draft-ietf-lwig-energy-efficient-06.txt   draft-ietf-lwig-energy-efficient-07.txt 
Internet Engineering Task Force C. Gomez Internet Engineering Task Force C. Gomez
Internet-Draft Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/i2CAT Internet-Draft Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya
Intended status: Informational M. Kovatsch Intended status: Informational M. Kovatsch
Expires: August 12, 2017 ETH Zurich Expires: September 6, 2017 ETH Zurich
H. Tian H. Tian
China Academy of Telecommunication Research China Academy of Telecommunication Research
Z. Cao, Ed. Z. Cao, Ed.
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
February 8, 2017 March 5, 2017
Energy-Efficient Features of Internet of Things Protocols Energy-Efficient Features of Internet of Things Protocols
draft-ietf-lwig-energy-efficient-06 draft-ietf-lwig-energy-efficient-07
Abstract Abstract
This document describes the challenges for energy-efficient protocol This document describes the challenges for energy-efficient protocol
operation on constrained devices and the current practices used to operation on constrained devices and the current practices used to
overcome those challenges. It summarizes the main link-layer overcome those challenges. It summarizes the main link-layer
techniques used for energy-efficient networking, and it highlights techniques used for energy-efficient networking, and it highlights
the impact of such techniques on the upper layer protocols so that the impact of such techniques on the upper layer protocols so that
they can together achieve an energy efficient behavior. The document they can together achieve an energy efficient behavior. The document
also provides an overview of energy-efficient mechanisms available at also provides an overview of energy-efficient mechanisms available at
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on August 12, 2017. This Internet-Draft will expire on September 6, 2017.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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6.2. Sleepy node support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.2. Sleepy node support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.3. CoAP timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6.3. CoAP timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 8. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 9. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 12.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Network systems for physical world monitoring contain many battery- Network systems for physical world monitoring contain many battery-
powered or energy-harvesting devices. For example, in an powered or energy-harvesting devices. For example, in an
environmental monitoring system, or a temperature and humidity environmental monitoring system, or a temperature and humidity
monitoring system, there are no always-on and sustained power monitoring system, there are no always-on and sustained power
supplies for the potentially large number of constrained devices. In supplies for the potentially large number of constrained devices. In
such deployment scenarios, it is necessary to optimize the energy such deployment scenarios, it is necessary to optimize the energy
consumption of the constrained devices. consumption of the constrained devices.
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+-------+ +-------+
Figure 1: Traditional and Light-weight Internet Protocol Stack Figure 1: Traditional and Light-weight Internet Protocol Stack
There are numerous published studies reporting comprehensive There are numerous published studies reporting comprehensive
measurements of wireless communication platforms [Powertrace]. As an measurements of wireless communication platforms [Powertrace]. As an
example, below we list the energy consumption profile of the most example, below we list the energy consumption profile of the most
common operations involved in communication on a prevalent sensor common operations involved in communication on a prevalent sensor
node platform. The measurement was based on the Tmote Sky with node platform. The measurement was based on the Tmote Sky with
ContikiMAC [ContikiMAC] as the radio duty cycling algorithm. From ContikiMAC [ContikiMAC] as the radio duty cycling algorithm. From
this and many other measurement reports (e.g. [AN053]), we can see this and many other measurement reports (e.g. [AN079]), we can see
that the energy consumption of optimized transmission and reception that the energy consumption of optimized transmission and reception
are in the same order. For IEEE 802.15.4 and Ultra WideBand (UWB) are in the same order. For IEEE 802.15.4 and Ultra WideBand (UWB)
links, transmitting may actually be even cheaper than receiving. It links, transmitting may actually be even cheaper than receiving. It
also shows that broadcast and non-synchronized communication also shows that broadcast and non-synchronized communication
transmissions are energy costly because they need to acquire the transmissions are energy costly because they need to acquire the
medium for a long time. medium for a long time.
