapt functionality of the latter for networks
latter for networks of devices using IEEE 802.15.4 or similar of devices using [IEEE.802.15.4] or similar technologies. The
technologies. The optimizations comprise host-initiated interactions optimizations comprise host-initiated interactions to allow for
to allow for sleeping hosts, replacement of multicast-based address sleeping hosts, replacement of multicast-based address resolution for
resolution for hosts by an address registration mechanism, multihop hosts by an address registration mechanism, multihop extensions for
extensions for prefix distribution and duplicate address detection prefix distribution and duplicate address detection (note that these
(note that these are not needed in a star topology network), and are not needed in a star topology network), and support for 6LoWPAN
support for 6LoWPAN header compression. header compression.
6LoWPAN Neighbor Discovery may be used in not so severely constrained 6LoWPAN ND may be used in not so severely constrained LPWAN networks.
LPWAN networks. The relative overhead incurred will depend on the The relative overhead incurred will depend on the LPWAN technology
LPWAN technology used (and on its configuration, if appropriate). In used (and on its configuration, if appropriate). In certain LPWAN
certain LPWAN setups (with a maximum payload size above ~60 bytes, setups (with a maximum payload size above ~60 bytes and duty-cycle-
and duty-cycle-free or equivalent operation), an RS/RA/NS/NA exchange free or equivalent operation), an RS/RA/NS/NA exchange may be
may be completed in a few seconds, without incurring packet completed in a few seconds, without incurring packet fragmentation.
fragmentation.
In other LPWANs (with a maximum payload size of ~10 bytes, and a In other LPWANs (with a maximum payload size of ~10 bytes and a
message rate of ~0.1 message/minute), the same exchange may take message rate of ~0.1 message/minute), the same exchange may take
hours or even days, leading to severe fragmentation and consuming a hours or even days, leading to severe fragmentation and consuming a
significant amount of the available network resources. 6LoWPAN significant amount of the available network resources. 6LoWPAN ND
Neighbor Discovery behavior may be tuned through the use of behavior may be tuned through the use of appropriate values for the
appropriate values for the default Router Lifetime, the Valid default Router Lifetime, the Valid Lifetime in the PIOs, and the
Lifetime in the PIOs, and the Valid Lifetime in the 6LoWPAN Context Valid Lifetime in the 6LoWPAN Context Option (6CO), as well as the
Option (6CO), as well as the address Registration Lifetime. However, address Registration Lifetime. However, for the latter LPWANs
for the latter LPWANs mentioned above, 6LoWPAN Neighbor Discovery is mentioned above, 6LoWPAN ND is not suitable.
not suitable.
4.3. 6lo 4.3. 6lo
The 6lo WG has been reusing and adapting 6LoWPAN to enable IPv6 The 6lo WG has been reusing and adapting 6LoWPAN to enable IPv6
support over link layer technologies such as Bluetooth Low Energy support over link-layer technologies such as Bluetooth Low Energy
(BTLE), ITU-T G.9959, DECT-ULE, MS/TP-RS485, NFC IEEE 802.11ah. (See (BTLE), ITU-T G.9959 [G9959], Digital Enhanced Cordless
<https://tools.ietf.org/wg/6lo> for details.) These technologies are Telecommunications (DECT) Ultra Low Energy (ULE), MS/TP-RS485, Near
similar in several aspects to IEEE 802.15.4, which was the original Field Communication (NFC) IEEE 802.11ah. (See
6LoWPAN target technology. <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/6lo/> for details on the 6lo WG.)
These technologies are similar in several aspects to [IEEE.802.15.4],
which was the original 6LoWPAN target technology.
6lo has mostly used the subset of 6LoWPAN techniques best suited for 6lo has mostly used the subset of 6LoWPAN techniques best suited for
each lower layer technology, and has provided additional each lower-layer technology and has provided additional optimizations
optimizations for technologies where the star topology is used, such for technologies where the star topology is used, such as BTLE or
as BTLE or DECT-ULE. DECT-ULE.
The main constraint in these networks comes from the nature of the The main constraint in these networks comes from the nature of the
devices (constrained devices), whereas in LPWANs it is the network devices (constrained devices); whereas, in LPWANs, it is the network
itself that imposes the most stringent constraints. itself that imposes the most stringent constraints.
4.4. 6tisch 4.4. 6tisch
The 6tisch solution is dedicated to mesh networks that operate using The IPv6 over the TSCH mode of IEEE 802.15.4e (6tisch) solution is
802.15.4e MAC with a deterministic slotted channel. The time slot dedicated to mesh networks that operate using [IEEE.802.15.4e] MAC
channel (TSCH) can help to reduce collisions and to enable a better with a deterministic slotted channel. Time-Slotted Channel Hopping
balance over the channels. It improves the battery life by avoiding (TSCH) can help to reduce collisions and to enable a better balance
the idle listening time for the return channel. over the channels. It improves the battery life by avoiding the idle
listening time for the return channel.
