Network Working Group                                    B. Decraene
  Internet Draft                                          J.L. Le Roux
  Document: draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-interarea-03.txt draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-interarea-04.txt        France Telecom
  Intended status: Standards Track
  Expiration Date: August December 2008                              I. Minei
                                                Juniper Networks, Inc.

                                                         February 2008

                    LDP extension for Inter-Area LSP

Status of this Memo

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   To facilitate the establishment of Label Switched Paths (LSP) that
   would span multiple IGP areas in a given Autonomous System (AS), this
   document proposes describes a new optional label mapping procedure Longest Match Label Mapping
   Procedure for the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP).

   This procedure allows the use of a label if the Forwarding
   Equivalence Class (FEC) Element matches an entry in the routing table
   (RIB). Matching is defined by an IP longest match search and does not
   mandate an exact match.

Table of Contents

   1.    Conventions used in this document...........................2
   2.    Terminology.................................................2
   3.    Introduction................................................2
   4.    Problem statement...........................................3
   5.    Longest Match Label Mapping Procedure.....................................4 Message Procedure...............4
   6.    Application examples........................................5 examples........................................6
   6.1.  Inter-area LSPs.............................................5 LSPs.............................................6
   6.2.  Use of static routes........................................7
   7.    Caveats for deployment......................................7 deployment......................................8
   7.1.  Deployment consideration....................................7 considerations...................................8
   7.2.  Impact on routing  Routing convergence time..........................8 time considerations.....................8
   8.    Security Considerations.....................................8 Considerations.....................................9
   9.    IANA Considerations.........................................8 Considerations.........................................9
   10.   References..................................................9
   10.1. Normative References........................................9
   10.2. Informative References......................................9
   11.   Acknowledgments.............................................9   Acknowledgments............................................10
   12.   Author's Addresses.........................................10   Authors' Addresses.........................................11

1. Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. [RFC 2119].

2. Terminology

   IGP Area: OSPF Area or IS-IS level

   ABR: OSPF Area Border Router or IS-IS L1/L2 router

   LSP: Label Switched Path

   Intra-area LSP: LSP that does not traverse any IGP area boundary.

   Inter-area LSP: LSP that traverses at least one IGP area boundary.

3. Introduction

   Link state IGPs Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) such as OSPF [OSPFv2]
   and IS-IS [IS-IS] allow the partition of an autonomous system into
   areas or levels so as to increase routing scalability within a
   routing domain.

   However, [LDP] requires recommends that the IP address of the FEC Element
   should *exactly* match an entry in the IP RIB: according to [LDP]
   section (Label Mapping Messages Procedures) "An LSR "A Label
   Switching Router  (LSR) receiving a Label Mapping message from a
   downstream LSR for a Prefix SHOULD NOT use the label for forwarding
   unless its routing table contains an entry that exactly matches the
   FEC Element.".

   Therefore, MPLS LSPs between LERs Label Edge Routers (LERs) in different
   areas/levels are not setup unless the specific (e.g. /32 for IPv4)
   loopback addresses of all the LERs are redistributed across all

   The problem statement is discussed in section 4. Then, in section 5
   we extend the Label Mapping Procedure defined in [LDP] so as to
   support the setup of contiguous inter-area LSPs while maintaining IP
   prefix aggregation on the ABRs. This basically consists of allowing for "Longest Match Based" longest
   match based Label Mapping.

4.      Problem statement

   Provider based MPLS VPN (Multi Protocol Label Switching) networks are
   expanding with the success of Layer 3 VPN ([L3-VPN]) (Virtual Private Networks
   [L3-VPN]) and the new deployments of layer 2 VPNs ([VPLS-BGP], [VPLS-LDP]). [VPLS-
   LDP]). Service Provider providers MPLS backbones are significantly growing
   both in terms of density with the addition of
   PEs Provider Edge (PE)
   routers to connect new customers and in terms of footprint as
   traditional layer two aggregation networks may be replaced by IP/MPLS
   As a consequence many providers need to introduce IGP areas. Inter-
   area LSPs, that is LSPs that traverse at least two IGP areas, are
   required to ensure MPLS connectivity between PEs located in distinct
   IGP areas.