+---------------------------------------+---------------+ +---------------------------------------+---------------+
| Activity | Energy (uJ) | | Activity | Energy (uJ) |
+---------------------------------------+---------------+ +---------------------------------------+---------------+
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[I-D.ietf-6tisch-minimal] comprises 101 time slots, whereby 95 of [I-D.ietf-6tisch-minimal] comprises 101 time slots, whereby 95 of
these time slots are unscheduled and the time slot duration is 15 ms. these time slots are unscheduled and the time slot duration is 15 ms.
Other 802.15.4e modes, which are in fact designed for low energy, are Other 802.15.4e modes, which are in fact designed for low energy, are
the previously mentioned CSL and RIT. the previously mentioned CSL and RIT.
3.5.4. Power Save Services in DECT ULE 3.5.4. Power Save Services in DECT ULE
DECT Ultra Low Energy (DECT ULE) is a wireless technology building on DECT Ultra Low Energy (DECT ULE) is a wireless technology building on
the key fundamentals of traditional DECT / CAT-iq [EN300] but with the key fundamentals of traditional DECT / CAT-iq [EN300] but with
specific changes to significantly reduce the power consumption on the specific changes to significantly reduce the power consumption at the
expense of data throughput as specified in [TS102]. DECT ULE devices expense of data throughput as specified in [TS102]. DECT ULE devices
typically operates on special power optimized silicon, but can typically operates on special power optimized silicon, but can
connect to a DECT Gateway supporting traditional DECT / CAT-iq for connect to a DECT Gateway supporting traditional DECT / CAT-iq for
cordless telephony and data as well as the DECT ULE extensions. It cordless telephony and data as well as the DECT ULE extensions. It
is possible to run IPv6 over DECT ULE by using a 6LoWPAN variant is possible to run IPv6 over DECT ULE by using a 6LoWPAN variant
adapted for DECT ULE [I-D.ietf-6lo-dect-ule]. adapted for DECT ULE [I-D.ietf-6lo-dect-ule].
DECT terminology operates with two major role definitions: The DECT terminology operates with two major role definitions: The
Portable Part (PP) is the power constrained device, while the Fixed Portable Part (PP) is the power constrained device, while the Fixed
Part (FP) is the Gateway or base station in a star topology. DECT is Part (FP) is the Gateway or base station in a star topology. DECT is
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This document discusses the energy efficient protocol design, and This document discusses the energy efficient protocol design, and
does not incur any changes or challenges on security issues besides does not incur any changes or challenges on security issues besides
what the protocol specifications have analyzed. what the protocol specifications have analyzed.
12. References 12. References
12.1. Normative References 12.1. Normative References
[Bluetooth42] [Bluetooth42]
"Bluetooth Core Specification Version 4.2", 2014. Bluetooth Special Interest Group, "Bluetooth Core
Specification Version 4.2", December 2014,
<https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us/specification/adopted-
specifications>.
[EN300] ""Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); [EN300] ""Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT);
Common Interface (CI);"", 2013. Common Interface (CI);"", March 2015,
<https://www.etsi.org/deliver/
etsi_en/300100_300199/30017501/02.06.01_60/
en_30017501v020601p.pdf>.
[fifteendotfour] [fifteendotfour]
"802.15.4-2011", 2011. IEEE Computer Society, "IEEE Std. 802.15.4-2015 IEEE
Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks--Part
15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-
WPANs)", 2015, <https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/
standard/802.15.4-2015.html>.
[IEEE80211v] [IEEE80211v]
IEEE, , "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) IEEE, , "Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC)
and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications, Amendment 8: IEEE and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications, Amendment 8: IEEE
802.11 Wireless Network Management.", February 2012. 802.11 Wireless Network Management.", February 2012.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
skipping to change at page 19, line 12 skipping to change at page 19, line 28
DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014, DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.