A key element of 6tisch is the use of synchronization to enable A key element of 6tisch is the use of synchronization to enable
determinism. TSCH and 6TiSCH may provide a standard scheduling determinism. TSCH and 6tisch may provide a standard scheduling
function. The LPWAN networks probably will not support function. The LPWAN networks probably will not support
synchronization like the one used in 6tisch. synchronization like the one used in 6tisch.
4.5. RoHC 4.5. RoHC
Robust header compression (RoHC) is a header compression mechanism RoHC is a header compression mechanism [RFC3095] developed for
[RFC3095] developed for multimedia flows in a point to point channel. multimedia flows in a point-to-point channel. RoHC uses three levels
RoHC uses 3 levels of compression, each level having its own header of compression, each level having its own header format. In the
format. In the first level, RoHC sends 52 bytes of header, in the first level, RoHC sends 52 bytes of header; in the second level, the
second level the header could be from 34 to 15 bytes and in the third header could be from 34 to 15 bytes; and in the third level, header
level header size could be from 7 to 2 bytes. The level of size could be from 7 to 2 bytes. The level of compression is managed
compression is managed by a sequence number, which varies in size by a Sequence Number (SN), which varies in size from 2 bytes to 4
from 2 bytes to 4 bits in the minimal compression. SN compression is bits in the minimal compression. SN compression is done with an
done with an algorithm called W-LSB (Window- Least Significant Bits). algorithm called Window-Least Significant Bits (W-LSB). This window
This window has a 4-bit size representing 15 packets, so every 15 has a 4-bit size representing 15 packets, so every 15 packets, RoHC
packets RoHC needs to slide the window in order to receive the needs to slide the window in order to receive the correct SN, and
correct sequence number, and sliding the window implies a reduction sliding the window implies a reduction of the level of compression.
of the level of compression. When packets are lost or errored, the When packets are lost or errored, the decompressor loses context and
decompressor loses context and drops packets until a bigger header is drops packets until a bigger header is sent with more complete
sent with more complete information. To estimate the performance of information. To estimate the performance of RoHC, an average header
RoHC, an average header size is used. This average depends on the size is used. This average depends on the transmission conditions,
transmission conditions, but most of the time is between 3 and 4 but most of the time is between 3 and 4 bytes.
bytes.
RoHC has not been adapted specifically to the constrained hosts and RoHC has not been adapted specifically to the constrained hosts and
networks of LPWANs: it does not take into account energy limitations networks of LPWANs: it does not take into account energy limitations
nor the transmission rate, and RoHC context is synchronised during nor the transmission rate. Additionally, RoHC context is
transmission, which does not allow better compression. synchronized during transmission, which does not allow better
compression.
4.6. ROLL 4.6. ROLL
Most technologies considered by the lpwan WG are based on a star Most technologies considered by the LPWAN WG are based on a star
topology, which eliminates the need for routing at that layer. topology, which eliminates the need for routing at that layer.
Future work may address additional use-cases that may require Future work may address additional use cases that may require
adaptation of existing routing protocols or the definition of new adaptation of existing routing protocols or the definition of new
ones. As of the time of writing, work similar to that done in the ones. As of the time of writing, work similar to that done in the
ROLL WG and other routing protocols are out of scope of the LPWAN WG. Routing Over Low-Power and Lossy Network (ROLL) WG and other routing
protocols are out of scope of the LPWAN WG.
4.7. CoAP 4.7. CoAP
CoAP [RFC7252] provides a RESTful framework for applications intended The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [RFC7252] provides a
to run on constrained IP networks. It may be necessary to adapt CoAP RESTful framework for applications intended to run on constrained IP
or related protocols to take into account for the extreme duty cycles networks. It may be necessary to adapt CoAP or related protocols to
and the potentially extremely limited throughput of LPWANs. take into account the extreme duty cycles and the potentially
extremely limited throughput of LPWANs.
For example, some of the timers in CoAP may need to be redefined. For example, some of the timers in CoAP may need to be redefined.
Taking into account CoAP acknowledgments may allow the reduction of Taking into account CoAP acknowledgments may allow the reduction of
L2 acknowledgments. On the other hand, the current work in progress L2 acknowledgments. On the other hand, the current work in progress
in the CoRE WG where the COMI/CoOL network management interface in the CoRE WG where the Constrained Management Interface (COMI) /
which, uses Structured Identifiers (SID) to reduce payload size over Constrained Objects Language (CoOL) network management interface
which, uses Structured Identifiers (SIDs) to reduce payload size over
CoAP may prove to be a good solution for the LPWAN technologies. The CoAP may prove to be a good solution for the LPWAN technologies. The
overhead is reduced by adding a dictionary which matches a URI to a overhead is reduced by adding a dictionary that matches a URI to a
small identifier and a compact mapping of the YANG model into the small identifier and a compact mapping of the YANG data model into
CBOR binary representation. the Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR).