   To set up the required MPLS LSPs between PEs in different IGP areas,
   service providers have currently three solutions: 1) LDP with IGP
   route leaking, 2) BGP [MPLS-BGP] over LDP with MPLS hierarchy, or also inter-
   area and 3)
   inter-area RSVP-TE [ID-RSVP-TE]. (Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering

   IGP route leaking consists in redistributing all specific PE loopback
   addresses across area boundaries. As a result, LDP finds in the RIB
   Routing Information Base (RIB) an exact match for its FEC and sets up
   the LSP. As a consequence, the potential benefits that a multi-area
   domain may yield are significantly diminished since a lot of
   addresses have to be redistributed by ABRs, and the number of IP
   entries in the LSDB
   and IGP Link State DataBase (LSDB), RIB and FIB maintained
   by every LSR of the domain (whatever the area/level it belongs to)
   cannot be minimized.

   Service providers may also set up these inter-area LSPs by using MPLS
   hierarchy with BGP [MPLS-BGP] as a label distribution protocol
   between areas. The BGP next hop would typically be the ABRs and the
   BGP-created LSPs would be nested within intra-area LSPs setup by LDP
   between PEs and ABRs and between ABRs.
   This solution is not adequate for Service Providers service providers which don't want
   to run BGP on their P routers as it requires BGP on all ABRs. In
   addition, MPLS hierarchy does not allow locally protecting the LSP
   against ABR failures (IP / LDP (IP/LDP Fast Reroute), and hence ensuring sub-
   50ms recovery upon ABR failure. The resulting convergence time may
   not be acceptable for stringent SLAs Service Level Agreements (SLAs)
   required for voice or mission critical applications. Finally, this
   solution requires a significant migration effort for Service Providers service
   providers which started with LDP and IGP route leaking to quickly
   set-up the fist first inter-area LSPs.

   Service providers may also setup these inter-area LSPs by using
   inter-area RSVP-TE [ID-RSVP-TE]. [RSVP-TE]. This is a relevant solution when
   TE is already used for setting up intra-area LSPs, and inter-
   area inter-area
   traffic engineering features are required. In return this is not a
   desired solution when LDP is already used for setting up intra-area
   LSPs, and inter-area traffic engineering features are not required.

   To avoid the above drawbacks, there is a need for an LDP based
   solution which allows setting up contiguous inter-area LSPs while
   avoiding leaking of specific PE loopback addresses across area
   boundaries, and hence keeping all the benefits of IGP hierarchy.

   In that context, this document defines a new LDP Label Mapping
   Procedure so as to support the setup of contiguous inter-area LSPs
   while maintaining IP prefix aggregation on the ABRs. This procedure
   is similar to the one defined in [LDP] but performs a an IP longest
   match when searching the FEC element in the RIB.

5. Longest Match Label Mapping Message Procedure

   This document defines a new label mapping procedure Label Mapping Procedure for [LDP]. It is
   applicable to IPv4 and IPv6 prefix FEC elements (addresses (address families 1
   and 2 as per [ASSIGNED_AF]). It MUST SHOULD be possible to activate /
   deactivate this procedure by configuration and it SHOULD be
   deactivated by default. It MAY be possible to activate it on a per
   prefix basis.

   With this new longest match label mapping procedure, a Longest Match Label Mapping Procedure, an LSR receiving
   a Label Mapping message from a neighbor LSR for a Prefix Address FEC
   Element (FEC1) FEC1 SHOULD use the label for MPLS forwarding if its routing
   table contains an entry that matches the FEC Element FEC1 and the
   advertising LSR is a next hop to reach the FEC. FEC1. If so, it SHOULD
   advertise the received FEC Element (FEC1) FEC1 and a label to its LDP peers.
   Note that this is the specific FEC (FEC1) that LDP re-advertise to
   its peers, and not the aggregated prefix found in the IP RIB during
   the longest match search.

   By "matching FEC Element", one should understand an IP longest match.
   That is, either the LDP FEC element exactly matches an entry in the
   IP RIB or the FEC element is a subset of an IP RIB entry. There is no
   match for other cases such as the FEC element is a superset of a RIB
   Note that with this LDP re-advertises to its peers the specific FEC element
   FEC1, and not the aggregated prefix found in the IP RIB during the
   longest match search.