[RFC7668] Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B., [RFC7668] Nieminen, J., Savolainen, T., Isomaki, M., Patil, B.,
Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low Shelby, Z., and C. Gomez, "IPv6 over BLUETOOTH(R) Low
Energy", RFC 7668, DOI 10.17487/RFC7668, October 2015, Energy", RFC 7668, DOI 10.17487/RFC7668, October 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668>. <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7668>.
[TS102] ""Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT); [TS102] ""Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT);
Ultra Low Energy (ULE); Machine to Machine Communications; Ultra Low Energy (ULE); Machine to Machine Communications;
Part 1: Home Automation Network (phase 1)"", 2013. Part 2: Home Automation Network (phase 2"", March 2015,
<https://www.etsi.org/deliver/
etsi_ts/102900_102999/10293902/01.01.01_60/
ts_10293902v010101p.pdf>.
12.2. Informative References 12.2. Informative References
[AN053] Selvig, B., "Measuring power consumption with CC2430 and [AN079] Kim, C., "Measuring Power Consumption of CC2530 With
Z-Stack". Z-Stack", September 2012,
<http://www.ti.com/lit/an/swra292/swra292.pdf>.
[Announcementlayer] [Announcementlayer]
Dunkels, A., "The Announcement Layer: Beacon Coordination Dunkels, A., "The Announcement Layer: Beacon Coordination
for the Sensornet Stack. In Proceedings of EWSN 2011". for the Sensornet Stack. In Proceedings of EWSN 2011",
February 2011,
<http://dunkels.com/adam/dunkels11announcement.pdf>.
[ContikiMAC] [ContikiMAC]
Dunkels, A., "The ContikiMAC Radio Duty Cycling Protocol, Dunkels, A., "The ContikiMAC Radio Duty Cycling Protocol,
SICS Technical Report T2011:13", December 2011. SICS Technical Report T2011:13", December 2011,
<https://www.mysciencework.com/publication/download/2f406d
3c4cc1eda32a234f7a1ad2cc3b/7eb199e4f8b00857e21af2b7d2b31c0
d>.
[I-D.bormann-lwig-7228bis] [I-D.bormann-lwig-7228bis]
Bormann, C. and C. Gomez, "Terminology for Constrained- Bormann, C. and C. Gomez, "Terminology for Constrained-
Node Networks", draft-bormann-lwig-7228bis-00 (work in Node Networks", draft-bormann-lwig-7228bis-00 (work in
progress), October 2016. progress), October 2016.
[I-D.ietf-6lo-dect-ule] [I-D.ietf-6lo-dect-ule]
Mariager, P., Petersen, J., Shelby, Z., Logt, M., and D. Mariager, P., Petersen, J., Shelby, Z., Logt, M., and D.
Barthel, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over DECT Ultra Low Barthel, "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over DECT Ultra Low
Energy", draft-ietf-6lo-dect-ule-09 (work in progress), Energy", draft-ietf-6lo-dect-ule-09 (work in progress),
skipping to change at page 19, line 50 skipping to change at page 20, line 28
Detection is too impatient", draft-ietf-6man-impatient- Detection is too impatient", draft-ietf-6man-impatient-
nud-07 (work in progress), October 2013. nud-07 (work in progress), October 2013.
[I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture]
Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode
of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-11 (work of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-11 (work
in progress), January 2017. in progress), January 2017.
[I-D.ietf-6tisch-minimal] [I-D.ietf-6tisch-minimal]
Vilajosana, X., Pister, K., and T. Watteyne, "Minimal Vilajosana, X., Pister, K., and T. Watteyne, "Minimal
6TiSCH Configuration", draft-ietf-6tisch-minimal-19 (work 6TiSCH Configuration", draft-ietf-6tisch-minimal-21 (work
in progress), January 2017. in progress), February 2017.
[I-D.ietf-core-coap-pubsub] [I-D.ietf-core-coap-pubsub]
Koster, M., Keranen, A., and J. Jimenez, "Publish- Koster, M., Keranen, A., and J. Jimenez, "Publish-
Subscribe Broker for the Constrained Application Protocol Subscribe Broker for the Constrained Application Protocol
(CoAP)", draft-ietf-core-coap-pubsub-00 (work in (CoAP)", draft-ietf-core-coap-pubsub-00 (work in
progress), October 2016. progress), October 2016.