4.8. Mobility 4.8. Mobility
LPWAN nodes can be mobile. However, LPWAN mobility is different from LPWAN nodes can be mobile. However, LPWAN mobility is different from
the one specified for Mobile IP. LPWAN implies sporadic traffic and the one specified for Mobile IP. LPWAN implies sporadic traffic and
will rarely be used for high-frequency, real-time communications. will rarely be used for high-frequency, real-time communications.
The applications do not generate a flow, they need to save energy and The applications do not generate a flow; they need to save energy
most of the time the node will be down. and, most of the time, the node will be down.
In addition, LPWAN mobility may mostly apply to groups of devices, In addition, LPWAN mobility may mostly apply to groups of devices
that represent a network in which case mobility is more a concern for that represent a network; in which case, mobility is more a concern
the gateway than the devices. NEMO [RFC3963] Mobility or other for the Gateway than the devices. Network Mobility (NEMO) [RFC3963]
mobile gateway solutions (such as a gateway with an LTE uplink) may or other mobile Gateway solutions (such as a Gateway with an LTE
be used in the case where some end-devices belonging to the same uplink) may be used in the case where some end devices belonging to
network gateway move from one point to another such that they are not the same network Gateway move from one point to another such that
aware of being mobile. they are not aware of being mobile.
4.9. DNS and LPWAN 4.9. DNS and LPWAN
The Domain Name System (DNS) DNS [RFC1035], enables applications to The Domain Name System (DNS) [RFC1035], enables applications to name
name things with a globally resolvable name. Many protocols use the things with a globally resolvable name. Many protocols use the DNS
DNS to identify hosts, for example applications using CoAP. to identify hosts, for example, applications using CoAP.
The DNS query/answer protocol as a pre-cursor to other communication The DNS query/answer protocol as a precursor to other communication
within the time-to-live (TTL) of a DNS answer is clearly problematic within the Time-To-Live (TTL) of a DNS answer is clearly problematic
in an LPWAN, say where only one round-trip per hour can be used, and in an LPWAN, say where only one round-trip per hour can be used, and
with a TTL that is less than 3600. It is currently unclear whether with a TTL that is less than 3600 seconds. It is currently unclear
and how DNS-like functionality might be provided in LPWANs. whether and how DNS-like functionality might be provided in LPWANs.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Most LPWAN technologies integrate some authentication or encryption Most LPWAN technologies integrate some authentication or encryption
mechanisms that were defined outside the IETF. The working group may mechanisms that were defined outside the IETF. The LPWAN WG may need
need to do work to integrate these mechanisms to unify management. A to do work to integrate these mechanisms to unify management. A
standardized Authentication, Accounting, and Authorization (AAA) standardized Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)
infrastructure [RFC2904] may offer a scalable solution for some of infrastructure [RFC2904] may offer a scalable solution for some of
the security and management issues for LPWANs. AAA offers the security and management issues for LPWANs. AAA offers
centralized management that may be of use in LPWANs, for example centralized management that may be of use in LPWANs, for example
[I-D.garcia-dime-diameter-lorawan] and [LoRaWAN-AUTH] and [LoRaWAN-RADIUS] suggest possible security
[I-D.garcia-radext-radius-lorawan] suggest possible security
processes for a LoRaWAN network. Similar mechanisms may be useful to processes for a LoRaWAN network. Similar mechanisms may be useful to
explore for other LPWAN technologies. explore for other LPWAN technologies.
Some applications using LPWANs may raise few or no privacy Some applications using LPWANs may raise few or no privacy
considerations. For example, temperature sensors in a large office considerations. For example, temperature sensors in a large office
building may not raise privacy issues. However, the same sensors, if building may not raise privacy issues. However, the same sensors, if
deployed in a home environment and especially if triggered due to deployed in a home environment, and especially if triggered due to
human presence, can raise significant privacy issues - if an end- human presence, can raise significant privacy issues: if an end
device emits (an encrypted) packet every time someone enters a room device emits a (encrypted) packet every time someone enters a room in
in a home, then that traffic is privacy sensitive. And the more that a home, then that traffic is privacy sensitive. And the more that
the existence of that traffic is visible to network entities, the the existence of that traffic is visible to network entities, the
more privacy sensitivities arise. At this point, it is not clear more privacy sensitivities arise. At this point, it is not clear
whether there are workable mitigations for problems like this - in a whether there are workable mitigations for problems like this. In a
more typical network, one would consider defining padding mechanisms more typical network, one would consider defining padding mechanisms
and allowing for cover traffic. In some LPWANs, those mechanisms may and allowing for cover traffic. In some LPWANs, those mechanisms may
not be feasible. Nonetheless, the privacy challenges do exist and not be feasible. Nonetheless, the privacy challenges do exist and
can be real and so some solutions will be needed. Note that many can be real; therefore, some solutions will be needed. Note that
aspects of solutions in this space may not be visible in IETF many aspects of solutions in this space may not be visible in IETF
specifications, but can be e.g. implementation or deployment specifications but can be, e.g., implementation or deployment
specific. specific.