   Note that with this Longest Match Label Mapping Procedure, each LSP
   established by LDP still strictly follows the shortest path(s)
   defined by the IGP.

   FECs selected by this "Longest Match" label mapping procedure Longest Match Label Mapping Procedure are
   distributed in an ordered way. In case of LER failure, the removal of
   reachability to the FEC occurs using standard LDP procedures as ordered label distribution
   mode procedures. As defined in [LDP]. Similarly, [LDP] in section A.1.5, the FEC will
   be removed in an ordered way through the propagation of label withdraw Label
   Withdraw messages. The use of this (un)reachability information by
   application layers using the this MPLS LSP (e.g., BGP) [MP-BGP]) is outside
   the scope of this document.

   As per [LDP], LDP has already some interactions with the RIB. In
   particular, it needs to be aware of the following events:
     - prefix UP up when a new IP prefix appears in the RIB RIB,
     - prefix DOWN down when an existing IP prefix disappears disappears,
     - next-hop next hop change when an existing IP prefix have has a new next hop
        following a routing change.

   With this longest match procedure, Longest Match Label Mapping Message Procedure, multiple
   FECs may be concerned by a single RIB prefix change. The LSR must MUST
   check all the FECs which are a subset of this RIB prefix. So some LDP
   reactions following a RIB event are changed:
     - When a new prefix appears in the RIB, the LSR MUST check if this
        prefix is a better match for some existing FECs. E.g. the FEC
        elements and used the IP RIB entry
        192.0.0/16 and a new more specific IP RIB entry 192.0.2/24
        appears. This may result in changing the LSR used as next hop
        and hence the NHLFE Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry (NHLFE) for this
     - When a prefix disappears in the RIB, the LSR MUST check all FEC
        elements which are using this RIB prefix as best match. For each
        FEC, if another RIB prefix is found as best match, LDP MUST use
        it. This may result in changing the LSR used as next hop and
        hence the NHLFE for this FEC. Otherwise, the LSR MUST remove the
        FEC binding and send a label withdraw Label Withdraw message.
     - When the next-hop next hop of a RIB prefix change, changes, the LSR must MUST change
        the NHLFE of all the FEC elements using this prefix.

   Future work may define new management objects to the MPLS LDP MIB
   modules [LDP-MIB] to activate/deactivate this Longest Match Label
   Mapping Message Procedure, possibly on a per prefix basis.

6. Application examples

6.1. Inter-area LSPs

   Consider the following example of an autonomous system with one
   backbone area and two edge areas:

                            Area "B"

                    Level 2 / Backbone area

        Area "A" |                          |  Area "C"
                 |                          |
        Level 1  |                          |  Level 1 / area
                 |        P1                |
      +----------+                          +-------------+
      |          |                 P2       |         PE1 |
      |          |                          |             |
      |PE4      ABR2                       ABR1       PE2 |
      |          |        P3                |             |
      |          |                          |         PE3 |
      +----------+                          +-------------+
                 |                          |

     Figure 1: An IGP domain with two areas attached to the Backbone

   Note that this applies equally to IS-IS and OSPF. An ABR refers here
   either to an OSPF ABR or to an IS-IS L1/L2 node.

   All routers are MPLS enabled and MPLS connectivity (i.e. an LSP) is
   required between all PE routers.

   In the "egress" area "C", the records available are:
   IGP RIB                          LDP FEC elements:                                    

   The area border router ABR1 advertises in the backbone area:
     - the aggregated IP prefix 192.0.2/24 in the IGP
     - all the specific IP FEC elements (/32) in LDP
   In the "backbone" area "B", the records available are:
   IGP RIB                          LDP FEC elements:

   The area border router ABR2 advertises in the area "A":
     - an aggregated IP prefix 192.0/16 in the IGP
     - all the individual IP FEC elements (/32) in LDP

   In the "ingress" area "A", the records available are:
   IGP RIB                          LDP FEC elements:

   In this situation, one LSP is established between the ingress PE4 and
   every egress PE of area C while maintaining IP prefix aggregation on
   the ASBRs.