[I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory] [I-D.ietf-core-resource-directory]
Shelby, Z., Koster, M., Bormann, C., and P. Stok, "CoRE Shelby, Z., Koster, M., Bormann, C., and P. Stok, "CoRE
Resource Directory", draft-ietf-core-resource-directory-09 Resource Directory", draft-ietf-core-resource-directory-09
(work in progress), October 2016. (work in progress), October 2016.
[I-D.ietf-lwig-crypto-sensors] [I-D.ietf-lwig-crypto-sensors]
Sethi, M., Arkko, J., Keranen, A., and H. Back, "Practical Sethi, M., Arkko, J., Keranen, A., and H. Back, "Practical
Considerations and Implementation Experiences in Securing Considerations and Implementation Experiences in Securing
Smart Object Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-crypto-sensors-01 Smart Object Networks", draft-ietf-lwig-crypto-sensors-02
(work in progress), October 2016. (work in progress), February 2017.
[I-D.kovatsch-lwig-class1-coap] [I-D.kovatsch-lwig-class1-coap]
Kovatsch, M., "Implementing CoAP for Class 1 Devices", Kovatsch, M., "Implementing CoAP for Class 1 Devices",
draft-kovatsch-lwig-class1-coap-00 (work in progress), draft-kovatsch-lwig-class1-coap-00 (work in progress),
October 2012. October 2012.
[I-D.rahman-core-sleepy-nodes-do-we-need] [I-D.rahman-core-sleepy-nodes-do-we-need]
Rahman, A., "Sleepy Devices: Do we need to Support them in Rahman, A., "Sleepy Devices: Do we need to Support them in
CORE?", draft-rahman-core-sleepy-nodes-do-we-need-01 (work CORE?", draft-rahman-core-sleepy-nodes-do-we-need-01 (work
in progress), February 2014. in progress), February 2014.
[Powertrace] [Powertrace]
Dunkels, , Eriksson, , Finne, , and Tsiftes, "Powertrace: Dunkels, , Eriksson, , Finne, , and Tsiftes, "Powertrace:
Network-level Power Profiling for Low-power Wireless Network-level Power Profiling for Low-power Wireless
Networks", March 2011. Networks", March 2011, <https://core.ac.uk/download/
pdf/11435067.pdf?repositoryId=362>.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Carles Gomez Carles Gomez
Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya/i2CAT Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya
C/Esteve Terradas, 7 C/Esteve Terradas, 7
Castelldefels 08860 Castelldefels 08860
Spain Spain
Email: carlesgo@entel.upc.edu Email: carlesgo@entel.upc.edu
Matthias Kovatsch Matthias Kovatsch
ETH Zurich ETH Zurich
Universitaetstrasse 6 Universitaetstrasse 6
Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, CH-8092
Switzerland Switzerland
Email: kovatsch@inf.ethz.ch Email: kovatsch@inf.ethz.ch
Hui Tian Hui Tian
China Academy of Telecommunication Research China Academy of Telecommunication Research
skipping to change at page 21, line 18 skipping to change at page 21, line 40
Switzerland Switzerland
Email: kovatsch@inf.ethz.ch Email: kovatsch@inf.ethz.ch
Hui Tian Hui Tian
China Academy of Telecommunication Research China Academy of Telecommunication Research
Huayuanbeilu No.52 Huayuanbeilu No.52
Beijing, Haidian District 100191 Beijing, Haidian District 100191
China China
Email: tianhui@mail.ritt.com.cn Email: tianhui@ritt.cn
Zhen Cao (editor) Zhen Cao (editor)
Huawei Technologies Huawei Technologies
China China
Email: zhencao.ietf@gmail.com Email: zhencao.ietf@gmail.com
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