Another challenge for LPWANs will be how to handle key management and Another challenge for LPWANs will be how to handle key management and
associated protocols. In a more traditional network (e.g. the web), associated protocols. In a more traditional network (e.g., the Web),
servers can "staple" Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) servers can "staple" Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
responses in order to allow browsers to check revocation status for responses in order to allow browsers to check revocation status for
presented certificates. [RFC6961] While the stapling approach is presented certificates [RFC6961]. While the stapling approach is
likely something that would help in an LPWAN, as it avoids an RTT, likely something that would help in an LPWAN, as it avoids an RTT,
certificates and OCSP responses are bulky items and will prove certificates and OCSP responses are bulky items and will prove
challenging to handle in LPWANs with bounded bandwidth. challenging to handle in LPWANs with bounded bandwidth.
6. IANA Considerations 6. IANA Considerations
There are no IANA considerations related to this memo. This document has no IANA actions.
7. Contributors
[[RFC editor: Please fix names below for I18N.]]
As stated above this document is mainly a collection of content
developed by the full set of contributors listed below. The main
input documents and their authors were:
o Text for Section 2.1 was provided by Alper Yegin and Stephen
Farrell in [I-D.farrell-lpwan-lora-overview].
o Text for Section 2.2 was provided by Antti Ratilainen in
[I-D.ratilainen-lpwan-nb-iot].
o Text for Section 2.3 was provided by Juan Carlos Zuniga and Benoit
Ponsard in [I-D.zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description].
o Text for Section 2.4 was provided via personal communication from
Bob Heile (bheile@ieee.org) and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin
Sean. There is no Internet draft for that at present.
o Text for Section 4 was provided by Ana Minabiru, Carles Gomez,
Laurent Toutain, Josep Paradells and Jon Crowcroft in
[I-D.minaburo-lpwan-gap-analysis]. Additional text from that
draft is also used elsewhere above.
The full list of contributors are:
Jon Crowcroft
University of Cambridge
JJ Thomson Avenue
Cambridge, CB3 0FD
United Kingdom
Email: jon.crowcroft@cl.cam.ac.uk
Carles Gomez 7. Informative References
UPC/i2CAT
C/Esteve Terradas, 7
Castelldefels 08860
Spain
Email: carlesgo@entel.upc.edu [ANSI-4957-000]
ANSI/TIA, "Architecture Overview for the Smart Utility
Network", ANSI/TIA-4957.0000 , May 2013.
Bob Heile [ANSI-4957-210]
Wi-Sun Alliance ANSI/TIA, "Multi-Hop Delivery Specification of a Data Link
11 Robert Toner Blvd, Suite 5-301 Sub-Layer", ANSI/TIA-4957.210 , May 2013.
North Attleboro, MA 02763
USA
Phone: +1-781-929-4832 [arib_ref] ARIB, "920MHz-Band Telemeter, Telecontrol and Data
Email: bheile@ieee.org Transmission Radio Equipment", ARIB STD-T108 Version 1.0,
February 2012.
Ana Minaburo [ETSI-TS-102-887-2]
Acklio ETSI, "Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum
2bis rue de la Chataigneraie Matters (ERM); Short Range Devices; Smart Metering
35510 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex Wireless Access Protocol; Part 2: Data Link Layer (MAC
France Sub-layer)", ETSI TS 102 887-2, Version V1.1.1, September
2013.
Email: ana@ackl.io [etsi_ref1]
ETSI, "Short Range Devices (SRD) operating in the
frequency range 25 MHz to 1 000 MHz; Part 1: Technical
characteristics and methods of measurement", Draft ETSI
EN 300-220-1, Version V3.1.0, May 2016.
Josep PAradells [etsi_ref2]
UPC/i2CAT ETSI, "Short Range Devices (SRD) operating in the
C/Jordi Girona, 1-3 frequency range 25 MHz to 1 000 MHz; Part 2: Harmonised
Barcelona 08034 Standard covering the essential requirements of article
Spain 3.2 of Directive 2014/53/EU for non specific radio
equipment", Final draft ETSI EN 300-220-2 P300-220-2,
Version V3.1.1, November 2016.
Email: josep.paradells@entel.upc.edu [etsi_unb] ETSI ERM, "System Reference document (SRdoc); Short Range
Devices (SRD); Technical characteristics for Ultra Narrow
Band (UNB) SRDs operating in the UHF spectrum below 1
GHz", ETSI TR 103 435, Version V1.1.1, February 2017.
Charles E. Perkins [EUI64] IEEE, "Guidelines for 64-bit Global Identifier
Futurewei (EUI),Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI), and
2330 Central Expressway Company ID (CID)", August 2017,
Santa Clara 95050 <http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/tut/eui.pdf>.
Unites States
Email: charliep@computer.org [FANOV] IETF, "Wi-SUN Alliance Field Area Network (FAN) Overview",
Benoit Ponsard IETF 97, November 2016,
SIGFOX <https://www.ietf.org/proceedings/97/slides/
425 rue Jean Rostand slides-97-lpwan-35-wi-sun-presentation-00.pdf>.