6.2. Use of static routes

   Consider the following example where a LER is dual-connected to two

                    |         |
                   LER        |
                    |         |

                 Figure 2: LER dual-connected to two LSRs.

   In some situations, especially on the edge of the network, it is
   valid to use static IP routes between the LER and the two LSRs. If
   necessary, the BFD protocol ([BFD]) can be used to quickly detect
   loss of connectivity.

   The LDP specification defined in [LDP] would require on the ingress
   LER the configuration and the maintenance of one IP route per egress
   LER and per outgoing interface.

   The longest match Longest Match Label Mapping Procedure described in this document
   only requires one IP route per outgoing interface.

7. Caveats for deployment

7.1. Deployment considerations

   LSRs compliant with this document are backward compatible with LSRs
   that comply with [LDP].

   For the successful establishment of end-to-end MPLS LSPs whose FEC
   are aggregated in the RIB, this specification must be implemented on
   all LSRs in all areas where IP aggregation is used. If an LSR on the
   path does not support this procedure, then the LSP initiated on the
   egress LSR stops at this non compliant LSR. There are no other
   adverse effects.

   A service provider currently leaking

   This extension can be deployed incrementally:
     - It can be deployed on a per area or routing domain basis and
        does not necessarily require an AS wide deployment. For example,
        if all specific LER's loopback
   addresses IP prefixes are leaked in the IGP and now considering performing IP aggregation on
   ABR should be aware that this may result in suboptimal routing as
   discussed in [RFC 2966].

   This extension does not necessarily require an AS wide deployment but
   can be used on a per area basis. For example, if all specific IP
   prefixes are leaked in the IGP backbone area backbone area
        and only stub areas use IP aggregation, LSRs in the backbone
        area don't need to be compliant with this document.

7.2. Impact
     - Within each routing area, LSRs can be upgraded independently, at
        any time, in any order and without service disruption. During
        deployment, if those LSPs are already used, one should only make
        sure that ABRs keep advertising the specific IP prefixes in the
        IGP until all LSR of this area are successfully upgraded. Then,
        the ABRs can advertise the aggregated prefix only and stop
        advertising the specific ones.

   A service provider currently leaking specific LER's loopback
   addresses in the IGP and now considering performing IP aggregation on
   ABR should be aware that this may result in suboptimal routing as
   discussed in [RFC 2966].

7.2. Routing convergence time

   IGP convergence considerations

   IP and MPLS traffic restoration time is based on two factors: the SPF
   Shortest Path First (SPF) calculation in the control plane and
   Forwarding Information Base (FIB)/Label FIB (LFIB) update time. time in the
   forwarding plane.  The SPF calculation scales O(N*Log(N)) where N is
   the number of Nodes. The FIB/LFIB update scales O(P) where P is the
   number of modified prefixes. Currently, with most routers
   implementations, the FIB/LFIB update is the dominant component [1]. [1]
   and therefore the bottleneck that should be addressed in priority.
   The solution documented in this draft reduces the link state database
   size in the control plane and the number of FIB entries. entries in the
   forwarding plane. As such it solves the scaling of pure IP routers
   sharing the IGP with MPLS routers. However, it does not decrease the
   number of LFIB entries.

   In case entries so is not sufficient to solve the scaling of failure
   MPLS routers. For this, an additional mechanism is required (e.g.
   introducing some MPLS hierarchy in LDP). This is out of scope of this