Labege 31670
France
Email: Benoit.Ponsard@sigfox.com [fcc_ref] "Telecommunication Radio Frequency Devices - Operation
URI: http://www.sigfox.com/ within the bands 902-928 MHz, 2400-2483.5 MHz, and
5725-5850 MHz.", FCC CFR 47 15.247, June 2016.
Antti Ratilainen [G9959] ITU-T, "Short range narrow-band digital radiocommunication
Ericsson transceivers - PHY, MAC, SAR and LLC layer
Hirsalantie 11 specifications", ITU-T Recommendation G.9959, January
Jorvas 02420 2015, <http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.9959>.
Finland
Email: antti.ratilainen@ericsson.com [IEEE.802.11]
IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Information technology--
Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific
requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications",
IEEE 802.11.
Chin-Sean SUM [IEEE.802.15.12]
Wi-Sun Alliance IEEE, "Upper Layer Interface (ULI) for IEEE 802.15.4 Low-
20, Science Park Rd Rate Wireless Networks", IEEE 802.15.12.
Singapore 117674
Phone: +65 6771 1011 [IEEE.802.15.4]
Email: sum@wi-sun.org IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Low-Rate Wireless Networks",
IEEE 802.15.4, <https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
standard/802.15.4-2015.html>.
Laurent Toutain [IEEE.802.15.4e]
Institut MINES TELECOM ; TELECOM Bretagne IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area
2 rue de la Chataigneraie networks--Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area
CS 17607 Networks (LR-WPANs) Amendment 1: MAC sublayer",
35576 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex IEEE 802.15.4e.
France
Email: Laurent.Toutain@telecom-bretagne.eu [IEEE.802.15.4g]
IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area
networks--Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area
Networks (LR-WPANs) Amendment 3: Physical Layer (PHY)
Specifications for Low-Data-Rate, Wireless, Smart Metering
Utility Networks", IEEE 802.15.4g.
Alper Yegin [IEEE.802.15.9]
Actility IEEE, "IEEE Recommended Practice for Transport of Key
Paris, Paris Management Protocol (KMP) Datagrams", IEEE Standard
FR 802.15.9, 2016, <https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
standard/802.15.9-2016.html>.
Email: alper.yegin@actility.com [IEEE.802.1AR]
ANSI/IEEE, "IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area
networks - Secure Device Identity", IEEE 802.1AR.
Juan Carlos Zuniga [IEEE.802.1x]
SIGFOX IEEE, "Port Based Network Access Control", IEEE 802.1x.
425 rue Jean Rostand
Labege 31670
France
Email: JuanCarlos.Zuniga@sigfox.com [LoRaSpec] LoRa Alliance, "LoRaWAN Specification Version V1.0.2",
URI: http://www.sigfox.com/ July 2016, <https://lora-alliance.org/sites/default/
files/2018-05/lorawan1_0_2-20161012_1398_1.pdf>.
8. Acknowledgments [LoRaWAN] Farrell, S. and A. Yegin, "LoRaWAN Overview", Work in
Progress, draft-farrell-lpwan-lora-overview-01, October
2016.
Thanks to all those listed in Section 7 for the excellent text. [LoRaWAN-AUTH]
Errors in the handling of that are solely the editor's fault. Garcia, D., Marin, R., Kandasamy, A., and A. Pelov,
"LoRaWAN Authentication in Diameter", Work in Progress,
draft-garcia-dime-diameter-lorawan-00, May 2016.
[[RFC editor: Please fix names below for I18N, at least Mirja's does [LoRaWAN-RADIUS]
need fixing.]] Garcia, D., Lopez, R., Kandasamy, A., and A. Pelov,
"LoRaWAN Authentication in RADIUS", Work in Progress,
draft-garcia-radext-radius-lorawan-03, May 2017.
In addition to the contributors above, thanks are due to (in [LPWAN-GAP]
alphabetical order): Abdussalam Baryun, Andy Malis, Arun Minaburo, A., Ed., Gomez, C., Ed., Toutain, L., Paradells,
(arun@acklio.com), Behcet SariKaya, Dan Garcia Carrillo, Jiazi Yi, J., and J. Crowcroft, "LPWAN Survey and GAP Analysis",
Mirja Kuehlewind, Paul Duffy, Russ Housley, Samita Chakrabarti, Thad Work in Progress, draft-minaburo-lpwan-gap-analysis-02,
Guidry, Warren Kumari, for comments. October 2016.
Alexander Pelov and Pascal Thubert were the LPWAN WG chairs while [NB-IoT] Ratilainen, A., "NB-IoT characteristics", Work in
this document was developed. Progress, draft-ratilainen-lpwan-nb-iot-00, July 2016.
Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by Pervasive [nbiot-ov] IEEE, "NB-IoT Technology Overview and Experience from
Nation, the Science Foundation Ireland's CONNECT centre national IoT Cloud-RAN Implementation", Volume 24, Issue 3 Pages 26-32,
network. <https://connectcentre.ie/pervasive-nation/> DOI 10.1109/MWC.2017.1600418, June 2017.
9. Informative References [RFC768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768,
DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc768>.
[RFC0768] Postel, J., "User Datagram Protocol", STD 6, RFC 768, [RFC793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
DOI 10.17487/RFC0768, August 1980, <https://www.rfc- RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,
editor.org/info/rfc768>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>.
[RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and [RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035, specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035,
November 1987, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>. November 1987, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1035>.
[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460, (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>. December 1998, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2460>.
[RFC2904] Vollbrecht, J., Calhoun, P., Farrell, S., Gommans, L., [RFC2904] Vollbrecht, J., Calhoun, P., Farrell, S., Gommans, L.,
Gross, G., de Bruijn, B., de Laat, C., Holdrege, M., and Gross, G., de Bruijn, B., de Laat, C., Holdrege, M., and
D. Spence, "AAA Authorization Framework", RFC 2904, D. Spence, "AAA Authorization Framework", RFC 2904,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2904, August 2000, <https://www.rfc- DOI 10.17487/RFC2904, August 2000,
editor.org/info/rfc2904>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2904>.
[RFC3095] Bormann, C., Burmeister, C., Degermark, M., Fukushima, H., [RFC3095] Bormann, C., Burmeister, C., Degermark, M., Fukushima, H.,
Hannu, H., Jonsson, L-E., Hakenberg, R., Koren, T., Le, Hannu, H., Jonsson, L-E., Hakenberg, R., Koren, T., Le,
K., Liu, Z., Martensson, A., Miyazaki, A., Svanbro, K., K., Liu, Z., Martensson, A., Miyazaki, A., Svanbro, K.,
Wiebke, T., Yoshimura, T., and H. Zheng, "RObust Header Wiebke, T., Yoshimura, T., and H. Zheng, "RObust Header
Compression (ROHC): Framework and four profiles: RTP, UDP, Compression (ROHC): Framework and four profiles: RTP, UDP,
ESP, and uncompressed", RFC 3095, DOI 10.17487/RFC3095, ESP, and uncompressed", RFC 3095, DOI 10.17487/RFC3095,
July 2001, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3095>. July 2001, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3095>.
[RFC3315] Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, [RFC3315] Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
skipping to change at page 36, line 35 skipping to change at page 36, line 27
December 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>. December 2005, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4301>.
[RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet [RFC4443] Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet
Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", STD 89, Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", STD 89,
RFC 4443, DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006, RFC 4443, DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman, [RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
"Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007, <https://www.rfc- DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
editor.org/info/rfc4861>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4861>.
[RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler, [RFC4944] Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
"Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4 "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007, Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.
[RFC5216] Simon, D., Aboba, B., and R. Hurst, "The EAP-TLS [RFC5216] Simon, D., Aboba, B., and R. Hurst, "The EAP-TLS
Authentication Protocol", RFC 5216, DOI 10.17487/RFC5216, Authentication Protocol", RFC 5216, DOI 10.17487/RFC5216,
March 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5216>. March 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5216>.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008, <https://www.rfc- DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
editor.org/info/rfc5246>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.
[RFC5280] Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., [RFC5280] Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
(CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008, (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>.
[RFC6282] Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6 [RFC6282] Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282, Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011, <https://www.rfc- DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,
editor.org/info/rfc6282>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6282>.
[RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C. [RFC6775] Shelby, Z., Ed., Chakrabarti, S., Nordmark, E., and C.
Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over Bormann, "Neighbor Discovery Optimization for IPv6 over
Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)", Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs)",
RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012, RFC 6775, DOI 10.17487/RFC6775, November 2012,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6775>.
[RFC6961] Pettersen, Y., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) [RFC6961] Pettersen, Y., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Multiple Certificate Status Request Extension", RFC 6961, Multiple Certificate Status Request Extension", RFC 6961,
DOI 10.17487/RFC6961, June 2013, <https://www.rfc- DOI 10.17487/RFC6961, June 2013,
editor.org/info/rfc6961>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6961>.
[RFC7252] Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained [RFC7252] Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252, Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014, <https://www.rfc- DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
editor.org/info/rfc7252>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.
[RFC7452] Tschofenig, H., Arkko, J., Thaler, D., and D. McPherson, [RFC7452] Tschofenig, H., Arkko, J., Thaler, D., and D. McPherson,
"Architectural Considerations in Smart Object Networking", "Architectural Considerations in Smart Object Networking",
RFC 7452, DOI 10.17487/RFC7452, March 2015, RFC 7452, DOI 10.17487/RFC7452, March 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7452>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7452>.
[RFC7668] Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B., [RFC7668] Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B.,
Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low
Energy", RFC 7668, DOI 10.17487/RFC7668, October 2015, Energy", RFC 7668, DOI 10.17487/RFC7668, October 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668>.