   Compared to [LDP], for all failures except LER failure (i.e. links,
   Ps and ABRs nodes), the egress failure notification and the convergence is
   unchanged. For LER node, failure, given that the IGP aggregates IP route routes
   on ABRs, ABRs and no longer advertise specific prefixes, the control plane
   and more specifically the routing convergence behavior is
   changed compared to [LDP]. As the IGP does not carry specifics
   prefixes outside of the egress area, the IGP will not propagate the
   notification protocols
   (e.g. [MP-BGP]) or applications (e.g. [L3-VPN]) may be changed in
   case of node failure outside of the area. So application
   layers using egress LER node. For protocols and
   applications which need to track egress LER availability, several
   solutions can be used, for example:
   - Rely on the LSP may, LDP ordered label distribution control mode - as a local decision, use
     defined in [LDP] - to know the availability of the MPLS LSP -as advertised by LDP- to achieve LER toward the
     egress LER. The egress fault
   notification in addition to application layer fault detection
   mechanisms. For some applications (e.g. BGP) this ingress propagation time of that
     unreachability information is expected to be
   faster. LDP will withdraw the FEC(s) of the egress LER in an ordered
   way through the end-to-end propagation of the LDP withdraw message.
   Compared comparable to the IGP, IGP
     (but this LDP failure notification may be faster or
   slower depending on the implementations, implementation dependant).
   - Advertise LER reachability in the IGP timers used and the
   network topology (network diameter). In typical topologies, the
   convergence time is expected to be similar or even faster since there
   is no need to wait for three consecutive SPF/PRC timers.

   For all others failures (links, Ps and ABRs nodes), the failure
   notification and purpose of the convergence are unchanged.
     control plane in a way that do not create IP FIB entries in the
     forwarding plane.

8. Security Considerations

   The longest match Longest Match Label Mapping procedure described in this document
   does not introduce any change as far as the Security Consideration
   section of [LDP] is concerned.

9. IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

10.     References

10.1.   Normative References

     [LDP]     L.     Andersson, I. L., Minei, B. I., Thomas, B., "LDP
          Specification", RFC 5036, October 2007


     [RFC 2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate

10.2.   Informative References

     [L3-VPN]  Rosen, E., Rekhter, Y. ," BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
          Networks (VPNs) ", RFC 4374, February 2006

     [MP-BGP]  Bates, T., Chandra, R., Katz, D., Rekhter, Y.,
          "Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4", RFC 4760, January 2007
     [MPLS-BGP] Rekhter, Y., Rosen, E., "Carrying Label Information in
     [IS-IS]   Callon, R., "Use of OSI IS-IS for Routing in TCP/IP and
          Dual Environments", RFC 1195, December 1990

     [VPLS-BGP] Kompella, K., Rekhter, Y., "Virtual Private LAN Service
          (VPLS) Using BGP for Auto-discovery and Signaling", RFC 4761,
          January 2007.

     [VPLS-LDP] Lasserre, M., Kompella, V., "Virtual Private LAN Service
          (VPLS) Using Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) Signaling", RFC
          4762, January 2007.

     [RFC 2966] Li, T., Przygienda, T., Smit, H., "Domain-wide Prefix
          Distribution with Two-Level IS-IS", RFC 2966, October 2000.


     [RSVP-TE] Farrel, Ayyangar, Vasseur, " Inter "Inter domain MPLS and GMPLS
          Traffic Engineering - RSVP-TE extensions", draft-ietf-
          ccamp-inter-domain-rsvp-te, work in progress. RFC 5151, February

     [LDP-MIB] Cucchiara, J., Sjostrand, H., Luciani, J., "Definitions
          of Managed Objects for the Multiprotocol Label Switching
          (MPLS), Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)", RFC 3815, June

     [BFD] Katz, D., Ward, D., "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection",
          draft-ietf-bfd-base-08.txt, March 2008.

     [1] Francois, P., Filsfils, C., and Evans, J. 2005. "Achieving sub-
          second IGP convergence in large IP networks". ACM SIGCOMM

11.     Acknowledgments

   Authors would like to thank Yakov Rekhter, Stefano Previdi, Vach
   Kompella, Bob Thomas, Clarence Filsfils, Kireeti Kompella, Luca
   Martini, Sina Mirtorabi, Dave McDysan, Benoit Fondeviole, Gilles
   Bourdon and Christian Jacquenet for the useful discussions on this
   subject, their review and comments.

12.     Authors' Addresses

   Bruno Decraene
   France Telecom
   38 rue du General Leclerc
   92794 Issy Moulineaux cedex 9


   Jean-Louis Le Roux
   France Telecom
   2, avenue Pierre-Marzin
   22307 Lannion Cedex


   Ina Minei
   Juniper Networks
   1194 N. Mathilda Ave.
   Sunnyvale, CA 94089


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