[RFC8065] Thaler, D., "Privacy Considerations for IPv6 Adaptation- [RFC8065] Thaler, D., "Privacy Considerations for IPv6 Adaptation-
Layer Mechanisms", RFC 8065, DOI 10.17487/RFC8065, Layer Mechanisms", RFC 8065, DOI 10.17487/RFC8065,
February 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8065>. February 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8065>.
[RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 [RFC8200] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200, (IPv6) Specification", STD 86, RFC 8200,
DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017, <https://www.rfc- DOI 10.17487/RFC8200, July 2017,
editor.org/info/rfc8200>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8200>.
[RFC8240] Tschofenig, H. and S. Farrell, "Report from the Internet [RFC8240] Tschofenig, H. and S. Farrell, "Report from the Internet
of Things Software Update (IoTSU) Workshop 2016", of Things Software Update (IoTSU) Workshop 2016",
RFC 8240, DOI 10.17487/RFC8240, September 2017, RFC 8240, DOI 10.17487/RFC8240, September 2017,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8240>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8240>.
[I-D.farrell-lpwan-lora-overview] [Sigfox] Zuniga, J. and B. PONSARD, "Sigfox System Description",
Farrell, S. and A. Yegin, "LoRaWAN Overview", draft- Work in Progress,
farrell-lpwan-lora-overview-01 (work in progress), October draft-zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description-04, December
2016. 2017.
[I-D.minaburo-lpwan-gap-analysis]
Minaburo, A., Gomez, C., Toutain, L., Paradells, J., and
J. Crowcroft, "LPWAN Survey and GAP Analysis", draft-
minaburo-lpwan-gap-analysis-02 (work in progress), October
2016.
[I-D.zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description]
Zuniga, J. and B. PONSARD, "SIGFOX System Description",
draft-zuniga-lpwan-sigfox-system-description-04 (work in
progress), December 2017.
[I-D.ratilainen-lpwan-nb-iot]
Ratilainen, A., "NB-IoT characteristics", draft-
ratilainen-lpwan-nb-iot-00 (work in progress), July 2016.
[I-D.garcia-dime-diameter-lorawan] [TGPP23720]
Garcia, D., Lopez, R., Kandasamy, A., and A. Pelov, 3GPP, "Study on architecture enhancements for Cellular
"LoRaWAN Authentication in Diameter", draft-garcia-dime- Internet of Things", 3GPP TS 23.720 13.0.0, 2016.
diameter-lorawan-00 (work in progress), May 2016.
[I-D.garcia-radext-radius-lorawan] [TGPP33203]
Garcia, D., Lopez, R., Kandasamy, A., and A. Pelov, 3GPP, "3G security; Access security for IP-based
"LoRaWAN Authentication in RADIUS", draft-garcia-radext- services", 3GPP TS 23.203 13.1.0, 2016.
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Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
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[TGPP36321] [TGPP36321]
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[TGPP36322] [TGPP36322]
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[TGPP36323] [TGPP36323]
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Radio Access (E-UTRA); Packet Data Convergence Protocol (E-UTRA); Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)
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[TGPP36331] [TGPP36331]
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[TGPP33203]
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Appendix A. Changes
[[RFC editor: Please remove this before publication]]
A.1. From -00 to -01
o WG have stated they want this to be an RFC.
o WG clearly want to keep the RF details.
o Various changes made to remove/resolve a number of editorial notes
from -00 (in some cases as per suggestions from Ana Minaburo)
o Merged PR's: #1...
o Rejected PR's: #2 (change was made to .txt not .xml but was
replicated manually by editor)
o Github repo is at: https://github.com/sftcd/lpwan-ov
A.2. From -01 to -02
o WG seem to agree with editor suggestions in slides 13-24 of the Acknowledgments
presentation on this topic given at IETF98 (See:
https://www.ietf.org/proceedings/98/slides/slides-98-lpwan-
aggregated-slides-07.pdf)
o Got new text wrt Wi-SUN via email from Paul Duffy and merged that Thanks to all those listed in the Contributors section for the
in excellent text. Errors in the handling of that are solely the
editor's fault.
o Reflected list discussion wrt terminology and "end-device" In addition to those in the Contributors section, thanks are due to
(in alphabetical order) the following for comments:
o Merged PR's: #3... Abdussalam Baryun
Andy Malis
Arun (arun@acklio.com)
Behcet SariKaya
Dan Garcia Carrillo
Jiazi Yi
Mirja Kuhlewind
Paul Duffy
Russ Housley
Samita Chakrabarti
Thad Guidry
Warren Kumari
A.3. From -02 to -03 Alexander Pelov and Pascal Thubert were the LPWAN WG Chairs while
this document was developed.
o Editorial changes and typo fixes thanks to Fred Baker running Stephen Farrell's work on this memo was supported by Pervasive
something called Grammerly and sending me it's report. Nation, the Science Foundation Ireland's CONNECT centre national IoT
network <https://connectcentre.ie/pervasive-nation/>.
o Merged PR's: #4, #6, #7... Contributors
o Editor did an editing pass on the lot. As stated above, this document is mainly a collection of content
developed by the full set of contributors listed below. The main
input documents and their authors were:
A.4. From -03 to -04 o Text for Section 2.1 was provided by Alper Yegin and Stephen
Farrell in [LoRaWAN].
o Picked up a PR that had been wrongly applied that expands UE o Text for Section 2.2 was provided by Antti Ratilainen in [NB-IoT].
o Editorial changes wrt LoRa suggested by Alper o Text for Section 2.3 was provided by Juan Carlos Zuniga and Benoit
Ponsard in [Sigfox].
o Editorial changes wrt SIGFOX provided by Juan-Carlos o Text for Section 2.4 was provided via personal communication from
Bob Heile and was authored by Bob and Sum Chin Sean. There is no
Internet-Draft for that at the time of writing.
A.5. From -04 to -05 o Text for Section 4 was provided by Ana Minabiru, Carles Gomez,
Laurent Toutain, Josep Paradells, and Jon Crowcroft in
[LPWAN-GAP]. Additional text from that document is also used
elsewhere above.
o Handled Russ Housley's WGLC review. The full list of contributors is as follows:
o Handled Alper Yegin's WGLC review. Jon Crowcroft
University of Cambridge
JJ Thomson Avenue
Cambridge, CB3 0FD
United Kingdom
A.6. From -05 to -06 Email: jon.crowcroft@cl.cam.ac.uk
o More Alper comments:-) Carles Gomez
UPC/i2CAT
C/Esteve Terradas, 7
Castelldefels 08860
Spain
o Added some more detail about sigfox security. Email: carlesgo@entel.upc.edu
Bob Heile
Wi-Sun Alliance
11 Robert Toner Blvd, Suite 5-301
North Attleboro, MA 02763
United States of America
o Added Wi-SUN changes from Charlie Perkins Phone: +1-781-929-4832
Email: bheile@ieee.org
A.7. From -06 to -07 Ana Minaburo
Acklio
2bis rue de la Chataigneraie
35510 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex
France
Yet more Alper comments:-) Email: ana@ackl.io
Comments from Behcet Sarikaya Josep PAradells
UPC/i2CAT
C/Jordi Girona, 1-3
Barcelona 08034
Spain
A.8. From -07 to -08 Email: josep.paradells@entel.upc.edu
various typos Charles E. Perkins
Futurewei
2330 Central Expressway
Santa Clara, CA 95050
United States of America
Last call and directorate comments from Abdussalam Baryun (AB) and Email: charliep@computer.org
Andy Malis
20180118 IESG ballot comments from Warren: nits handled, two Benoit Ponsard
possible bits of text still needed. Sigfox
425 rue Jean Rostand
Labege 31670
France
Some more AB comments handled. Still need to check over 7452 and Email: Benoit.Ponsard@sigfox.com
8240 to see if issues from those need to be discussed here. URI: http://www.sigfox.com/
Antti Ratilainen
Ericsson
Hirsalantie 11
Jorvas 02420
Finland
Corrected "no IP capabilities - Wi-SUN devices do v6 (thanks Paul Email: antti.ratilainen@ericsson.com
Duffy:-)
Mirja's AD ballot comments handled. Chin-Sean SUM
Wi-Sun Alliance
20, Science Park Rd 117674
Singapore
Added a sentence in intro trying to say what's "special" about Phone: +65 6771 1011
LPWAN compared to other constrained networks. (As suggested by Email: sum@wi-sun.org
Warren.)
Added text @ start of gap analysis referring to RFCs 7252 and Laurent Toutain
8240, as suggested by a few folks (AB, Warren, Mirja) Institut MINES TELECOM ; TELECOM Bretagne
2 rue de la Chataigneraie
CS 17607
35576 Cesson-Sevigne Cedex
France
Added nbiot-ov reference for those who'd like a more polished Email: Laurent.Toutain@telecom-bretagne.eu
presentation of NB-IoT
A.9. From -08 to -09 Alper Yegin
Actility
Paris
France
Changes due to IoT-DIR review from Samita Chakrabarti: fixed error Email: alper.yegin@actility.com
on max rate between tables 1 and 2; s/eNb/eNodeB/; fixed
references to hong-6lo-use-cases; added RFC8065 reference
A.10. From -09 to -10 Juan Carlos Zuniga
Sigfox
425 rue Jean Rostand
Labege 31670
France
Added Charlie Perkins as contributor - was supposed to have been Email: JuanCarlos.Zuniga@sigfox.com
done ages ago - editor forgot;-) URI: http://www.sigfox.com/
Author's Address Author's Address
Stephen Farrell (editor) Stephen Farrell (editor)
Trinity College Dublin Trinity College Dublin
Dublin 2 Dublin 2
Ireland Ireland
Phone: +353-1-896-2354 Phone: +353-1-896-2354
Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie Email: stephen.farrell@cs.tcd.ie
 End of changes. 305 change blocks. 
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